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Cogestin es Revolucin?

Worker participation during the first Chvez administration (1999-2006)

Federico Fuentes
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of an Arts Degree School of Social Sciences and International Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South ales, November !"## ord count$ #%,&'(

tatement of !rigina"it#
I hereby declare that this submission is my own wor) and to the *est of my )nowledge it contains no materials previously published or written by another person, nor material which to a substantial e+tent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma at UNS or any other educational institution, e+cept where due ac)nowledgement is made in the thesis, Any contribution made to the research by others, with whom I have wor)ed at UNS or elsewhere, is e+plicitly ac)nowledged in the thesis, I also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own wor), e+cept that assistance from others in the pro-ect.s design and conception or in style, presentation and linguistic e+pression is ac)nowledge, Signed$,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Approved as suitable for submission by ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, /Supervisor0

Attempts to analyse 1ene2uela.s e+periments in cogestin /generally translated as 3co4 management.0 during the first 5ugo 6h7ve2 administration /#%%%4!""80 have tended to centre on form rather than content, Almost all have concluded that the government ultimately abandoned cogesti9n, and with its support for wor)er participation, 5owever, rather than focusing on pre4established models or comparisons with historical e+periences, the development of cogesti9n can be better understood as the product of a comple+ interaction between competing visions within the government and wor)ers: movement in the broader conte+t of attempting to create a uniquely 1ene2uelan model of socialism, At the heart of these debates were the issues of ownership, production and distribution, ;he end result of all this was that by early !""', cogesti9n came to resemble something quite different to its initial conception, that is$ a mechanism for co4governance in the economic sphere and a necessary means by which to ensure integral human development, hile the term cogesti9n would disappear from government discourse in the second 6h7ve2 administration, much of the initial spirit of cogesti9n, and the lessons learned in implementing this government policy, would come to be encapsulated in 6h7ve2.s theory of the <socialist triangle=, based on social ownership, social production and social needs,

&ntroduction '

Cogesti(n) co-management or co-governance* Cogesti(n and the first Chvez administration Cogesti(n and socia" o+nership Cogesti(n and socia" production Cogesti(n and socia" needs Cogesti(n and the .socia"ist triang"e/ Conc"usion $ppendi1
List of acronyms, key names and Spanish terms Timeline of key events related to cogestin during first Chvez administration

1' 22 29 ,6 -6 '2 '0 6,

63 66




During ?resident 5ugo 6h7ve2.s first term in government /#%%%4!""80 # 1ene2uelan wor)ers came to see cogestin /generally translated as 3co4management.0 as synonymous with his call to build <twenty4first century socialism,= ;he close affinity between these two concepts was graphically symbolised on the !""@ Aay Day march, ;here, on a stage adorned with a banner that read <Cogestin es revolucin= /6ogesti9n is revolution0, union leaders presented 6h7ve2 with their proposed law on wor)er participation, Addressing the march, 6h7ve2 proclaimed his support for cogesti9n, describing it as a means to create <new wor) relations= through <wor)ers participation B in the management and running of companies= /Despacho del ?residente !""@b$(!>0, Several factors e+plain the close relationship between cogesti9n and twenty4first century socialism, Although the term was included in the #%%% constitution and the first cogesti9n e+periment was initiated in Aarch !""#, it was not until early !""@ C when 6h7ve2 first began tal)ing about socialism C that his government moved to introduce cogesti9n across a variety of wor)places, ;hroughout !""@, the government.s increasing use of socialist discourse was matched by moves to implement cogesti9n in state4owned companies, privately run enterprises and fabricas recuperadas /recuperated factories0,! or)ers. discussions on cogesti9n also became increasingly intertwined with the broader debate over socialism, with many viewing the two as intrinsically lin)ed, As Aichael Debowit2 noted$ <Eiven the constitution.s support for co4management and self4management and protagonism in general, as well as 6h7ve2.s stress upon the need for new productive relations, it was natural that organi2ed wor)ers would ta)e up the same themes= /Debowit2 !""8$!"(0, Fet, less than a year after the !""@ Aay Day march, the implementation of cogesti9n had stalled, In early !""8, 6h7ve2 e+plicitly came out against cogesti9n in <strategic sectors= such as the state oil company, Petrleos de Venezuela Sociedad Anonima /?D1SA, 1ene2uela

hile technically 6h7ve2 served two terms during this time, his first /#%%%4!"""0 essentially involved the convening of a constituent assembly to rewrite the constitution, Gnce approved, 6h7ve2 was re4elected at the end of !""", serving as president until !""8, For this reason, we have referred to all this period as his first administration, ! Hecuperated factories is the name given to companies that were shut down by their owners and subsequently ta)en over, or recuperated, by wor)ers,

?etroleum 6ompany0, and by the start of his second term /!""'4!"#!0, the government seemed to have moved away from promoting wor)place democracy /Al9 ?residente !""8$&!0, 5ow did it come to be that a policy viewed as integral to the pro-ect of twenty4first century socialism was so quic)ly abandonedI If cogesti9n was revolution, did this mean that the revolution had lost its wayI A new socialism for the twenty-first century In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to return to the original spirit of 1ene2uelan cogesti9n rather than simply focus on the end result, Attempts to mechanically impose previous historical models onto the 1ene2uelan reality must be avoided, hile generally translated to mean co4management, cogesti9n had little to do with this concept, In fact, cogesti9n was presented by state officials and union leaders as a radical alternative to the failed e+periments of co4management, which involved wor)ers owning shares and having representatives on company boards /Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""@a$&K E9me2, ;7bata L E7me2 !""@$>@0, Unli)e co4management, which was viewed as a means to co4opt wor)ers into accepting pro4capitalist measures, cogesti9n was seen as a means for transforming capitalist relations of production, Some prefer to use the term cogestin revolucionaria /revolutionary co4management0 in order to draw a sharp distinction between the two /Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""@a$%0, Aoreover, while cogesti9n was seen as part of the broader socialist pro-ect, 1ene2uelans were insistent that theirs was a <new socialism for the twenty4first century,= < e have to reinvent socialism= proclaimed 6h7ve2 when first announcing his socialist beliefs, <but we cannot resort to state capitalism, which would be the same perversion of the Soviet Union= /cited in Debowit2 !""8$#"%0, Instead, socialism needed to be reclaimed <as a thesis, a pro-ect and a path, but a new type of socialism,= None of this meant that 1ene2uela was e+empt from the same dilemmas encountered in previous attempts to build socialist societies, In fact, the same issues regarding ownership, production and distribution that plagued these e+periments have constantly reappeared in

twenty4first century 1ene2uela, It is also clear that many in the government had studies these lessons and drawn their own C in some cases conflicting C conclusions, hen it came to the Soviet model of state ownership, those within the Ministerio para la Energia y Petrleo /AMN?M;, Ainistry for Mnergy and ?etroleum0 argued that its downfall should not be attributed to state4owned property /1alderrama L Aena !""@$(%0, In opposition to this view, 1Jctor Nlvare2, who was Ainister for *asic Industry during the period of cogesti9n, contended that <within the false belief that socialism is based on state property and wage labour lay the seed of the debacle of 3real. or 3state socialism.= /Nlvare2 !""%$#%(0, State ownership, argued Nlvare2, was predestined to lead to the creation of <state monopoly capitalism,= As an alternative, he proposed developing <new forms of social property based fundamentally on direct wor)er and community control= /Nlvare2 !""%$#&(4>0, 5aiman Ml ;roudi, who was 6hief of Staff to ?resident 6h7ve2 in !""@, also argued that state ownership inevitably led to state capitalism, ;wenty4first century socialism therefore required the construction of a system based upon <new productive relations involving the participation of organised communities and small, medium and large entrepreneurs, both public and private= /Ml ;roudi !""8$84'0, ;hose within AMN?M; responded that eschewing state property altogether amounted to a belief that socialism could be <built with bourgeois property forms= /1alderrama L Aena !""@$>"0, Socialism required that social property be administered by state to which society had delegated the responsibility of <social planning and administration= /Aponte !""'a$#!%0, For some, the Fugoslav model of self4management offered useful lessons, 6onfronted with the failures of Soviet state capitalism, the Fugoslav regime posed as an alternative, wor)er self4management and the transformation of state property into <a superior form of property, socialist property in the hands of the wor)ers= /Nlvare2 !""%$#&'0, ;his would allow for a change in property relations and relations of production, eliminating the traditional division of labour inherent within private and state4owned companies, Nlvare2 also ac)nowledged that certain problems had arisen, as wor)ers began to focus on ma+imising profits for themselves rather than the needs of the communities, <In the struggle against state bureaucracy, the wor)ers had forgotten about the struggle against capitalism= /Nlvare2 !""%$#&&0, Instead of social property, what emerged was privately owned <group property,= For those in AMN?M;, this was the inevitable result of <transferring what belongs to all of society to a part of it, thereby stimulating collective egoism= /Aponte !""'$!%0, Gnly state4administered social '

property, within which <human labour enriches all of society and not a portion,= could ensure a transformation in relations of production /Aponte !""'a$#!(, Aponte !""'$('0, ?erhaps the biggest dilemma posed in the construction of twentieth century socialism was the question of distribution, hile the Soviet Union relied on a centralised planned economy directed by the state, in Fugoslavia, 3mar)et socialism. was proposed as an alternative to a bureaucratically run command economy, Heflecting on these e+periences, MlJas Oaua, head of the Ministerio de Economa Popular /AINM?, Ainistry for the ?opular Mconomy0 between !"">4!""8, contended that 1ene2uelan socialism would instead be based on <a new mi+ed economy, where the mar)et does not govern all areas of society, but rather serves as a complement to strategic and democratic planning= /Oaua Ailano !""@$!80, Ml ;roudi disagreed, arguing that the problem with the dilemma of state planning versus mar)et was that it left out a )ey factor$ the organised community, In the relationship between the state, mar)et and the community, it was essential to <always depend on the organisational force of the community= /Ml ;roudi !""8$@0, Heflecting on the same issue, thin)ers in AMN?M; proposed the integration of companies into <socialist 2ones= to facilitate a process of planned production and consumption /Aponte !""'a$#>#0, Social property had to be combined with central planning that e+tended beyond strategic sectors and to the entire economy, Gtherwise, the continued presence of the mar)et and capitalist property forms would ma)e impossible the formation of socialist consciousness, opening the path towards capitalist restoration /Aponte !""'a$#>@0, In all this, the one e+periment in twentieth4century socialism significantly not discussed was 6uba, Undoubtedly, the close relationship between 1ene2uela and 6uba, and the widespread admiration in 1ene2uela for this small island and its continued struggle for e+istence against US hostility, made difficult any public or critical e+amination of the 6uban model, Nevertheless, while stating his unwavering support for 6uban socialism, 6h7ve2 reiterated on several occasions <the *olivarian pro-ect is very different to the 6uban model= /Aastronardi !"##0, Gn this point indeed, all 1ene2uelan thin)ers about socialism have concurred, 1ene2uelans were attempting to construct their own, original model of socialism, Aoreover, everyone was aware that 1ene2uela.s attempt to create twenty4first century socialism could rely on the wealth that came with being an oil4rich nation, even if, as we shall see, that wealth in itself &

created many other complications for the e+periment, For the purposes of this dissertation therefore, I have chosen to focus on the 1ene2uelan e+perience of cogesti9n and its attempt to deal afresh with the issues of ownership, production and distribution in the construction of socialism, Specifically, my focus is on how 1ene2uelans have understood the theory and practice of cogesti9n, and how those understandings have changed in a continually shifting economic and political situation, In tracing the development of cogesti9n, it becomes evident that government policy was shaped by competing visions that e+isted within the government over issues of ownership, production and distribution, ;he views and activities of 1ene2uelan wor)ers themselves also had a significant impact on cogesti9n, because, in part at least, it became a means by which they began to challenge the historically entrenched union bureaucracy and develop goals and ob-ectives beyond a narrow pursuit of improved wages and conditions, And finally ?resident 6h7ve2 himself was both a significant actor in this comple+ development, and was also profoundly influenced by it, As we will see, it led him to not only question his support for cogesti9n but to reconsider some of his ideas on socialism, *y early !""', 6h7ve2 had come to the conclusion that cogesti9n was only feasible if applied within the conte+t of what he described as the 3socialist triangle. of social ownership, social production and the satisfaction of social needs, Venezuelas magical state ;he debate and struggle over cogesti9n and socialism in 1ene2uela, must, li)e much else in its recent history, be situated against the bac)drop of the role of oil, ;he rise of oil production in the #%!"s fuelled a dramatic transformation in 1ene2uela.s economy, Gver the ne+t decades, agricultural production slumped as capital poured into the oil sector, Heliance on imports from abroad to satisfy the needs of the domestic mar)et became an alternative to any real attempt to diversify 1ene2uela.s economy, ;he discovery of oil not only impacted 1ene2uela.s economy, but also profoundly shaped the 1ene2uelan state and society as a whole, Fernando 6oronil contends that oil wealth is the )ey to understanding 1ene2uela.s <magical state= which, standing over and above 1ene2uelan

society, <appeared as a single agent endowed with the magical power to rema)e the nation= /6oronil #%%'$>0, As oil.s contribution to state revenues -umped from a mere #,>>P in #%!", to %','P in #%>", business elites became increasingly dependent on their connections within the state in order to accumulate wealth /Eodio #%&8$!0, ;his process facilitated both a fusion of power and wealth within the state as well as the creation of a parasitic capitalist class, which sought to enrich itself not by e+tracting surplus value but rather by appropriating it from the state /6oronil #%%'$&K Debowit2 !""8$&'0, It also underpinned the emergence of a pervasive culture of clientalism and corruption as 1ene2uelan society came to be dominated by a <social system and political culture deeply implicated in legitimating and consolidating the vast set of formal and informal mechanisms through which oil is produced and oil money is appropriated= /6oronil !""&a$!"0, <Mnchanted by its spectacular performances=, 1ene2uelans came to view the state as a vehicle for lifting themselves out of poverty, ith the onset of the international oil crisis of the #%'"s, this <magical state= entered into crisis /*ilbao !""&$#"(0, ;he nationalisation of oil in #%'8 was unable to turn the situation around given the state4owned oil company.s propensity to function as a <state within a state= that acted in the interests of transnational oil corporations /Aommer !""($!&0, hile in #%&#, ?D1SA was handing over '#P of its income to the government, by !""", this figure had plummeted to (%P, ;his in turn led to a steep decline in fiscal income, from USQ#,@"" per person in #%'@ to USQ(@" in #%%% /measured in #%%& dollars0 /*ilbao !""&$#"(0, 1ene2uela.s sole attempt at industrialisation, the Corporacin Venezolana de uayana

/61E, 1ene2uelan 6orporation of Euayana0 similarly entered into crisis, Docated in the southeastern state of *olivar, this basic industry comple+ comprised of #8 state4owned aluminum, steel, bau+ite and mining companies was created as a result of the import substitution policy promoted in the #%@"s /1itale #%&>$80, Importantly, the 61E became home to highly unionised <vanguard= elements of the 1ene2uelan labour movement /Mllner #%%($#8#4!0, Di)e the oil industry, 61E also came to be dominated by clientalism and corruption, and remained subordinate to the interests of foreign multinationals, Aoreover, during the #%%"s neoliberal governments disinvested state funds in the comple+ to pave the way for its privatisation, beginning with the sell4off of SIDGH in #%%&,


Aeanwhile, the deepening economic crisis only accelerated the process of rural4urban migration, as people floc)ed to the cities in pursuit of their share of the oil wealth, ;his, combined with rising unemployment, led to the creation of a massive belt of barrios /poor neighbourhoods0 all along the hillsides of the capital, 6aracas and other ma-or cities, ;here, informal sector wor)ers crammed into ma)eshift housing attempting to e)e out a living in whatever way they could, ?overty levels rose steeply, as the average wage in real terms decreased from USQ@,!"" in #%'& to USQ!,""" in #%%% /*ilbao !""&$#"(0, ;he share of wor)ers employed in the informal sector rose from (',%P to >8P between #%&> and !""", *y the end of the #%%"s /when unemployment was running at #(,>P0, informal wor)ers for the first time outnumbered their counterparts in the formal sector, Simmering discontent e+ploded onto the streets in February #%&%, when then ?resident 6arlos Andres ?ere2 /#%&%4#%%(0 implemented an International Aonetary Fund /IAF0 pac)age that sent fuel prices s)yroc)eting overnight /6iccariello4Aaher !""'0, For four days, a massive uprising roc)ed 6aracas, and e+tended out to several other cities and towns, Although a wave of repression succeeded in quelling the uprising, 1ene2uelans continued to ta)e to the streets during the ne+t decade, As disillusionment with the status quo grew, 1ene2uelan society became engulfed by <a stream of demands and complaints levelled at local and national authorities,= with over ',""" protests ta)ing place in the #%%"s C a ma-ority acquiring a <confrontational= or <violent= form /*ruce !""&$!@4%K D9pe2 Aaya !""!$#(, #%0, ;his spontaneous and incoherent ferment from below had very little impact on government policy, 5owever, it was a critical factor in speeding up the plans of a group of dissenting officials within the Armed Forces plotting a patriotic military coup, Although the February #%%! military rebellion failed, the coup succeeded in propelling its leader C 5ugo 6h7ve2 C into the collective imagination of 1ene2uela.s poor ma-ority, <in constant search of a messiah with a magical formula to relieve them of their misery= /Ac6aughan !"">$#@&0, 6h7ve2.s growing popularity led to him being pardoned in #%%>, after which he travelled the country to listen to the demands of the people, 5aving decided to stand in the #%%& presidential elections as a political outsider and without the bac)ing of any of the traditional parties, 6h7ve2 won in a historic landslide, As promised, his first step in power was to convene a popularly elected constituent assembly entrusted with the tas) of redesigning 1ene2uela.s institutional framewor) and incorporating the previously marginalised ma-ority ##

into the management of public affairs, ;hroughout #%%%, 1ene2uelans intensely debated and then approved a new constitution that stated that <the participation of the people= in all spheres was the )ey to <ensuring complete development, both individual and collective= /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($!(0, Ruic)ly realising the threat that the process opened up by 6h7ve2.s election represented to their interests, the traditional elites sought to overthrow his governmentK first via a failed military coup in April !""!, then a two4month management loc)4out at ?D1SA that began in December !""!, and finally a recall referendum in August !""> / ilpert !""(K Aedina, D9pe2 Aaya L Dander !""'$#>'4!">K *ilbao !""'$!(@4!>!0, Mach attempt was defeated by the combined mobilisation of the people and the Armed Forces, which, following the failed April !""! coup /and subsequent purge of disloyal officers0, was now in the hands of pro4 revolution forces /5arnec)er !""($##4#&0, Mmpowered by these victories, the government set about trying to tac)le 1ene2uela.s huge social problems, while also see)ing to convert the new, but still vague, ideas enshrined in the constitution into reality, In the economic sphere, this required moving forward on two fronts$ dealing with immediate problems /such as unemployment and the reactivation of an economy that had contracted by !8,'P in the first quarter of !""( as a result of the loc)4out at ?D1SA0, while promoting initiatives toward a longer term structural transformation of the economy /Ml ;roudi !"#"$>@K Nlvare2 !""%$(!0, ;he promotion of cogesti9n was seen as an essential element to simultaneously tac)le both issues, 5owever, attempts to implement cogesti9n revealed a variety of views on this issue among government officials, union leaders and wor)ers more generally, ;he thesis which follows aims to describe and e+plain the emergence of these differing views, and the ways in which the conflicts and interactions they produced ended up changing the whole meaning of the cogesti9n idea, and the broader policy and political conte+t in which it was seen, Thesis structure 6hapter # sets out to provide a brief survey of some of these competing 1ene2uelan views on cogesti9n, as well as some of those put forward in 3outsider. academic studies that have attempted to come to grips with 1ene2uelan debates, In most cases the views surveyed have


