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Khuyn ngh G.709 bt u c xy dng t T11/1988 vi cc quy nh lin quan cu trc


ghp ng b (Synchronous multiplexing structure) vi tc truyn ti s cao nht STM-16.
T2/2001, T chc ITU-T xy dng mi Khuyn ngh G.709, vi tn gi sa i Khuyn ngh
G.709/ Y.1331, xy dng cc quy nh lin quan giao din cho mng truyn ti quang
(interfaces for the Optical Transport Network) vi tc truyn ti s cao nht 40Gb/s. Tuy
nhin, ni dung Khuyn ngh thiu nhiu loi hnh dch v tc thp, nht l cc dch v gi.
Vi s pht trin ca cc loi dch v gi v TDM vi tc ngy cng cao, Khuyn ngh
G.709/ Y.1331 tip tc c sa b sung.
Theo cc ti liu trnh by phng n cho cc d n nng cp cc tuyn ca VTN lp t trong
2014, cc Hng ALU, Ciena, s cung cp thit b theo Khuyn ngh G.709/ Y.1331 phin
bn 3 (V3).
Khuyn ngh G.709/ Y.1331 V3 c T chc ITU-T pht trin t T4/2009, nhm thc hin cc
quy nh ghp n tng v nhiu ci tin khc ng thi h tr tc ln n 100Gb/s (100
Gbit/s support, one-stage multiplexing and other improvements).
Nhm phc v cng tc vn hnh khai thc, trin khai nhiu loi hnh dch v tng ng cc
giao din ca cc h thng thit b c lp trn mng VTN trong nm 2014 v tng lai,
PKTNVH bin son ti liu mng truyn ti quang OTN theo Khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331 V3
v c b sung cc ni dung Khuyn ngh c hiu chnh n T10/2013.
Ni dung bin son ch gii hn n cc loi hnh dch v, giao din c cp trong cc
d n cung cp thit b cho VTN trong nm 2014. Cc loi cu trc khung v giao din c trong
Khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331 V3 nhng cha c trnh by trong ti liu ny s c b sung
nu c VTN a vo khai thc trong tng lai.
Phn bin son khng trnh c thiu st ni dung v hnh thc, xin cm n cc gp gi v
PKTNVH TT2 ti liu tip tc c b sung v hon chnh.

Phng K thut Nghip v iu hnh

Phn I : C s v mng truyn ti quang OTN


(Optical Transport Network)
1. Th no l mng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) ?
1.1 Cc yu cu ca mng quang qun l bng thng mng quang DWDM 100G, 500G,
1Tb/s.
1.1.1 Cc yu t thc y hin i ho mng thng tin quang
Cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng hin ang phi i mt vi nhiu kh khn, thch thc t
s st gim doanh thu ca cc dch v thoi truyn thng, cnh tranh gia tng, chi ph leo thang
cng nh s bng n ca lu lng d liu. Bo co ca T-Mobile trong Hnh 1.1 cho thy vic
s dng d liu di ng trn in thoi thng minh tng t 25 MB/ngi dng/thng nm
2009 ln 760 MB vo nm 2012, vi tc tng trng hai ch s hng nm (CAGR) trn
200%. S pht trin mnh m ca cc mng 4G s ch tip tc y nhanh xu hng ny, tc
ti tin download mng di ng 4G c th tng gp 10 ln mt khi mng 4G c trin khai rng
ri.
Theo Economist, mc tiu th d liu Internet ti hu ht cc quc gia c d bo s tng gp
ba ln t nm 2010 n nm 2015, ti cc quc gia pht trin con s ny s vt 30 GB/ngi
dng/thng. Vi ch 33% dn s th gii hin nay c th truy cp Internet, th s tng trng
dng nh khng c du hiu chm li sm.

Hnh 1. 1 : Tc tng trng lu lng d liu Internet

p ng tc tng trng lu lng d liu Internet, cc nh sn xut thit b vin thng


ng dng cng ngh ghp bc sng quang WDM kt hp vi h thng thit b truyn dn SDH
truyn thng.
Trong cng ngh ghp bc sng quang WDM, lu lng c gia tng trn cng mt si
quang bng cch gi i cng lc trn cng si quang nhiu tn hiu c bc sng ring ca
chng, khng phi l tng tc ca mt tn hiu duy nht (v d gi 16 tn hiu 10Gb/s, mi tn
hiu 10Gb/s s trn bc sng ring ca chng, ch khng phi gi i l duy nht ch 1 lung
160Gb/s). Ghp nh vy c gi l ghp knh phn chia bc sng WDM (wavelengthdivision multiplexing).
H thng WDM gi mi tn hiu quang nh dng gc ca n ch khng phi l lp nh x
vo ti tin ca mt tn hiu khc nh trong h thng SONET/SDH. Phng thc ghp knh phn
chia bc sng WDM s gy kh cho mt nh iu hnh mng trong vic cung cp s khai thc,
qun l , bo tr, v d phng ( OAM & P) cho mi tn hiu nu n c s dng vi nh dng
tn hiu gc, v iu ny s i hi c thm cc h thng qun l ph thuc vo tn hiu ca
khch hng. Vn ny c bit ng vi cc tn hiu ca cc knh truyn hnh.
Do cc h thng thit b c nn tng l cng ngh truyn dn SDH v ghp bc sng quang
WDM c cung cp bi nhiu hng sn xut thit b khc nhau v WDM khng c giao thc
tiu chun nh x lu lng vo h thng thit b (nh trnh by trn), cho nn vic gim
st cht lng v tnh ton vn tn hiu gp nhiu kh khn, hiu qu hot ng khng cao.
Vic pht trin mt nh dng tn hiu mi cho cc tn hiu WDM (thay v ch s dng cc tn
hiu SONET/SDH hin c) l kh nng thm cc knh dnh cho tiu mi s cung cp cho cc
tnh nng b sung cn thit thc hin c hiu qu cc chc nng OAM & P trn mng WDM.
Mt l do khc cho vic pht trin mt tiu chun mi dnh cho cc tn hiu WDM l cung cp
mt phng tin c kh nng sa li mnh m hn. H thng SDH truyn thng c mt kh
nng sa li chuyn tip FEC tng i khim tn. Khi tn hiu i qua mt mng quang achng, t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR b gim. V cc nh khai thc mng mong mun gia tng
khong cch truyn dn v tc bit mi bc sng, sa li chuyn tip FEC ca h thng SDH
FEC khng phi lun lun p ng c. Cui cng, mt l do khc cho tiu chun mi dnh
cho truyn ti WDM l cung cp mt kh nng ng gi ti tin truyn ti lu lng khch
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hng c nhn c bng thng cao hn c tch hp t cc mng truy cp. V d, nu lu lng
ca khch hng cn bng thng chuyn mch cui cng nh nht trong mng l mt tuyn lin
kt Gigabit Ethernet duy nht th vic cung cp chuyn mch trong mng truyn ti vi tc
STS-1s ( 51,84 Mbps) s lm pht sinh chi ph v s phc tp trong mng.
Ngoi ra, cc kin trc vng (ring) SDH thng c s dng bo v cc thay i theo a l
vn khng hiu qu, lng ph n 50% tng bng thng mng. Thc t l nhng thit b c ny
gn ht tui th v khng th p ng c nhu cu ca cc mng hin nay. Do bt buc
cc nh cung cp dch v phi nng cp mng, nhng nng cp ci g v nng cp nh th no
li l mt vn ?
Vi nhiu u im so vi h thng SDH v WDM truyn thng, cc thit b mng truyn ti
quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) tr thnh nn tng h tng thng tin thay th tip
theo cho h thng SDH. D bo ca Infonetics cho thy mc chi tiu cho cng ngh OTN s
tng t con s di 50% tng mc chi tiu quang trong nm 2011 ln 80% vo nm 2016.
OTN cung cp cc tnh nng qun l v gim st tt trn h tng thit b cng nh kh nng
truyn ti. Ngoi ra cc c im quan trng khin cho OTN tr nn hp dn l kh nng ng
gi, cho php qun l hiu nng dch v khch hng n 2 u cui (end-to-end), ghp cc
khung tn hiu ODU tc thp thnh cc khung tn hiu OTN tc cao hn nhiu ln
truyn ti v kh nng h tr i vi nhiu tng dch v c ti u ha v tr, khong cch,
tnh hiu qu v/hoc chi ph. Do , h thng thng tin vi nn tng cng ngh OTN thc s
chim lnh c th trng v thay th cc h thng mng SDH c truyn thng.
1.1.2 Hin i ho mng thng tin trn nn tng cng ngh OTN
Vic trin khai h thng thng tin cu hnh li (mesh) vi nn tng cng ngh OTN cn gip
gii phng dung lng ri trong mng m trc y c dnh cho vic bo v ring. Nh ,
cc nh cung cp dch v c th khai thc thm nhng ngun doanh thu mi t vic a ra cc
gi cc dch v c nhiu c tnh linh hot khc nhau v kh dng, tr v dung lng
qua nng cao li nhun v kh nng cnh tranh. Ngoi ra, vi kh nng qun l, gim st v
thng k t tr, mng OTN gip vic trin khai cc dch v mi nhanh hn, d dng hn. Bn
cnh l nhng li ch lin quan ti vic gim chi ph v tng tnh hiu qu m OTN cung cp.

Vic chuyn i sang cc thit b th h k tip cho php cc nh cung cp dch v ci thin hiu
qu s dng in: in nng cn thit truyn ti d liu gim t trn 200W/GB xung
di 10W/GB trong 10 nm qua. Thng thng vic x l thng tin s tiu th khong 20W/GB
d liu, vt qu 10 ln in nng cn thit cho chuyn mch ghp bc sng quang DWDM.
Trong , khong 60% lu lng c x l bi mt b nh tuyn li l lu lng chuyn tip.
V th vi gii php b qua b nh tuyn li s gip mng OTN tit kim ng k chi ph do
khng cn phi c chuyn i qua li quang in quang t cc b nh tuyn (Hnh 1.2). C
th l s dng cc chuyn mch OTN tc 10G ch gi lu lng cn phi c x l ti
b nh tuyn v cho php nhng lu lng cn li chuyn tip nhanh v tc cao qua cc
tuyn quang OTN. Do gim ng k OPEX (mc tiu th in nng) ti b nh tuyn. Ngoi
ra, tip cn ny gip ti s dng hiu qu cc cng 10G hin c trn cc thit b nh tuyn, dn
n tit kim ng k CAPEX do khng cn phi nng cp ln cc cng 40/100G t tin, chi
ph ny gp i chi ph ca cc cng OTN.

Hnh 1. 2 : B qua b nh tuyn li thay bng vic s dng chuyn mch OTN
Cc tiu chun truyn ti quang SDH/SONET b gii hn tc ti a l 40Gb/s. Khi vic p
dng cc cng ngh quang nht qun (coherent optical system) tip tc c y mnh, truyn
ti ng di tc 100Gb/s v cao hn tr nn hiu qu kinh t hn. Do h thng
quang SDH/SONET s l ro cn hn ch truyn ti tn hiu quang cc tc cao hn 40Gb/s.
Cc tiu chun truyn ti quang OTN, vi s h tr ca cc cu trc khung ODU-0 v
ODUFlex, cho php ghp knh hiu qu cc tn hiu tc thp thnh cc tc cao hn
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truyn ti trn tuyn quang. iu ny gip nng cao hiu qu truyn ti trn cc mng ng
trc, gim thiu nguy c b cn kit dung lng ng quang cng nh s cn thit phi trin
khai thm nhng tuyn quang mi, do gim c ng k chi ph. Ngoi ra, cc cng dung
lng cao hn cng gip n gin ha vic qun l v gim khi lng lu lng lng ph, do
tit kim chi ph vn hnh hn.
Cc nghin cu vi mt nh cung cp truyn thng ng trc Bc M v mt nh khai thc
khu vc ti n ch ra rng vic chuyn t cu hnh ring SDH sang cu hnh li (mesh)
theo cc tiu chun truyn ti quang OTN gip gim 40% s lng cc knh 10Gb/s cn thit.
T chc ITU-T pht trin mt b tiu chun mng truyn ti quang OTN trong Khuyn ngh
ITU-T Rec G.709, bao gm cc bc sng v cc nh dng tn hiu h tr tt hn ghp ca
mt s lng ng k ca tn hiu vo mt si quang n. Tiu chun ITU-T Rec G.709 dnh
cho cc tn hiu Ghp Phn chia Bc sng quang WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexed )
v bao gm cc tiu chun nh dng v h thng phn cp tn hiu s bao gm cc tn hiu k
thut s v bao gm cc tiu vn hnh khai thc&kim tra cht lng OAM & P. Cc tiu
OAM&P l mt phn ca nh dng tn hiu.
OTN (Optical Transport Network) trong Khuyn ngh ITU-T Rec G.709 l giao thc Lp 1 mi
c chun ha bi Nhm Nghin cu 15 ca t chc ITU-T (ITU-T Study Group 15). Giao
thc Lp 1 ny c mc ch l truyn ti cc tn hiu a-Gigabit i qua mt c s h tng h
thng mng cp quang. Cng ngh OTN thay th cho cng ngh SDH truyn thng v c
thit k gii quyt nhng thch thc ca mt c s h tng h thng vin thng tc cao, a
dch v v c nn tng mng gi Ethernet.
Trong bi cnh ny v so snh vi cng ngh SDH truyn thng, cng ngh OTN c cc yu t
mi :
1) S dng Chuyn tip Sa li FEC (Forward Error Correction) dnh ring thc hin
cc thut ton x l tn hiu k thut s nhm ci thin hiu qu tc li bit BER (Bit
Error Rate) ca cc tuyn lin kt quang. S ci thin bin BER ln n bc 8 hoc
cao hn.
2) OTN c ti u ha cho cc dch v Ethernet. OTN l mt cng ngh khng ng b,
khng c cc yu cu ng b ha. Hn na, OTN vn chuyn tn hiu ca khch hng
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trong ton b c s h tng h thng vin thng ca h khng cn tch ra cc thng tin
tiu (overhead information). V d mng OTN s cung cp kt ni thc s trong sut
v minh bch cho cc dch v da trn gi Ethernet (1GE , 10GE , vv).
3) Cc tc c bn chi tit (basic granularity) ca mng OTN l mt b cha 1.25Gbps c
k hiu l ODU0. OTN cng kt hp mt phng php thit lp nh x mi c gi l
Th tc nh x Tng qut GMP (Generic Mapping Procedure). Th tc nh x Tng
qut GMP cho php h tr vic vn chuyn trong sut v minh bch cc tn hiu ca
khch hng c tc bit bt k. V d mt tn hiu khch hng 1GE s c cung cp
bi ton b mt b cha ODU0 c tc l 1.25Gbps.
1.2 V tr ca lp mng OTN trong mng ghp bc sng quang DWDM
1.3. Cc thit b mng truyn ti quang OTN
C mt s loi khc nhau ca cc thit b mng truyn ti quang c trin khai da trn cc
tiu chun OTN. Cc loi ph bin nht bao gm:
1) Thit b ti to (Regenerators),
2) Thit b u cui OTN,
3) Thit b Ghp Xen/Rp Quang OADMs(Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer),
4) Thit b Ghp Xen/Rp Quang Ti cu hnh ROADMs(Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop
Multiplexer),
5) Thit b kt ni cho quang OXCs(Optical cross connect).
Thit b u cui OTN c s dng cho cc kt ni im-im thng qua mng li WDM,
thit lp nh x cc tn hiu ca khch hng vo khung ti tin OPU, i khi ghp nhiu tn hiu
trong cng min in, v cui cng thc hin thit lp nh x/ghp trong min quang. OADMs,
OXCs, v mt s loi thit b ti to (Regenerators) ch yu x l cc tn hiu OTN trong min
quang. Trong nhng nm gn y, thit b ROADMs tr nn ph bin. Cc khi xy dng
quan trng ca nt ROADM c th c phn loi thnh ba chc nng chnh :
1) B lc xen/rt bc sng hoc chuyn mch bc sng B phn ny c gi tng
qut l phn thit b h tng (wavelength fabric) bc sng v ch hot ng trong min
quang. Tuy nhin , n c th c thc hin vi mt s cng ngh khc nhau, bao gm
cng ngh chn bc sng (wavelength blockers) v cng ngh chuyn mch chn lc
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bc sng WSSs (Wavelength Selective Switches). Phn thit b h tng bc sng thc
hin ghp v gii ghp tt c cc bc sng DWDM ring r t cc card giao din khch
hng. Phn thit b h tng bc sng cng cung cp chc nng bo v quang cho cc
bc sng.
2) B iu khin cng sut ng v gim st t xa ti lp quang - B phn ny l phn thit
b khuch i quang kt hp vi b tn sc v cn bng li c cc chc nng iu
khin cng sut ng v gim st t xa cho s hin din/vng mt ca cc tn hiu quang.
3) B to v kt cui knh dch v quang - ROADM th h tip theo, nh minh ha trong
Hnh 1.4, c thm chc nng chuyn mch trong min in.