little in common with the idea as it first appeared in the constitution and the first national development plan, Gutlining the chaotic development of cogesti9n and the diversity of e+periments in this area carried out during the first 6h7ve2 administration is the focus of 6hapter !, ;he aim here is not to describe and analyse each individual wor)place where cogesti9n was introduced, but to pinpoint )ey initiatives and turning points in the comple+ and uneven process of implementation, ;he subsequent three chapters focus on the more specific aspects of ownership, production and distribution, 6hapter ( is concerned with cogesti9n e+periences in recuperated factories and the private sector, where the issue of collective versus social owners!ip appeared most star)ly, In 6hapter >, the focus shifts to the state sector, in particular the aluminium plant, CV Aluminio del Caron S"A" /AD6ASA, 61E 6aronJ Aluminum0, where arguably the most ambitious e+periment in social production too) place, 6hapter @ endeavours to grapple with the innovative idea of the Empresas de Produccin Social /M?Ss, Social ?roduction Mnterprises0, 6h7ve2.s attempt to ensure that production was geared towards satisfying social needs" Finally, in 6hapter @, I bring these threads together and analyse the basic foundations of 6h7ve2.s so4called socialist triangle, ?remised on the idea that socialism requires simultaneously moving forward on all three fronts C social ownership, social production and social needs C it will by then have become apparent that this <socialist triangle= was heavily shaped by his shifting views on cogesti9n, In many ways, the emergence of the <socialist triangle= simultaneously involved returning to the original concept of cogesti9n, while placing it in a much more radical setting, I will refer in this chapter to the writing of two )ey intellectuals who played a part in influencing 6h7ve2.s thin)ing as he was developing his ideas on socialism$ Istv7n ASs27ros and Aichael Debowit2, Gne final note$ throughout this study, an emphasis is placed on 6h7ve2.s ideas and words, ;he absence of specific government documents or laws on cogesti9n means that a certain focus on unofficial government statements is necessary, 5owever, a more important reason for focusing on 6h7ve2.s words is given by 6oronil, who argues that through his words <that are also acts and guide actions= 1ene2uela.s head of /the magical0 state <has brought the #(

pueblo TpeopleU to center stage= /6oronil !""&$>0, Aany of 6h7ve2.s public pronouncements are pedagogical in intent, ;hey are intended to act as a guide to public discussion of policy and its problems in a country where many of his supporters are poor people with limited formal education who have long been e+cluded from public debate and discussion, let alone from positions of power or responsibility, ;o that end, his statements are usually undogmatic and open in tone, and designed both to e+press the ?resident.s own uncertainties and to elicit popular responses, suggestions and actions, In other words, 6h7ve2.s reflections on cogesti9n and socialism in 1ene2uela are no mere academic commentary on a political process, rather they are a vital part of that process, and often influence it deeply,


Cogesti(n) co-management or co-governance*

Among the numerous policy initiatives underta)en during the first 6h7ve2 administration towards organised labour, none was more contentious than cogesti9n, Eiven its association with twenty4first century socialism, this e+periment in wor)er participation became a )ey concern for unionists, government officials, and observers of the revolutionary process, Unsurprisingly, attempts have been made to compare the policy of cogesti9n with previous e+periments in co4management, Gthers have endeavoured to squee2e the concept of cogesti9n into pre4e+isting models, Almost all commentators agree that cogesti9n was dumped during 6h7ve2.s second administration, ;here is little doubt that many of the same challenges and issues that emerged in previous e+periments with wor)er participation were revisited during the 1ene2uelan debate over cogesti9n, ;he almost complete disappearance of cogesti9n from 6h7ve2.s discourse, and his attempt to remove the term from the constitution in !""', add weight to the argument that support for wor)er participation was subsequently dropped, Nevertheless, such views contain two important shortcomings, Firstly, in the minds of wor)ers, the term cogesti9n had little to do with a desire to replicate any specific model /6erceau !""'a$#@K E9me2, ;7bata L E7me2 !""@$>', >%0, ;he same was true for the government, and 6h7ve2 in particular, who continuously emphasised the uniqueness of 1ene2uela.s socialist e+periment, Heferring to a pamphlet written by Aichael Debowit2 on the lessons of self4management in Fugoslavia, ( 6h7ve2 e+plained that while it provided a useful reference point, 1ene2uela was <not going to copy any model, we are creating our own model= /Al9 ?residente !""@$#%0, Second, it is insufficient to focus on the final forms, or <models= of cogesti9n that ultimately emerged, Such views tend to imply the presence of a uniform and defined blueprint when in fact government policy was shaped by the constant struggles of competing forces that held widely differing opinions on cogesti9n,

See Debowit2 !"">


For this reason, I propose to trace the non4lineal development of cogesti9n, focusing on how the battle between competing visions regarding ownership, production and distribution were ultimately resolved, ;his will allow for a better understanding of the actual course that cogesti9n too), as well as provide an insight into some of the thin)ing behind 6h7ve2.s subsequent adoption of his socialist triangle, Competing concepts of cogestin Gsvaldo Alonso argues that the focus of cogesti9n was on wor)ers and owners -ointly administrating companies /Alonso !""'$%4#"0, Drawing parallels with the est Eerman e+perience of the #%@"s, he argued cogesti9n differed from self4management in that <wor)ers administer as wor)ers and not as owners,= 5ector Ducena also refers to Eerman co4 management when offering a definition of cogesti9n as the participation of wor)ers in the <decision ma)ing and running of a company= /Ducena !""8$!8, !%0, Aaria 1era 6olina maintains that 1ene2uelan cogesti9n was not focused on <co4ownership= but rather the <voluntary application= of <co4administration= between wor)ers and company owners /1era 6olina !""8$#'(4>0, Fet, as Hodolfo 6iban), the vice president of the #ederacin de $ndustriales% Pe&ue'os% Medianos y Artesanos de Venezuela /FMDMINDUS;HIA, 1ene2uelan Federation of Small, Aedium and Artisan Industries0 noted, 1ene2uelan cogesti9n too) on a <novel characteristic,= with co4ownership <superimposed= onto a concept generally limited to wor)er participation in management /6iban) !""@0, ;he focus on ownership was also present in the discourse of different government ministries, As)ed to define cogesti9n, a vice4minister in the Ministerio de $ndustria (igera y Comercio /AID6G, Ainistry of Dight Industry and 6ommerce0 stated$ < hen we tal) about cogesti9n B Twe are referring toU the co4responsible participation of wor)ers in running the entire company, which is made concrete via the acquisition of sharesK shares that do not belong to individual wor)ers, but rather a cooperative= /Fern7nde2 !""80, A different view of cogesti9n was put forward by AINM?, another of the ministries assigned responsibilities to oversee some of the companies under cogesti9n, Its course readings for students preparing to ta)e up -obs within these companies, stated that in places such as Eermany, cogesti9n had been implemented as a <reformist= measure, limiting wor)er participation to owning shares and naming representatives to company boards /AINM? #8

!""@$#'0, Gnly by lin)ing cogesti9n to the demand for wor)ers. control could cogesti9n ta)e on a revolutionary character, Aoreover, cogestin revolucionaria was only a stepping4stone towards achieving the ultimate goal of autogestin /self4management0, where wor)ers owned <the means of production, without state mediation= /AINM? !""@$#&0, Such views were strongly opposed by others in the government, As head of AMN?M;, Hafael Hamire2, together with his party colleagues from Esperanza Patritica /?atriotic 5ope0 who wor)ed within the ministry, waged an intense public campaign against cogesti9n, Agreeing with AINM?.s characterisation of cogesti9n as a reformist measure focused on wor)ers owning shares, those around AMN?M; drew the opposite conclusion$ rather than culminating in self4management, cogesti9n would inevitably provo)e a regression towards capitalist relations of production and the privatisation of strategic industries /1alderrama L Aena !""@$>84@!0, hile debates raged within the state over the issue of property, union leaders preferred to view cogesti9n as a banner with which to advance their struggles for wor)er participation, ;he #ederacin de )raba*adores de la $ndustria El+ctrica de Venezuela /FM;HAMDM6, Federation of 1ene2uelan Mlectrical or)ers0 saw cogesti9n as superior to previous models of co4management, because it represented <the governing of Tpublicly4ownedU company in a co4responsible manner= between the state, wor)ers and communities /FM;HAMDM6 !""@c$>K 5arnec)er !""@$'0, FM;HAMDM6 leader Ooaquin Gsorio argued that 1ene2uelan cogesti9n had nothing to with the social democratic models of <Eermany, Sweden, Spain, Fugoslavia or any other= country /Gsorio !""@$'4&0, Aoreover, cogesti9n should have nothing to do with wor)ers owning shares, as this would transform wor)ers into <owner4bosses and reproduce capitalist egoism,= ;he #rente ,evolucionario de )raba*adores de Empresas Cogestinadas y -cupadas /FHM;M6G, 6o4mananged and Gccupied Factories. or)er Hevolutionary Front0 saw cogesti9n as synonymous with wor)ers. control, and argued for the creation of wor)ers councils along the lines of those that e+isted in <revolutionary Hussia= /FHM;M6G !""'$#!4 #'0, ?ablo 6ormen2ana agreed, stating that behind the confused notion of cogesti9n lay a battle between wor)ers and 6h7ve2 fighting for wor)ers control, and <union bureaucrats and *olivarian reformists= who believed wor)ers were incapable of running companies /6ormen2ana !""%$#>, '@0, In the end, according to illiam Sanabria and Fonie Aoreno, this #'

<reformist bureaucracy= won out, imposing its model of cogesti9n based on co4ownership between wor)ers and bosses /Sanabria L Aoreno !""%$!(0, Iain *ruce.s survey of cogesti9n at AD6ASA however, led him to conclude that there, <co4 management, albeit supported from below, had been essentially designed and nurtured from above as a deliberate test bed for moves towards a socialism of the twentyCfirst century= /*ruce !""&$#('4&0, 5ere, the Ministerio de $ndustrias ./sicas y Minera /AI*AA, Ainistry of *asic Industry and Aining0 headed by 1Jctor Nlvare2, and the state4appointed company president, 6arlos Dan2, played a fundamental role in the introduction and implementation of cogesti9n, It is evident that various actors and observers of the process held differing views of cogesti9n, hile some focused on cogesti9n as a means for wor)er participation within companies, others emphasised the question of co4ownership, hereas some saw it as a transitional measure towards self4management, others denounced it as <counter4revolutionary,= In some cases, cogesti9n was seen as a battleground between <reformist bureaucrats= and <revolutionary wor)ers=K in others the positive role of state officials in promoting cogesti9n was highlighted, Some drew parallels with e+periences of co4management in Eermany and Hussian soviets, but almost all agree that the 6h7ve2 government ultimately dropped its support for cogesti9n /e,g, *ruce !""&$#"(K Navas L Gsorio !""'$&0, The original concept of cogestin hat few ta)e into consideration is the original concept of cogesti9n, in the constitution and the government.s first national development plan, the Plan de 0esarrollo Econmico y Social de la 1acin 233452336 /Mconomic and Social ?lan for the Nation !""#4!""'0 with its emphasis on participation and <co4governance= between the state, wor)ers and communities /A?D !""#$#(0, In the constitution, cogesti9n appears in the section dedicated to political rights, framed by Article 8!, which states$ All citi2ens have the right to freely participate in public affairs, either directly or through their elected representatives, ?eoples. participation in forming, carrying out and controlling the management of public affairs is the necessary means by which to achieve the involvement that ensures their complete development, both individual and collective, It is the state.s obligation


and the duty of society to facilitate the generation of optimum conditions for putting this into practice /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($!(0, As to what forms such participation could ta)e, Article '" listed cogesti9n as a vehicle for the <participation and involvement of people B in social and economic affairs= /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($!@0, 6ogesti9n is also mentioned in Article #&>, ?oint >, which enshrines <the participation of wor)ers and communities in the running /gestin0 of publicly4owned companies, through self4 management and cogestinarios methods= /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($8!0, hile the scope of this article was limited to companies in the hands of regional and municipal governments, the constitution e+tended participation in such companies to include communities as well, Also of note is that Article #&> draws a distinction between cogesti9n in public companies /?oint >0 and forms of participation within <the social economy= /?oint (0 /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($8!0, hereas the emphasis of cogesti9n in public companies is on participation, the focus of the social economy is on promoting collective property such as cooperatives <and other associative forms,= ;his separation is important, as it implies a distinction between cogesti9n, as a form of participation, and collectively owned enterprises within the social economy, ;his differentiation is reinforced by the absence of the term cogesti9n in the section dedicated to the <socioeconomic system,= 6oinciding with Article 8!.s focus on participation, Article !%% states that the goal of the <economic regime= is <ensuring integral human development= /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($%%4#""0, ;he constitution identifies three distinct sectors within the overall economic regime$ a state sector entrusted with control over industries deemed to be <in the public interest and of a strategic nature= /Article ("!0K a private sector /Article !%%0, and a social sector comprised of small businesses, cooperatives, <and any other form of community association for purposes of wor), savings, and consumption, under an arrangement of collective ownership= /Article ("&0 /Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente !""($%%4#"!0, ;his vision of an economic regime comprised of three different sectors, each involving different property forms /state, private and collective0 is also present in the government.s #%

national development plan, Nowhere does the plan draw any direct correlation between cogesti9n and collective ownership, nor is the application of cogesti9n limited to any particular sectors, hat stands out in the national development plan is its emphasis on participation in the political, economic and social sphere, as the only means by which to change society, Discussing the new development model proposed by the government, the plan states$ Bthe motivation to achieve and the productive disposition of all social agents for change will be achieved by a society which demands co-responsible and democratic participation of all sectors, in all spheres and in each moment of the future, ;his shared and simultaneous action of all society will manifest itself in the deconcentration and decentralisation of decision ma)ing in order to e+pand the dynamic of change across the whole nation /A?D !""#$#8, emphasis in original0, ;his idea of co4responsibility reappears in the section dealing with <participatory and protagonist4based /protagnica0 democracy= /A?D !""#$#"80, According to the plan, such a democracy is only possible through the establishment of <a new relationship between the state and society where what is public is assumed by the people and by the state in a co4responsible manner, ;his forces a change in the way of governing, governing with the citi2ens=, hile no e+plicit definition of cogesti9n is offered anywhere, in pulling together the different threads running through these )ey documents, it is possible to identify two important elements, ;he first has to do with the significance given to the 3co. in cogesti9n, with its emphasis on wor)ers, communities and the state forming a co4responsible relationship as part of changing the way in which society is governed, ;he other relates to the second half of the word, 3gesti9n., which despite its literal translation as management, emphasises participation as the necessary means to ensuring integral human development, In this sense, cogesti9n ta)es on a vastly different meaning to that traditionally ascribed to co4management, ?articipation is neither viewed as synonymous with ownership nor with wor)ers having representatives on company boards, Instead, the focus of cogesti9n is on co4governance and co4participation <of all sectors, in all spheres=, as the necessary means for promoting <complete development, both individual and collective,= ;his focus was also at the heart of 6h7ve2.s socialist triangle, 5owever, this shift to the <socialist triangle= is really only comprehensible in light of the many4sided divisions and


conflicts that had arisen as the result of the attempt to turn cogesti9n from a noble, if vague, idea in the constitution, into a practical policy, It is to this attempt that I now turn,


Cogesti(n and the first Chvez administration

;he choice of the word cogesti9n was largely related to its inclusion in the new constitution /6erceau !""'$>0, ;he vision of cogesti9n presented in the constitution was one that focused on co4participation and co4governance in the economic sphere as necessary means for ensuring human development, ;his vision was also evident in the early e+periments in cogesti9n, In Aarch !""#, the 6h7ve2 government converted a re4opened sugar processing plant Central Azucarero Po )amayo /?Jo ;amayo Sugar Aill0 into its first cogesti9n e+periment, Heferring to this venture ten months later on Al Presidente, 6h7ve2 congratulated all those involved in <this e+ample of cogesti9n= where wor)ers and the state were <co4governing the plant together= /Al9 ?residente !""!$((0, 6h7ve2 added that <cogesti9n or co4government= was necessary component in the process of <beginning to de4concentrate= power and decision4 ma)ing, Heaffirming the centrality of participation within the idea of cogesti9n, in November !""! 6h7ve2 referred to the sugar mill as the <model of cogesti9n= that the government wanted to promote, where <wor)ers are part of company board of directors, with new and much higher levels of participation= /1enpres !""!0, ?resent within this <model= was the idea of wor)ers owning shares, Gwnership rights were also e+tended to local sugar cane cutters, Grganised into two separate cooperatives, each owning !@,@P of the company.s shares, they controlled a ma-ority sta)e in the operation /Ducena !""8$#@0, 5owever, this aspect of 6h7ve2.s cogesti9n <model= was never emphasised in his various interventions, Hather, 6h7ve2 proclaimed the company to be the <property and pride= not of the wor)ers, but <of the tocuyanos=, in reference to the name of the local town, ;ocuyo /Al9 ?residente !""!$%!0, ;his focus on co4participation between the state, wor)ers and community could also be seen in the initiatives promoted by electrical wor)ers, In April !""#, FM;HAMDM6 succeeded in incorporating the term cogesti9n into the 0eclaracin de Principios /Declaration of ?rinciples0 that it -ointly signed with management at the Compa'a Annima de Administracin y #omento El+ctrico /6ADAFM, Mlectricity Eeneration and Administration 6ompany0 /5arnec)er !""@$80, hile concrete steps towards cogesti9n would not be ta)en


until !""(, wor)ers in this sector had enshrined C at least on paper C <the revolutionary principle of the right of wor)ers to direct the company, at all levels, together with the state= /FM;HAMDM6 !""@$>0, hen pro4revolution unions held a national gathering in September !""! to discuss brea)ing with the rightwing4controlled Confederacin de )raba*adores de Venezuela /6;1, 6onfederation of 1ene2uelan or)ers0 and <refounding= a new labour movement, they too raised cogesti9n as a )ey demand /Mncuentro Nacional de ;raba-adores !""!0, In response, 6h7ve2 said the proposal to promote <cogesti9n, shared responsibility= was <marvellous= /Despacho del ?residente !""@$>>!4>>@0, hile raising the idea of wor)ers owning companies, he stressed his belief that <wor)ers will )now how to assume their responsibilities in order to successfully run these companies with shared responsibility, together with business owners and with the government= /Despacho del ?residente !""@$>>@0, Gne month later, hundreds of pro4revolution union leaders presented a list of demands to 6h7ve2, Among them was a call to <establish and legitimise mechanisms of wor)er participation= and to speed up <the establishment of cogesti9n in state companies and private ones whose survival depends on Tstate aidU= /1arios !""!0, Gne leader of the national teachers union e+pounded the need to <continue concretising that pro-ect of the country contained in the constitutional te+t= through the establishment of wor)er participation <in running companies, in running the 1ene2uelan economy= /1arios !""!0, irth of a new labour mo!ement In all these cases, the desire to move forward with cogesti9n as a means for promoting <co4 governance= was evident, 5owever, it was the bosses. loc)out at the end of !""! that really opened up the possibility of turning this desire into reality, hen ?D1SA management wal)ed out of their -obs, wor)ers stepped in, Grganised into comit+s guia /guide committees0, wor)ers too) over direct control of oil production, Hecalling these events, union leader Aarcela Aaspero said$ 1ene2uelan wor)ers carried out our first act of wor)ers. control when the oligarchic bureaucrats of this country dared to sabotage the oil industry in order to put an end to a legitimate government elected by the 1ene2uelan people, It was the oil wor)ers that recuperated the 1ene2uelan industry /AIN6I !""8$#(0, !(

Mlsewhere, wor)ers confronted business owners, who closed their companies, by occupying them, During the #"4wee) general stri)e, pro46h7ve2 unionists called on the government to issue a decree that would allow wor)ers to ta)e over these companies /Mllner !""8$##&0, ith control of the state oil company firmly in government hands, the aim was to transform la nueva P0VSA /the new ?D1SA0 into the driving force of a program to develop and diversify 1ene2uela.s economy, Aoreover, the increased mobilisation of the labour movement had led 6h7ve2 to state that it was time to <change this rancid capitalism for cogestin obrera /wor)ers. cogesti9n0B =, as he put it on his Aarch ! Al Presidente program /cited in *arrios !""@0, <I want and demand that cogestin obrera be implemented, that wor)ers be incorporated onto company boards,= ;he first steps in this direction occurred four days later, when 6h7ve2 appointed two union leaders onto ?D1SA.s board of directors, 5e argued that these wor)ers had to <represent the interests of wor)ers and conciliate them with the interests of the company and the interests of the country= as ?D1SA, <now and forever must be property of the republic and must e+ist solely to promote the interest of the republic and not the personal interests of anyone, of any political party or specific social group= /Despacho del ?residente !""@$!!", !!@0, 6h7ve2 also argued that appointing wor)ers to the company board was insufficientK it was necessary to <progressively incorporate, as part of our strategic plan, concepts such as cogestin obrera in the management of sectors within the oil industryB cogestin obrera for decision4ma)ing, for controlling operations= /Despacho del ?residente !""@a$!!@0, Gne month later, similar steps were ta)en in 6ADAFM, breathing life into what was, until then, cogesti9n on paper only, As with ?D1SA, the appointment of two union leaders onto the company board was accompanied by the promotion of wor)er discussions and organisation from below, ;he focus was on establishing collegial structures right throughout the company hierarchy that could integrate wor)er, community and management representatives into a process of co4governance /5arnec)er !""@$#%0, Mmboldened by their victorious struggle, 1ene2uelan unionists came together in April !""( to form an alternative to the 6;1$ the 7nin 1acional de )raba*adores /UNM;M, National Union of or)ers0, Assuming the banner of cogesti9n as their own, the chant < Empresa !>

cerrada es empresa tomada= /a closed company is a company ta)en over0 rang throughout the congress /Mllner !""8$##&0, ;his slogan soon began to reverberate across the country as UNM;M leaders promoted wor)place discussions on cogesti9n, focusing on the concrete e+periences of ?D1SA and 6ADAFM /Debowit2 !""8$#"!4>0, ;hroughout the ne+t two years, the constant focus on cogesti9n as an instrument for wor)erVcommunity participation and the creation of new relations of production was evident in numerous documents, resolutions and speeches produced by wor)ers /e,g, 6omitS EuJa !""(K 6omitSs EuJa de la industria petrolera !"">K 6omitS de Hefundaci9n !""@K FM;HAMDM6 !""@a0, A commission established by the Ainistry of Dabour, with the purpose of interviewing wor)ers from occupied factories in order to come up with a proposal for their situation, concluded that the best action to ta)e was nationalisation under wor)ers. control /6ormen2ana !""%$!(0, Nevertheless, !""@ would prove to be the year that cogesti9n really too) off, as the government began to e+propriate some of these companies and place them under cogesti9n, "##$% &ear of cogestin ;he first of these companies to be e+propriated were Venezolana de Pulpa y Papel /1MNM?AD, 1ene2uelan ?ulp and ?aper0 and Constructora 1acional de V/lvulas /6N1, National 1alve 6onstructor0 in Oanuary and April !""@, respectively, Henamed $ndustria Venezolana Endgena de Papel /IN1M?AD, 1ene2uelan Mndogenous ?aper Industry0 and $ndustria Venezolana Endgena de V/lvulas /IN1M1AD, 1ene2uelan Mndogenous 1alve Industry0, both were placed under cogesti9n ;hroughout the rest of the year, a handful of other e+propriated companies were also placed under cogesti9n, All of these e+periments involved wor)er4cooperatives owning shares in the company, hile this aspect had been present in the cogesti9n model introduced at the 6entral A2ucarero ?Jo ;amayo /though not in ?D1SA and 6ADAFM0, the difference now was that the issue of owners!ip was increasingly emphasised in government discourse, In August !""@, 6h7ve2 launched an initiative to promote cogesti9n in the private sector$ the Acuerdo Marco de Corresponsibilidad para la )ransformacion $ndustrial 8#abrica Adentro9 /Framewor) Agreement of 6o4responsibility for Industry ;ransformation <Inside the !@

Factory=0, ;hrough #abrica Adentro, companies that were financially struggling were given access to low4interest state loans in return for granting wor)ers participation and shares in the company, ith over #@"" companies applying to be part of the program by the end of !""8, and government e+pectation.s that some #"",""" -obs would be created through this process, #abrica Adentro arguably proved to be the vehicle by which cogesti9n was most widely implemented /A22ellini !""%$!(K Hangel !""80, ;he focus on wor)ers owning shares, however, was not present across all e+periences of cogesti9n in !""@, ;he e+periment underta)en in AD6ASA /employing (,""" wor)ers0 was not only the largest of its )ind, but was viewed as a stepping4stone for e+panding wor)er participation across the 61E, It also developed into the most ambitious e+periment in social production, with wor)ers directly electing managers and participating in drafting the company.s overall budget, It should be noted though that, by this time, cogesti9n was moving bac)wards or had been completely dismantled in other state4owned companies, In ?D1SA, union leaders became entangled in cases of clientalism and corruption /Debowit2 !""8$#"80, In 6ADAFM, despite the fact that management and wor)ers had formally signed an agreement stating that the decisions of the comit+s de gestin <would have a binding character on the function of the company=, the company president was now arguing that wor)ers. participation, should involve consultation, but should not be interpreted as meaning managers had to cede <their competencies and hand them over to wor)ers= /6erceau !""'$#8, emphasis in originalK ?ere2 1igil !""@0, *y the end of !"">, this clash of views and interests had led to threats of industrial action, with union leaders denouncing that the company had been ta)en hostage <by managerial authoritarianism= /MFM !""@K FM;HAMDM6 !""@0, ;hroughout this period, 6h7ve2 also emphasised the issue of satisfying social needs, Heferring to notes he had drafted while reading ASs27ros. .eyond Capital, 6h7ve2 stated during his Ouly #', !""@ Al Presidente program that within this boo) he had found the )ey to building socialism$ <communal production= had to be accompanied by <communal consumption= /Al9 ?residente !""@a$#&0, In an attempt to turn this idea into practice, 6h7ve2 called for the creation of Social ?roduction Mnterprises /M?Ss0, which according to a September !""@ government decree, had !8

as their fundamental ob-ective the generation of <goods and services that satisfy the basic and essential needs of the community and its surroundings= /Eaceta Gficial !""@a$@0, Aoreover, M?Ss had to be motivated by <the values of solidarity, cooperation, complementarity, reciprocity, equity and sustainability over,,, profit=, All the ministries involved with cogesti9n e+periments would go on to promote the creation of M?Ss, A cogestin model' As Gsvaldo Alonso notes, by the end of !""@ it was possible to differentiate between three distinct cogesti9n models /Alonso !""'$!84!'0, ithin the state sector, wor)er participation had been introduced in ?D1SA, 6ADAFM and AD6ASA, ;he first two fell under the auspice of AMN?M; and were rolled bac), while AD6ASA operated under the -urisdiction of the newly4created AI*AA, ;he second group was made up of recuperated factories such as IN1M?AD and IN1M1AD, which came under the -urisdiction of AINM?, entrusted with overseeing the social economy, Finally, there were the private sector companies that participated in the AID6G4administered #abrica Adentro program, Eiven the diversity of pro-ects that came to fall under the cogesti9n umbrella, it is unsurprising that a commonly agreed upon <model= or definition could not be found, even among ministries within the same government, ;he lac) of any defined legislation also contributed to this situation, A further contributing factor was that government ministries preferred to tailor cogesti9n pro-ects according to their particular views rather than attempt to wor) collectively to come up with a common vision of cogesti9n, In Ml ;roudi and Aonedero.s words, the state resembled <an archipelago of unconnected islands= with little articulation and synergy between ministries /Ml ;roudi L Aonedero !""8$#8%0, ithin the labour movement a variety of perspectives could also be found, hile many union

leaders tal)ed of the need for wor)ers. control, there is little doubt that the government.s promotion of cooperatives, and the many financial incentives offered by the state for such enterprises, were attractive to many wor)ers, Also important was the fact that the organi2ed labour movement outside of the state sector remained small and largely unorganised, ;he prevalence of strong economistic tendencies within the wor)ing class that, compared to those in the informal sector, was relatively privileged was another factor to be ta)en into consideration, Finally, the lac) of a strong, united national union federation that could !'

accompany and unify these struggles was a )ey factor in the reversal of fortunes in a number of cogesti9n e+periments /Navas L Gsorio !""'$&K E9me2, ;7bata L E7me2 !""@$#'0, ;his situation further deteriorated when the UNM;M suffered a debilitating split in !""8 /?ollac) !""80, ;he overall wea)ness of the wor)ers. movement was revealed in its response to 6h7ve2.s call to ta)e over some #""" abandoned factories /Al9 ?residente !""@a$(80, Despite the UNM;M.s announcement that it had plans to occupy &"" factories over the ne+t two years, the number of recuperated factories never e+ceeded >" /A22ellini !""%$##0, ;hese factors, combined with the government.s necessity to prioritise immediate needs such as reactivating the economy and creating -obs, meant that the model/s0 of cogesti9n that came to predominate were e+actly those that seemed furthest away from its original conception, It was not -ust in government discourse but in realities on the ground that the place initially reserved for wor)er participation was overta)en by wor)er ownership and profit sharing, It was also in this confused and highly dynamic conte+t that 6h7ve2 began to rethin) cogesti9n as part of a much broader concept of socialism focused as much on distribution and consumption as on production,


Cogesti(n and socia" o+nership

6ogesti9n, as originally conceived, had as its primary focus the creation of a mechanism for co4governance between the state, wor)ers and communities in the economic sphere, ;his was seen as essential to ensuring integral human development, ;he question of property rights, while present, was generally a secondary aspect, weigh heavily in the initial debates in 1ene2uela, ;he focus on co4governance and wor)er participation was also evident at the !""@ Aay Day march, In his Aay Day speech, 6h7ve2.s emphasis was clear$ cogesti9n was not about replacing one owner with <("" proprietors who believe they are now the owners of the companyB that would be perverse, we would be multiply the beast that is capitalism, that is egoism, that is individualism, to another level= /Despacho del ?residente !""@a$(!#0, Instead, cogesti9n was about transforming relations of production via the incorporation of wor)ers into the administration of enterprises, ;he prominence given to participation was equally visible in the UNM;M.s draft law on cogesti9n presented to 6h7ve2 at the march, ithin the (ey de Participacin de )raba*adores or)er ?articipation y )raba*adoras en la estin de Empresas Publicas y Privadas /Daw of hile the issue of wor)ers owning company shares was present in similarly named e+periences internationally, such considerations did not

in the Aanagement of ?ublic and ?rivate 6ompanies0, the question of wor)ers owning companies did not appear, Instead, the law focused on promoting wor)er participation in public and private companies, ;his was to be accomplished via the <democratisation of decision4ma)ing, participation in management at all hierarchical and organisational levels= and providing wor)ers with <access to all operational, legal and financial documentation= /UNM;M !""@0, Fet, as the government moved to e+periment with cogesti9n on a wider scale in !""@, the issue of ownership gained greater prominence, both in government discourse and in its concrete implementation, ;his was so much the case that, when a 6uban advisor was invited to 1ene2uela in !""@ as part of the discussion on cogesti9n, he concluded that <the central problem in the debate has been the issue of property= /*orrego !""8$'@0,


5ow did a seemingly secondary issue C that of wor)ers owning shares Ccome to be <superimposed= on the original conception of cogesti9n and dominate the debate over its implementationI /6iban) !""@0 ;he seed of this confusion can be found in the government.s original vision of its new economic model, uilding the social economy ?resent in both the new constitution and the first national development plan was the idea of an economic system based on three interrelated sectors$ the public, private and social economy, hile the first two were viewed as part of the traditional economy, the social sector was described as <one of the most novel aspects= of the new constitution /A?D !""#$#(0, Its role was to incorporate unemployed and informal sector wor)ers into the formal economy via the promotion of collectively owned enterprises, cooperatives and small and medium si2ed companies /A?D !""#$!'0, Eiven these documents were produced half a decade before 6h7ve2 proclaimed the socialist character of the *olivarian revolution, it is perhaps not surprising that this sector was viewed as <alternative and complementary= to the private and public sector, nor that its goal was the <democratisation of the mar)et and capital= /A?D !""#$ #(, !'0, At the time, moderate, pro4 capitalist elements had a strong influence over the government and the original constituent assembly, a problem 6h7ve2 later ac)nowledged when proposing a number of radical changes to the constitution /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$8(0 As noted in 6hapter #, neither the constitution nor the national development plan established a direct relationship between cogesti9n and the social economy with its emphasis on collective ownership, Despite elements of both featuring in early cogesti9n e+periments, a distinction between the two concepts remained, Aoreover, the first ma-or e+periments in cogesti9n occurred, not in the social sector, but in state4owned companies$ ?D1SA and 6ADAFM, or)ers in these companies saw no contradiction between, on the one hand, introducing cogesti9n and on the other, promoting the social economy, ;wo months after 6h7ve2 appointed two unionists to the company board at ?D1SA, wor)ers there presented management with a proposal to <create and control the conditions which would allow for the protagonist4based /protagnica0 participation of wor)ers, communities and the National Armed Forces in the process of the construction and consolidation of the ("

New ?D1SA= /6omitS EuJa !""(0, ;heir proposal also spo)e of promoting and strengthening small and medium4si2ed companies involved in activities with ?D1SA, In 6ADAFM, the new board of directors began approving resolutions to stimulate cooperatives in service areas while simultaneously encouraging the establishment of comit+s de gestin throughout the company.s internal structures to facilitate wor)er participation /6omitS de Hefundaci9n !""@$!@480, ;he question of wor)ers owning ?D1SA or 6ADAFM never emerged as a serious proposal as wor)ers viewed cogesti9n as a means by which to e+pand wor)place democracy, Nevertheless, a cogesti9n model involving cooperatives and collective ownership increasingly came to be applied in the ma-ority of cogesti9n e+periments initiated in !""@, ;he main contributing factor to this was the change in the government.s orientation towards the social economy, As the process began to radicalise in !""(, 6h7ve2.s increasingly anti4 capitalist discourse was paralleled by a shift towards viewing the social economy less as a complement and more as an alternative to the logic of capital /Debowit2 !""8$#""0, Mntrusted with the tas) of promoting the social economy, the newly established AINM? came to oversee not -ust collectively4owned enterprises and cooperatives, but also most of the recuperated factories, Although the decree to create AINM? differentiated between cogesti9n within the state economy and collective ownership in the social economy, AINM? began to fuse the two concepts /Eaceta Gficial !"">$#'0, ;his was particularly influenced by the fact that within AINM?, cogesti9n was seen as a stepping stone towards the greater goal of autogestin /self4management0, where wor)ers owned their own means of production /AINM? !""@$#'0, ;he impact of this shift was clear in the cases of IN1M?AD and IN1M1AD, The recuperated factories model ;his did not mean that the issue of wor)er participation disappeared, In fact, in the case of IN1M?AD, 6h7ve2 stressed the importance of <transferring power to the wor)ers so that they can transform reality= /Al9 ?residente !""@$##0, During the same Al Presidente, Ainister Iglesias defined cogesti9n as <shared management of power= and as <ta)ing into the economic sphere that TthemeU which runs right through our constitution from start to finish, which is co4responsibility= /Al9 ?residente !""@$#'0, (#

Hatifying the leading role he wanted wor)ers to play within cogesti9n, 6h7ve2 proposed that wor)ers at IN1M1AD and IN1M?AD should elect their company presidents /6ampos !""8K Dugo, 1essuri L 6anino !""&$#80, ;his was despite AINM? being legally entitled to name company presidents, ;his move also ensured that the wor)er4cooperatives held a ma-ority on the company boards, Nevertheless, the shifting emphasis towards wor)ers owning shares was clear, In both IN1M?AD and IN1M1AD, the government too) the initiative to hand over >%P of company shares to the wor)er4cooperatives /Aendo2a !""80, or)ers were also promised %%P ownership of the company further down the trac) if they demonstrated their capacity to fully manage the enterprises /A22ellini !""%$#&0, ;he wor)er4cooperatives were also entitled to share company profits among themselves, something 6h7ve2 described as an important difference between capitalism and the new social economy his government was promoting /Al9 ?residente !""@$#&0, ;he decision to place both companies under the auspices of AINM? was another indication that 6h7ve2 saw these companies as part of the social economy, ;his was particularly true for IN1M1AD which seemed to be an obvious candidate for being placed under the auspices of AMN?M;, given its long4standing relationship with ?D1SA, /6N1 was owned by a former ?D1SA president and e+clusively sold its valves to the state oil company0 /Oanic)e !""'0, 5otel Wamarata was another enterprise that was handed over to its wor)ers, this time under autogestin with the wor)er4cooperative given #""P ownership /AIN6I !""@$>0, In the case of the te+tile company :ilanderas )ina&uillo /;inaquillo Spinners0, converted into $ndustria Venezolana Endgena )e;til /IN1M;MX, 1ene2uelan Mndogenous ;e+tile Industry0, the state too) control of @#P ownership of the company, while the original owners held the rest of the shares /;e-ero ?untes !""80, ;he idea was that the wor)ers would gradually obtain the state.s shares /6ormen2ana !""@0, ith the launch of #abrica Adentro in August !""@, cogesti9n.s association with collective ownership deepened, Eranting wor)er4cooperatives shares became a requirement for receiving government loans, In order to encourage owners to give wor)ers a greater sta)e in the company, the interest rate on the loans decreased as more shares were given to wor)ers, (!