Hnh 1.3 : S ca thit b ROADM th h sau.


Chuyn mch min in c th TDM, chuyn mch gi, hoc c hai. ng lc cho
ROADM th h tip theo ny l cho php xen\rt cc tn hiu ca khch hng trong cc
tn hiu mang trn mi bc sng, thay v phi xen\rt ton b bc sng. Tnh nng
xen\rt tn hiu tinh vi hn (granularity) ny cho php tch hp hoc m rng dung lng
lu lng khch hng s gip s dng hiu qu hn ca cc bc sng. Tnh nng
xen\rt tn hiu tinh vi hn cng cho php cu hnh mng linh hot hn. Cc ROADM
thc hin cc chc nng xen/rt cc tn hiu SDH truyn thng trn cc bc sng c
mang cc tn hiu SDH.
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1.4 Tnh hiu qa ca mng OTN trong mng DWDM 100G, 500G, 1Tb/s
1.4.1 Cc u im ca mng OTN so vi mng SDH truyn thng
Mng ghp bc sng quang WDM da trn cc tiu chun OTN G.709 ang tr nn ngy cng
quan trng. Cc l do cc nh khai thc mng thng tin chuyn hng v cng ngh OTN l :
1) OTN l mt cng ngh t phc tp cho cc ng dng truyn ti tc cao hn so vi h
thng cng ngh SDH c.
2) Cc tn hiu OTN kt hp tiu c ti u ha vn chuyn cc tn hiu trn cc
mng WDM ca cc nh khai thc mng thng tin.
3) S kt hp ca phc tp cng ngh gim vi ti u ha tiu , cho php gim ng k
trong chi ph khai thc mng ca cc nh khai thc mng thng tin.
4) Mng OTN cho php ghp bng thng chi tit (granularity) vi ln cao hn mt hoc
hai bc so vi h thng SDH, do lm cho cc nh khai thc mng thng tin c kh nng
tng m rng dung lng ln cc tc cao hn.
5) OTN hin nay cung cp mt phng php hiu qu v chi ph truyn ti cc tn hiu d
liu khch hng ca mng din rng (WAN) tc cao s dng bao gm cc giao thc
Ethernet v giao thc mng li lu tr khu vc SAN (storage area network).
6) OTN cung cp mt c ch tch hp sa cha li chuyn tip FEC (forward error
correction) cho php kh nng t n tc bit cao hn gia cc nt mng quang trn
cng mt si quang ca tuyn lin kt.
7) Cc tn hiu khch hng c th c vn chuyn trn mng OTN mt cch trong sut. Tnh
trong sut ny cng bao gm cho tn hiu c ngun gc SDH dnh cho cc ng dng nh
mng ca nh mng ("carriers carrier "), ngha l cc nh khai thc mng SDH truyn
thng c li s dng cc dch v truyn ti thng tin ca cc nh khai thc mng OTN. Khi
ton b ton b phn tiu ca cc tn hiu khch hng SDH phi c bo ton, khi
cc tn hiu SDH ca cc nh khai thc mng SDH truyn ti qua mng OTN ca cc nh
khai thc mng OTN. Ni cch khc, nh trnh by trong Hnh 1.5, mng OTN cung cp
mt cng ngh truyn ti lu lng hi t ti u v trong sut cho cc tn hiu khch hng
truyn thng quan trng hoc ang pht trin mi.

Hnh 1.4 : Mng OTN cung cp mt cng ngh truyn ti lu lng hi t ti u


Tm li, mng OTN cung cp nhng u im sau so vi mng SDH truyn thng :
1) Sa li Chuyn tip FCC mnh hn (Forward Error Correction);
2) C nhiu mc Gim st Kt ni B i TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring);
3) Truyn ti trong sut cc tn hiu Khch hng;
4) Kh nng m rng dung lng chuyn mch (Switching Scalability).
1.4.2. Nhc im ca mng OTN
c c cc tnh nng hiu qa truyn ti p ng cho yu cu dung lng ny cng cao v
nhiu loi hnh dch v TDM v gi nh khai thc cn trang b mi hon ton cc h thng phn
cng v phn mm ca thit b OTN. Cc thit b SDH truyn thng c tr thnh cc khch
hng i vi mng OTN.

2. Cc c im mi ca mng OTN
Mc 1 trnh by tng quan xu th pht trin ca mng truyn ti vin thng OTN. Mng OTN
p ng yu cu pht trin dch v ngy cng cao nh c cc c im ni tri c trnh by
sau y.
2.1 Sa li Chuyn tip FCC (Forward Error Correction)
Sa li Chuyn tip FCC l mt tnh nng chnh ca h thng OTN. Chng ta bit khung tn
hiu SDH c mt b sa li chuyn tip FCC. B sa li chuyn tip FCC trong khung tn
hiu SDH s dng cc byte tiu on SOH (Section Overhead) truyn ti cc thng tin
kim tra sa li chuyn tip FEC v do c gi l loi sa li chuyn tip FCC trong bng
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(in-band FEC). B sa li chuyn tip FCC ca khung tn hiu SDH cho php ch c mt s hn
ch v thng tin kim tra sa li chuyn tip FEC, cho nn lm hn ch hiu qu hot ng sa
li ca FEC.
i vi khung tn hiu OTN, s sa li chuyn tip FCC (schemes) s dng mt m ho xen
k gm 16 byte, c tn gi l Reed-Solomon. Sa li chuyn tip FCC ca OTN s dng 4x256
bytes thng tin dnh cho vic kim tra mi khung tn hiu ODU. Thm na, s sa li
chuyn tip FEC nng cao tu theo mi nh sn xut thit b OTN (c quyn) c cho php
mt cch r rng v s dng rng ri.
Sa li chuyn tip FEC c chng minh l c hiu qu trong cc h thng thng tin trn
cc tuyn quang c OSNR hn ch, cng nh trong cc h thng h thng thng tin quang b
hn ch v tn sc. Cc hiu ng phi tuyn ca tuyn quang DWDM lm gim cng sut u ra
dn n nhng hn ch v OSNR ca tuyn quang, khi sa li chuyn tip FEC rt hu ch
gia tng cht lng tn hiu thu b cho s suy gim OSNR ca tn hiu truyn trn tuyn
quang. Tuy nhin, sa li chuyn tip FEC c hiu qu t hn, khi c s dng b cho cc
hn ch do tn sc phn cc PMD trn tuyn quang.
Khuyn ngh G.709 nh ngha mt b Sa li Chuyn tip FCC dnh cho tn hiu OTN hiu
qa hn, so vi tn hiu SDH truyn thng. B Sa li Chuyn tip FCC ca tn hiu OTN cho
php s ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR (Signal Noise Ratio) ln n 6,2 dB. Mt cch
khc din gii cho gi tr ci thin SNR 6,2 dB l truyn mt tn hiu tng ng cng mt
tc li bit BER (Bit Error Rate) xc nh trc th b khuch i cng sut quang phi cn
lng cng sut pht nhiu hn l 6,2 dB nu khng s dng Sa li Chuyn tip FCC ca tn
hiu OTN. Ngc li, nu s dng Sa li Chuyn tip FCC ca tn hiu OTN b khuch i
cng sut quang ch cn pht lng cng sut gim i 6,2 db thu c tn hiu vi cng mt
tc li bit BER. Lng SNR 6,2 dB ny cn c gi l li m ha ca b Sa li
Chuyn tip FCC.
li m ha t c nh Sa li Chuyn tip FCC ca tn hiu OTN c th c s dng :
1) Tng chiu di chng quang (span) ti a v/hoc s lng chng ca mt tuyn quang kt
ni gia 2 nt mng lin tip, nh vy m rng c ly truyn dn ca tuyn quang. (Lu
rng iu ny ch ng vi gi nh rng cc nh hng suy yu tn hiu khc nh tn sc
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mu v tn sc phn cc (chromatic and polarization mode dispersion) khng tr thnh cc


yu t hn ch c ly truyn dn).
2) Tng s lng cc knh DWDM trong mt h thng DWDM b gii hn bi cng sut u
ra ca b khuch i quang bng cch gim cng sut cho mi knh quang v tng s lng
cc knh quang ca h thng DWDM. ( Lu rng phi tnh n nhng thay i tc ng
cc hiu ng phi tuyn tnh do s gim cng sut mi knh quang ca h thng DWDM).
3) Gim nh cc tham s thnh phn (v d nh cng sut pht ra, mt n mt, t l phn bit
(extinction ratio), h s ting n NF (noise figures), h s cch ly b lc ) cho cc giao din
ca mt tuyn lin kt quang xc nh trc v do lm gim chi ph thnh phn.
4) Nhng quan trng nht, Sa li Chuyn tip FEC lm gia tng kh nng truyn dn cho
cc mng quang trong sut : Cc phn t ca mng quang trong sut nh trm OADMs v
trm OXCs s pht sinh ra cc khim khuyt v quang nghim trng (v d nh lm suy hao
tn hiu). Do iu ny lm hn ch nhiu v s lng cc phn t ca mng quang trong
sut c th c vt qua, bng mt ng dn quang trc khi tn hiu cn c ti sinh
3R. Nh Sa li Chuyn tip FEC, mt ng dn quang c th vt qua mt s lng cc
phn t nhiu hn ca mng quang trong sut. iu ny cho php pht trin t cc tuyn
quang lin kt im- im ph bin hin nay tin n cc mng quang mt li trong sut
vi y chc nng.

Hnh 2.1 : FEC ci thin cht lng truyn ti c 6dB ti BER=10E-15

12

2.2 Gim st Kt ni B i TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring)


Chng ta bit chc nng gim st mng SDH truyn thng c chia thnh 3 loi : gim st
phn khc (section), gim st ng (line) v gim st ng dn (path). Mt vn pht sinh
khi bn gp trng hp "nh Khai thc ca nh Khai thc " (Carriers Carrier) nh th hin
trong Hnh 2.2, ni mt nh Khai thc cn gim st mt on (segment) ca ng dn
(path) i xuyn qua mng ca nh Khai thc khc.

Hnh 2.2 : Gim st Kt ni B i TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring)


y nh Khai thc A c mt nhu cu thu nh Khai thc B truyn ti tn hiu ca mnh.
Tuy nhin, nh Khai thc A cng cn mt cch theo di cc tn hiu ca A khi n i qua
mng li c iu hnh bi nh Khai thc B. y c gi l mt "kt ni b i TC"
(Tandem connection). Kt ni b i TC l mt lp nm gia Gim st ng (Line) v Gim
st ng dn (path). Mng SDH truyn thng cho php ch mt kt ni b i TC duy nht.
Mng OTN theo tiu chun G.709 cho php n 6 kt ni b i TC.
Trong Hnh 2.2, kt ni b i TC1 c s dng bi ngi dng gim st cht lng dch
v (QoS) ca chnh ngi dng. Kt ni b i TC2 c s dng bi cc nh Khai thc u
tin ( y l nh Khai thc A) theo di cht lng dch v QoS ti 2 u cui (end-to-end) ca
nh Khai thc A. Kt ni b i TC3 c s dng trong cc min khc nhau theo di cht
13

lng dch v bn trong mi min (hoc ca nh Khai thc A hoc ca nh Khai thc B theo di
cht lng dch v). Sau kt ni b i TC4 c s dng theo di gim st s bo v bi
nh Khai thc B. Tuy nhin, khng c tiu chun xc nh nh Khai thc no s dng TCM. Cc
nh Khai thc phi c mt tha thun, h khng xung t trong qun l v khai thc cc
TCM.
2.3 Truyn ti trong sut cc tn hiu khch hng mng OTN
i vi mng OTN cc tn hiu SDH y c gi l cc tn hiu khch hng (client
signals). G.709 nh ngha khung OPUk c th cha ton b tn hiu SDH. iu ny
c ngha rng ngi ta c th truyn ti bn tn hiu khch hng STM-16 trong mt
khung OTU2 v khng cn phi sa i bt k g trong phn tiu SDH. Do vic
vn chuyn cc tn hiu ca khch hng trong mng OTN nh vy l trong sut n bit
(tc l tnh ton vn ca ton b tn hiu khch hng c bo ton khi truyn ti qua
mng OTN).
Vic vn chuyn cc tn hiu ca khch hng trong mng OTN cng trong sut v thi
gian (timing transparent). Kiu nh x khng ng b ca mng OTN s truyn t trng
thi thi gian ca tn hiu u vo (l tn hiu khch hng c nh x khng ng b
vo cc khung tn hiu ca mng OTN) i n u cui pha u xa (far-end) ( thit b
thu pha u xa tn hiu khch hng c gii nh x khng ng b khi cc khung tn
hiu ca mng OTN).
Vic vn chuyn cc tn hiu ca khch hng trong mng OTN cng trong sut v tr
(delay transparent). V d, nu bn tn hiu khch hng STM-16 c nh x vo khung
tn hiu ODU1 v sau c ghp vo mt khung ODU2, mi quan h thi gian ca
bn tn hiu khch hng STM-16 vn c bo tn cho n khi chng c gii nh x
(demapped) quay tr li khung tn hiu ODU1.
2.4 M rng dung lng chuyn mch (Switching Scalability)
Khi h thng SDH c pht trin trong thp nin tm mi vi mc ch chnh ca n l
cung cp cc cng ngh truyn ti cho cc dch v thoi. Do hai cp chuyn mch ca h
thng SDH c xc nh nh sau :

14

Cp chuyn mch bc thp c thc hin mc tc 2 Mbit/s h tr trc tip


cc tn hiu thoi E1,
Cp chuyn mch bc cao hn c thc hin mc tc 150 Mbit/s dnh cho cc
k thut lu lng.
Cc cp chuyn mch tc bit cao hn ca h thng SDH vn cha c xc nh trc.
Thi gian sau, tc ng truyn tng ln trong khi tc chuyn mch ca h thng SDH
vn gi c nh. Khong cch gia tc ng truyn v tc bit chuyn mch ca h thng
SDH ngy cng m rng. Ngoi ra cc dch v mi cc tc bit cao hn (dch v IP, cc
dch v Ethernet) phi c h tr bi h thng SDH.
H thng thit b SDH th h tip theo (Next Generation-SDH) a ra cc gii php lin kt
lin tc v o (contiguous and virtual concatenation) cc khung SDH truyn thng, gii quyt
mt phn ca vn v truyn ti dch v gi. Cc gii php lin kt lin tc v o cho php h
tr truyn ti cc loi dch v gi theo cc tc bit chuyn mch ca tiu chun SDH. Tuy
nhin khong cch gia tc truyn trn ng dy hay tc bit dch v vi tc bit
chuyn mch vn cn tn ti, ngay c i vi chuyn mch lin kt (concatenation switching)
c thc hin cp VC-4.
Khi thc hin ghp 4x10G thnh mt tn hiu 40G, thit b SDH phi x l ln n 256 VC-4.
iu ny dn n nhiu ch ph trong cc thit b phn cng, cng nh nhiu n lc trong qun
l v khai thc.
thit k thit b v mng khai thc c hiu qu, thit b c kh nng chuyn mch tc
bit cao hn cn phi c sn xut.
Gii php chuyn mch lng t (photonic switching) ca cc bc sng c xut.
Nhng vi chuyn mch lng t, tc bit chuyn mch phi gn vi tc bit ca bc sng
v nh vy c s ph thuc gia tc bit ca bc sng vi tc dch v. Khi mt la
chn c lp gia cc tc bit dch v v cng ngh DWDM l khng th thc hin c. V
d mt nh khai thc cung cp dch v lin kt IP c tc 2,5 Gbit/s s cn mt h thng
DWDM Nx2.5G. Khi thm cc dch v 10G cho khc hng, nh khai thc phi nng cp mt
s bc sng ca h thng DWDM ln tc 10G. iu ny s dn n thit k mng khng
hiu qu.
15

Thit b OTN cung cp gii php thay th cho vn ny bng cch thit lp khng hn ch v
tc bit c chuyn mch. Khi tc ng dy tng, tc bit chuyn mch mi s c
thm vo.
Mt nh khai thc c th cung cp dch v cc tc bit khc nhau ( 2.5G, 10G, ... ) c lp
vi tc bit mi bc sng s dng cc tnh nng ghp knh ca thit b OTN.
Tm li
Vic s dng h thng thng tin trn nn tng SDH c truyn thng dn ht tui th, khin
cho chi ph vn hnh mng ngy cng tng cao. Vi nhiu u im nh n gin ha vic vn
hnh mng, gim thiu chi ph hot ng, mng truyn ti quang OTN thu ht c s
quan tm ca cc nh cung cp dch v. y c xem l mt phng php hiu qu p ng
nhu cu s dng ngy cng tng hin nay. Mt ro cn ln i vi vic nng cp h thng mng
c SDH hin c sang OTN l chi ph u t cn thit chuyn i ton b mng kh ln. Do
vic nng cp mng cn c thc hin tng phn mt, theo tng giai on, nhm tn dng
h tng mng c v tng bc h tr thm cc dch v mi theo yu cu ca ngi dng.