Although many came to question the limited nature of wor)er participation within these companies, the program seemed to have contributed to the reactivation of the economy and -ob creation, *y the end of !""8, &>' companies had already had their pro-ects approved /A22ellini !""%$!(0, ;he emphasis on the issue of ownership and profit sharing also became more prominent in 6h7ve2.s discourse, hen launching the #abrica Adentro program, 6h7ve2 suggested that the more shares wor)er4cooperatives owned, the more such a company could be said to be <leaving capitalism= /AIN6I !""@$(80, ;hree months later, 6h7ve2 argued <capital is not bad in and of itself, !""@b$!(0, ;o be fair, this did not represent a fundamental shift in the government.s overall economic policies, ;he idea of an economic system based on a public, private and social sector was always present, as was the promotion of collective ownership and <democratisation of capital= within the latter, Gne difference was the increased emphasis on the social economy as an alternative to capitalismK another was that cogesti9n came to be seen as predominately applicable to this sector comprised of collectively4owned enterprises, ;he problems with collective ownership however, soon began to manifest themselves in IN1M?AD, where the cooperative model was forcing wor)ers <to operate in the mar)et and become 3owners.= /Aather !""80, Shortly after the cogesti9n e+periment began, company e+ecutives decided to hire a former 1MNM?AD board member as <Eeneral Aanager= /;raba-adores despedidos de IN1M?AD !""80, Mntrusted with the daily running of the enterprise, the manager proceeded to convince company e+ecutives that rather than e+panding the cooperative, a more economically sound decision would be to hire lower paid seasonal labourers for less than si+ months, ;his would not only increase profits, but also allow the company to avoid having to incorporate seasonal wor)ers into the cooperative, Under 1ene2uelan law, cooperatives could not hire wor)ers for more than si+ months without incorporating them as members /Eaceta Gficial !""#$@0, ;he result was that -ust before their si+ months was up, some #!" wor)ers were fired, hat is bad is capitalism, which is the degeneration of the use of capital, when capital is concentrated in few hands and is utilised to e+ploit the rest= /Al9 ?residente


For this reason, 1ene2uelan trade unionists ta)ing part in an international solidarity gathering held in April !""@ came to re-ect the idea of wor)ers owning shares in companies, <M+perience up until now teach us that it is only possible to develop the )nowledge of the running of companies by wor)ers when these belong to the state= read the final declaration approved at the meeting /cited in Debowit2 !""8$#"@0, <;he wor)ers re-ected any idea of turning wor)ers of the co4managed or managed factories into small proprietors=, or)ers from IN1M1AD, IN1M?AD and other recuperated factories also began to draw similar conclusions, and in February !""8 too) the initiative to form FHM;M6G, with the principal ob-ective of promoting <the e+propriation and nationalisation of 1ene2uelan industry and its placement under wor)ers. control= /FHM;M6G !""8$!(0, In practice, this meant companies being #""P stated owned, complete wor)ers. control in the running of the company and production to <satisfy the needs of society= /FHM;M6G !""'$#!4#80, ;he latter was to be accomplished by ensuring that companies were <participating as one more lin) in the planned economy and complying with the goals that society itself has imposed through such planning,= *y early !""', 6h7ve2 was also convinced that collective property was not the answer, private property, ;he proof of this for 6h7ve2 was IN1M?AD$ hat happened thereI ell, we established a property regime where some shares were owned by the state, others by the wor)ers, hat began to happen thereI e ended up Twith a situation involvingU, if we don.t correct this in time, the capitalist state allied with capitalist wor)ers, a capitalist cooperative and the medicine ends up being worse than the illnessB /Al9 ?residente !""'a$'"0, Instead, 6h7ve2 began to forcefully insist on the need to promote forms of social property, ;his change in position soon became evident in the cases of IN1M1AD, IN1M?AD and ?Jo ;amayo, all of which came to be placed under #""P state4ownership, ;he same occurred with companies nationalised after !""8, ;he #abrica Adentro program, which focused on wor)ers owning shares, was <dragging wor)ers towards an entrepreneurial logic without giving them real participation in decision4ma)ing,= and was soon replaced with Plan #abrica Socialista /Socialist Factory ?lan0 /A22ellini !"#"$#>!0, Daunched in Oune !""', the ob-ective hile

it could be accommodated within twenty4first century socialism, in essence it remained


of the plan was to create !"" state4owned socialist companies to produce a variety of essential goods, ;he concrete realities of attempting to implement cogesti9n had contributed to a rethin) by 6h7ve2 of some of his ideas on building socialism, In place of collective property, 6h7ve2 proposed that property should remain in the hands of the state and communities, Hather than promoting a social economy parallel to the state and private economy, 6h7ve2 proposed to reform the constitution so that the state.s focus was on building a <socialist economy= within which social property was hegemonic /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$#%!4(0, ;he focus though on human development remained, with the goal of the new socialist economy being to guarantee <the satisfaction of social and material needs of the people, the greatest sum of social and political stability and the greatest sum of happiness possible=,


Cogesti(n and socia" production

6ogesti9n had initially been premised on the idea that participation in the wor)place was an essential ingredient for ensuring human development, 5owever, serious problems began to emerge in some of the companies under cogesti9n, ;hese problems contributed to a shift in the government.s position towards cogesti9n, Heflecting on the turmoil in IN1M?AD, Oaua e+plained that the problem there had been the result of <an incorrect selection of people= and the <absence of political consciousness= among wor)ers /cited in Aoreno !""80, 5owever, some in the labour movement were drawing a different conclusion, ;he problem was that participation had come to be mista)enly equated with the idea of democratising capital while drifting away from its focus on human development, As an alternative, wor)ers within FHM;M6G were proposing nationalisation under wor)ers. control, Gthers pointed to the e+ample of AD6ASA, arguably the most advanced e+periment in cogesti9n, ;he initiative to introduce cogesti9n in AD6ASA once again came from 6h7ve2, At the end of !"">, he called upon 61E e+ecutive members to come up with proposals for developing cogesti9n in the basic industry comple+, ;o facilitate its implementation, 6h7ve2 created AI*AA in Oanuary !""@ and appointed the 6uban trained economist 1Jctor Nlvare2 to head up the new ministry, Nlvare2 in turn named 6arlos Dan2, an e+4guerrilla and long4time supporter of wor)ers. control, to the presidency of AD6ASA, entrusting him with the tas) of promoting cogesti9n there, ;he significance of this e+periment can be understood when we consider that aluminium is 1ene2uela.s second most important basic industry, and that AD6ASA was the nation.s second largest aluminium smelter /*ruce !""&$#">0, Aoreover, the success or failure of cogesti9n there would determine whether cogesti9n would be e+tended to the rest of the 61E comple+, In AD6ASA, the focus of cogesti9n was clearly on wor)er participation and direct wor)place democracy, <6o4management here= e+plained AD6ASA wor)er Alcides Hivero <has a lot to do with wor)ers. control, because it.s really the wor)ers who are ta)ing the decisions= /*ruce !""&$#"80, Dan2 agreed, arguing that <cogesti9n revolucionaria= was different to the traditional model of cogesti9n, with its focus on share ownership and wor)er representatives


on company boardsK it was <a proposal for transition toward towards socialism, towards another system of production= /*ruce !""&$#"80, In AD6ASA, <wor)ers are to assume control of the plant in an integral manner, From the budget and administration, the technical and productive problems to the labour organisation at the ground level= /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!!0 ;o achieve this tas), Dan2 pinpointed si+ )ey elements as fundamental to the success of cogesti9n$ the election of all managers, regular report bac)s by all elected officials, revocability of delegates and managers, rotation of posts, freedom of debate and discussion, democratisation of )nowledge and participation in the drafting of the company budget /Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""@0, ;a)en as a whole, cogesti9n was not -ust about participationK it was about fundamental change in the wor)place and in the consciousness of the wor)ers, For this reason, Dan2 saw cogesti9n <as a comple+ process, more political, ideological and cultural in its nature and less technical and administrative= /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!!0, As *ruce notes in his case study of AD6ASA, changing the relations of production required more than state ownership and centralised planning, In AD6ASA, cogesti9n aimed <to restore a third, vital component to its proper place in a socialist transition, ;his was the indispensable question of overturning any monopoly of )nowledge and giving all people, in this case all members of the wor)force, the power to discuss and decide= /*ruce !""&$##"0, The A(CA)A model In Oanuary !""@, company managers, labour directors and trade union representatives at AD6ASA signed a commitment to implement cogesti9n$ the 0eclaracin de Macagua /Aacagua Declaration0, which represented /Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""%$!'0, ;he aim was to introduce <wor)er participation in the management and administration of the company, in co4 responsibility with the state= /Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""%$!&0, An emphasis was also placed on the democratizacin del saber /democratisation of )nowledge0 where <socialisation of the diverse technical4productive components of the company would allow wor)ers to ma)e conscious decisions, participating in an integral manner in the elaboration of proposals for restructuring production= /Dan2 !""%$!&0, ;o assist this educative process, the Centro de #ormacin Sociopoltica 1egro Primero /<Negro


?rimero= Socio4?olitical Mducation 6entre0 was established in Ouly !""@ /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@f0, ;he process of cogesti9n was developed in two phases, ;he first involved the election of managers and establishment of mesas de traba*o /wor) committees0 in each department of the factoryK the second developed a participatory budget within AD6ASA, ;hroughout Aarch and April of !""@, the first phase was )ic)ed off with wor)ers voting to elect managers in each department, In place of the traditional set4up where one person filled a management post, three wor)ers were elected in each department in order to ma)e it more difficult for corruption to arise /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@K Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@a0, ?arallel to this process of democratising management structures, efforts towards creating organs of wor)er decision4ma)ing were also underta)en, A bottom4up system for decision4ma)ing was established involving teams of five to ten wor)ers electing voceros /spo)espeople0 in each area of the company, ;hese voceros came together to form departmental4wide mesas de traba*o, In all, !(# voceros were elected to #% separate mesas de traba*o in AD6ASA /*ruce !""&$##!0, Sitting alongside the voceros were the three elected <wor)er4managers,= ;heir role was to implement the decisions made at the wee)ly meetings of the mesas de traba*o /*ruce !""&$##(0, ;he mesas de traba*o became a space where voceros would pass on wor)ers. concerns, and where attempts were made to resolve problems by consensus /although when this was not possible, a simply ma-ority vote was ta)en0, hen no agreement could be reached, the issue was referred bac) to an assembly of all the wor)ers in the department, If an issue affected the entire company, an assembly of the entire wor)force had the final say, hile decisions pertaining to the internal structure of AD6ASA fitted more neatly within the traditional concept of wor)ers. control, the <co= element was present as the state, via AI*AA, played a role in setting <the essential parameters within which AD6ASA had to wor) C financial, industrial, commercial and political= /*ruce !""&$##(0, According to then secretary of the Sindicato de )raba*adores de CV AD6ASA A(CASA /SIN;HAD6ASA, 61E or)ers. Union0, ;rino Silva, wor)ers also proposed that local community

representatives sit on the company board /5arnec)er !""@a0, In November !""@, two members of nearby communities were elected as company e+ecutives /A22ellini !"##$(%"0, (&

;his internal restructuring shared many similarities, at least on paper, with what wor)ers in ?D1SA and 6ADAFM were proposing /See 6omitS EuJa !""(K 6omitS de Hefundaci9n !""@$#'0, 5owever, unli)e AD6ASA, the election of managers was not seen as a priority in either, or)ers in 6ADAFM instead emphasised the need for appointed managers to be accountable to the deliberations of the comit+s de gestin /Fuentes !""%$'#0, In fact, wor)ers within 6ADAFM elected only one manager, ;his e+ception occurred in one of 6ADAFM.s regional affiliates, the Compa'a Annima de Electricidad de los Andes /6ADMDA, Dos Andes Mlectricity 6,A0, ;here, in !"">, the president of 6ADMDA granted wor)ers in the state of Aerida the opportunity to elect their own statewide manager from a wor)ers. assembly /5arnec)er !""@$!"0, Another difference between AD6ASA and 6ADAFM was that wor)ers in the latter played no role in the budgetary process, ;he idea behind the participatory budget was that by participating in the elaboration of an overall diagnosis of the company, wor)ers would begin to loo) beyond their immediate surroundings and help develop a company4wide plan for recuperating AD6ASA /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@c0, Aoreover, as Aarivit Dope2 e+plained, this was also the difference between limiting participating to the productive process and e+panding it to the overall direction of the company /*ruce !""&$#!(0, ;he first preliminary steps involved meetings between company managers and voceros to discuss ways in which costs could be immediately reduced, with all decisions being distributed among wor)ers /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@dK Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@eK Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""@g0, Aeanwhile, the mesas de traba*o set about studying and discussing the budget for !""8, During this process, wor)ers were for the first time given access to the company.s accounting boo)s, thus ensuring that <no more commercial, administrative or technological secrets= remained, as Hivero put it /*ruce !""&$##@0, *y the end of the year, the company board could point to a number of important advances in AD6ASA, ;hese included the payment of debts owed to wor)ers, the election of new managers and voceros, a successful campaign to reduce costs and increase production, plans for a participatory budget, the creation of a wor)er.s education centre, introduction of new technology, and an internal restructuring of the plant /61E Alcasa !""@0, Furthermore, in (%

April !""8, the third phase of the cogesti9n process began, with Dan2 inviting wor)ers to debate the option of a wor)ers. council replacing the company board as the supreme organ for running the company /a feature later incorporated into the collective contract for !""84!""&0 /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""8aK Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""8d0, ;he issue of reducing the wor)day /with no loss in pay0, as a means for allowing wor)ers <free time for rest, recreation, study and to share with their family,= was also raised /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""8b0, arriers to participation Nevertheless, the process of introducing cogesti9n in a variety of companies e+posed a number of important barriers that would need to be overcome for wor)place democracy to really ta)e hold, Gne of these was the presence of company managers who feared losing the power they currently held, ;his was particularly true in 6ADAFM where many )ey positions continued to be held by managers appointed prior to 6h7ve2.s election or aligned with moderate c!avista forces who <assumed an unfriendly attitude towards 6havista employees= /Mllner !""8$#!"0, In late !"">, FM;HAMDM6 began publicly denouncing these sectors for waging a systematic campaign against cogesti9n, ;he campaign involved the firing of managers and wor)ers who supported cogesti9n and the promotion of parallel unions so as to undermine the position of the pro4cogesti9n FM;HAMDM6 leadership /5arnec)er !""@$#8K Navas L Gsorio !""'$80, ithin ?D1SA, the comit+s guas also denounced the presence of a similar campaign being waged by the new <techno4bureaucracy= that had entrenched itself within management /6omitSs EuJa de la industria petrolera !"">0, In both 6ADAFM and ?D1SA, management counted on the support of AMN?M;, given the hostility that Ainister Hamire2 held towards cogesti9n, A further barrier was the old vertical4based structure of these companies, which remained intact within e+isting laws and company statutes, Designed during the neoliberal era, this legal framewor) radically inhibited wor)er participation and, in some cases, opened the door to privatisation /FM;HAMDM6 !""@b$84'0, For this reason, FM;HAMDM6 proposed an overhaul of the laws and regulations governing the electrical sector and the approval of a new law on cogesti9n that could give this concept some )ind of legal framewor) /FM;HAMDM6 !""@$@4'0,


Mven in places where wor)ers had elected managers, barriers persisted, 1ene2uela.s basic industry sector had for a long time been home to a networ) of powerful clientalist networ)s, comprised of foreign capital, local managers, trade unions and government officials /*lan)enburg !""&$!"0, It therefore came as little surprise that moves to open company boo)s were vehemently resisted, hen the cogesti9n process in AD6ASA threatened to put a halt to some of these shady business dealings, the multinationals struc) bac), Following a decision by wor)ers to annul an unfavourable memorandum of understanding that the previous management had signed with Elencore, the multinational company responded with a campaign of boycott and sabotage, /HodrJgue2 !""@K Dan2 HodrJgue2 !""%$(', 8!0, ;rade union leaders who saw cogesti9n as a threat to both the union.s power, and their personal privileges, also opposed the process /*ruce !""&$#!@0 Hesistance to cogesti9n did not only come from those that saw it as a threat to their profits or power, but also from wor)ers themselves, Gne year into the e+periment, Dan2 believed that wor)ers still remained divided on the issueK with a ma-ority supporting cogesti9n, but mainly <with the hope of getting some material benefit out of it= /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!!0, ;he facts on the ground seemed to bac) up Dan2.s assessment, *y early !""8, the mesas de traba*o were meeting much less frequently, and in some departments had stopped meeting all together /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!80, Union elections in Oanuary !""8 ended with strong results for the two main tic)ets which campaigned almost e+clusively on the issues of wages and conditionsK supporters of cogesti9n failed to win more than 8P of the vote /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!!, ("0, In Oune !""8, wor)ers at AD6ASA voted to return to a system of single managerial posts, and subsequently elected many of the same managers that had been removed in the previous elections /Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos !""8cK *ruce !""&$#!80, hen Dan2 left the company in Aay !""', the cogesti9n process <suffered a severe setbac)= with a ma-ority of alcasianos <no longer advocatTingU cogesti9n or wor)ers councils= /A22ellini !"##$(%#0, A similar resistance was also present among wor)ers in 6ADAFM, according to union leaders /Fuentes !""%$8@0, 6oncerns were raised that some wor)ers had begun to view cogesti9n as a vehicle for pursuing their own personal interests rather than for advancing wor)er participation /Fuentes !""%$88, '#0, ;he worst e+amples of this occurred in ?D1SA, leading to a situation which one UNM;M leader from the oil sector described as a <disaster= for >#

cogesti9n /Hiera !""&$@(0, ;here, union leaders had reverted to the <deeply rooted practice= of political clientalism, using their positions of power to sell lucrative -obs in one of the highest paying industries in the country /Mllner !""8$#!"0, Undoubtedly this proved to be a )ey factor in 6h7ve2.s subsequent decision to declare <strategic sectors=, such as ?D1SA, off bounds for cogesti9n /Al9 ?residente !""80 For Mdgar 6aldera, a labour director at AD6ASA, the e+planation for all this was that the mentality of clientalism and corruption remained strong even within the minds of the wor)ers /*ruce !""&$#!@0, Former managers had ta)en advantage of this to subvert the democratic process for their own ends, For this reason, some wor)ers tended to agree with Oaua.s assessment that the central problem was the lac) of political consciousness among wor)ers, Arguing that a ma-ority of alcasianos had been won over to supporting cogesti9n through their participation in education courses, one wor)er stated <we still have to give courses to more than #""" wor)ersB so that everyone will understand what co4management is and what we want to accomplish with co4management= /?eYa Ho-as !""8$((0, ?roviding wor)ers with the necessary information and tools with which to fully participate is undeniably a critical ingredient to the success of any cogesti9n pro-ect, For this reason, the idea raised in AD6ASA /and later by 6h7ve20, of reducing the wor)day in order to allow wor)ers time for study was crucial, Fet in many ways this argument neatly dovetailed with those put forward by opponents of cogesti9n, Gil minister Hafael Hamire2 also concluded that the 1ene2uelan wor)ing class was not ready for cogesti9n, given its tendency to behave <in a profoundly conservative manner because it benefits from a set of privileges and fights to maintain them= /6abieses Donoso !""&0, For this reason, *orrego, li)e Hamire2, argued that in place of wor)er participation, what was needed was a state that could <e+ercises its functions responding to t!e interests of society as owner of all the means at its disposal and in search of greater efficiency, quality and efficacy of social production= /*orrego !""8$'&, emphasis in original0, *roducing new human beings 6h7ve2 was clearly concerned by the hold that these deeply entrenched vices had over the wor)ers movement, In his Al Presidente of Oanuary !#, !""', he criticised the economistic outloo) of the union movement, and railed against those <wor)ers who wor) in a state >!

company and believe that it belongs to them= /Al9 ?residente !""'$@'0, 6omplaining that some wor)ers only wanted to enrich themselves further so that they could live li)e the <rich class=, 6h7ve2 said these attitudes were far removed from those of the <new human being= that he believed were essential for creating socialism, Marlier in the show, he had referred to this idea of the <new human being=, Ruoting a passage from a pamphlet by Debowit2>, 6h7ve2 said$ <No one articulated better in the twentieth century the importance of developing new, socialist human beings that 6he Euevara= /Al9 ?residente !""'$!(0, According to 6h7ve2, 6he had emphasised the need to simultaneously develop the material base of socialism together with creating the <new man, the new woman,= ;he way to do this, said 6h7ve2 /again reading out a passage from Debowit20 was through <the simultaneous changing of circumstances,,, and self4change /what Aar+ called 3revolutionary practice.0 TthisU is how we build the new society and new human beings= /Al9 ?residente !""'$!>0, Gthers drew the same conclusion, As)ed about the problem of flagging participation at AD6ASA, one wor)er e+plained that this was due to voceros failing to properly inform wor)ers of what was occurring, ;his had led to increased <apathy in TsicU part of the Spo)emen and the people that are involved in the process of co4management= /?eYa Ho-as !""8$(#4!0, hile understanding that <co4management is a long term process=, one in which it was essential <to change the mentality of many wor)ers,= cogesti9n could only advance through the involvement of <wor)ers directly with TsicU the process of co4management,= ;he evidence seemed to support this notion, In 6ADMDA, where cogesti9n was strongly supported and promoted by both the elected manager and the local union, &" to %"P of wor)ers were participating in the comit+s de gestin /5arnec)er !""@$!"0, ;hrough this process, many of those who had initially opposed cogesti9n began demanding its e+pansion into other areas as they started to see the positive outcomes of wor)er participation both for themselves and the company /Fuentes !""%$8@480, 5igh levels of participation were accompanied by improvements in the company.s financial standing and a reduction in labour conflicts and wor) in-uries, among other gains /5arnec)er !""@$!&4("0,


See Debowit2 !""8


Mvents in IN1M?AD and ?Jo ;amayo revealed the negative side of reducing wor)er participation, hile it was true that wor)ers had initially selected <incorrect people= to represent them on the company board, they had not been alone in ma)ing this mista)e, At the state4owned Central Azucarera Eze&uiel <amora /M2equiel [amora Sugar Aill0, where managers had been appointed by the state, corruption scandals had engulfed the enterprise /\ltimas Noticias !""80, ;he difference in the case of IN1M?AD was that the e+istence of cogesti9n meant wor)ers could recall their representatives, which they did in November !""@ /HodrJgue2 !""80, Fearful of the <chaos= that had come with the decision to open up spaces for participation, and conscious of the need to avoid a situation were IN1M?AD went bust, AINM? gradually reduced the power of the cooperative, beginning with the state reasserting its right to appoint the company president /1ive ;v !""80, Fet reducing participation did not seemed to provide a solution to the problem of corruption, Following the subsequent discovery of USQ&"",""" worth of unaccounted costs within IN1M?AD.s budget, an official government report alleged that no corruption had occurred, Instead, blame lay with <administrative disorder= caused as a result of having handed over the company to the wor)ers /A22ellini !""%$#%0, de Invepal !""80, In ?Jo ;amayo, where wor)ers were protesting a lac) of access to financial records and real participation /leading to intense conflict between the union and the company.s wor)er4 president0, the government also responded by appointing a new company president without consulting wor)ers /Ducena !""8$#@K Aldana !"#"0, hen the government moved to acquire full ownership of the company, the main concern for wor)ers and cane cutters was receiving the payout for their shares as quic)ly as possible /Aldana !"#"0, 5ere, the appointment of 3efficient. managers, while perhaps helping in some cases to increase productivity, had not necessarily resolved the problems of corruption and bac)ward consciousness among wor)ers, here wor)ers were denied the right to manage companies and develop their capacities, others had used this 3right. to maintain their own privileges, ;his had helped reinforce divisions between managers and wor)ers, and with it the economistic tendencies present within the wor)ers movement, Gnly through the process of participating in wor)place decision4ma)ing, could wor)ers both change their surroundings and develop their >> or)ers however, alleged corruption on the part of management /HamJre2 L;raba-adores despedidos

own capacities, 6ogesti9n did not require the selection of 3ideal people.K rather the very process of participation helped create 3ideal people., Fet if democratic participation was necessary in production, it was also essential to ensure that production was aimed at satisfying the needs of the communities, ;his issue of consumption was perhaps foremost in 6h7ve2.s concerns regarding the whole cogesti9n pro-ect C a concern driven by the serious requirement to address the immediate needs of the poor ma-ority that made up the bul) of his support base, ASs27ros idea of a system of communal production and consumption had captured 6h7ve2.s attention, so much so that he progressively came to displace cogesti9n with the idea of the M?S, ;his proposal was an attempt to deal with the third side of 6h7ve2.s <socialist triangle=, the satisfaction of social needs, which is the focus of the ne+t chapter,


Cogesti(n and socia" needs

Increasingly concerned by the prevailing economistic tendencies within the organised wor)ing class, 6h7ve2 began to shift his focus to the question of how to encourage wor)ers to consider the needs of those e+cluded from the formal economy and who populated the impoverished communities surrounding their enterprises, ;he solution to this dilemma, 6h7ve2 argued in his Ouly #' Al Presidente program, was to be found in ASs27ros. idea of a <communal system of production and consumption= /Al9 ?residente !""@b$!(0 , In .eyond Capital, ASs27ros had argued that the construction of socialism was predicated on <instituting a radically new type of e+change relations /ASs27ros #%%@$'@&0, hereas capitalism was based on the e+change of commodities, socialism required re4establishing e+change relations on the basis of activities, determined by communal needs and communal purposes= /Warl Aar+ cited in ASs27ros #%%@$'@", emphasis in original0, ith this is mind, 6h7ve2 launched the idea of Social ?roduction Mnterprises /M?Ss0, From the outset, two ideas shaped 6h7ve2.s vision of what an M?S should loo) li)e, Firstly, that production had to be geared towards social needs not profitK and secondly, that profits generated by M?Ss had to directly contribute to the wellbeing of surrounding communities, During his November !', !""@ Al Presidente program, 6h7ve2 read out a definition of M?S, ;his definition, he noted, was the result of <an intense debate during the preceding months= among his cabinet members, Stressing that this was to be ta)en as a guide and not a dogma, he said that M?Ss$ B are those economic entities dedicated to the production of goods or services, in which labour has its own significance, is non4alienated, authenticK in which there e+ist no social discrimination in labour or of any type of labour, no privileges e+ist in labour associated with a hierarchical position, ;hose economic entities with substantive equality among their members, based on participatory and protagonist planning, and under a regime of state property, collective property or a combination of both /Al9 ?residente !""@b$(#0, 6h7ve2 added another important characteristic, stating that for any company to <be truly one for social production=, it must distribute profits in a different manner, 6h7ve2 proposed that M?Ss should instead reinvest profits bac) into four funds$ a self4sufficiency fund that could


ensure the economic viability of the enterprise, a labour fund to cover the needs of wor)ers, a fund for promoting social development programs, and a fund for the promotion of new M?Ss /Al9 ?residente !""@b$(>0, 1arious ministries were quic) to ta)e up 6h7ve2.s call to build such enterprises, principally AI*AA, AINM?, AID6G and AINM? /Ml ;roudi L Aonedero !""8$#'80, All of these ministries were involved in some way with the different cogesti9n pro-ects, and as with cogesti9n, M?Ss came to ta)e on different characteristics depending on the ministry involved, The +*) models For AI*AA, the focus of an M?S was on creating a human4centred economy that could satisfy both the material and spiritual needs of wor)ers /AI*AA !""@0, Aore specifically, they were to be geared towards four essential sectors$ food, clothing, housing and health, 6ommunities would collectively own companies with the aim of ensuring that these enterprises responded to the needs of the community, A portion of the profits generated was to go into a fund that would be utilised for the promotion of further such enterprises, ;o )ic)4start the process of creating M?Ss, AI*AA and 61E converted their Euayana Hegional Fund into a Social ?roduction Fund, ;he regulations for accessing finances from the fund were changed to enable the newly emerging M?Ss to acquire loans, given that the old rules only too) into consideration traditional capitalist firms /AIN6I !""8a$#(0, Further help for nascent M?Ss came in the form of providing secure mar)ets for their products, ;his was achieved by obliging state companies to contract M?Ss for any goods or services required, ;his was critical, said Ainister Nlvare2, given the unequal advantage held by <large contractors that had already established themselves= /AIN6I !""8a$#>0, *y the end of !""@, !8" M?Ss had been formed in Euayana, producing uniforms, shoes, wheelchairs, furniture and other goods and services, In many ways the charge was led by AD6ASA, with wor)ers previously employed by private contractors being encouraged to establish their own enterprises so that the company could directly contract them /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!'0, *y !""8, a networ) of between ## and #8 cooperatives had come to replace the traditional private contractors responsible for supplying AD6ASA.s (,""" wor)ers with company uniforms /*ruce !""&$#!#0, >'

?roblems however soon emerged with the perseverance of the old <capitalist wor) culture= leading to the reproduction of traditional wor)er4manager divisions within some M?Ss /?eYa Ho-as !""8$!'0, Another important obstacle was the attempts by company management and union leaders to subvert agreements with the M?Ss in order to pave the way for a return of the old private contractors, and with them the )ic)bac)s they previously received /*ruce !""&$#!"0, ;he focus on replacing previous private contractors with M?Ss was also incorporated into AMN?M;.s overall plans, A Hegister of Social ?roduction Mnterprises /HM?S0 was established by ?D1SA for this purpose /?D1SA !""8$>0, In order to be registered, companies had to designate a percentage of their profits towards a Social Fund andVor directly provide goods or services to the community, ;he resources accrued in the Social Fund would go towards communal council pro-ects approved by the mobile cabinets established by the government to sort through the countless applications for funding, Another requirement was that these enterprises contribute to the creation of other M?Ss, Aention was also made of the need to incorporate cooperative labour and collective ownership as part of these enterprises, with cooperatives <by their very nature= deemed to be M?Ss /?D1SA !""8a$!0, In November !""@, Ainister Hamire2 organised an e+hibition of #8" M?Ss that had dealings with ?D1SA in the areas of construction, maintenance, repairs, clothing and manufacturing, among others /Al9 ?residente !""@b$(#0, hat these changes meant in practice though are debatable, as many of the M?Ss came to resemble the same old firms that ?D1SA traditionally dealt with, albeit that they now had to contribute to a social fund via a ta+ on profits /A22ellini !"#"$#>"0, Ultimately, it was still ?D1SA management who determined what goods and services were to be produced, while direct community or wor)er participation was largely absent from many of these pro-ects, or)ers at IN1M1AD argued that opposition to wor)er participation was the main reason behind ?D1SA.s continued refusal to commit to purchasing their valves /Oanic)e !""'0, Mlsewhere, AID6G and AINM? were busy reconverting companies under cogesti9n into M?Ss, 5aving rebaptised those companies participating in #abrica Adentro as M?Ss, the focus of the program, according to Ainster Iglesias, was now not only on <democratising the property of the company among its wor)ers= but also ensuring companies <ta)e up >&

commitments with the community that surrounds them= /Hangel !""80, A similar condition was introduced by AINM? in the process of converting numerous cooperatives and recovered factories into M?Ss, Some noted that this conversion meant very little in practice beyond a name change /A22ellini !""%$%, #&0, For e+ample, the original decree creating IN1M1AD had already included a requirement that the company reinvest no less than !"P of its profits into local communities and promotion of the social economy /Eaceta Gficial !""@$#"0, ;his was similarly the case with the #abrica Adentro program /AIN6I !""@$#"0, ;he biggest hurdle though for some of the recuperated factories was not compliance with this obligation, but the fact that they were hardly producing any profit at all, *y the end of !""8, neither IN1M1AD nor IN1M;MX had restarted operations, and IN1M?AD was -ust brea)ing even /Alfonso !""&K ;e-ero ?untes !""80, Numerically at least, it seemed that M?Ss had ta)en off everywhere e+cept among the recuperated factories that were still struggling to get up and running, In terms of reactivating the country.s productive apparatus and -ob creation, the government could point to numerous positive economic indicators, partially the result of this government policy$ ED? growth was #",(P in !""@ and again in !""8K the reactivation of already installed capacity, which was running at &@,8P in the first quarter of !""@ but had risen to %!,#P by the last quarter of !""8K and a fall in unemployment of almost >P during the same period /Nlvare2 !""%$!>&, !@%K Ml ;roudi !"#"$@&0, eyond the magical state Fet, as Nlvare2 notes, the reactivation e+perienced during this period in large part represented a reactivation of the capitalist economy, ;o bac) up his claim, Nlvare2 points to figures from the .anco Central de Venezuela /*61, 6entral *an) of 1ene2uela0 that showed the private sector.s share of ED? had grown from 8@,!P in #%%& to '",>P in !""8, outpacing that of the public sector whose share had fallen /Nlvare2 !""%$!@>4@0, ;he much touted and promoted social economy C the supposed embryo of the new socialist economic model C represented a paltry #,&P of ED?, Mven the positive e+amples of M?Ss raised important questions about the overall pro-ect, Aany of these provided fertile training grounds for wor)ers in collective organising and had helped in raising consciousness about the necessity of producing for social needs, Fet, there >%

seemed to be serious doubts as to their capacity to provide the foundation of a new socialist economy, ;heir success had been largely due to their ability to secure contracts with state4 owned companies andVor their access to favourable government funds, the latter readily available due to booming oil prices, Under different circumstances, the survival of such enterprises would certainly have been in doubt, Gverall, the tendency seemed to point towards a greater dependency on the state, rather than towards a greater level of societal self4organisation within the social economy, powers that appear to be providential= /6oronil !""&a$#%4!"0, 6onscious of this, 6h7ve2 confronted it in his November #', !""@ Al Presidente program dedicated to M?Ss, Heferring to a request made by cooperative members from the 1=cleo Endgeno #abricio -*eda /Fabrica G-eda Mndogenous Unit0 for more machinery, 6h7ve2 retorted$ *e careful, be careful, you have badly accustomed yourselves to Tthe idea thatU we have to give you everything, *ecause when I hear you, I am left worrying inside, as if we have to do everythingB Fou should not get use to Tthe ideaU that we have to give you everything, because there may come a day when we don.t have anymore to give /Al9 ?residente !""@b$#%0, 5e also complained of a similar state of affairs within 6ADAFM, calling on the company to stop as)ing the state for help and to instead force big companies and state institutions to pay their bills or otherwise have their electricity cut off, In recognition of these challenges, *orrego argued social ownership of the means of production was the only way of ensuring that the results of labour were of <entirely social benefit= /*orrego !""8$'&0, ;his view was shared by Ainister Hamire2, who argued that placing control of the country.s oil wealth in the hands of <the 1ene2uelan state, as the collective representative of our country, as the representative of the collective interest= was the )ey to building socialism /Hamire2 !""@$%4#"0, In the absence of a revolutionary proletariat, only the state could ensure that this oil wealth was directed to meeting peoples. social needs as well as creating the necessary economic foundation upon which to build socialism /6abieses Donoso !""&0, ith record high oil prices, 1ene2uela.s state seemed more than ever to be <an incarnation of charismatic


As demonstrated above, 6h7ve2 became convinced of the need for social property, 5owever, 6h7ve2 came to see this as only one side of his socialist triangle, Mqually important was wor)er participation in production and community participation in distribution, In the absence of the latter, the only alternatives were the mar)et or state4imposed planning, Neither however provided a path towards integral human development, as they were premised on a system of consumption driven by either individual or state4imposed needs, Analysing the rise of the M?Ss, Debowit2 identified two types of M?Ss$ those which predominately had relations with state companies and those that were lin)ed to communities /Debowit2 !""8$###0, In the case of the former, wor)er participation in decision4ma)ing had to be promoted across wor)places, thereby allowing wor)ers in state firms and M?Ss to base their activities upon relations of solidarity and cooperation, rather than operating as independent entities involved in the e+change of commodities, For those M?S based in the community, <the direct articulation of community needs and productive activities= was only possible to the e+tent that the communities themselves identified their own needs and priorities, ;he emergence of communal councils@, argues Debowit2, provided communities with an instrument to begin to ta)e on this tas) /Debowit2 !""8$##!0, <In both cases, the premise is democratic decision ma)ing$ the development of relations in which the collective producer is both 3the ob-ect and t!e sub*ect of power.= e+plained Debowit2, borrowing a phrase penned by 6h7ve2 in the early nineties during his time in -ail /Debowit2 !""8$###0, In such a scenario, people would be the sub-ects of power within companies and their communities, and e+change could occur not on based of e+changing commodities, but rather wor)er and community needs, ;he reality of the M?S e+perience however, seemed to point in the opposite direction, For this reason, Social ?roduction Mnterprises came to be replaced with Social ?roperty Mnterprises, and then Socialist ?roduction Mnterprises /Nlvare2 L HodrJgue2 !""&$@80, *y mid4!""', the promotion of further M?Ss was put on hold in anticipation of the ultimately unsuccessful changes proposed to the constitution, Subsequently, the term M?S came to be used to refer to a variety of pro-ects but <without the e+istence of any official defined criteria= to describe e+actly what was meant by M?S /A22ellini !"#"$#>#0,

6ommunal councils are geographically4based units of community organising, involving !""4>"" families in urban areas and !"4@" families in rural areas