16

3. Mng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) theo Khuyn ngh
ITU-T G.709/Y.1331/V3
3.1. Gii thiu Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331/V3
Mng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) ca cc nh cung cp thit b u phi
tun th theo Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331. Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331 nh ngha
v quy nh cc thng s k thut cho h thng phn cp truyn ti quang OTH (optical
transport hierarchy) nhm h tr vn hnh v qun l cc mt k thut ca cc mng quang c
cc kin trc khc nhau , v d nh , im-im, vng ring v kin trc li. Mc 3 trnh by
Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331 theo phin bn 3 (V3).
Khuyn ngh ny nh ngha cc c im k thut cc giao din ca mng li truyn ti quang
c s dng trong v gia cc mng con ca mng quang, bao gm :
1) H thng phn cp truyn ti quang (OTH);
2) Chc nng ca cc tiu h tr cc mng quang a bc sng;
3) Cc cu trc khung;
4) Cc tc bit;
5) nh dng cho nh x cc tn hiu khch hng;
6) H tr cho mt tp hp m rng (khng gii hn) cc tn hiu khch hng tc khng
i CBR (constant bit rate client signals);
7) Mt khung tn hiu ODUk linh hot, c th c bt k t l bit v kh nng chu ng bin
ng ca tc bit ln n 100 ppm;
8) Mt th tc nh x tng qut GMP (generic mapping procedure) c lp vi tn hiu
khch hng/tn hiu my ch (server) nh x mt tn hiu ca khch hng vo ti tin
ca mt OPUk, hoc nh x mt tn hiu ODUj vo ti tin ca mt hoc nhiu khe
lung TS trong mt OPUk;
9) Kh nng o tr khung ODUk.
Cc giao din c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh ny c p dng giao din ngi s dngn-mng UNI (user-to-network interface) v giao din nt mng NNI (network node interface)
ca mng truyn ti quang. Khuyn ngh ny cng xc nh cc giao din c s dng trong
17

mng con quang, cc c im ca giao din ph thuc cng ngh quang v c th thay i khi
cng ngh tin trin trong cc nm k tip.
3.2. H thng phn cp truyn ti quang (OTH)
Dng tn hiu c bn ca OTN c minh ha trong Hnh 3.1. Tn hiu ca khch hng c
a vo khung vng ti tin (payload), v ghp vi cng vi mt s knh tiu , tr thnh n
v Ti tin Quang OPU(Optical Payload Unit). Mt OPU l khi nim tng ng vi mt
ng dn SDH (SDH Path). K tip tiu OAM c b sung vo OPU to ra cc n v
D liu quang ODU (Optical Data Unit), trong c chc nng tng t nh cc ng dy
(SDH Line) hay cn c gi l on Ghp SDH (SDH Multiplex Section). Tiu Truyn ti
(v d, tiu ng b khung) sau c thm vo ODU to ra mt n v Vn
chuyn(Truyn ti) Quang OTU (Optical Transport Unit). OTU l cc tn hiu k thut s c
nh dng y v chc nng tng t nh on Ti to SDH(SDH Regenerator Section).
Tip theo cc OTU c truyn i trn mt bc sng (tn hiu ca khch hng thng qua mi
quan h khung tn hiu lp OTU s c trnh by trong Hnh 3.5). Sau OTU ny c
truyn qua mt bc sng, to thnh Knh quang OCh (Optical Channel).
Mt on Ghp Quang OMS (Optical Multiplexed Section) bao gm mt nhm phn chia bc
sng ca cc knh quang OCh, cng vi mt bc sng ring bit mang mt knh gim st
quang OSC (optical supervisory channel). Knh OSC c thc hin xen/rt gia cc im truy
cp. on Truyn ti Quang (c bc n) (Optical Transport Section) bao gm mt OMS (c bc
n) v mt knh tiu (trn bc sng dnh ring) .
OTS xc nh cc thng s quang ca giao din vt l. Cc tiu OCh, OMS, v OTS cung
cp cc phng tin nh gi cht lng knh truyn ti, bao gm pht hin li v s c cho
lp . Cc tiu OCh v OTS cng cung cp mt phng tin xc minh kt ni. Cc lp
OCh, OMS, v OTS c m t trong Khuyn ngh ITU-T Rec. G.872.
Khuyn ngh G.709 nh ngha cc lp tn hiu trong h thng phn cp OTN c trnh by
trong Hnh 3.2, bao gm 2 min in v min quang. Min in bao gm cc lp tn hiu l
OPUk, ODUk, OTUk. Min quang bao gm cc lp tn hiu l OCh (Optical Channel), OMS
(Optical Multiplex Section) v OTS (Optical Transport Section).

18

Hnh 3.1: Dng tn hiu c bn ca OTN

Hnh 3.2 : H thng phn cp truyn ti quang (OTH) theo Khuyn ngh G.709
19

Phn lp chc nng ca mng OTN theo loi thit b


Xt v chc nng, s phn lp chc nng trong cng mng OTN c trnh by trong Hnh 3.3.

Hnh 3.3 : Phn lp chc nng ca mng OTN tng ng loi thit b OTN
Trong Hnh 3.3, phn lp chc nng OTS, OMS v OCh thuc min quang, OTU v ODU thuc
min in. Chc nng phn lp bao gm nh sau :
1) OTS gim st cc kt ni quang ca mt chng tuyn quang (optical span).
2) OMS gim st cc kt ni quang gia cc phn t mng NE c cc chc nng ghp
knh quang (OADM/ROADM).
3) OCh truyn ti tn hiu quang gia cc trm ti to 3R (Reamplification, Reshaping,
Retiming).
4) OTU gim st cc kt ni v in ca mt chng v in (electrical span) ca cc thit
b c cu trc Nn tng Truyn ti a dch v MSTP (MultiService Transport Platforms).
5) ODU gim st cc tn hiu ng dn khch hng ca 2 u cui (end-to-end).
Tn hiu Knh quang OCh (Optical Channel) thuc trong min quang. Ngoi tn hiu OCh cn
c cc lp trong min quang c nh ngha sn nhng chng cha c s dng hin nay l :
on truyn ti quang OTS (Optical Transport Section), on ghp quang OMS (Optical
Multiplex Section).
S phn lp chc nng ny tng ng vi cc loi thit b OTN trn mng. V vy trong Hnh
3.3 cng trnh by s tng ng cc loi thit b OTN vi phn lp chc nng ca mng OTN.
i vi tt c cc tnh nng v mc ch, hin nay h thng phn cp OTN ch c bn lp khung
tn hiu trnh by trong Hnh 3.4 sau y :
20

Hnh 3.4 : S phn cp chc nng ca tn hiu OTN hin ti


Cc tn hiu OPUk, ODUk, v OTUk to thnh cc lp tng ng thuc trong min in. Tn
hiu OCh thuc trong min quang. Cc tn hiu OPUk ng gi cc tn hiu khch hng (v d
nh tn hiu SDH). Cc tn hiu OPUk hnh thnh lp tng t nh lp ng dn (path layer)
trong h thng SDH. Theo cc tn hiu khch hng c nh x vo OPUk ti u thit b
pht, v gii nh x tr li ti u thit b thu, v cc tn hiu khch hng khng b thay i bi
thit b ca mng truyn ti trong qu trnh truyn thng.
Cc tn hiu ODUk thc hin chc nng tng t nh Tiu ng dy (Line Overhead)
trong SDH. Cc tn hiu OTUk cha FEC v thc hin cc chc nng tng t nh Tiu
on (Phn khc) (Section Overhead) trong SDH. Sau khi FEC c thm vo, tn hiu sau
c gi n mt b Ni Tip/Gii Ni tip SERDES(Serializer/ Deserializer) c chuyn
i sang min quang.
Cc nh dng cho cc khung tn hiu OTN trong min in v cc mi quan h ca tn hiu
khch hng, OPU, ODU, v OTU vi cc tiu ca chng c th hin trong Hnh 3.5. Hnh
3.5 cng cho thy s tn ti ca nhiu cp gim st kt ni b i TCM ODUk. Ch trong
Hnh 3.5, FEC c thm vo mc tn hiu OTU, l bc cui cng trc khi chuyn sang
tn hiu OCh truyn dn quang, ngha l tn hiu chuyn t min in sang min quang.

21

Hnh 3.5:Mi quan h ca cc lp tn hiu khch hng, OPU, ODU, v OTU vi cc tiu
3.3.Cu trc giao din mng truyn ti quang (Optical transport network interface
structure)
Xt v chc nng phn lp trong lin kt gia cc mng OTN, Hnh 3.6 trnh by mt v d s
lin kt cc mng OTN vi cc phn lp khc nhau v phm vi chc nng tng i ca chng.
Mng truyn ti quang OTN theo quy nh ti ITU-T Rec. G.872 nh ngha hai lp giao din:
giao din lin min IrDI (Inter-Domain Interface) v giao din ni min IaDI (Intra-Domain
Interface).
Cc IrDI l cc giao din lin min v c xc nh l c x l ti to 3R c hai pha
ca giao din. Cc IrDI l giao din c s dng gia cc nh khai thc mng khc
nhau, v cng c th l giao din gia cc thit b t cc nh cung cp khc nhau trong
cng min ca cng mt nh khai thc mng.
V IrDI l giao din dnh cho lin kt mng (interworking), n l trng tm ca s pht
trin tiu chun ban u. IaDI l giao din ni b min c s dng trong cng mt
22

min ca mt nh khai thc mng. V IaDI thng nm gia cc thit b ca cng mt


nh nh cung cp thit b, cho nn n c th c cc tnh nng c quyn b sung v d
nh c mt b x l FEC mnh hn.

Hnh 3. 6 : V d v chc nng phn lp trong lin kt gia cc mng OTN


Lu trong Hnh 3.6 c s tng ng v khong ca tuyn truyn dn c gim st tng t
nh nhau ca 2 phn lp chc nng OCh v OTU, ch khc l loi tn hiu quang (OCh) v tn
hiu in (OTU).
M-un Truyn ti quang-n OTM-n (Optical Transport Module-n) l cu trc thng tin c
s dng h tr cc giao din OTN ( bao gm IrDI v IaDI). Hai cu trc OTM-n c nh
ngha:
1) Giao din OTM vi y chc nng, c k hiu l OTM-n.m;
2) Giao din OTM gim bt mt s chc nng, c k hiu l : OTM-0.m, OTM-nr.m,
OTM-0.mvn. Cc giao din OTM gim bt mt s chc nng, c xc nh vi x l
3R mi u ca giao din h tr cc lp giao din OTN lin min IrDI.
3.3.1 Cu trc tn hiu OTN c bn
Cu trc c bn ca tn hiu OTN c th hin trong Hnh 3.7.

23

Hnh 3.7 (H 6-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc ca cc giao din OTN


3.3.1.1 Cu trc con knh quang (OCh substructure )
Lp knh quang theo quy nh ti ITU-T Rec. G.872 c cu trc chi tit hn na trong mng
lp h tr vic qun l mng v cc chc nng gim st theo quy nh ti ITU-T Rec. G.872:
Cc knh quang vi y chc nng OCh hoc gim chc nng OChr. OChr cung cp
kt ni mng trong sut gia cc im ti sinh 3R trong OTN;
Cc n v truyn ti knh quang tiu chun ha y OTUk hoc theo chc nng
OTUkV. OTUkV cung cp s gim st v cc iu kin tn hiu cho truyn ti gia cc
im ti sinh 3R trong OTN;
Cc n v d liu knh quang (ODUk) cung cp:
1) Gim st cc kt ni b i TC (ODUkT);
2) Gim st cc ng dn gia 2 u cui (ODUkP);
3) Tng thch vi cc tn hiu khch hng thng qua n v Ti tin Knh quang
OPUk (Optical Channel Payload Unit);
24

4) Tng thch vi cc tn hiu ODUk thng qua n v Ti tin Knh quang OPUk.
3.3.1.2 Cu trc chc nng y OTM-nm (n 1)
Cc OTM-nm (n 1) bao gm cc lp sau y :
1) Chng truyn dn quang (OTSn) ;
2) on ghp knh quang (OMSn) :
3) Knh quang y chc nng (OCh) ;
4) n v truyn ti knh quang tiu chun ha y OTUk hoc theo chc nng
OTUkV;
5) Mt hoc nhiu n v d liu knh quang (ODUk).
3.3.1.3 Cu trc gim chc nng OTM-nr.m v OTM-0.m
Cc OTM-nr.m v OTM-0.m bao gm cc lp sau y :
1) Chng vt l quang ( OPSn ) ;
2) Knh quang gim chc nng ( OChr ) ;
3) n v truyn ti knh quang tiu chun ha y OTUk hoc theo chc nng
OTUkV;
4) Mt hoc nhiu n v d liu knh quang (ODUk).
3.3.1.4 Cu trc song song OTM-0.mvn
Cc OTM-0.mvn bao gm cc lp sau y :
1) Chng vt l quang ( OPSMnk ) ;
2) n v truyn ti knh quang tiu chun ha y OTUk;
3) Mt hoc nhiu n v d liu knh quang (ODUk).
3.3.2 Cu trc thng tin cho cc giao din OTN
Cu trc thng tin cho cc giao din OTN c i din bi cc mi quan h gia cc b cha
tin tc (information containment) v lung thng tin. Cc mi quan h gia cc b cha tin tc
ch yu c m t trong Hnh 3.8. Cc lung thng tin c minh ha trong Hnh 3.9.
V cc mc ch gim st trong OTN, cc tn hiu OTUk/OTUkV c kt cui, bt c khi no
cc tn hiu OCh tng ng c kt cui.

25

Hnh 3.8 (H.6-2/G.709/Y.1331)-Mi quan h gia cc b cha tin tc OTM-nm

26

Hnh 3.9 (H.6-6/G.709/Y.1331) Cc lung thng tin trn mng OTN


27

Do thit b OTN ca VTN hin nay cha p dng OTM, cc chng sau ch trnh by chi tit
cc cu trc OPUk, ODUk, v OTUk.
3.4. Cc nguyn tc ghp khung/ nh x v cc tc bit ca cc khung tn hiu phn cp
OTN trong min in
Trong Hnh 3.10 (7-1A), mt tn hiu khch hng (khng c cu trc tn hiu OTN), c nh
x vo mt OPU bc thp, c k hiu l "OPU(L)". Tip theo :
Tn hiu OPU(L) c nh x vo ODU bc thp, c k hiu l "ODU(L)".
Tn hiu ODU(L) hoc l c nh x vo tn hiu OTU[V], hoc vo mt ODTU. Tn
hiu ODTU c ghp thnh mt nhm ODTU (k hiu l ODTUG). Tn hiu ODTUG
c nh x vo mt OPU bc cao, c k hiu l "OPU(H)".
Tn hiu OPU(H) c nh x vo tn hiu ODU bc cao, c k hiu l "ODU(H)". Tn
hiu ODU(H) c nh x vo OTU.
OPU(L) v OPU(H) l c cu trc khung thng tin nh nhau, nhng cha cc tn hiu
khch hng khc nhau.
Tn hiu OTU c nh x vo tn hiu knh quang OCh.

28

29

Hnh 3.10 (7-1A/G.709/Y.1331) : Cu trc ghp knh v nh x cho cc tn hiu OTN min
in
3.4.1 nh x (Mapping)
Xt ring v nh x trong Hnh 3.10, tn hiu khch hng hoc mt nhm n v knh d liu
quang th k (ODTUGk) c nh x vo OPUk. Tn hiu OPUk c nh x vo mt ODUk v
ODUk c nh x vo mt OTUk. Cc OTUk c nh x vo mt OCh v OCh sau c
iu ch vo mt bc sng quang ca li DWDM bng C hay L.
3.4.2 Tc bit v dung lng (Bit rates and capacity) ca cc khung tn hiu phn cp
OTN
Mi mt OPU, ODU, hoc OTU vi tc c th c gi l mt OPUk, ODUk, hoc ODUk
cng vi k hiu k = 0, 1, 2, 3, hoc 4. Cc tc d liu c xy dng chng c th
truyn dn tn hiu khch hng SDH hiu qu.
Tc bit v dung sai ca cc tn hiu OTUk c quy nh ti Bng 3.1.
Tc bit v dung sai ca cc tn hiu ODUk c quy nh ti Bng 3.2.
Tc bit v dung sai ca OPUk v ti tin OPUk-Xv c xc nh trong Bng 3.3.
Chu k khung OTUk/ODUk/OPUk/OPUk-Xv c quy nh ti Bng 3.4.

30

Ch : ti tin OPUk-Xv s khng c trnh by trong ti liu ny do cha c s dng


trong thit b OTN ca VTN.
Cc chu k a khung HO OPUk ca cc khe lung TS (tributary slot) 2.5G v 1.25G c nh
ngha trong Bng 3.5.
Cc bng thng vng ti tin ODTU c quy nh trong Bng 3.6. Bng thng ph thuc vo
loi HO OPUk (k = 1,2,3,4) v cc th tc lp nh x (AMP hoc GMP). Bng thng AMP bao
gm bng thng c cung cp bi cc byte tiu NJO. Bng thng GMP c xc nh
khng bao gm byte NJO.
Tc bit v dung lng ca ODUflex (GFP) c nh ngha trong Bng 3.7.
S lng cc khe lung TS HO OPUk ca LO ODUj c tm tt trong Bng 3.8.
Bng 3.1: Cc loi v tc bit ca OTU (Bng 7-1/G.709)
Loi OTU

Tc bit OTU danh nh

Dung sai tc bit OUT

OTU1 255/238 2 488 320 kbit/s = 2 666 057.143 kbit/s


OTU2 255/237 9 953 280 kbit/s = 10 709 225.316 kbit/s
20 ppm
OTU3 255/236 39 813 120 kbit/s = 43 018 413.559 kbit/s
OTU4 255/227 99 532 800 kbit/s = 111 809 973.568 kbit/s
Ghi ch Bng 3.1 : Trong Khuyn ngh G.709 V3 cc tn hiu OTU0, OTU2e v OTUflex cha
c xc nh. Cc tn hiu ODU0 s c vn chuyn thng qua cc tn hiu ODU1, ODU2,
ODU3 hoc ODU4; tn hiu ODU2e s c vn chuyn thng qua cc tn hiu ODU3 v
ODU4; tn hiu ODUflex c vn chuyn thng qua cc tn hiu ODU2, ODU3 v ODU4.

Bng 3.2: Cc loi v tc bit ca ODU (Bng 7-2/G.709)


Loi ODU
ODU0
ODU1
ODU2
ODU3
ODU4
ODU2e

Tc bit ODU

Dung sai tc bit

1 244 160 kbit/s


239/238 2 488 320 kbit/s =2 498 775,126 kbit/s
239/237 9 953 280 kbit/s =10 037 273,924 kbit/s
239/236 39 813 120 kbit/s=40 319 218,983 kbit/s
239/227 99 532 800 kbit/s=104 794 445,815
239/237
kbit/s 10 312 500 kbit/s=10 399 525,316 kbit/s

ODU

31

20 ppm

100 ppm

ODUflex dnh

239/238 tc bit tn hiu khch hng

dung sai tc bit

cho cc tn hiu

tn hiu khch hng

khch hng

ti a l 100 ppm

CBR.
ODUflex dnh

Tc bit c cu hnh trong Bng 7-8/G.709.

cho cc tn hiu

20 ppm

khch hng
c nh x
GFP-F.

Bng 3.3: Cc loi v tc bit ca OPU (Bng 7-3/G.709)


Loi OPU

Tc bit ti tin OPU

OPU0
OPU1

238/2391 244 160 kbit/s = 1 238 954.310 kbit/s


2 488 320 kbit/s = 2 488 320.000 kbit/s

OPU2
OPU3
OPU4
OPU2e

238/2379 953 280 kbit/s = 9 995 276.962 kbit/s


238/23639 813 120 kbit/s = 40 150 519.322 kbit/s
238/22799 532 800 kbit/s = 104 355 975.330
238/23710
312 500 kbit/s = 10 356 012.658 kbit/s
kbit/s

Dung sai tc bit ti


tin OPU
20 ppm

Dung sai tc bit tn


hiu khch hng ti a
l 100 ppm;

OPUflex

Dung sai tc bit tn

dnh cho cc

hiu khch hng ti a

tn hiu khch Tc bit tn hiu khch hng


hng CBR

32

l 100 ppm

OPUflex
dnh cho
cc tn hiu

238/239 tc tn hiu ODUflex

20 ppm

khch hng
c nh x
GFP-F
OPU1-Xv

X2 488 320 kbit/s = X2 488 320.000 kbit/s

OPU2-Xv

X238/2379 953 280 kbit/s = X9 995 276.962

20 ppm

kbit/s
OPU3-Xv

X238/23639 813 120 kbit/s = X40150 519.322


kbit/s

Bng 3.4: Chu k ca khung OTUk / ODUk / OPUk (Bng 7-4/G.709)


Loi OTU/ODU/OPU

Chu k (Period) (*)

OTU1/ODU1/OPU1/OPU1-Xv
48.971 s
OTU2/ODU2/OPU2/OPU2-Xv
12.191 s
OTU3/ODU3/OPU3/OPU3-Xv
3.035 s
Ghi ch (*) gi tr chu k c xp x lm trn vi 3 ch s c ngha.
(Ch ti tin OPUk-Xv khng c trnh by do khng s dng trong thit b OTN ca
VTN).
Bng 3.5: Thi gian chu k ca a khung HO OPUk ca khe lung TS 2.5G and 1.25G
(Bng 7-6/G.709)
Loi OPU

Chu k ca a khung HO

Chu k ca a khung HO OPUk

OPUk ca khe lung TS 1.25G

ca khe lung TS 2.5G (*)

(*) s
OPU1
97.942
OPU2
97.531 s,
48.765 s
OPU3
97.119 s
48.560 s
OPU4
93.416 s
Ghi ch (*) gi tr chu k c xp x lm trn vi 3 ch s c ngha.
33

Bng 3.6: Bng tn ti tin ODTU kbit/s (Bng 7-7/G.709)


Loi ODTU

Bng tn danh nh ca ti tin ODTU

Dung sai tc bit


ca ti tin ODTU

ODTU01
ODTU12
ODTU13
ODTU23
ODTU2.ts
ODTU3.ts
ODTU4.ts

(1904 + 1/8)/3824 x ODU1 bit rate


(952 + 1/16)/3824 x ODU2 bit rate
(238 + 1/64)/3824 x ODU3 bit rate
(952 + 4/64)/3824 x ODU3 bit rate
ts x 476/3824 x ODU2 bit rate
ts x 119/3824 x ODU3 bit rate
ts x 47.5/3824 x ODU4 bit rate
Ti thiu
Danh nh

20 ppm

Ti a

ODTU01 1 244 216.796


1 244 241.681
1 244 266.566
ODTU12 2 498 933.311
2 498 983.291
2 499 033.271
ODTU13 2 509 522.012
2 509 572.203
2 509 622.395
ODTU23 10 038 088.048
10 038 288.814
10 038 489.579
ODTU2.ts ts x 1 249 384.632
ts x 1 249 409.620
ts x 1 249 434.608
ODTU3.ts ts x 1 254 678.635
ts x 1 254 703.729
ts x 1 254 728.823
ODTU4.ts ts x 1 301 683.217
ts x 1 301 709.251
ts x 1 301 735.285
Ghi ch (*) gi tr bng thng c xp x lm trn vi 3 ch s c ngha.
Bng 3.7: Cc tc bit v dung sai ca ODUflex(GFP) (Bng 7-8/G.709)
Tc bit danh nh

Loi ODU

Dung sai tc
bit

ODU2.ts (*)
1'249'177.230 kbit/s
ODU3.ts (*)
1'254'470.354 kbit/s
ODU4.ts (*)
1'301'467.133 kbit/s
ODUflex(GFP) c n khe lung TS: 1 n 8
n ODU2.ts
100 ppm
ODUflex(GFP) c n khe lung TS: 9 n 32
n ODU3.ts
100 ppm
ODUflex(GFP) c n khe lung TS: 33 n 80
n ODU4.ts
100 ppm
Ghi ch (*) Cc gi tr ca ODUk.ts c la chn cho php mt lot cc phng php
c s dng to ra mt tn hiu ng h ODUflex (GFP). Xem Ph lc XI/G.709 cho bit
ngun gc ca cc gi tr v cc phng php pht ng h ODUflex (GFP).
Gi tr "n" l s lng cc khe lung TS (tributary slots) b chim bi ODUflex (GFP).

34

Bng 3.8: S lng cc khe lung TS cn c ghp ODUj vo HO OPUk (Bng 79/G.709)

LO ODU

# Khe lung
TS 2.5G

# Khe lung TS 1.25G

ODU0
ODU1
ODU2
ODU2e
ODU3
ODUflex(CBR)
ODUflex(IB SDR)
ODUflex(IB DDR)
ODUflex(IB QDR)
ODUflex(FC-400)
ODUflex(FC-800)
ODUflex(FC-1600)
ODUflex(3G SDI)
(2 970 000)
ODUflex(3G SDI)
(2 970 000/1.001)

OPU2
1OPU3

1
4

OPU1
1

OPU2
1
2

Ghi ch 1
3
5

4
7

OPU3
1
2
8
9

Ghi ch 2
3
5
9
4
7
12
3

OPU4
1
2
8
8
31
Ghi ch 3
2
4
8
4
7
11
3

ODUflex(GFP)

Ghi ch 1 S lng TS = tr lm trn trn trn (tc bit ODUflex(CBR) /(Ttc


ODTU2.ts) (1+ dung sai tc bit ODUflex(CBR))/(1 dung sai tc bit HO OPU2)).
Ghi ch 2 S lng TS = tr lm trn trn trn (tc bit ODUflex(CBR)/(T tc bit
ODTU3.ts) (1+ dung sai tc bit ODUflex(CBR))/(1 dung sai tc bit HO OPU3)).
Ghi ch 3 S lng TS = tr lm trn trn trn (tc bit ODUflex(CBR)/(T tc bit
ODTU4.ts) (1+ dung sai tc bit ODUflex(CBR))/(1 dung sai tc bit HO OPU4)).
Ghi ch 4 T l tha s chuyn m. Tham kho cc iu khon 17.7.3, 17.7.4 v
17.7.5/G709.

35

3.4.4 Ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk (Time-Division Multiplex)
Hnh 3.10 th hin mi quan h gia cc yu t ghp knh phn chia thi gian khc nhau ca
lp tn hiu ODU s c trnh by ln lt sau y. Bng 3.9 (Table 7-10) cung cp tng quan
ca cc loi khe lung TS hp l v cc ty chn cu hnh th tc nh x.
Ti a ln n 2 tn hiu ODU0 c ghp vo mt ODTUG1(PT = 20) s dng ghp
phn chia thi gian. K tip ODTUG1(PT = 20) ny c nh x vo OPU1.
Ti a ln n 4 tn hiu ODU1 c ghp vo mt ODTUG2(PT = 20) s dng ghp
phn chia thi gian. Cc ODTUG2(PT = 20) c nh x vo OPU2.
Mt hn hp ca q (q 16) tn hiu ODU1, p (p 4) tn hiu ODU2 c th c ghp
vo mt ODTUG3(PT = 20) s dng ghp phn chia thi gian. ODTUG3(PT = 20) c
nh x vo OPU3 .
Mt hn hp ca p (p 8) tn hiu ODU0, q (q 4) tn hiu ODU1, r (r 8) tn hiu
ODUflex c th c ghp vo mt ODTUG2(PT = 21) s dng ghp phn chia thi
gian. ODTUG2(PT = 21) c nh x vo OPU2 .
Mt hn hp ca p (p 32) tn hiu ODU0, q (q 16) tn hiu ODU1, t (t 32) tn hiu
ODUflex, r (r 4) tn hiu ODU2 v s (s 3) tn hiu ODU2e c th c ghp vo mt
ODTUG3 (PT = 21) s dng ghp phn chia thi gian. ODTUG3 (PT = 21) c nh x
vo OPU3.
Mt hn hp ca p (p 80) tn hiu ODU0, q (q 40) tn hiu ODU1, u (u 80) tn hiu
ODUflex, r (r 10) tn hiu ODU2, s (s 10) tn hiu ODU2e v t (t 2) tn hiu ODU3
c th c ghp vo mt ODTUG4(PT = 21) s dng ghp phn chia thi gian.
ODTUG4(PT = 21) c nh x vo OPU4.

36

Cc trng hp trnh by trn c tng kt trong bng sau y.


ODTUG1

ODTU2

ODTUG3

ODTUG2

ODTUG3

PT=20

ODTUG4

PT=21

ODU0

32

80

ODU1

16

16

40

ODUflex

32

80

ODU2

10

ODU2e

10

ODU3

(Ghi ch: k hiu - l khng p dng)


Ch : ODTUGk l mt cu trc logic v khng c nh ngha chi tit hn. Cc tn hiu
ODTUjk v ODTUk.ts c ghp phn chia thi gian trc tip vo cc khe lung (Tributary
Slots) TS ca mt HO OPUk.
Bng 3.9 trnh by tng quan ca cc loi khe lung TS v cc loi nh x ODUj vo OPUk
(Table 7-10/G.709).
Bng 3.9 Cc loi nh x ODUj vo OPUk (Table 7-10/G.709)
Khe lung 2.5G

Khe lung 1.25G

OPU2

OPU3

OPU1

OPU2

OPU3

OPU4

ODU0

AMP
(PT=20)

GMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

ODU1

AMP
(PT=20)

AMP
(PT=20)

AMP
(PT=21)

AMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

ODU2

AMP
(PT=20)

AMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

ODU2e

GMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

ODU3

GMP
(PT=21)

ODUflex

GMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

GMP
(PT=21)

37

Hnh 3.11, 3.12, 3.13 trnh by cc tn hiu khc nhau c ghp bng cch s dng cc tn hiu
ODTUG1/2/3 (PT = 20).

Hnh 3.11 (Figure 7-2/G.709/Y.1331) : Ghp 04 tn hiu ODU1 vo tn hiu OPU2 thng
qua tn hiu ODTUG2 (PT = 20)
Hnh 3.11 trnh by cc bc ghp 04 tn hiu ODU1 vo tn hiu OPU2 thng qua tn hiu
ODTUG2(PT = 20). Mt tn hiu ODU1 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b
khung (frame alignment overhead) v tip theo l nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d
liu knh quang 1 vo 2 (k hiu l ODTU12) bng cch s dng tiu nhi AMP (k hiu l
JOH). Bn tn hiu ODTU12 c ghp knh phn chia thi gian vo nhm n v lung d
liu knh quang 2 (k hiu l ODTUG2) vi ti tin loi 20 (PT=20), sau tn hiu ny c
nh x vo OPU2.

38

Hnh 3.12 (Figure 7-3/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp knh ln n 16 tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc ln n


4 tn hiu ODU2 vo tn hiu OPU3.
Hnh 3.12 trnh by ghp knh ti a ln n 16 tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc ti a ln n 4 tn hiu
ODU2 vo tn hiu OPU3 thng qua tn hiu ODTUG3 (PT = 20). Mt tn hiu ODU1 m rng
thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d
liu knh quang 1 vo 3 (k hiu l ODTU13), bng cch s dng tiu nhi AMP (JOH). Mt
tn hiu ODU2 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x khng ng
b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 2 vo 3 (k hiu l ODTU23), bng cch s dng tiu
nhi AMP (k hiu l JOH). Cc tn hiu x ODTU23 (0 x 4) v cc tn hiu "16-4x"
ODTU13 c ghp phn chia thi gian vo nhm n v lung d liu knh quang 3
(ODTUG3) vi ti tin loi 20 (PT=20), sau tn hiu ny c nh x vo OPU3.