Cogesti(n and the .socia"ist triang"e/

In attempting to build twenty4first century socialism, the 1ene2uelan government had to confront many of the same dilemmas that previous socialist e+periments encountered in the spheres of ownership, production and distribution, ;he contradictory nature of the government.s implementation of cogesti9n was largely the product of attempting to deal with these issues, Aoreover, all of this occurred within a conte+t where divergent views on cogesti9n and socialism e+isted within the government, ;hrough this process, the practice of cogesti9n came to resemble something quite different from its initial conception in the constitution, Another consequence was the emergence of 6h7ve2.s <socialist triangle=, which in many ways represented a return to some of the same ideas that had motivated the promotion of cogesti9n in the first place, In Oanuary !""', 6h7ve2 spo)e of his idea of the <socialist triangle= for the first time, Spea)ing on Al Presidente, he said it was paramount that any future cogesti9n e+periments be <based on the TsocialistU triangleB social property, social production and satisfaction of needs= /Al9 ?residente !""'a$&!0, 6h7ve2 also went on to develop some general guidelines of what each side of the triangle could loo) li)e, )ocial ownership During the same Al Presidente, 6h7ve2 defined social property as state ownership over the strategic means of production, At the same time, 6h7ve2 made it very clear that this was not the same as state capitalism$ the )ey difference was that he was referring to <the social State, not the bourgeois state, not the capitalist state= /Al9 ?residente !""'a$>%0, A state, as 6h7ve2 would later e+plain, built upon communal and wor)er councils /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'$'(0, In August that year, 6h7ve2 would further refine his ideas on social property as part of a proposal for (( constitutional reforms aimed at bringing the constitution into line with his socialist pro-ect,8 Addressing the National Assembly, 6h7ve2 returned to his idea of the

Gur focus is on 6h7ve2.s initial proposed reforms as they were penned by him personally and so therefore best reflect his views on what he believed needed to be amended in the constitution, After 6h7ve2.s initial proposal was submitted for discussion in the National Assembly, a further (8 proposed reforms were added and some of 6h7ve2.s initial ones were slightly amended, Ultimately, the overall proposal was defeated in a referendum held in December !""',


<basic economic triangle$ property, production and distribution= and suggested that Article ##! of the constitution be modified to focus on the state promotion of social property /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$ %>, #%!4(0, A definition of social property was laid out in 6h7ve2.s proposed modification to Article ##@$ Social property is that which belongs to the people as a whole and to future generations, and can ta)e two forms$ indirect social property, when it is e+ercised by the state in the name of the community, and direct social property, when the state assigns it, under different forms and within demarcated territorial areas, to one or various communities, to one or various communes, thereby constituting itself as communal property, or to one or various cities, thereby constituting itself as citi2en.s propertyB /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$#%', underline in original0,

6h7ve2 referred to ?D1SA as an e+ample of indirect social property, whereby the company was <managed by the state, but belongs to all citi2ens=, adding again that the state he was referring to was <the state we are building, the socialist state= /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$%%0, In e+plaining the concept of direct social property, 6h7ve2 used the e+ample of a corn flour processing plant, the ownership of which could be transferred from the state to an organised community with the purpose of attending to peoples. needs, ;his conception, he said, differed from collective property /also included in Article ##@0, whereby a group of people or a cooperative, privately owned an enterprise and shared profits among them, 6ollective property is the <private property of a group= said 6h7ve2, <it is not social property, let.s not fool ourselves= /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$#""4#0, 5ere it is worth e+amining of the some of the ideas of ASs27ros and Debowit2, both of whom, as has been demonstrated in this thesis, came to influence 6h7ve2.s thin)ing on socialism, Arguing in favour of social property, Debowit2 says that social ownership of the means of production is a prerequisite for ensuring that they are <used in the interests of society and not for private gain= /Debowit2 !"#"$>"0, hile everything around us is the collective result of the social labour of past and present generations, under capitalism, it is capital which accrues the wealth generated by society due to its ownership of the means of production, Eiven the <irreconcilable structural antagonism between capital and labour=, the latter had to be e+cluded from ownership of the means of production <on the grounds of whichB the )ey decisions are made and the manifold partial functions of the social body are combined into a whole= /ASs27ros !""#$'#K ASs27ros #%%@$'(%0, ;o redress this situation, the fruits of social labour must be placed under social control, thereby ensuring that people can participate in the @(

)ey decisions affecting their lives and those of future generations, ;his is only possible when the means of production are socially owned, a prerequisite for social productivity being directed towards <the free development of all rather than used to satisfy the private goals of capitalists, groups of individuals, or state bureaucrats= /Debowit2 !""%$!'4&0, Unli)e state ownership, where state officials direct production, social ownership requires the involvement of <all those affected by decisions about the use of means of productionB deciding upon that use= /Debowit2 !"#"$>#, emphasis in original0, In the case of 6h7ve2.s e+ample of the corn flour processing plant, direct social property could involve the participation not -ust of the wor)ers within the plant, but also of those wor)ing in factories dependent on the corn flour produced there as well as local corn farmers and families living in the local rural community affected by the operations of the plant, In the case of indirect social property, that is property in the hands of the state, 6h7ve2 made clear he was referring to a socialist state resting on communal and wor)er councils as organs of popular power, ;hus the people, and not simply state4appointed officials, would decide how the nation.s oil wealth would be used, 6h7ve2.s emphasis on the need for social ownership was in large part motivated by the dangers he came to see as inherent within collectively owned companies, ;hese dangers C which in some cases became reality C included wor)ers focusing on ma)ing more profit in order to enrich themselves, the fostering of competition between wor)ers in different factories and the reproduction of the traditional division of labour within companies between those that wor) /do0 and those that manage /thin)0, ;o this list, Debowit2 added a further dilemma$ the fact that <not everyone has equal access to those means of production owned in common= /Debowit2 !"#"$>#0, For e+ample, someone living in 1ene2uela.s industrial heartland, Euayana, would obviously have more access to the means of production than a peasant farmer living in a rural town in the isolated southern state of Ama2onas, Eiven this, how can the wealth produced by social labour, both past and present, be equally distributedI )ocial production For Debowit2, the answer to this question lies in Warl Aar+.s idea that < real wealt! is t!e development of !uman capacity= /cited in Debowit2 !"#"$>!, italics in original0, ?roduction must be understood not simply as producing goods and services to satisfy basic needs but also @>

as an integral part of creating <new human beings=, In the 1ene2uelan constitution, such integral human development is to be achieved through <the participation of the people in forming, carrying out and controlling the management of public affairs= including in the wor)place, ;his was the focus of the second side of 6h7ve2.s socialist triangle$ social production, ;he necessity for wor)er participation is e+plained by the fact that labour <has as its result a -oint product C both the change in the ob-ect of labor and the change in the labourer herself= /Debowit2 !"#"$@!0, In this conte+t, wealth distribution should be understood as ensuring that production meets both the material and spiritual needs of individuals and of society as a whole /ASs27ros !""&$!#&0 ;he abolition of the <despotism of the wor)shop= is therefore a necessary prerequisite to ensure that <the consciously self4controlled life4activity of the social individuals could be integrated into a both productively viable and humanly fulfilling whole= /ASs27ros #%%@$'@#0, ;his would require a restructuring of the labour process, so that the traditional division of labour between wor)ers and managers could be replaced by a system in which humans ceased <to play the role necessarily assigned to them by capital= /ASs27ros #%%@$'8@0, ;o deal with this question of social production, 6h7ve2 proposed reforming Article '" of the constitution to replace cogesti9n with the terms <wor)ers council= and <democratic wor)ers management in any company of direct or indirect social property= /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$#&@0, hile 6h7ve2 also proposed removing reference to cogesti9n in Article #&>, ?oint >, he simultaneously proposed e+panding wor)ers. participation beyond services managed by state governments and municipal councils /as was currently the case0, to those under the -urisdiction of the national government /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$!!#0, Another related reform was the proposed change to Article %", which would have reduced the wor)day for eight to si+ hours, ;he purpose of this reduction was to allow wor)ers to dedicate part of their wor)day to learning how to manage companies and ensure they had <sufficient time for their own integral personal development= /6h7ve2 FrJas !""'a$#&%0, ;his was essential given that under capitalism, capital.s control over production and distribution is <protected by TitsU e;propriation of t!e >nowledge required for the societal reproductive functions= /ASs27ros #%%@$&""0,


)ocial needs ;o fully address social needs, participation is not -ust necessary in production, but also in distribution and consumption, Any socialism focused on human development requires that people <both as producers and as members of society = determine how the results of social labour are used /Debowit2 !""%$!&, emphasis added0, ;herefore, -ust as the full participation of wor)ers is a necessary precondition for abolishing the <despotism of the wor)place=, the <tyranny of the mar)et= and the <command economy= /imposed under twentieth century socialism0 also had to be replaced with communal consumption, or, what 6h7ve2 referred to as the satisfaction of social needs C the third side of his <socialist triangle= /ASs27ros #%%@$'>!0, ;o achieve this, ASs27ros proposed shifting from a system of production based on the e+change of commodities towards one based on the e+change of activities <in which the individuals engage, in accordance with their needs as active human beings= /ASs27ros #%%@$'@%48"0, Hecalling Aar+.s famous quote <from each according to their ability to each according to their needs=, ASs27ros argues that unless individuals are able to contribute in accordance with their abilities, that is <on the basis of the full development of the creative potentialities of the social individual=, distribution on the basis of social needs was impossible /ASs27ros #%%@$'@%0, ;a)ing up this same theme, the Primer Plan Socialista de la 1acion 233652342 /First Socialist National ?lan !""'4!"#!0, which set out the policy framewor) for the second 6h7ve2 administration, argued <the satisfaction of social needs is tied to the system of production4distribution of goods and services, because only when wor)ers in 1ene2uela contribute to production of social wealth on the basis of this capacities, with the development of their creative potential, does the probability increase of satisfying social needs= /Hepublica *olivariana de 1ene2uela !""'$!%4("0 ;his would inevitably be a learning process, and not something that could be implemented overnight, 5owever, if the goal is integral human development, <the yardstic) of socialist achievements= must be whether the policies and measures implemented point in the direction of consolidating a society based on <overall social control and self4management= in all spheres /ASs27ros #%%@$'(%0,


As long as production focused on self4interest, humans will continue to view each other as competitors, For this reason, the focus on self4interest and <the individual right to consume things without limit= must be replaced by a focus on human development /Debowit2 !""%$!&4 %0, Gtherwise, self4interest would inevitably remain strong and begin to infect the other sides of the triangle /Debowit2 !"#"$&#0, ;his is also a )ey reason as to why it is essential to move towards implementing all three sides of the <socialist triangle= simultaneously, Social property, wor)er participation and production for social needs have to be seen as intricately intertwined and indispensable aspects of twenty4fist century socialism, one which had set as its goal integral human development, ;he struggle to ma)e this goal, enshrined in 1ene2uela.s constitution, a reality led 6h7ve2 to conclude that only socialism could provide a path towards human development, ;he pursuit of human development was also a motivating factor behind 6h7ve2.s original support for cogesti9n, 6ogesti9n.s subsequent drift away from this initial focus not only led to a government rethin) of the policy but also played a role in shaping the idea of 6h7ve2.s <socialist triangle=,


Aany have argued that early into 6h7ve2.s second administration, the 1ene2uelan government abandoned its support for cogesti9n and with that, wor)er participation, ;here is much evidence to bac)up this assertion, hile 6h7ve2 mentioned cogesti9n when first presenting his idea of the socialist triangle, this concept soon disappeared from future speeches, 6h7ve2 would even go as far as to propose the removal of this term from the constitution, ithin the wor)ers movement, cogesti9n came to be seen as a dirty word /Fuentes !""%$'#0, Aoreover, during the first year of his second term, many of the different initiatives in cogesti9n were either transformed, as was the case with the M?Ss and #abrica Adentro, or were dismantled, as occurred in AD6ASA, ;he evidence of a government retreat on cogesti9n was so overwhelming, that after a visit to 1ene2uela in !""', I had also arrived at the same conclusion /Aunc)ton !""'0, 5owever, this perspective fails to ta)e into consideration that by the end of the first 6h7ve2 administration, the various e+periments in cogesti9n had come to resemble something quite different from its original conception, In analy2ing the new constitution, the government.s first national development plan and the early e+periments in cogesti9n, the focus on promoting wor)er participation and co4governance in the economic sphere as a means of ensuring integral human development becomes apparent, *y !""8 however, the focus of cogesti9n had shifted towards wor)ers owning company shares, and a belief among some within the government that wor)ers were not ready to run companies, ;his shift was the result of a number of factors, ;he first was that the lac) of a coherent and commonly agreed upon vision of cogesti9n had contributed to its chaotic development, ;he form that varying cogesti9n models came to ta)e was largely shaped by the competing visions emanating from different ministries, ;his can be seen in the dissimilar approaches ta)en by different ministries in implementing cogesti9n and promoting M?Ss Secondly, the government.s pressing need to tac)le immediate concerns such as unemployment and lifting the economy out of recession tended to militate against ta)ing 3ris)s. that could put some of these companies in -eopardy, ;his was a factor in the government.s support for #abrica Adentro, despite its questionable success in promoting


wor)er participation, and its moves to reduce the power of cooperatives in places such as IN1M?AD and to oppose cogesti9n in <strategic sectors= such as ?D1SA, ;hirdly, the absence of a strong, unified union movement that was only -ust beginning to throw off the shac)les of decades of entrenched right4wing bureaucratic leadership, combined with the prevalent economistic tendencies among wor)ers more generally, also hampered the advance of this pro-ect, Finally, there were the constant attempts by 6h7ve2 to deal with some of the very same dilemmas that had presented themselves within twenty4century socialismK specifically, the issues of ownership, production and distribution, ;hrough this process, 6h7ve2 began first to identify cogesti9n with co4governance and participation, then with the social economy and collectively owned companies, and later proposed the creation of Social ?roduction Mnterprises in an attempt to ma)e the idea of <communal consumption= a reality, ;he concrete e+periences of implementing cogesti9n made 6h7ve2 rethin) this issue and his broader ideas regarding twenty4first century socialism, Not only had the various cogesti9n e+periments increasingly come to into conflict with 6h7ve2.s evolving views on socialism but they had also come to resemble something diametrically opposed to its original conception, ;he end result of this comple+ and chaotic process was the development of his socialist triangle based on social property, social production and social needs, 6h7ve2 had concluded that unless cogesti9n e+periments were firmly located within this framewor) the result would inevitably be a regression towards capitalism, Fet, in many ways, this represented not a re-ection of the initial idea of cogesti9n, but of 3actually e+isting. cogesti9n, In place of social property, cogesti9n had come to be associated with collective ownership, hile co4participation came to be equated with co4ownership, wor)er participation was increasingly pushed aside as problems with cogesti9n emerged, Aeanwhile, attempts to grapple with the third side of the triangle C satisfaction of social needs C tended to amount to companies paying an additional ta+, ;his was nothing li)e the original idea of cogesti9n articulated in the constitution or 6h7ve2.s speeches, If cogesti9n represented the promotion of wor)er participation as a means to ensure integral human development, then there is little doubt that cogesti9n in practice was vastly different, @%

;hat is, cogestin was no longer revolution, Fet, the disappearance of the term cogesti9n cannot necessarily be equated with an abandonment of support for wor)er participation, ;he development of 6h7ve2.s socialist triangle instead, represented a simultaneous return to the original ideas that had inspired the push for cogesti9n, only this time in a much more radical setting, Hegarding social owners!ip, 6h7ve2.s insistence that the Central Azucarero Pio )amayo should be seen as the <property and pride= of the community found its continuation in his idea of direct social property, Similarly, his comments that wor)ers in ?D1SA had to ensure that the state oil company e+isted <solely to promote the interest of the republic and not the personal interests of anyone= were echoed in his advocacy of indirect social property, ;he initial focus on co4participation and integral human development shared much in common with the idea of social production being geared towards the creation of <new human beings,= Finally, the somewhat vague allusions and attempts to incorporate communities in the constitution and in the ?io ;amayo sugar mill e+periment respectively, found a more concrete e+pression, first with the emergence of the communal councils and later with the development of the third side of 6h7ve2.s socialist triangle$ producing to satisfying social needs, ;he )ey difference was that through this process, 6h7ve2 had shifted from a viewpoint that advocated promoting the social economy as complementary to the capitalist economy, to an anti4capitalist orientation, Nevertheless, the focus on participation <of all sectors, in all spheres and in each moment of the future= and integral human development remained, ;he impact of this would become apparent at an Gctober !""' meeting of representatives from state4owned companies and government ministers convened to debate the idea of <socialist companies,= ;here, 6h7ve2 argued that it was vital to more clearly define the 1ene2uelan socialist model, ;his involved consideration of three fundamental categories$ social property, social production and distribution based on the satisfaction of social needs /6ormen2ana !""%$#%>0, After his initial presentation, representatives from various companies reported on how they were converting their enterprises into socialist companies, 5owever, it was the intervention by wor)ers from IN1M1AD that caught 6h7ve2.s attention /6ormen2ana !""%$#%>0, Hepresentatives from there e+plained how in Oanuary !""', wor)ers had decided to place 8"

administration of the company under the control of a wor)ers. council, and that all wor)ers received the same salary, ;hey e+plained that, faced with ?D1SA.s refusal to buy their products, the company was wor)ing with the community to find alternative mar)ets for their production, 6h7ve2 responded that wor)ers at IN1M1AD <had understood the ob-ective of this process= and declared the company an e+ample to follow /6ormen2ana !""%$#%@0, Agreeing with the wor)ers. proposal that IN1M1AD should be #""P state4owned with the wor)ers. council continuing to run the company, 6h7ve2 ordered that a decree be prepared to legalise this arrangement, Subsequently, the government also too) the initiative to begin a process of introduction control obrero /wor)ers. control0 within 61E and the newly created Corporacin El+ctrica 1acional /6GH?GMDM6, National Mlectricity 6orporation0 /Fuentes !""%aK Fuentes !"#"0, In many respects, these moves shared much in common with the cogesti9n e+periments in AD6ASA and 6ADAFM, although now on a much bigger scale, For wor)ers in the former 6ADMDA /now integrated into 6GH?GMDM60, this move represented little more than a name change, as their cogesti9n continued to function, 5owever, nationally, it represented another opportunity for wor)ers in the electrical sector and in 61E to move forward with their goal of achieving wor)er participation, ;he success or demise of control obrero is something that continues to play itself out today, No doubt the biggest challenge will be find ways to convert the ideas present in 6h7ve2.s socialist triangle into reality, ;hat is, twenty4first century socialism still confronts the challenge of overcoming the very same dilemmas that bedevilled the socialist e+periments of last century, Nevertheless, they can count on the lessons learned during the process of implementing cogesti9n during the first 6h7ve2 administration, Importantly, the initial spirit with which wor)ers first too) up the call for cogesti9n remains present, ;his was left clear to me in the comments of Nestor Ho-as, a unionist in the Aerida region of 6GH?GMDM6 when he told me$ hat we want is wor)er participation in decision4ma)ingB ;he constitution defines this as cogesti9n, and that definition is nothing more than there should be co4 administration between the state and wor)ers, Aaybe we have to change the word, but in the end we continue to run this company under cogesti9n /cogestinando0B /Fuentes !""%$'!0