39

Hnh 3.13(Figure 7-4/G.709/Y.1331) Ghp 02 tn hiu ODU0 vo tn hiu OPU1 thng qua
ODTUG1 (PT = 20).
Hnh 3.13 trnh by ghp 02 tn hiu ODU0 vo tn hiu OPU1 thng qua ODTUG1 (PT = 20).
Mt tn hiu ODU2 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x khng
ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 0 vo 1 (k hiu l ODTU01) bng cch s dng
tiu nhi AMP (JOH). Hai tn hiu ODTU01 c ghp phn chia thi gian vo nhm n v
lung d liu knh quang 1 (ODTUG1) vi ti tin loi 20 (PT=20), sau tn hiu ny c nh
x vo OPU1.
Hnh 3.14, 3.15 v 3.16 cho thy cch cc tn hiu khc nhau c ghp bng cch s dng cc
tn hiu ODTUG2/3/4 (PT = 21).

40

Hnh 3.14 (Figure 7-5/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp ln n 8 tn hiu ODU0, v/hoc ln n 4 tn


hiu ODU1 v/hoc ln n 8 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU2 thng qua ODTUG2
(PT = 21).
Hnh 3.14 trnh by ghp ti a ln n 8 tn hiu ODU0, v/hoc ti a ln n 4 tn hiu
ODU1 v/hoc ti a ln n 8 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU2 thng qua ODTUG2 (PT =
21).
Mt tn hiu ODU1 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 1 vo 2 (k hiu l ODTU12) bng
cch s dng tiu nhi AMP.

41

Mt tn hiu ODU0 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x


khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 2.1 (k hiu l ODTU2.1) bng cch
s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODUflex m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh
x khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 2.ts (k hiu l ODTU2.ts) bng
cch s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Ti a ln n 4 tn hiu ODTU12, 8 tn hiu ODTU2.1, v 8 tn hiu ODTU2.ts c
ghp phn chia thi gian vo nhm n v lung d liu knh quang 2 (ODTUG2) vi ti
tin loi 21 (PT=21), sau tn hiu ny c nh x vo OPU2.

Hnh 3.15 (Figure 7-6/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp ln n 32 tn hiu ODU0 v / hoc ln n 16


tn hiu ODU1 v / hoc ln n 4 tn hiu ODU2 v /hoc ln n 3 tn hiu ODU2e v /
hoc ln n 32 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU3 thng qua ODTUG3 (PT = 21).
42

Hnh 3.15 trnh by ghp ln n 32 tn hiu ODU0 v / hoc ln n 16 tn hiu ODU1 v /


hoc ln n 4 tn hiu ODU2 v /hoc ln n 3 tn hiu ODU2e v / hoc ln n 32 tn hiu
ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU3 thng qua ODTUG3 (PT = 21).
Mt tn hiu ODU1 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 1 vo 3 (k hiu l ODTU13) bng
cch s dng tiu nhi AMP (JOH).
Mt tn hiu ODU2 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 2 vo 3 (k hiu l ODTU23) bng
cch s dng tiu nhi AMP.
Mt tn hiu ODU0 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 3.1 (k hiu l ODTU3.1) bng cch
s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODU2e m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 3.9 (k hiu l ODTU3.9) bng cch
s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODUflex c m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v
nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 3.ts (k hiu l ODTU3.ts)
bng cch s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Ti a ln n 16 tn hiu ODTU13, 4 tn hiu ODTU23, 32 tn hiu ODTU3.1, 3 tn hiu
ODTU3.9 v 32 tn hiu ODTU3.ts c ghp phn chia thi gian vo n v lung d
liu knh quang 3 (ODTUG3) vi vi ti tin loi 21 (PT=21), sau tn hiu ny c
nh x vo OPU3.

43

Hnh 3.16 ((Figure 7-7/G.709/Y.1331):) Ghp ln n 80 tn hiu ODU0 v/hoc ln n 40


tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2 v/hoc ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2e
v/hoc ln n 2 tn hiu ODU3 v/hoc ln n 80 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU4
thng qua tn hiu ODTUG4 (PT = 21).
Hnh 3.16 trnh by ghp ln n 80 tn hiu ODU0 v/hoc ln n 40 tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc
ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2 v/hoc ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2e v/hoc ln n 2 tn hiu ODU3
v/hoc ln n 80 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU4 thng qua tn hiu ODTUG4 (PT = 21).
Mt tn hiu ODU0 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.1 (ODTU4.1) bng cch s dng
tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODU1 m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.2 (ODTU4.2) bng cch s dng
tiu nhi GMP.

44

Mt tn hiu ODU2 c m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v


nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.8 (ODTU4.8) bng cch s
dng tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODU2e m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v nh x
khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.8 ( ODTU4.8) bng cch s dng
tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODU3 c m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v
nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.31 (ODTU4.31) bng cch
s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Mt tn hiu ODUflex c m rng thm bng cch ghp vi tiu ng b khung v
nh x khng ng b vo n v lung d liu knh quang 4.ts (ODTU4.ts) bng cch
s dng tiu nhi GMP.
Ti a ln n 80 tn hiu ODTU4.1, 40 tn hiu ODTU4.2, 10 tn hiu ODTU4.8, 2 tn
hiu ODTU4.31 v 80 tn hiu ODTU4.ts c ghp phn chia thi gian vo n v
lung d liu knh quang 4 (ODTUG4) vi vi ti tin loi 21 (PT=21), sau tn hiu
ny c nh x vo OPU4.
3.4.5 Cc v d minh ho ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk
Hnh 3.17 trnh by v d ghp 4 tn hiu ODU1 thnh mt ODU2.

Hnh 3.17 : Ghp 4 tn hiu ODU1 thnh mt ODU2


45

Cc tn hiu ODU1 bao gm tiu ng b khung (Frame Alignment Overhead) v ton bit 0
ti cc v tr tiu OTUk tng thch vi ng h ODU2 thng qua nhi ( nh x khng ng
b). Nhng tn hiu ODU1 c tng thch s c an xen byte vo vng ti tin OPU2, v
cc tn hiu kim sot nhi v c hi nhi ca chng (JC, NJO) c an xen khung vo vng
tiu OPU2. Tiu ODU2 c thm vo, sau ODU2 c nh x vo OTU2. Tiu
OTU2 v tiu ng b khung c thm vo hon thnh mt tn hiu dnh cho truyn ti
thng qua mt tn hiu OTM.
Hnh 3.18 trnh by trng hp ghp 2 tn hiu ODU0 thnh mt ODU1.

Hnh 3.18 : Ghp 2 tn hiu ODU0 thnh mt ODU1.

46

Cc tn hiu ODU0 bao gm tiu ng b khung (Frame Alignment Overhead) v ton bit 0
ti cc v tr tiu OTUk c thch nghi vi ng h ODU2 thng qua nhi (nh x khng
ng b). Nhng tn hiu ODU1 c thch nghi s c an xen byte vo vng ti tin
OPU1, v cc tn hiu kim sot nhi v c hi nhi ca chng (JC, NJO) c an xen khung
vo vng tiu OPU1 v tiu ODU1 c thm vo.
3.5 Knh quang OCh (Optical channel)
OCh truyn ti mt tn hiu khch hng gia cc trm ti to 3R (Khuch i-Reamplification,
Sa dng tn hiu-Reshaping, Ti nh thi tn hiu-Retiming). Cc tn hiu khch hng OCh
quy nh ti Khuyn ngh ny l nhng tn hiu OTUk.
3.5.1 Knh quang cc chc nng OCh
Cu trc knh quang OCh cc chc nng c trnh by trong Hnh 3.19, gm 2 phn: tiu
OCh v ti tin OCh.

Hnh 3. 19 (Figure 10-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc knh quang cc chc nng OCh


3.5.2 Knh quang OCh khng y cc chc nng (OChr)
Cu trc knh quang OCh khng cc chc nng c trnh by trong Hnh 3.20, ch gm ti
tin OChr.

Hnh 3.20( Figure 10-2/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc knh quang khng cc chc nng Ochr

47

3.6. n v truyn ti knh quang OTU (Optical channel transport unit)


OTUk[V] c iu kin ODUk, dnh vn chuyn qua mt kt ni mng knh quang. Cu trc
khung OTUk, bao gm c OTUk FEC, l hon ton chun ha.
OTUkV l mt cu trc khung, bao gm c OTUkV FEC, ch c tiu chun ha mt s chc
nng (v d, ch c chc nng c yu cu mi c quy nh); tham kho Ph lc II/G.709.
Bn cnh OTUk[V] v OTUk, cn c nh ngha mt OTUkV trong cu trc khung OTUk
tiu chun ha hon ton c kt hp vi tiu chun chc nng OTUkV FEC.
3.6.1 Cu trc khung OTUk
Cu trc khung OTUk (k = 1,2,3,4) c thit lp da trn cu trc khung ODUk v c m
rng vi phn Sa li thun FEC(forward error correction) nh trong Hnh 3.21.
256 ct c thm vo khung ODUk dnh cho FEC v cc byte nm trong dng 1, ct 8-14 ca
phn tiu ODUk c s dng dnh cho tiu OTUk. Nh vy, cu trc khung OTUk l
mt khi cu trc khung byte da trn vi 4 hng v 4080 ct. MSB trong mi byte l bit 1,
LSB l bit 8.
Ch : - Khuyn ngh ny khng xc nh mt cu trc khung OTUk cho k = 0, k = 2e hoc
k = flex.

Hnh 3.21 (Fig 11-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OTUk


Tc bit ca cc tn hiu OTUk c quy nh trong Bng 3.1 (Table 7-1).

48

Phn sa li thun FEC ca OTUk (k = 1,2,3,4) cha m FEC RS (255.239) (RS:ReedSolomon). S truyn i ca OTUk FEC l bt buc i vi k = 4 v ty chn cho k = 1,2,3. Nu
khng c FEC c truyn i, cc byte nhi c nh (cc bit ton 0) s c s dng.
lin kt gia cc thit b h tr FEC vi cc thit b khng h tr FEC (chn cc byte nhi c
nh cc bit ton 0 trong vng FEC ca OTUk (k = 1,2,3), cc thit b c FEC s h tr kh
nng v hiu ha qu trnh gii m FEC (ngha l b qua ni dung trong vng FEC ca OTUk (k
= 1,2,3)).
Th t truyn ca cc bit trong khung OTUk l tri sang phi, trn xung di, v MSB n
LSB (xem Hnh 3.22).

Hnh 3. 22(H 11-2/G.709/Y.1331): Th t truyn ca cc bit trong khung OTUk


3.6.2 Ngu nhin ho khung OTUk
Ton b khung OTUk s c a vo b ngu nhin ho. Cc byte khung (FAS) ca tiu
OTUk khng c ngu nhin ho. Ngu nhin ho c thc hin sau khi tnh ton FEC v
chn vo tn hiu OTUk.
3.7 n v d liu quang ODUk (Optical channel data unit)
3.7.1 Cu trc khung ODUk
Cu trc khung ODUk (k = 0,1,2,2 e, 3,4, flex) c th hin trong Hnh 3.23. N c t chc
trong mt cu trc khung khi byte vi 4 hng v 3824 ct.

49

Hnh 3.23 (Figure 12-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung ODUk


Hai vng chnh ca khung ODUk l:
1) Vng tiu ODUk;
2) Vng OPUk.
Ct t 1 n 14 ca ODUk c dnh ring cho vng tiu ODUk.
Ch :
Ct 1 n 14 ca dng 1 c dnh ring ng b khung v tiu xc nh ca OTUk.
Ct 15-3824 ca ODUk c dnh ring cho vng OPUk.
3.7.2 Tc bit v dung sai tc bit ca ODUk
Tn hiu ODUk c th c to ra bng cch s dng tn hiu ng h t hoc ngun ng h
ca ni b thit b, hoc tn hiu ng h c phc hi t cc tn hiu ca khch hng.
Trong trng hp sau, tn s ODUk (dung sai tn s) c kha ng b vi tn s
(dung sai tn s) tn hiu ca khch hng.
Trong trng hp trc, tn s (v dung sai tn s) ca ODUk c kha ng b vi
tn s (v dung sai tn s) ca ng h a phng.
Ngun ng h ni ca thit b c dung sai tn s cho OTN c xc nh l 20 ppm (20 phn
triu).
Cc tn hiu bo tr ODUk (ODUk AIS, OCI, LCK) c to ra bng cch s dng ngun ng
h ni ca thit b. Trong mt s trng hp ngun ng h ca ni b thit b ny c th l
ng h ca mt tn hiu bc cao hn m cc tn hiu ODUk c truyn ti gia thit b hoc

50

i xuyn qua thit b (trong mt hoc nhiu khe lung TS). i vi nhng trng hp ny, t l
nhi danh ngha cn c trin khai thc hin ng tiu chun dung sai tc bit ca ODUk.
3.7.2.1 ODU0, ODU1, ODU2, ODU3, ODU4
Cc ng h ni c s dng to ra cc tn hiu ODU0, ODU1, ODU2, ODU3 v ODU4
c pht ra bi cc dao ng ng h thch anh. Cc dao ng ng h thch anh cng c
s dng cho vic to ra cc tn hiu SDH STM-N. Do cc tc bit ca cc tn hiu ODUk
(k = 0,1,2,3,4) ny c lin quan n cc tc bit STM-N v dung sai tc bit chnh l dung
sai tc bit ca cc tn hiu STM-N.
Tc bit ODU0 l 50% tc bit STM-16.
Tc bit ODU1 l bng 239/238 ln tc bit STM-16.
Tc bit ODU2 l bng 239/237 ln ca 4 ln tc bit STM-16.
Tc bit ODU3 l bng 239/236 ln ca 16 ln tc bit STM-16.
Tc bit ODU4 l bng 239/227 ln ca 40 ln tc bit STM-16.
Cc tn hiu ODU1, ODU2 v ODU3 mang mt tn hiu STM-N (N = 16, 64, 256) cng c th
c to ra bng cch s dng tn hiu ng h c phc hi t cc tn hiu ca khch hng.
Tham kho Bng 3.2 (Table 7-2/G.709/Y.1331) cho tc bit danh ngha v dung sai tc bit
ca ODUk.
3.7.2.2 ODU2e
Mt tn hiu ODU2e c to ra bng s dng tn hiu ng h c phc hi t cc tn
hiu ca khch hng.
Tc bit ODU2e l 239/237 ln tc bit khch hng 10GBASE-R.
Tham kho Bng 3.2(Table 7-2/G.709/Y.1331) cho tc bit danh ngha v dung sai tc bit.
3.7.2.3 ODUflex dnh cho cc tn hiu khch hng CBR
Mt tn hiu ODUflex(CBR) c to ra bng cch s dng tn hiu ng h c phc hi t
cc tn hiu ca khch hng.
Tc bit ODUflex l 239/238 ln tc bit khch hng CBR.
Tn hiu khch hng c th c dung sai tc bit ti a ln n 100 ppm.

51

Hnh 3. 24 (Fig 12-2/G.709/Y.1331) Pht tn hiu ng h ODUflex cho tn hiu CBR


3.7.2.4 ODUflex dnh cho tn hiu kim tra PRBS ( tn hiu ngu nhin) v Null
Cc kt ni ODUflex (CBR) c th c kim tra bng cch s dng mt tn hiu kim tra
PRBS hoc NULL (nh tn hiu khch hng) thay cho tn hiu khch hng CBR. i vi trng
hp ny tn hiu ODUflex (PRBS) hoc ODUflex (NULL) c to ra vi mt tn s trong
phm vi dung sai ca tn hiu ODUflex (CBR).
Nu c tn hiu ng h khch hng CBR hin din, tn hiu ODUflex (PRBS) hoc ODUflex
(NULL) c th c to ra bng cch s dng tn hiu ng h khch hng CBR, nu khng tn
hiu ODUflex (PRBS) hoc ODUflex (NULL) c to ra bng cch s dng tn hiu ng h
t ngun ng h ca ni b thit b.
3.7.2.5 ODUflex dnh cho tn hiu khch hng gi c nh x GFP-F
Tn hiu ODUflex (GFP) c to ra bng cch s dng mt tn hiu ng h t ngun ng h
ni ca thit b (Hnh 3.25). ng h ny c th l ng h trch t tn hiu HO ODUk (hoc
OTUk ), hoc mt ng h ni ca thit b m cc tn hiu ODUflex c truyn xuyn qua cc
thit b .
C th to tc bit bt k cho mt tn hiu ODUflex (GFP), tuy nhin hiu qu ti a c c
khi ODUflex(GFP) chim mt s nguyn ln khe lung TS ca ng dn HO ODUk nh nht.

52

Cc tc bit c ngh p ng tiu ch ny c quy nh trong Bng 3.7 (Table 78/G.709). Ngun gc ca gi tr c th c quy nh ti Ph lc XI/G.709.

Hnh 3.25 (Fig 12-3/G.709/Y.1331) Pht tn hiu ng h ODUflex cho tn hiu khch
hng gi c nh x GFP-F
3.8 n v ti tin knh quang OPUk (Optical channel payload unit)
Cu trc khung OPUk (k = 0,1,2,2 e, 3,4, flex) c th hin trong Hnh 3.26. N c t chc
trong mt cu trc khung l khi byte vi 4 hng v 3810 ct.

Hnh 3.26 (Fig 13-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPUk


Hai vng chnh ca khung OPUk l:
53

Vng tiu OPUk;


Vng ti tin OPUk.
Ct 15-16 ca OPUk c dnh ring cho vng tiu OPUk.
Ct 17-3824 ca OPUk c dnh ring cho vng ti tin OPUk.
Ch : - s lng ct OPUk c ngun gc t cc ct OPUk trong khung ODUk.
3.9 Tiu ca cc khung tn hiu mng OTN
Tn hiu tiu OTM c k hiu l OOS (OTM overhead signal), bao gm cc tiu OTS,
OMS v OCh. nh dng, cu trc v tc bit ca OOS khng c nh ngha trong khuyn
ngh ny. OOS c vn chuyn thng qua mt OSC.
Ty thuc vo thit k mng xp chng qun l logic ca nh khai thc, truyn thng qun l
chung cng c th c vn chuyn trong OOS. Do , OOS cho mt s ng dng cng c th
vn chuyn thng tin lin lc qun l chung. Thng tin lin lc qun l chung c th bao gm
bo hiu, thng tin lin lc bng thoi, ti phn mm, truyn thng ca nh khai thc c th, vv
Tng quan v tiu OTS, OMS v OCH c trnh by trong Hnh 3.27.

Hnh 3.27 (Fig 15-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cc thnh phn logic ca tiu OTSn, OMSn v
OCh trong OOS
Thng tin tiu OTUk OH l mt phn ca cu trc tn hiu OTUk. N bao gm cc thng tin
v cc chc nng hot ng h tr vic vn chuyn tn hiu thng qua mt hoc nhiu kt ni
knh quang OCh. Cc tiu OTUk OH kt cui ti ni m khung tn hiu OTUk c to lp
v trch ra x l.
54

Thng tin tiu OTUk, ODUk v OPUk c trnh by trong Hnh 3.28 v 3.29.

Hnh 3.28(Fig 15-2/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OTUk, ng b khung FAS v tiu


OTUk

55

Hnh 3.29(Fig 15-3/G.709/Y.1331)Cu trc khung ODUk, tiu ODUk v OPUk


56

3.9.1 Cc loi tiu


3.9.1.1 Tiu n v ti tin knh quang OPUk OH (Optical channel payload unit
overhead)
Thng tin tiu OPUk OH c thm vo ti tin OPUk to ra mt OPUk. N bao gm cc
tin tc h tr s thch ng tc cho cc tn hiu ca khch hng. Cc OPUk OH c kt
cui ti v tr OPUk c ghp/gii ghp. nh dng c th cho tiu OH v m ha c
trnh by ti mc 3.9.9.
3.9.1.2 Tiu n v d liu knh quang ODUk OH (Optical channel data unit overhead)
Thng tin tiu ODUk OH c thm vo thng tin ti tin ODUk to ra mt ODUk. N
bao gm cc thng tin v bo tr v cc chc nng hot ng h tr cc knh quang. Cc
ODUk OH bao gm nhng phn dnh ring cho cc ng dn ODUk gia 2 u cui (end-toend) v su cp gim st kt ni b i TCM. Cc tiu ng dn ODUk kt cui ti ni
ODUk c ghp/gii ghp. Tiu TC c thm v kt cui ti ngun v ch ca cc kt ni
TCM tng ng. nh dng tiu OH c th v m ha c trnh by ti mc 3.9.6 v 3.9.8.
3.9.1.3 Tiu n v truyn ti knh quang OTUk OH (Optical channel transport unit
overhead)
Thng tin tiu OTUk OH l mt phn ca cu trc tn hiu OTUk. N bao gm cc thng tin
v cc chc nng hot ng h tr vic vn chuyn thng qua mt hoc nhiu kt ni knh
quang. Cc tiu OTUk OH kt thc khi tn hiu OTUk c ghp/gii ghp. nh dng tiu
OH c th v m ha c trnh by ti mc 3.9.6 v 3.9.7.
Cu trc khung c th v m ha cho cc tiu OTUkV OH phi tiu chun nm ngoi phm vi
ca Khuyn ngh ny. Ch c chc nng c bn cn thit m c h tr c xc nh trong
mc 3.9.7.3.
3.9.1.4 Tiu khng lin kt n knh quang (OCh OH) (Optical channel non-associated
overhead)

Thng tin tiu OCh OH c thm vo to ra mt OCh. N bao gm cc thng tin v cc


chc nng bo tr h tr qun l li. Cc tiu OCh OH chm dt khi tn hiu OCh c
ghp v gii ghp.
57

Quy nh cu trc khung c th v m ha cho OCh OH, OMS OH, OTS OH, COMMS OH
nm ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh ny cho nn phn sau s khng trnh by.
3.9.2 Nhn dng du vt v nh ngha nh danh im truy cp (Trail trace identifier and
access point identifier definition)
Mt b nhn dng du vt TTI (Trail trace identifier) c nh ngha nh l mt chui 64-byte
vi c cu nh sau (xem Hnh 3.30):
1) TTI [0] cha k t SAPI [0] c tr c nh l tt c cc bit 0.
2) TTI [1] n TTI [15] cha 15 k t nhn dng im truy cp ngun (SAPI [1] n
SAPI [15]).
3) TTI [16] cha cc k t DAPI [0] c tr c nh l tt c cc bit 0.
4) TTI [17] n TTI [31] cha 15 k t nhn dng im truy cp ch n (DAPI [1]
n DAPI [15]).
5) TTI [32] n TTI [63] xc nh nh khai thc c th.

Hnh 3.30 (Fig 15-4/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc TTI


58

Cc tnh nng ca b (nhn dng) nh im truy cp API (Access Point Identifiers) l:


1) Mi b nhn dng im truy nhp phi duy nht trn ton cc trong lp mng ca n.
Trng hp d kin l cc im truy cp c th c yu cu cho vic thit lp ng dn
trn mt ranh gii gia cc nh khai thc, b nhn dng im truy cp phi c sn cho cc
nh khai thc mng khc .
2) B nhn dng im truy cp khng nn thay i trong khi im truy cp vn cn tn ti.
3) B nhn dng im truy cp nn c th xc nh cc quc gia v nh khai thc mng c
trch nhim nh tuyn i n v ri khi cc im truy cp .
4) Vic thit lp tt c cc b nhn dng im truy cp thuc v mt lp mng hnh chnh
duy nht nn to thnh mt chng trnh xc nh im truy cp duy nht.
5) Th tc thit lp b nhn dng im truy cp cho mi mng lp qun tr c th c lp
i vi mng qun tr khc nhau.
Cc ODUk , OTUk v OTM c chng trnh xc nh im truy cp da trn mt nh dng cu
trc cy h tr cc thut ton tm kim iu khin nh tuyn. X l nhn dng im truy cp
c yu cu r rng trn ton cc.
B nhn dng im truy cp (SAPI , DAPI) bao gm mt phn khc quc t 3 k t v phn
khc quc gia NS (national segment) 12 k t c trnh by trong Hnh 3.31.

Hnh 3.31 (Fig 15-5/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc nh danh im truy cp


Cc k t nh danh im truy cp trong Hnh 3.31 c m ha theo ITU- T Rec. T.50 ( tham
kho Bng ch ci quc t - b k t m ha 7-bit trao i thng tin ) ln lt l :

59

1) Trng phn khc quc t cung cp mt m 3 k t (ISO 3166) nh danh m quc


gia a l /chnh tr k hiu l G/PCC (Geographic/Political Country Code). M quc gia
phi da trn m 3 k t ISO 3166 vit hoa ch ci quc gia (v d, USA, FRA).
2) Trng phn khc quc gia bao gm hai trng con l : m nh cung cp dch v ITU
ICC(ITU carrier code) tip theo l mt m im truy cp duy nht UAPC(unique access
point code).
M nh cung cp dch v ITU ICC l mt m gn cho mt nh khai thc mng/nh cung
cp dch v, c duy tr bi T chc Tiu chun ho Vin thng

ITU-T TSB

(Telecommunication Standardization Bureau) theo ITU-T Rec. M.1400. M ny s bao


gm 1-6 k t, ch ci, dn u ch ci l con s.
M im truy cp duy nht UAPC l mt vn cho cc t chc m cc m quc gia v
m nh cung cp dch v ITU c ch nh, nu m bo iu kin duy nht. M ny
s bao gm 6-11 k t, vi du NUL, hon thnh phn khc quc gia 12 k t.
3.9.3 Tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk (OTUk/ODUk frame alignment overhead)
3.9.3.1 V tr tiu ng b khung OTUk / ODUk
V tr tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk c trnh by trong Hnh 9.6. Tiu ng b
khung OTUk/ODUk c p dng cho c 2 tn hiu OTUk v ODUk.

Hnh 3. 32(Fig 15-6/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk


3.9.3.2 nh ngha tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk
3.9.3.2.1 Tn hiu ng b khung FAS (Frame alignment signal)
Mt tn hiu OTUk-FAS c 6 byte (xem Hnh 3.33) c nh ngha trong hng 1, ct t 1 n
6 ca tiu OTUk. OA1 l "1111 0110". OA2 l "0010 1000".
60

Hnh 3.33(Fig 15-7/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc tiu tn hiu ng b khung


3.9.3.2.2 Tn hiu ng b a khung MFAS (Multiframe alignment signal)
Mt s tn hiu OTUk v cc tn hiu tiu ODUk dn tri trn nhiu khung OTUk/ODUk,
hnh thnh a khung bao gm 256 khung. V d nh cc tn hiu TTI v tiu TCM-ACT. Cc
tn hiu ny v cc tn hiu tiu c cu trc a khung khc yu cu phi x l ng b a
khung, ngoi ng b khung OTUk/ODUk.
Byte tn hiu ng b a khung duy nht (MFAS) c nh ngha trong dng 1, ct 7 ca tiu
OTUk/ODUk s dnh cho mc ch ny (xem Hnh 3.34). Gi tr ca byte MFAS s c
tng ln theo mi khung OTUk/ODUk trong mt a khung gm 256 khung.

Hnh 3.34(Fig 15-8/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu tn hiu ng b a khung

61

Cc tn hiu tiu OTUk/ODUk c th s dng a khung trung tm ny kha ng b


khung 2, khung 4, khung 8, khung 16, khung 32, v..v ca a khung vo khung chnh.
Ch : - a khung HO OPU4 80 khung khng th c h tr. Thay vo , mt Ch s a
khung OPU4 k hiu l OMFI (OPU4 Multi- Frame Indicator) gm 80 khung c s dng
thay th.
3.9.4 Tiu OTUk OH
3.9.4.1 V tr ca tiu OTUk OH
V tr tiu OTUk trnh by trong cc Hnh 3.35 v 3.36.

Hnh 3.35(Fig 15-9/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu OTUk

Hnh 3.36(Fig 15-10/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu gim st on OTUk

62

3.9.4.2 nh ngha tiu OTUk


3.9.4.2.1 Tiu gim st on SM (section monitoring ) OTUk
Mt trng ca tiu gim st on SM (section monitoring ) OTUk c nh ngha trong
hng 1, t ct 8 n 10 h tr gim st on SM.
Trng SM bao gm cc trng con sau y (xem Hnh 3.36):
1) B nhn dng du vt TTI;
2) Kim tra chn l an xen 8 bit BIP-8;
3) Ch th phn hi s c BDI ( backward defect indication);
4) Ch th phn hi li BEI (backward error indication ) v ch th phn hi li ng b tn
hiu n BIAE ( backward incoming alignment error);
5) Ch th li ng b tn hiu n IAE (incoming alignment error);
6) Cc bit dnh cho chun ho quc t tng lai RES (bits reserved for future international
standardization).
3.9.4.2.1.1 B nhn dng du vt TTI ca OTUk SM
gim st on, tiu nhn dng du vt TTI ch c 1 byte c nh ngha truyn ti cc
tn hiu TTI c 64-byte trnh by ti mc 3.9.2.
Tn hiu TTI 64-byte c ng b vi a khung OTUk (xem 3.9.6.2.2) v truyn 4 ln cho mi
a khung. Byte 0 ca tn hiu TTI 64-byte phi c mt ti cc v tr 0000 0000 (0x00), 0100
0000 (0x40), 1000 0000 (0x80) v 1100 0000 (0xC0) ca a khung OTUk.
3.9.4.2.1.2 M tch li BIP-8 ca OTUk SM
gim st on, tn hiu m tch li 1 byte c nh ngha. Byte ny chnh l m kim tra
chn l an xen 8 bit BIP-8.
Cc OTUk BIP-8 c tnh ton trn c s cc bit trong vng OPUk (ct 15-3824) ca khung
OTUk th i, v chn vo v tr tiu BIP-8 trong khung OTUk th i +2 (xem Hnh 3.37).

63

Hnh 3.37(Fig 15-11/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca OTUk SM


3.9.4.2.1.3 Ch th phn hi s c BDI( backward defect indication) ca OTUk SM
gim st on, tn hiu ch th phn hi s c BDI ch c 1 bit c nh ngha. BDI truyn
ti trng thi b s c ca tn hiu c tch ra trong khi chc nng kt cui on (Section
Terminating Sink Function) ca phn thu, pht i theo hng v ngun pht tn hiu.
BDI c thit lp gi tr "1" ch th phn hi c s c trn OTUk; ngc li, n c thit
lp tr "0".
3.9.4.2.1.4 Ch th phn hi li BEI (backward error indication) v ch th phn hi li ng b
tn hiu n BIAE ( backward incoming alignment error) ca OTUk SM
gim st on, tn hiu ch th phn hi li BEI v tn hiu ch th li ng b tn hiu n
BIAE gm 4 bit c nh ngha. Tn hiu ny c s dng truyn theo hng v pha pht
s lng khi xen k -bit c pht hin c li BIP-8, bi b phn gim st on OTUk ca
pha thu, bng cch s dng m BIP-8. BIAE cng c s dng truyn theo hng v pha
pht rng l c mt ch th li ng b ca tn hiu n IAE ( t trong vng tiu IAE)
c pht hin bi b phn gim st on OTUk ca pha thu.