It is also this vision that encapsulated the original spirit of cogesti9n, which today, despite the name change, is present in process of implementing control obrero,


4ist of acron#ms5 ke# names and panish terms
AD6ASA *61 6ADAFM 6ADMDA 61E 6aronJ Aluminium, part of 61E 6entral *an) of 1ene2uela Mlectricity Eeneration and Administration 6ompany, subsequently incorporated in 6GH?GMDM6 in !""' Dos Andes Mlectricity 6,A, regional affiliate of 6ADAFM, which covers the western states of Aerida, ;achira, ;ru-illo and *arinas, now incorporated into 6GH?GMDM6 6N1 6GH?GMDM6 61E National 1alve 6onstructor, valve producing company nationalised in !""@ and renamed IN1M1AD National Mlectricity 6orporation, created in !""' as part of a process of nationalising and consolidating the electrical sector 1ene2uelan 6orporation of Euayana, state4owned basic industry comple+ comprised on #8 steel, aluminium, bau+ite and mining companies 6;1 M?S FMDMINDUS;HIA FM;HAMDM6 FHM;M6G FS*; IN1M?AD IN1M;MX 6onfederation of 1ene2uelan Social ?roduction Mnterprise 1ene2uelan Federation of Small, Aedium and Artisan Industries Federation of 1ene2uelan Mlectrical Front Socialist *olivarian or)ers. Force 1ene2uelan Mndogenous ?aper Industry, previously named 1MNM?AD before it was nationalised in !""@ 1ene2uelan Mndogenous ;e+tile Industry, previously named :ilanderas )ina&uillo /;inaquillo Spinners0 before the government bought a ma-ority sta)e in the company or)ers or)er Hevolutionary 6o4mananged and Gccupied Factories. or)ers, main trade union federation prior to the emergence of UNM;M



1ene2uelan Mndogenous 1alve Industry, previously named 6N1 before it was nationalised in !""@ Ainistry for Mnergy and ?etroleum, Ainistry of *asic Industry and Aining Ainistry of Dight Industry and 6ommerce Ainistry for the ?opular Mconomy 1ene2uela ?etroleum 6ompany, state4owned oil company Grinoco Steelwor)s, original part of 61E, privatised in #%%& and subsequently renationalised in !""& 61E AD6ASA National Union of or)ers. Union or)ers, largest nation4wide trade union

federation in 1ene2uela, established in !""( 1ene2uelan ?ulp and ?aper, paper factory nationalised in !""@ and renamed IN1M?AD

Nlvare2, 1Jctor Ml ;roudi, 5aiman Iglesias, Aaria 6ristina Oaua, Mlias Dan2, 6arlos Hamire2, Hafael

Ainister for *asic Industry, !""@4!""8 6hief of Staff to ?resident 6h7ve2, !""@ 5ead of Ainistry of Dabour /AIN;HASS0, !""#4!""@, 5ead of AID6G !""@4!""' 5ead of AINM?, !"">4!""8 ?resident of AD6ASA, !""@4!""' 5ead of AMN?M;, !""!4present

Alcasiano?s@ Al Presidente Autogestin .arrios C!avista Cogestin Cogestin revolucionaria

Hefers to wor)er/s0 at AD6ASA ?resident 6h7ve2.s wee)ly television program Self4management ?oor neighbourhoods 6h7ve2 supporter Eenerally translated as co4management Hevolutionary co4management 8>

Comit+s de gestin Comit+s guia Control obrero Esperanza Patritica

Aanagement committees, set up by electrical wor)ers as part of the cogesti9n process in 6ADAFM and 6ADMDA Euide committees, set up by ?D1SA wor)ers during the bosses loc)4out in December !""!4Oanuary !""( or)ers. control ?atriotic 5ope, party which Hafael Hamire2 belonged to together with others within ?D1SA /e,g, ;oby 1alderrama0, *ehind the publication of the daily column 7n rano de Maiz

#abrica Adentro

<Inside the Factory= program involving privately owned companies that signed up to the Framewor) Agreement of 6o4 responsibility for Industry ;ransformation

#abricas recuperadas Mesas de traba*o Vocero?s@

Hecuperated factories ta)en over by wor)ers or) committees, set up at the departmental level as part of the cogesti9n process in AD6ASA Spo)esperson/s0


6ime"ine of ke# events re"ated to cogesti(n during first Chvez administration (1999-2006)

,--. /ecember 5ugo 6h7ve2 elected ?resident of 1ene2uela

,--April 0uly August /ecember Successful referendum held to convene constituent assembly to rewrite 1ene2uelan constitution, Mlections held for constituent assembly, constituent assembly convenes, New constitution approved by referendum,

"### 0uly 6h7ve2 re4elected within conte+t of new constitution,

"##, 1arch First national development plan approved by National Assembly First cogesti9n e+periment initiated at Central Azucarero Po )amayo sugar mill, April 2o!ember FM;HAMDM6 and 6ADAFM board of directors sign Declaration of ?rinciples within which the figure of cogesti9n appears, 6h7ve2 enacts >% law4decrees covering a range of areas including oil, cooperatives and land reform,


"##" April 0uly )eptember 3ctober /ecember Unsuccessful military coup launched against 6h7ve2, Hafael Hamire2 appointed to head up AMN?M;, Aeeting of independent and pro4revolution unionists to discuss 3refounding. the labour movement, Dive televised meeting between hundreds of union leaders and ?resident 6h7ve2, Aanagement loc)out at state oil company ?D1SA begins, numerous other companies shut down as part of co4ordinated campaign to sabotage 1ene2uela.s economy, ?ro46h7ve2 unionists call on the government to issue a decree that would allow wor)ers to ta)e over these companies

"##4 February 1arch April Aanagement loc)out at ?D1SA defeatedK company now in firm control of the 6h7ve2 government, 6h7ve2 appointed two union leaders to the board of directors at ?D1SA, 6h7ve2 appointed two union leaders to the board of directors at 6ADAFM, ?ro4revolution trade union confederation 7nion 1acional de )raba*adores /UNM;M0 is formed,

"##5 August )eptember 2o!ember 6have2 wins recall referendum AINM? created, entrusted with promoting the social economy, Mlias Oaua appointed to head up the new ministry, 6onflict officially starts in 6ADAFM, 8'

"##$ 0anuary 1MNM?AD paper company nationalised, renamed IN1M?AD and handed over to wor)ers to run under cogesti9n, AI*AA created, 1ictor Alvare2 appointed to head up the new ministry, 6arlos Dan2 appointed president of AD6ASA, February 1arch April 1ay Agreement signed between state, managers and unions to initiate cogesti9n process in state aluminium plant, AD6ASA, or)ers at AD6ASA begin process of electing managers and voceros" 6N1 valve producing company nationalised, renamed IN1M1AD and handed over to wor)ers to run under cogesti9n, Aillion strong Aay Day marched organised, UNM;M leaders present 6h7ve2 a draft law on cogesti9n, Eovernment buys out ma-ority sta)e in 5ilanderJas ;inaquillo te+tile factory, converts it into IN1M;MX and begins process of cogesti9n, 0une 0uly ?articipatory budget process begins in AD6ASA, 6h7ve2 calls for the creation of Social ?roduction Mnterprises /M?Ss0, Heads out a list of over #""" partial or completely closed down factories, calling on wor)ers to ta)e them over, <Negro ?rimero= Socio4?olitical Mducation 6entre established in AD6ASA August Daunched #abrica Adentro dedicated to introducing cogesti9n into the private sector, ?rocess of autogesti9n /self4management with wor)ers owning #""P of the enterprise0 begins at 5otel Wamarata, 3ctober 2o!ember Datin America wide gathering of wor)ers from occupied and recuperated factories held in 6aracas, ;wo members of nearby communities elected onto company board at AD6ASA, or)ers at IN1M?AD vote to revo)e mandate of their elected representatives to the company board, 8&

M+hibition involving #8" M?Ss that have dealings with ?D1SA hosted, /ecember 61E announced creation of !8" M?S to date,

"##6 0anuary Union elections at AD6ASA see victory of opposition4aligned tic)et and ouster of pro46h7ve2 incumbents, 6h7ve2 comes out against cogesti9n, at least in 3strategic sectors. such as ?D1SA, February April or)ers from IN1M1AD, IN1M?AD and other recuperated factories create FHM;M6G, ;hird phase of cogesti9n process begins in AD6ASA as wor)ers start discussing issue of wor)ers council and reduction of the wor)day in conte+t of new collective contract, Ainster of Dight Industry, AarJa 6ristina Iglesias, appointed as new president of IN1M?AD, 0une or)ers at AD6ASA vote to return to a system of single managerial posts, and subsequently elect many of the same managers that had been removed in previous elections, )eptember /ecember Figure of wor)ers. 6ouncil inserted into collective contract at AD6ASA, 6h7ve2 re4elected as president,


Aldana, 6laudia M, /!"#"0 <6anicultores y traba-adores e+igen liquidaci9n de acciones= El $mpulso !@V#"V!"#", Dast accessed Oune >, !"## at http$VVwww,elimpulso,comVpagesVvernoticia,asp+Iid]##"(&% Alfonso A,, 6armen SofJa /!""&0 <6ogesti9n fracaso por desconocimiento del modelo= El 1acional #>V>V!""&, p, >, Alonso, Gsvaldo /!""'0 1uevas #ormas de Propiedad y de estin de las -rganizaciones de la )ransicin !acia el Socialismo del Siglo AA$, IDDIS L FIA ?roductividad, 6aracas, Al9 ?residente /!""!0 <Al9 ?residente No, %!= Al Presidente, #(V"#V!""!, Dast accessed April #!, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#8'%VI visual]alo^presidente^&%^terminal^de^pasa-eros^de^la^guaira,^vargas^#8^de^diciembre^de ^!""#,pdf 4 /!""@0 <Al9 ?residente No, !#(= Al Presidente, !"V"!V!""@, Dast accessed Aay (, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#!'!VI visual]Alo^?residente^!#(,pdf 4 /!""@a0 <Al9 ?residente No, !!%= Al Presidente, #'V"'V!""@, Dast accessed Aay (, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#!&8VI visual]Alo^?residente^!!%,pdf 4 /!""@b0 <Al9 ?residente No, !>#= Al Presidente, !'V##V!""@, Dast accessed Oune #(, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#!%'VI visual]Alo^?residente^!>#,pdf 4 /!""80 <Al9 ?residente No, !>>= Al Presidente, #@V"#V!""8, Dast accessed Oune #(, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#(""VI visual]Alo^?residente^!>>,pdf


4 /!""'0 <Al9 ?residente No, !8(= Al Presidente, !#V"#V!""', Dast accessed April >, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#>"8VI visual]Alo^?residente^!8(,pdf 4 /!""'a0 <Al9 ?residente No, !8>= Al Presidente, !&V"#V!""', Dast accessed April >, !"## at http$VVwww,alopresidente,gob,veVmateria^aloV!@V#>#@VI visual]Alo^?residente^!8>,pdf Nlvare2 H,, 1Jctor /!""%0 B:acia donde va el modelo productivoC 6IA, 6aracas, Nlvare2 H, 1Jctor L HodrJgue2 A, Davgla /!""&0 ua terico5practica para la creacin de Empresas de Produccin Socialista, Da ?upila Insomne, 6aracas, Aponte, Antonio /!""'0 D:agamoslo% no !ay e;cusaE 433 ranos de Maz, Aisi9n 6onciencia L Fondo Mditorial Fabricio G-eda, *arcelona, 4 /!""'a0 (a !ora de los !ornos" -tros 433 ranos de Maz, Aisi9n 6onciencia L Fondo Mditorial Fabricio G-eda, *arcelona, Asamblea Nacional 6onstituyente /!""(0 Constitucin de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela% 4FFF" Asamblea Nacional, 6aracas, A22ellini, Dario /!""%0 <MconomJa solidaria, formas de propiedad colectiva, nacionali2aciones, empresas socialistas, co4 y autogesti9n en 1ene2uela,= -, y 0EM-, v,#", n,#V!, -an,Vde2,, !""%, pp,@4(", 4 /!"#"0 <MconomJa Solidaria y ecosociodesarrollo$ la construcci9n de una nueva percepci9n de la sustentabilidad= -tra Economa, 1ol, I1, No, 8, #er semestre, !"#", pp,#(>4#@#, 4 /!"##0 < or)ers. 6ontrol under 1ene2uela.s *olivarian Hevolution= in Ness, Immanuel L A22ellini, Dario /ed0 /!"##0 -urs to Master and to -wnG Hor>ersI Control from t!e Commune to t!e Present, 5aymar)et *oo)s, 6hicago, pp,(&!4(%%,


*arrios Nieves, Froil7n A, /!""@0 <6ongesti9n obrero chavista _Soluci9n revolucionaria o contrabando neocorporativistaI= Analitica"com, Dast accessed on Aay #', !"## at http$VVwww,analitica,comVvaVpoliticaVdocumentosV(>%##%@,asp *ilbao, DuJs /!""'0 ,evolucin en Venezuela, Fundaci9n Mditorial el perro y la rana, 6aracas, 4 /!""&0 Venezuela en ,evolucinG ,enacimiento del socialismo, De Aonde Diplomatique, *uenos Aires, *lan)enburg, Stephanie /!""&0 <Ml Mstado y la revoluci9n, Heestati2aci9n del *anco del grupo Santander= Am+rica AA$, No, >#, Septiembre !""&, pp,#&4!#, *orrego, Grlando /!""80 ,umbo al SocialismoG Problemas del sistema econmico y la direccin empresarial, Mditorial de 6iencias Sociales, Da 5abana, *ruce, Iain /!""&0 )!e ,eal VenezuelaG Ma>ing Socialism in t!e 24st Century, ?luto ?ress, Dondon, 6abieses Donoso, Aanuel /!""&0 <Da dura batalla por el socialismo= Punto #inal, edicion No 888, ## de Oulio de !""&, Dast accessed on August #', !"## at http$VVwww,puntofinal,clV888Vbatalla,php 6ampos, Aiguel /!""80 <Un ano despuSsB _RuS ocurre en InvepalI= Aporrea, !#V"(V"8, Dast accessed on August #', !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVtraba-adoresVa!">>',html 6arcione, 6arlos /!""%0 <3Do que fue privati2ado nacionalJcese.= in ComunaG pensamiento critico en la revolucin, Num, #, AYo #, octVnovVdic !""%, pp,#(4!!, 6erceau, Euillermo /!""'0 E;periencia de Cogestin en CA0A#E y el papel del Movimiento Sindical den dic!o proceso" (ecciones aprendidas y estrategias para avanzar" IDDIS, 6aracas, 6h7ve2 FrJas, 5ugo /!""'0 Esta ,evolucin no tiene vuelta atr/s, AIN6I, 6aracas


4 /!""'a0 A!ora la batalla es por el S$, AIN6I, 6aracas 6iban), Hodolfo /!""@0 <Hevoluci9n, desarrollo y formas de propiedad= Voltarie, #8V#!V!""@, Dast accessed on Aay #', !"## at http$VVwww,voltairenet,orgVHevolucion4 desarrollo4y4formas4de 6iccariello4Aaher, Eeorge /!""'0 <;he Degacy of 6araca2o$ ;he Fourth in 1ene2uela=, Counterpunc!, in4vene2uelaV 6omitS de Hefundaci9n /!""@0 ,esoluciones de la Junta 0irectiva vinculadas al proceso de refundacin de CA0A#E y sus empresas filiales, Direcci9n M-ecutiva de Eesti9n Social y 6omunicaci9n, 6aracas, 6omitS EuJa /!""(0 Propuesta del Comit+ ua para la construccin de la 1ueva P0VSA, ?ersonal copy, 6omitSs EuJa de la industria petrolera /!"">0 <Hemitido de los 6omitSs EuJa de la industria petrolera= Soberana, ">V"!V">, Dast accessed on September !, !"## http$VVwww,soberania,orgVArticulosVarticulo^'#%,htm 6oronil, Fernando /#%%'0 )!e Magical StateG 1ature% Money and Modernity in Venezuela, University of 6hicago ?ress, 6hicago, 4 /!""&0 <6h7ve2.s 1ene2uela$ A New Aagical StateI= ,eVistaG :arvard ,eview of (atin America, 1olume 1III, Number #, Fall !""&, pp,(4>, 4 /!""&a0 <It.s the Gil, Stupid```= ,eVistaG :arvard ,eview of (atin America, 1olume 1III, Number #, Fall !""&, pp,#&4!", 6ormen2ana, ?ablo /!""@0 <Invete+, la cenicienta de la cogesti9n=, Aporrea, !"V##V"@, Dast accessed on Aay !>, !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVendogenoVa#'%>#,html orld ar Started

ee)end Mdition Aarch (4@, !""', Dast accessed on

September !, !"## at http$VVwww,counterpunch,orgV!""'V"(V"(Vthe4fourth4world4war4started4


4 /!""%0 (a batalla de $nvevalG la luc!a por el control obrero en Venezuela" Fundaci9n Federico Mngels, Aadrid, 61E Alcasa /!""@0 <Hesumen e-ecutivo sobre el proceso de cogesti9n en 61E Alcasa= in AI*AA /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K MayoLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""'0 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?Mayo 233N5Marzo 2336LVol" 2% :o*as de Cogestin 1o MO a la 4FN@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, Despacho del ?residente /!""@0 2332 8A'o de la ,esistencia Antiimperialista9G Seleccin de discursos del Presidente de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela% :ugo C!/vez #ras, Mdiciones de la ?residencia de Da Hepublica, 6aracas, 4 /!""@a0 233O 8A'o de la Contraofensiva ,evolucionaria y la Victoria Antiimperialista9G Seleccin de discursos del Presidente de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela% :ugo C!/vez #ras, Mdiciones de la ?residencia de Da Hepublica, 6aracas, 4 /!""@b0 233P 8A'o del Salto Adelante9G Seleccin de discursos del Presidente de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela% :ugo C!/vez #ras, Mdiciones de la ?residencia de Da Hepublica, 6aracas, MFM /!""@0 <Dos 3chavistas. amena2an con parali2ar el sector elSctrico= El 0ia, & de mar2o de !""@, Dast accessed on April !%, !"## at http$VVwww,eldia,esV!""@4"(4 "&Vvene2uelaVvene2uela("@,htm Ml ;roudi, 5aiman /!""80 1os invitaron a debatir sobre el Socialismo del Siglo AA$, 6entro Internacional Airanda, 6aracas,