64

Trong iu kin c xut hin ch th li ng b ca tn hiu n IAE, m " 1011 " c a vo


trng BEI/BIAE v s lng li tnh s c b qua. Nu khng, s li tnh ( t 0 n 8 ) c
a vo trng BEI/BIAE. 6 gi tr cn li biu din bi 4 bit c hiu l khng c li (xem
Bng 3.10 ) v BIAE khng hot ng.
Bng 3.10 (Table 15-1/G.709/Y.1331) Ch th BEI/BIAE ca OTUk SM
BEI/BIAE ca OTUk SM
Bits

1234
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1 0 0 1, 1 0 1 0
1011
1 1 0 0 n

Tn hiu BIAE

S li BIP-8

False
False
False
False
False
False
False
False
False
False
True
False

(BIP violations)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
0
0

1111
Ghi ch : - false : tn hiu BIAE ch th c s c
- true : tn hiu BIAE ch th khng c s c
3.9.4.2.1.5 Ch th li ng b trn tn hiu n IAE (incoming alignment error) ca OTUk SM
Tn hiu ch th li ng b tn hiu n IAE ch c 1 bit, c xc nh cho php cc nt
mng n (ingress point) ca S-CMEP thng bo cho cc nt mng ra ngang hng (peer egress
point) ca S-CMEP bit l pht hin c c mt li ng b khung (v d mt li trt bit
slip) c pht hin trn tn hiu n nt mng pha pht.
IAE c thit lp tr "1" ch ra c mt li ng b tn hiu n; nu khng c li n c
thit lp tr "0".
Nt mng n (ingress point) ca S-CMEP(egress point) s dng thng tin ny ngng tnh bit
li do mt s thay i pha khung OTUk ti nt mng n ca on.
65

3.9.4.2.1.6 Tiu dnh ring RES (reserved overhead) ca OTUk SM


gim st on, 2 bit dnh ring RES cho tng lai c thit lp tr 00.
3.9.4.2.2 Knh thng tin chung 0 l GCC0 (general communication channel 0) ca OTUk
2 byte t trong tiu OTUk h tr mt knh thng tin lin lc chung GCC0 gia cc im
kt cui OTUk. Cc byte ca GCC0 c t ti hng 1, ct 11 v 12 ca tiu OTUk. nh
ngha cho GCC0 nm ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh ny.
3.9.4.2.3

OTUk reserved overhead (RES)

2 byte ca tiu OTUk c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai. 2 byte ny
c t ti hng 1, ct 13 v 14. Cc byte c thit lp tt c l bit 0.
3.9.4.3 Tiu ca OTUkV (OTUkV OH )
Khung OTUkV c chun ho chc nng cn h tr, nh mt kh nng ti thiu, chc nng
gim st on c th so snh vi gim st on OTUk (xem 3.9.7.2.1) nh mt b TTI theo quy
nh ti mc 3.9.2. nh ngha cho tiu OTUkV nm ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh ny.
3.9.5 Tiu ca ODUk ( ODUk OH )
3.9.5.1 V tr ca ODUk OH
V tr tiu ODUk c hin th trong Hnh 3.38 v 3.39.

Hnh 3.38: Tiu ODUk (Hnh 15-12/G.709)

66

a) Tiu gim st ng dn ODUk (Hnh 15-13/G.709)

b) Tiu th #i gim st kt ni b i ODUk (Hnh 15-14/G.709)


Hnh 3.39 : Tiu gim st ng dn v gim st kt ni b i ODUk

67

3.9.5.2 nh ngha tiu ODUk OH ca ODUk


3.9.5.2.1 Tiu gim st ng dn PM (path monitoring) ca ODUk
Trng tiu gim st ng dn PM ca ODUk c xc nh trong hng 3, cc ct t 10
n 12 h tr gim st ng dn v mt bit b sung gim st ng dn c nh ngha
trong bit 7 ca dng 2, ct 3.
Trng tiu gim st ng dn PM cha cc trng con sau (xem Hnh 3.40 a)):
1) B nhn dng du vt TTI;
2) Kim tra chn l an xen 8 bit BIP-8;
3) Ch th phn hi s c BDI( backward defect indication);
4) Ch th phn hi li BEI (backward error indication);
5) Ch th c li ng b ca tn hiu n IAE (incoming alignment error);
6) Cc bit trng thi ch th s hin din ca mt tn hiu bo tr STAT.
Trng PM & TCM c cha cc trng con PM sau y (xem Hnh 3.38) l: s o tr ng
dn DMp (path delay measurement).
Ni dung ca trng PM, ngoi tr trng con STAT, s khng c nh ngha (c nh dng
tt c l bit 1, lp i lp li ca chui bit 0110 0110 hoc 0101 0101 ) khi c s hin din ca
mt tn hiu bo tr (v d, ODUk-AIS, ODUk-OCI, ODUk-LCK). Ni dung ca trng PM &
TCM s khng c nh ngha (nh dng tt c l bit 1, lp i lp li ca chui bit 0110 0110
hoc 0101 0101) khi c s hin din ca mt tn hiu bo tr.
3.9.5.2.1.1 B nhn dng du vt PM TTI ca ODUk
gim st on, tiu nhn dng du vt TTI ch c 1 byte c nh ngha truyn ti cc
tn hiu TTI c 64-byte quy nh ti mc 3.9.2.
Tn hiu TTI 64-byte c ng b vi a khung ODUk (xem 3.9.5.2.2) v truyn 4 ln cho mi
a khung. Byte 0 ca tn hiu TTI 64-byte phi c mt ti cc v tr 0000 0000 (0x00), 0100
0000 (0x40), 1000 0000 (0x80) v 1100 0000 (0xC0) ca a khung ODUk.
3.9.5.2.1.2 M tch li PM ca ODUk PM (BIP-8)
gim st ng dn (path), tn hiu m tch li 1 byte c nh ngha. Byte ny chnh l m
kim tra chn l an xen 8 bit BIP-8.
68

Mi BIP-8 ca ODUk PM c tnh ton trn c s cc bit trong vng OPUk (ct 15-3824) ca
khung ODUk th i, v c chn vo v tr tiu BIP-8 ca ODUk PM trong khung ODUk th
i +2 (xem Hnh 3.40).

Hnh 3.40 (Fig 15-15/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca ODUk PM


3.9.5.2.1.3 Ch th phn hi s c BDI ( backward defect indication) ca ODUk PM
gim st ng dn, tn hiu ch th phn hi s c BDI ch c 1 bit c nh ngha. BDI
truyn ti trng thi s c ca tn hiu c tch ra trong khi chc nng kt cui on (Section
Terminating Sink Function) ca phn thu, pht i theo hng v ngun pht tn hiu.
BDI c thit lp gi tr "1" ch th phn hi c s c trn ODUk; ngc li, n c thit
lp tr "0".
3.9.5.2.1.4 Ch th phn hi li BEI (backward error indication) ca ODUk PM
gim st ng dn, tn hiu ch th phn hi li BEI gm 4 bit c nh ngha, truyn
theo hng v pha pht s lng khi xen k -bit c pht hin c li BIP-8, bi b phn
gim st ng dn ODUk ca pha thu, bng cch s dng m BIP-8. S m ny c 9 gi tr ,

69

c th l t 0 n 8 li. 7 gi tr cn li c biu din bi 4 bit c hiu l khng c li (xem


Bng 3.11 ).
Bng 3.11(Table 15-2/G.709/Y.1331): Ch th BEI ca ODUk PM
Ch th BEI ca ODUk
PM Bit

1234

Cc li BIP-8

0000
0001
010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001 n 1111

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0

3.9.5.2.1.5 Ch th trng thi STAT ca ODUk PM


gim st ng dn, cc bit trng thi STAT c nh ngha gm 3 bit. STAT ch th s
hin din ca mt tn hiu bo tr (xem Bng 3.12).
P-CMEP thit lp cc bit STAT l "001".
Bng 3.12 : ngha ch th trng thi STAT ca ODUk PM (Bng 15-3/G.709)
Byte PM 3,
Cc bits 678
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

Trng thi
c dnh cho chun ho quc t trong tng lai
Tn hiu ng dn bnh thng
c dnh cho chun ho quc t trong tng lai
c dnh cho chun ho quc t trong tng lai
c dnh cho chun ho quc t trong tng lai
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-LCK
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-OCI
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-AIS

70

3.9.5.2.1.6 Ch th o tr DMp (delay measurement) ca ODUk PM


gim st ng dn ODUk, tn hiu o tr DMp ch c 1 bit c nh ngha, truyn
s bt u ca th nghim o lng tr.
Tn hiu DMp bao gm mt gi tr khng i (0 hoc 1) c o ngc lc bt u mt php
o lng tr theo 2 chiu. Vic chuyn i t 0 -> 1 trong chui ... 0000011111 ..., hoc
chuyn i t 1 -> 0 trong chui ... 1111100000 ... l biu hin thi im bt u o tr. Gi
tr mi ca tn hiu DMp c duy tr cho n khi bt u php o tr tip theo.
Tn hiu DMp ny c chn vo bi P-CMEP ngun pht i DMp v gi n P-CMEP u xa.
P- CMEP u xa s u vng ngc li tn hiu DMp v pha P-CMEP ngun pht. P-CMEP
ngun pht o s lng chu k khung gia thi im gi tr tn hiu DMP c o ngc v
thi im gi tr tn hiu DMp o ngc ny nhn c tr li t P-CMEP u xa.
Thit b thu kim tra lin tc cc tn hiu DMp nhn c. Cc khung b sung c s dng
kim tra lin tc cc tn hiu DMP khng c thm vo s khung tnh tr. Vng lp PCMEP lp li vic u vng mi ln nhn c bit DMp xy ra trong khong thi gian khong
100 s.
Tham kho Khuyn ngh G.798 v thng s k thut qu trnh o th trnh by trn.
Ch thch 1 - o tr ng dn c th c thc hin theo yu cu cung cp tc thi
trng thi tr truyn theo 2 chiu , v ch ng , cung cp 15 pht n 24 gi cc kt qa ghi
nhn tr truyn dn theo 2 chiu.
Ch thch 2 - Thit b c thit k nm 2008 hoc phin bn trc ca Khuyn ngh G.709
c th khng c kh nng h tr gim st tr ng dn. Trong cc thit b nh vy, cc bit
DMp thit lp v bit 0.
3.9.5.2.2 Tiu gim st kt ni b i TCM (tandem connection monitoring) ca ODUk
6 trng ca tiu gim st kt ni b i TCM ca ODUk c nh ngha trong dng 2, t
ct 5 n 13 v hng 3, t ct 1 n ct 9 ca tiu ODUk v 6 bit b sung cho TCM c
nh ngha trong bit 1-6 ca dng 2, ct 3. Kt ni b i TCM cng h tr gim st cc kt ni
ODUk (G.709 c hoc khng c FEC) cho mt hoc nhiu cc ng dng mng sau y (tham
kho thm ITU-T G.805 v ITU-T G.872):

71

1) Gim st kt ni b i quang UNI n UNI: gim st cc kt ni ODUk thng qua mng


truyn ti cng cng (t u cui i vo ca mng cng cng n u cui i ra khi
mng);
2) Gim st kt ni b i quang NNI n NNI: gim st cc kt ni ODUk thng qua mng
ca mt nh khai thc mng (t u cui i vo ca nh khai thc mng n u cui i
ra khi mng);
3) Gim st lp con cho chuyn mch bo v kt ni mng con knh quang thuc cc loi
tuyn tnh 1 +1, 1:1 v 1: n, xc nh cc iu kin tn hiu b mt v tn hiu suy gim
cht lng;
4) Gim st lp con cho chuyn mch bo v chia s vng bo v knh quang
SPRing(shared protection ring), xc nh cc iu kin tn hiu b mt v tn hiu suy
gim cht lng;
5) Gim st kt ni b i knh quang vi mc ch pht hin mt tn hiu b mt hay suy
gim cht lng trong mt kt ni knh quang b chuyn mch, bt u phc hi t
ng kt ni trong iu kin li v s c xy ra trong mng;
6) Gim st kt ni b i knh quang cho v d nh nh v li hoc xc nh cht lng
dch v.
6 trng TCM c nh s l TCM1, TCM2, ..., TCM6. Mi trng TCM cha cc trng
con sau (xem Hnh 3.41) :
1) B nhn dng du vt TTI;
2) Kim tra chn l an xen 8 bit BIP-8;
3) Ch th phn hi s c BDI( backward defect indication);
4) Ch th phn hi li v ch th phn hi li ng b tn hiu n BEI/BIAE (backward error
indication and backward incoming alignment error);
5) Cc bit trng thi ch th s hin din ca tiu TCM, li ng b tn hiu n hoc mt
tn hiu bo tr ( STAT).
Mi trng PM&TCM c cha cc trng con sau (xem Hnh 3.39 ) l : trng con o tr
kt ni b i ( DMti , i = 1-6 ) .

72

Ni dung ca cc trng TCM, ngoi tr trng con STAT, s khng xc nh (nh dng tt c
l bit 1s , hoc lp i lp li 0110 0110 hoc 0101 0101) khi c s hin din ca mt tn hiu bo
tr (v d , ODUk - AIS , ODUk - OCI, ODUk - LCK ). Ni dung ca trng PM & TCM s
khng xc nh (nh dng tt c l bit 1s , hoc lp i lp li 0110 0110 hoc 0101 0101 lp i
lp li ) trong s hin din ca mt tn hiu bo tr.
Mt trng TCM v bit PM & TCM c gn cho mt kt ni c gim st nh m t trong
3.9.8.2.2.6. S lng kt ni c gim st dc theo mt ng ODUk c th thay i gia 0 v
6. Nhng kt ni c gim st ny c th c lng vo nhau , ni tip hoc c hai. Cu hnh
lng vo nhau v ni tip l cc cu hnh hot ng mc nh. Cu hnh chng cho l mt cu
hnh b sung ch cho mc ch th nghim.
Hnh 3.41 trnh by trng kt ni b i TCM c gn vo kt ni theo ng truyn dn ca
tn hiu ODUk ang c gim st. S lng kt ni b i TCM c gim st dc theo mt
ng ODUk (trail) c th thay i t 0 n 6. Cc kt ni b i TCM c gim st c th
c lng vo nhau, chng cho v / hoc ni lin tip (cascaded), c th hin trong Hnh
3.41. C th cc kt ni b i TCM A1-A2/B1-B2/C1-C2 v A1-A2/B3-B4 c lng nhau,
trong khi cc kt ni b i TCM B1-B2/B3-B4 c ni lin tip.

Hnh 3.41(Hnh 15-16/G.709/Y.1331)- V d cc kt ni gim st ca ODUk kiu ni tip


v lng nhau.
73

Kt ni chng cho th hin trong Hnh 3.42 ( B1- B2 v C1- C2) .

Hnh 3.42(Hnh 15-17/G.709/Y.1331)- V d cc kt ni gim st ca ODUk kiu chng


cho.
3.9.5.2.2.1 B nhn dng du vt TTI ca ODUk TCM
i vi mi trng gim st kt ni b i ca tiu ch c 1 byte c nh ngha, truyn
ti cc tn hiu TTI gm 64-byte quy nh ti mc 9.2.
Tn hiu TTI 64-byte c ng b vi a khung ODUk (xem 9.6.2.2) v truyn 4 ln cho mi
a khung. Byte 0 ca tn hiu TTI 64-byte phi c mt ti cc v tr ca a khung ODUk l 0000
0000 (0x00), 0100 0000 (0x40), 1000 0000 (0x80) v 1100 0000 (0xC0).
3.9.5.2.2.2 M tch li ca (BIP-8) ODUk TCM (error detection code)
i vi mi trng gim st kt ni b i TCM, tn hiu m tch li 1 byte c nh ngha.
Byte ny chnh l m kim tra chn l an xen 8-bit BIP-8.
Mi BIP-8 ca ODUk TCM c tnh ton trn c s cc bit trong vng OPUk (ct 15-3824)
ca khung ODUk th i, v c chn vo v tr tiu BIP-8 ca ODUk TCM trong khung
ODUk th i +2 (xem Hnh 3.43).