4 /!"#"0 (a Poltica Econmica .olivariana ?PE.@ y los dilemas de la transicin socialista en Venezuela, Aonte Nvila, 6aracas, Ml ;roudi, 5aiman L Aonedero, Ouan 6arlos /!""80 Empresas de Produccin SocialG (a reinvencin de la economa rumbo al socialismo del siglo AA$, 6entro Internacional Airanda, 6aracas, Mllner, Steve /#%%(0 -rganised (abor in Venezuela 4FPQ54FF4G .e!avior and Concerns in a 0emocratic Setting, Scholarly Hesources Inc,, ilmington,

4 /!""80 <;he 1ene2uelan Dabor Aovement Under 6h7ve2$ Autonomous *ranch of 6ivil Society or Instrument of ?olitical 6ontrolI= A Contracorriente, 1ol, !, No, (, Spring !""@, pp,#"!4#!@, Mncuentro Nacional de ;raba-adores /!""!0 <5acia la refundaci9n del movimiento sindical= ,ebelin, #'V"%V"!, Dast accessed on August !, !"## at http$VVwww,rebelion,orgVhemerotecaVvene2uelaVent#'"%"!,htm Fern7nde2, Eermania /!""80 <6uando la clase obrera toma el control= ,ebelion, #(4"84!""8, Dast accessed on April #>, !"## at http$VVwww,rebelion,orgVnoticia,phpIid](!%&# FM;HAMDM6 /!""@0 Pliego conciliatorio cogestinario, Series de Documentos No, #, FM;HAMDM6, 6aracas, 4 /!""@a0 (a cogestin es la madre de todas las reivindicaciones, Series de Documentos No, !, FM;HAMDM6, 6aracas, 4 /!""@b0 Propuesta de reforma de la (ey de Servicio El+ctrico, Series de Documentos No, (, FM;HAMDM6, 6aracas, 4 /!""@c0 0ocumento para el debate de la cogestin, Series de Documentos No, >, FM;HAMDM6, 6aracas,


FHM;M6G /!""80 <Aanifest9 fundacional del Frente Hevolucionario de ;raba-adores de Mmpresas 6ogesti9nadas y Gcupadas= in FHM;M6G /!""'0 El #,E)EC- y la Empresa Socialista, Fundaci9n Federico Mngels de 1ene2uela, Dos ;eques, 4 /!""'0 El #,E)EC- y la Empresa Socialista, Fundaci9n Federico Mngels de 1ene2uela, Dos ;eques, 4 /!""'a0 <Da Asamblea Nacional de 1ene2uela pide la e+propiaci9n de Sanitarios Aaracay= #,E)EC-, # de -unio de !""', Dast accessed on Gctober #, !"## at http$VVwww,controlobrero,orgVcontentVviewV#(>V#V Fuentes, Federico /!""%0 <Solo con la participaci9n de los traba-adores el sector elSctrico tendr7 una salida= in ComunaG pensamiento critico en la revolucin, Num, #, AYo #, octVnovVdic !""%, pp,@84%(, 4 /!""%a0 <1ene2uela$ : hen the wor)ing class roars, capitalists tremble:=, reen (eft Hee>ly, Aay (", !""%, Dast accessed on Gctober #, !"## at http$VVwww,greenleft,org,auVnodeV>#'@# 4 /!"#"0 <1ene2uela$ or)ers: control to solve power problems= reen (eft Hee>ly,

April #', !"#", Dast accessed on Gctober #, !"## at http$VVwww,greenleft,org,auVnodeV>(8>'

Eaceta Gficial /!""#0 <Numero (',!&@, Decreto No #,>>"= aceta -ficial de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela, 6aracas, -ueves #& de septiembre de !""#, 4 /!"">0 <Numero (&,"!>, Decreto No (,#!@= aceta -ficial de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela, 6aracas, -ueves #8 de septiembre de !"">, 4 /!""@0 <Numero (&,#&&, Decreto No (,8@!= aceta -ficial de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela, 6aracas, martes #' de mayo de !""@,


4 /!""@a0 <Numero (&,!'#, Decreto No (,&%@ Desarrollo Mnd9geno y empresas de producci9n social= aceta -ficial de la ,epublica .olivariana de Venezuela, 6aracas, martes #( de septiembre de !""@, Eerencia de Asuntos ?Zblicos, 61E Alcasa /!""@0 <6ogesti9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= ! de mar2o de !""@, No, > in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@a0 <6ogesti9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= > de mar2o de !""@, No, 8 in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@b0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= (" de mayo de !""@, No, >! in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@c0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= 8 de -unio de !""@, No, >> in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@d0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= (" de -unio de !""@, No, @( in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@e0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= ## de -ulio de !""@, No, @> in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2,


4 /!""@f0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= !8 de -ulio de !""@, No, @8 in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@g0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= & de agosto de !""@, No, @& in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""@h0 <6ogesti9n con producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= !' de septiembre de !""@, No, 8% in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""8a0 <6ogesti9n con cambio en la relaciones de producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= !@ de abril de !""8, No, >" in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K Mayo 233NLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""8b0 <6ogesti9n con cambio en la relaciones de producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= #> de -unio de !""8, No, 88 in 61E Alcasa /!""'0 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?Mayo 233N5Marzo 2336LVol" $$ :o*as de Cogestin 1o MO a la 4FN@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""8c0 <6ogesti9n con cambio en la relaciones de producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= !# de -unio de !""8, 61E Alcasa /!""'0 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?Mayo 233N5Marzo 2336LVol" $$ :o*as de Cogestin 1o MO a la 4FN@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""8d0 <6ogesti9n con cambio en la relaciones de producci9n$ ;odo el poder para las traba-adores= !" de septiembre de !""8, No, ##( in 61E Alcasa /!""'0 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?Mayo 233N5Marzo 2336LVol" $$ :o*as de Cogestin 1o MO a la 4FN@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, '&

Eodio, Oulio /#%&80 P3 anos de la C")"V" ?4FON54FQN@ :istoria% 0octrina y Accin, IDDIS, 6aracas, E9me2, Eon2aloK ;7bata, AmSricoK L E7me2, Nelson /!""@0 -rlando C!irinosR" ,esponde, Apo4reporta-es, 6aracas, 5arnec)er, Aarta /!""(0 VenezuelaG Militares *unto al pueblo" Ml 1ie-o ;opo, Aadrid, 4 /!""@0 (os desafos de la cogestin ?(as e;periencias de Cadafe y Cadela@, Da *urbu-a editorial, 6aracas, 4 /!""@a0 <;raba-adores eligen a sus gerentes y aumentan la producci9n= ,ebelin, !%4"(4!""@, Dast accessed on Oune >, !"## at http$VVwww,rebelion,orgVnoticia,phpI id]#(#'8 5ern7nde2, Watius)a /!"#"0 <Mn la industria a2ucarera fracaso el modelo socialista de cogesti9n= El 1acional, Dast accessed on Aay !@, !"## at http$VVwww,reportero!>,comV!"#"V##Ven4la4industria4a2ucarera4fracaso4el4modelo4socialista4 de4cogesti9nV Oanic)e, Wira2 /!""%0 <1ene2uela.s 6o4Aanaged Inveval$ Surviving in a Sea of 6apitalism=, Venezuela Analysis, July 26t! 2336" (ast accessed on September 6% 2344 at !ttpGLLvenezuelanalysis"comLanalysisL2P23CpageS4 Oaua Ailano, MlJas /!""@0 1uevo modelo socio5productivo y desarrollo endgeno, AINM?, 6aracas, Dander, DuJs, M /ed0 /!""(0 Poder y Petrleo en Venezuela, FA6MS4U61, 6aracas, Dan2 HodrJgue2, 6arlos /!""@0 <Dossier para la critica de la divisi9n social del traba-o= in 61E Alcasa /!""80 Crnica y documentos del proceso de Cogestin en CV Alcasa ?#ebrero K MayoLVol" 4% :o*as de Cogestin 1o 4 a la M2@, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2,


4 /!""@a0 El socialismo y la cogestin revolucionaria, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""'0 .alance y perspectiva de la Cogestin en CV Alcasa, 61E Alcasa, ?uerto Grda2, 4 /!""%0 <Dossier sobre 61E y las empresas del sector aluminio=, Aporrea, #!V"(V"%" Dast accessed on Ouly #>, !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVmediaV!""%V"(Vdossier^sobre^cvg^y^las^empresas^del^alumi nio4#,doc Debowit2, Aichael A, /!"">0 (ecciones de la autogestin yugoslava" 6entro Internacional Airanda, 6aracas, 4 /!""80 .uild $t 1owG Socialism for t!e )wenty5#irst Century" Aonthly Heview ?ress, New For), 4 /!""8a0 El Socialismo 1o Cae 0el Cielo, AIN6I, 6aracas, 4 /!""'0 <1ene2uela$ A Eood M+ample of the *ad Deft of Datin America= Mont!ly ,eview, Ouly4August !""', 1olume @%, Number (, pp,(&4@>, 4 /!""%0 )!e Pat! to :uman 0evelopmentG Capitalism or SocialismC Socialist ?ro-ect, ;oronto, 4 /!"#"0 )!e Socialist AlternativeG ,eal :uman 0evelopment, Aonthly Heview ?ress, New For), D9pe2 Aaya, Aargarita /!""!0 Protesta y cultura en VenezuelaG los marcos de accin colectiva en 4FFF, 6DA6SG, *uenos Aires, Ducena, 5Sctor /!""80 <Mmpresas recuperadas$ posibilidades y limitaciones a partir de la e+periencia con IN1M?AD= Section on Venezuelan Studies of t!e (atin American Studies Association, Dast accessed on Oune #', !"## at


http$VVsvs,osu,eduVdocumentsV5ector^Ducena^y^5ermes6armona4 MA?HMSASHM6U?MHADAS6ASGIN1M?AD,pdf Dugo, IramiaK 1essuri, 5ebeK L 6anino 1ictoria /!""&0 <IN1M1AD$ una e+periencia en el desarrollo de las capacidades tecnoproductivas en 1ene2uela,= 0pto" de Estudios de la Ciencia K $nstituto Venezolano de $nvestigaciones Cientificas" Dast accessed April #!, !"## at http$VVwww,necso,ufr-,brVesocite!""&VtrabalhosV(8"!(,doc Aastronardi, Nancy /!"##0 <?residente 6h7ve2$ Ml socialismo nuestro debe ser una creaci9n heroica= Correo del -rinoco, ' agosto !"##, Dast accessed on August #!, !"## at http$VVwww,correodelorinoco,gob,veVnacionalesVpresidente46h7ve24socialismo4nuestro4debe4 ser4una4creacion4heroicaV Aather, Steven /!""80 <6onference of 6o4managed and Gccupied Factories http$VVvene2uelanalysis,comVanalysisV!"!%Ipage]! Ac6aughan, A, /!"">0 )!e .attle of Venezuela, Datin America *ureau, Dondon, Aedina, Aed9filoK D9pe2 Aaya, AargaritaK L Dander, Duis /!""'0 C!/vezG una revolucin sin libreto, Mdiciones Aurora, *ogota, Aendo2a, Oorge /!""80 <_Da 6ogesti9n un paso al reformismo o al Socialismo en el caso de InvepalI= ,ebelin, "#V"'V!""8, Dast accessed Ouly ', !"## at http$VVwww,rebelion,orgVnoticia,phpIid]((&!( ASs27ros, Istv7n /#%%@0 *eyond 6apital$ ;owards a theory of transition, Aonthly Heview ?ress, New For), 4 /!""#0 #rom t!e 8American Century9 to t!e CrossroadsG Socialism of .arbarism, Aonthly Heview ?ress, New For), 4 /!""&0 )!e C!allenge and .urden of :istorical )imeG Socialism in t!e )wenty5#irst Century, Aonthly Heview ?ress, New For), &# or)ers.

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AI*AA /!""@0 (anzamiento de las Empresas de Produccin Social% Ciudad uayana, AI*AA, 6aracas, AIN6I /!""@0 <;ranscripcion de lan2amiento del Acuerdo Aarco de 6orresponsabilidad para la ;ransformaci9n Industrial= M$1C$ , Dast accessed on April !&, !"## at http$VVwww,minci,gob,veVdocumentosV%V#"(>(VIdesc]acuerdo!8"@"@,doc 4 /!""80 Empresas recuperadas, AIN6I, 6aracas, 4 /!""8a0 Empresas de Produccin SocialG 1uevas oportunidades para el desarrollo, AIN6I, 6aracas, AINM? /!""@0 Cooperativismo revolucionarioG E*e de #ormacin Sociopoltica, AINM?, 6aracas, Aommer, *ernard /!""(0 <?etr9leo subversivo= in Dander, DuJs, M /ed0 /!""(0 Poder y Petrleo en Venezuela, FA6MS4U61, 6aracas, pp,#%4>", Aoreno, Fonie /!""80 <6omentarios al articulo aparecido en Ultimas Noticias el ## de -unio de !""8$ 3Das mentiras al presidente$ ;omatera cerrada, cogesti9n estancada y proyectos que no se cumplen= Aporrea, #@V"8V"8, Dast accessed Ouly ', !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVtraba-adoresVa!!'#(,html A?D /!""#0 (neas enerales del Plan de 0esarrollo Econmico y Social de la 1acin 233452336, A?D, 6aracas, Aunc)ton, Stuart /!""'0 <1ene2uela$ ;he struggle for wor)ers: power=, reen (eft Hee>ly, Ouly !&, !""', Dast accessed Ouly ', !"## at http$VVwww,greenleft,org,auVnodeV(&"8& Navas, Nngel L Gsorio, OoaquJn /!""'0 <6omentarios sobre la ?onencia 3M+periencias de 6ogesti9n en 6ADAFM$ Decciones Aprendidas.= $0($S, Dast accessed August #', !"## at http$VVwww,ildis,org,veVwebsiteVadministradorVuploadsV6omentarioANavasyOGsorio6ogesti9n ,pdf


Ness, Immanuel L A22ellini, Dario /ed0 /!"##0 -urs to Master and to -wnG Hor>ersI Control from t!e Commune to t!e Present, 5aymar)et *oo)s, 6hicago, Gsorio, OoaquJn /!""@0 <Da cogesti9n es poder para los traba-adores y el pueblo= (a #uerza% :o*a $nformativa de la #uerza .olivariana de )raba*adores, No > AYo # Ounio #> de !""@, pp,84&, ?D1SA /!""80 7na va para democratizar la ri&ueza petrolera, Series Sobre Mmpresas de ?roducci9n Social, ?D1SA, 6aracas, 4 /!""8a0 Preguntas y ,espuestas" Series Sobre Mmpresas de ?roducci9n Social, ?D1SA, 6aracas, ?eYa Ho-as, Eon2alo /!""80 <6o4management at wor) in 1ene2uela$ A field study of the co4 management process in the state owned aluminium plant Alcasa= Dund University, Department of ?olitical Science, Dast accessed Ouly ', !"## at http$VVlup,lub,lu,seVluurVdownloadI func]downloadFileLrecordGId]#(!!"&%LfileGId]#(!!"%" ?Sre2 1igil, Ismael /!""@0 <1ene2uela y la cogesti9n bolivariana= Analitica"com, % de mar2o de !""@, Dast accessed April #8, !"## at http$VVwww,analitica,comVvaVpoliticaVopinionV@#""&>%,asp ?iYeiro 5arnec)er, 6amila /!""&0 <?rincipales desafJos de las cooperativas en 1ene2uela= in Capaya% ,evista Venezolana de Economa Social, AYo &, Na #@, Mnero4Ounio !""&, pp,('48", ?lan Euayana Socialista /!""%0 <?lan Euayana Socialista !"#"4!"#%= in Critica de 1uestro )iempo" ,evista $nternacional de )eora y Poltica, AYo XIX C No (%4(", Gctubre !""% C Aar2o !"#", pp,>&48", ?ollac), ?aul /!""80 <*uilding Dabor:s Hevolutionary 1oice in 1ene2uela$ ;he UN;:s second national 6ongress= Upside Down orld, "> Oune !""8, Dast accessed Gctober (", !"## at http$VVupsidedownworld,orgVmainVvene2uela4archives4(@V(##4building4labors4revolutionary4 voice4in4vene2uela4the4unts4second4national4congress &(

Hangel, Angie /!""80 <;raba-adores y empresarios es unen para el desarrollo= M$1C$, !> de mar2o de !""8, Dast accessed Oune #', !"## at http$VVwww,minci,gob,veVpaginaV#V>>@#Vcompleta,prntV HamJre2, Hafael /!""@0 (os traba*adores petroleros est/n al servicio del pueblo, Serie discursos, ?D1SA, 6aracas, Hepublica *olivariana de 1ene2uela /!""'0 Proyecto 1acional 8Simon .olivar9 Primer Plan Socialista de la 1acion Hepublica *olivariana de 1ene2uela ?residencia, 6aracas Hiera, Aiguel /!""&0 <?rofundi2ar en la Hevoluci9n$ Mntrevista a Grlando 6hirinos= El Vie*o )opo, Num, !>%, Gctubre !""&, pp, @(4@', HodrJgue2, 6arlos /!""80 <Mntrevista de Ml ;opo Gbrero a Ham9n Dagartera, ?residente de 6ovimpa /6ooperativa de los traba-adores de Invepal0= El Militante, #% Aar2o !""8, p,>, HodrJgue2, Hafael /!""@0 <Da subversi9n en Alcasa= Aporrea, "8V"'V"@, Dast accessed February ##, !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVactualidadVa#@!"%,html Sanabria, illiam L Aoreno, Fonie /!""%0 <Da batalla de Inveval$ UN e-emplo y una fuente

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HamJre2, Duisana L ;raba-adores despedidos de Invepal /!""80 <Invepal$ desorden administrativo o algo mas= Aporrea, "&V"&V"8, Dast accessed on Ouly #', !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVtraba-adoresVa!>!8%,html \ltimas Noticias /!""80 <6orrupci9n$ 1an #' involucrados en estafa a central a2ucarero= Aporrea, "!V"!V"8, Dast accessed on Ouly #', !"## at http$VVwww,aporrea,orgVactualidadVn'!8!(,html 4 /!""8a0 <Da cogesti9n aun no tiene forma= ,ebelion, !V&V"8, Dast accessed on Aarch #', !"## at http$VVwww,rebelion,orgVnoticia,phpIid](@>&! UNM;M /!""@0 Proyecto de ley de participacin de traba*adores y traba*adoras en la gestin en empresas publicas y privadas, ?ersonal copy,

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1itale, DuJs /#%&>0 Estado y Estructura de Clases en la Venezuela Contempor/nea, U61, 6aracas, Dast accessed on Aarch #@, !"## at http$VVwww,archivochile,comVIdeas^AutoresVvitalelV!lvcV"!lvchistsocal""(%,pdf 1ive ;v /!""80 <Invepal nombr9 nueva Ounta Directiva= Vive )v, #! de abril de !""8, Dast accessed on August #&, !"## at http$VVwww,vive,gob,veVimprimir,phpIid^not]#('% ilpert, Eregory /ed0 /!""(0 Coup Against C!/vez in Venezuela, Fundaci9n 1ene2olana para la Ousticia Elobal, 6aracas,