74

Hnh 3.43(Fig 15-18/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca ODUk TCM


3.9.5.2.2.3 Ch th phn hi s c BDI (backward defect indication) ca ODUk TCM
i vi mi trng gim st kt ni b i TCM, tn hiu ch th phn hi s c BDI ch c 1 bit
c nh ngha. BDI truyn ti trng thi s c ca tn hiu c tch ra trong khi chc nng
kt cui kt ni b i (a tandem connection termination sink function) ca phn thu, pht i
theo hng v ngun pht tn hiu.
BDI c thit lp gi tr "1" ch th phn hi c s c trn ODUk; ngc li, n c thit
lp tr "0".
3.9.5.2.2.4 Ch th phn hi li BEI (backward error indication) v ch th phn hi li ng b
tn hiu n BIAE ( backward incoming alignment error) ca ODUk TCM
i vi mi trng gim st kt ni b i TCM, tn hiu ch th phn hi li BEI gm 4 bit v
tn hiu ch th li ng b tn hiu n BIAE c nh ngha. Tn hiu ny c s dng
truyn theo hng v pha pht s lng khi xen k -bit c pht hin c li BIP-8, bi b
phn gim st kt ni b i TCM ca pha thu, bng cch s dng m BIP-8. BIAE cng c
s dng truyn theo hng v pha pht rng l c mt ch th li ng b tn hiu n IAE,
(t trong vng tiu IAE) c pht hin bi b phn gim st kt ni b i TCM ca
pha thu.
75

Trong iu kin c ch th li ng b tn hiu n IAE, m " 1011 " c a vo trng BEI/


BIAE v s lng li tnh s c b qua. Nu khng, s li tnh ( t 0 n 8 ) c a vo
trng BEI/BIAE. 6 gi tr cn li biu din bi 4 bit c hiu l khng c li (xem Bng 3.15)
v BIAE khng hot ng.
Bng 3.13(Table 15-4/G.709/Y.1331) Ch th BEI/BIAE ca ODUk TCM
BEI/BIAE ca ODUk TCM
Bits

1234
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1 0 0 1, 1 0 1 0
1011
1 1 0 0 n

Tn hiu BIAE
false
false
false
false
false
false
false
false
false
false
true
false

S li BIP-8
0
(BIP violations)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
0
0

1111
Ghi ch : - false : tn hiu BIAE ch th c s c
- true : tn hiu BIAE ch th khng c s c
3.9.5.2.2.5 Ch th Trng thi gim st kt ni b i STAT (TCM Monitoring Status) ca
ODUk TCM
i vi mi trng gim st kt ni b i TCM, c ba bit c nh ngha l bit trng thi
(STAT). Ba bit ny ch th s hin din ca mt tn hiu bo tr, nu c li ng b ca tn hiu
n ti ngun pht TCM (TC-CMEP), hoc nu ngun pht TCM khng hot ng (xem Bng
3.14).

76

Bng 3.14 : Trnh by trng thi ODUk TCM (Bng 15-5/G.709)


TCM byte3,
Bits

678
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

Trng thi (Status)


Khng c ngun pht TC
ang dng khng c IAE
ang dng c IAE
Dnh ring cho chun ho quc t tng lai
Dnh ring cho chun ho quc t tng lai
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-LCK
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-OCI
Tn hiu bo tr: ODUk-AIS

Nt mng P-CMEP thit lp nhng bit ny l "000".


Mt nt mng ti ng vo mng (ingress point) l TC-CMEP thit lp nhng bit ny l :
a) Hoc "001" ch cho nt mng ngang hng TC-CMEP ti ng ra mng l khng c li ng
b trn tn hiu n (IAE),
b) Hoc "010" cho bit rng c mt li ng b trn tn hiu n (IAE).
Nt mng ngang hng TC-CMEP ti ng ra mng s dng thng tin ny ngn tnh li bit do
kt qu ca s thay i v pha ca khung ODUk ti ng vo ca kt ni b i TC.
3.9.5.2.2.6 Gn trng tiu TCM
Mi nt TC-CMEP chn/tch ra tiu TCM ca n t mt trong 6 trng tiu TCMi v l
mt trong 6 trng DMti. Trng tiu TCMi/DMti c th c cung cp bi cc nh khai
thc mng, h thng qun l mng hoc mt phng iu khin chuyn mch (switching control
plane).
Ti giao din min, n c th cung cp s lng ti a (0 n 6) mc kt ni b i TC, c i
xuyn qua min. S lng mc TC mc nh l 3. Nhng kt ni b i TC s dng cc trng
tiu TCMi/DMti thp hn nh TCM1/DMt1...TCMMAX/DMtMAX. Tiu trong cc
trng TCM/ DMT nm ngoi mc ti a (TCMmax+1 / DMtmax+1 v cao hn) c th /s
c ghi khi bn trong min.
Mt v d c th c trnh by trong Hnh 3.44 :
77

i vi trng hp ca mt knh thu ring ODUk, ngi s dng c th c gn mt


mc TCM, cc nh cung cp dch v c gn mt mc TCM v mi nh khai thc
mng (c hp ng vi cc nh cung cp dch v) c gn 4 mc TCM. i vi trng
hp nh khai thc mng s cho thu li mt phn ca kt ni ODUk ca mnh cho mt
nh khai thc mng khc, 4 mc TCM gn s c phn chia li, v d nh, 2 mc
gn TCM s dnh cho nh khai thc mng c hp ng ph.
iu ny s dn n vic phn b tiu TCM OH nh sau:
Ngi s dng: Trng tiu TCM1/DMt1 gia hai mng con ca ngi s dng, v
TCM1/DMt1 .. TCM6/DMt6 trong mng con ring ca mnh;
Nh Cung cp dch v SP(Service provider): Trng tiu TCM2/DMt2 gia hai UNI;
Cc nh khai thc mng (Network Operator) NO1, NO2, NO3 c hp ng vi nh cung
cp dch v: TCM3/DMt3, TCM4/DMt4, TCM5/DMt5, TCM6/DMt6. Lu rng NO2
( l nh thu ph) khng th s dng TCM5/DMt5 v TCM6/DMt6 trong kt ni i
xuyn qua min ca NO4;
NO4 (c hp ng vi NO2): TCM5/DMt5, TCM6/DMt6.

Hnh 3.44 (Fig 15-19/G.709/Y.1331) - V d v gn trng tiu TCM


78

3.9.5.2.2.7 Th tc kch hot/V hiu ho Gim st Kt ni B i TCM-ACT(Tandem


Connection Monitoring ACTivation/deactivation) ca ODUk
Trng kch hot /V hiu ho Gim st Kt ni B i TCM ch c 1-byte t ti hng 2, ct 4.
Trng ny ang tip tc c nghin cu.
3.9.5.2.2.8 Ch th o tr DMti, (i=1 .. 6) (delay measurement) ca ODUk TCM
gim st kt ni b i TCM ca ODUk, tn hiu o tr DMti ca TCM ch c 1 bit c
nh ngha, truyn s bt u ca th nghim o lng tr.
Tn hiu DMti bao gm mt gi tr khng i (0 hoc 1) c o ngc lc bt u mt php
o lng tr theo 2 chiu. Vic chuyn i t 0 -> 1 trong chui ... 0000011111 ..., hoc
chuyn i t 1 -> 0 trong chui ... 1111100000 ... l biu hin thi im bt u o tr. Gi
tr mi ca tn hiu DMti c duy tr cho n khi bt u php o tr tip theo.
Tn hiu DMti ny c chn vo bi TC-CMEP ngun pht i DMti v gi n TC-CMEP u
xa. TC-CMEP u xa s u vng ngc li tn hiu DMti v pha TC-CMEP ngun pht. TCCMEP ngun pht o s lng chu k khung gia thi im gi tr tn hiu DMti c o
ngc v thi im gi tr tn hiu DMti o ngc ny nhn c tr li t TC-CMEP u xa.
Thit b thu kim tra lin tc cc tn hiu DMti nhn c. Cc khung b sung c s dng
kim tra lin tc cc tn hiu DMti khng c thm vo s khung tnh tr. Vng lp TCCMEP lp li vic u vng mi ln nhn c bit DMti xy ra trong khong thi gian khong
100 s.
Tham kho Khuyn ngh G.798 v thng s k thut qu trnh o th trnh by trn.
Ch thch 1 - o tr ng dn c th c thc hin theo yu cu cung cp tc
thi trng thi tr truyn theo 2 chiu , v ch ng , cung cp 15 pht n 24 gi cc
kt qa ghi nhn tr truyn dn theo 2 chiu.
Ch thch 2 - Thit b c thit k nm 2008 hoc phin bn trc ca Khuyn ngh
G.709 c th khng c kh nng h tr gim st tr ng dn. Trong cc thit b nh
vy, cc bit DMti dnh cho tng lai.

79

3.9.5.2.3 Cc Knh Truyn thng chung GCC1, GCC2 (General Communication Channels)
ca ODUk
Hai trng 2 byte c t trong tiu ODUk h tr 2 knh truyn thng chung GCC1,
GCC2 gia hai phn t mng vi quyn truy cp vo cc cu trc khung ODUk (v d, ti cc
im ti sinh 3R). 2 byte dnh cho GCC1 nm trong dng 4, ct 1 v 2, v 2 byte cho GCC2
nm trong byte dng 4, ct 3 v 4 ca tiu ODUk. nh dng c im k thut GCC1,GCC2
nm ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh ny.
3.9.5.2.4 Knh Truyn thng Bo v v Chuyn mch Bo v T ng APS/PCC (Automatic
Protection Switching and Protection Communication Channel) ca ODUk
Mt tn hiu ODUk-APS/PCC c 4 byte c nh ngha trong hng 4, ct 5 n ct 8 ca tiu
ODUk. C n 8 mc lng nhau ca cc tn hiu APS/PCC hin din trong trng ny.
Cc byte APS /PCC trong mt khung cho trc c gn mt gi tr dnh ring ty thuc vo
gi tr ca MFAS nh sau:
Bng 3.15 a khung cho php tch bit APS/PCC dnh cho mi cp gim st (Bng 156/G.709)
MFAS
Bit 678
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

Knh APS/PCC p dng cho cp


gim st kt ni
ng dn ODUk
ODUk TCM1
ODUk TCM2
ODUk TCM3
ODUk TCM4
ODUk TCM5
ODUk TCM6
Lp server ODUk (GC2)

S bo v s dng knh
APS/PCC (GC1)
ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/S, ODUk SNC/N
ODUk SNC/I

80

Ghi ch:
1 - Mt knh APS c th c s dng bi nhiu hn mt th tc bo v. Trong trng hp
cc th tc bo v lng nhau, s gim st cn c thc hin khi mt bo v ODUk s c
thit lp khng nh hng n vic s dng knh APS ca mt bo v ODUk trn cng
mc gim st kt ni, v d nh bo v ch c th c kch hot nu knh APS ca cp
gim st cha c s dng.
2 - V d v ODUk lp my ch l mt OTUk hoc HO ODUk (v d nh mt ODU3 vn
chuyn mt ODU1).

i vi cc s bo v tuyn tnh, s gn bit cho cc byte ny v giao thc nh hng bit


(bit-oriented protocol) c trnh by trong khuyn ngh G.873.1. S gn bit v giao thc
nh hng byte cho cc s bo v vng ang c nghin cu.
3.9.5.2.5 Knh truyn thng tng trnh V tr v Loi S c FTFL (Fault Type and Fault
Location reporting communication channel) ca ODUk
Mt byte c t trong tiu ODUk vn chuyn thng ip c gm 256-byte , v loi li
v v tr li FTFL (fault type and fault location). Byte ny t dng 2, ct 14 ca tiu
ODUk.
Thng ip FTFL c 256-byte s c t a khung ODUk (tc l byte 0 ca thng ip
FTFL 256-byte c mt ti v tr 0000 0000 ca a khung ODUk, byte 1 ca thng ip FTFL
256-byte c mt ti v tr 0000 0001 ca a khung ODUk, byte 2 ca thng ip FTFL 256-byte
c mt ti v tr 0000 0010 ca a khung ODUk, vv.)
Thng ip FTFL 256-byte bao gm hai trng 128-byte nh trong Hnh 3.45 : cc trng theo
chiu thun/ngc. Trng theo chiu thun c t ti byte 0 n byte 127 ca thng ip
FTFL. Trng theo chiu ngc c t cho cc byte t 128 n byte 255 ca thng ip
FTFL.

81

Hnh 3.45 (Fig 15-20/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc thng ip FTFL


Cc trng theo chiu thun/ngc c chia thnh 3 trng con nh th hin trong Hnh 3.46:
1) Trng ch th loi li theo chiu thun/ngc,
2) trng nhn dng nh khai thc theo chiu thun/ngc, v
3) Trng xc nh nh khai thc theo chiu thun/ngc.

Hnh 3.46 (Fig 15-21/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc trng theo chiu thun/ngc


3.9.5.2.5.1 Trng ch th loi li theo chiu thun/ngc (Forward/backward fault type
indication field)
Trng ch th loi li cung cp cc trng thi li. Byte 0 ca thng ip FTFL c t cho
trng ch th loi li theo chiu thun. Byte 128 ca thng ip FTFL c t cho trng ch
th loi li theo chiu ngc. Cc trng ch th loi li c m ha nh trong Bng 3.16. M
0000 0000 s ch th trng thi tn hiu khng c li, m 0000 0001 s ch th trng thi tn hiu
82

b s c, v m 0000 0010 s ch th trng thi tn hiu suy gim cht lng. Cc m cn li


c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.
Bng 3.16 (Table 15-7/G.709/Y.1331) M ch th li
nh ngha

M ch th li
0000 0000
0000 0001
0000 0010

Khng li
Tn hiu b s c (Signal Fail)
Tn hiu suy gim cht lng (Signal Degrade)

0000 0011

Dnh cho chun ho quc t tng lai

1111 1111
3.9.5.2.5.2 Trng nhn dng nh khai thc theo chiu thun/ngc (Forward/backward
operator identifier field)
Trng nhn dng nh khai thc c 9 byte. Byte t 1 n 9 c t cho trng nhn dng nh
khai thc theo chiu thun. Byte 129 n byte 137 c t cho trng nhn dng nh khai thc
theo chiu ngc. Trng nhn dng nh khai thc bao gm hai trng con: trng phn khc
quc t, v trng phn khc quc gia nh trnh by trong Hnh 3.47.

Hnh 3.47 (Fig 15-22/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc trng nhn dng nh khai thc
83

Ba byte u tin ca trng nhn dng nh khai thc gm 9-byte (tc l byte t 1 n 3 cho
trng nhn dng nh khai thc theo chiu thun v byte 129 n byte 137 cho trng nhn
dng nh khai thc theo chiu ngc) c dnh ring cho trng phn khc quc t. M quc
gia phi da trn cc tiu chun m quc gia ISO 3166 gm ba k t vit hoa ch ci (v d,
USA, FRA).
Trng phn khc quc gia l mt m nh khai thc ICC (ITU carrier code) ca ITU c 1 n 6
k t. ICC c qun l bi T chc Vin thng Tiu chun ho ITU-T TSB (
Telecommunication Standardization Bureau) theo ITU-T Rec. M.1400. Trng phn khc quc
gia c 6 byte v cung cp m ICC c 1 n 6 k t, vi cc k t null in y trng 6 k t
ny.
3.9.5.2.5.3 Trng xc nh nh khai thc theo chiu thun/ngc (Forward/backward
operator-specific field)
Byte 10 n 127 c t cho trng xc nh nh khai thc theo chiu thun nh th hin trong
Hnh 3.47. Byte 138 n 255 c t cho trng xc nh nh khai thc theo chiu ngc. Cc
trng xc nh nh khai thc c th khng ph thuc vo tiu chun ha.
3.9.5.2.6 Tiu th nghim EXP (experimental overhead) ca ODUk
Hai byte c t trong tiu ODUk s dng cho mc ch th nghim. Cc byte c t
ti hng 3, ct 13 v ct 14 ca tiu ODUk.
Vic s dng cc byte ny khng ph thuc vo tiu chun v ngoi phm vi ca Khuyn ngh
ny.
Tiu th nghim c cung cp trong tiu ODUk OH cho php mt nh cung cp thit
b v/hoc nh khai thc mng trong mng (con) ca h h tr mt ng dng, i hi thm
tiu ODUk.
Khng c yu cu chuyn tip cc tiu EXP ra bn ngoi mng (con); ngha l, chng hot
ng ca tiu EXP c gii hn trong mng (con) vi cc thit b ca nh cung cp, hoc
mng ca cc nh khai thc.

84

3.9.5.2.7 Tiu dnh ring RES (reserved overhead) ca ODUk


Tm byte v mt bit c dnh ring trong tiu ODUk cho tiu chun quc t trong tng
lai. Cc byte c t ti dng 2, ct t 1 n 2 v dng 4, ct 9 n ct 14 ca tiu ODUk.
Bit c t bit 8, dng 2, ct 3 ca tiu ODUk. Cc byte v bit ny c thit lp tt c
l Zero.
3.9.6 Tiu OPUk OH
Thng tin tiu OPUk bao gm cc thng tin h tr s tng thch ca cc tn hiu ca
khch hng. Cc tiu OPUk c ghp v tch ra khi ti tin OPUk ti cc v tr m khung
OPUk c ghp v tch.
3.9.6.1 V tr tiu OPUk OH
Tiu OPUk bao gm: B nhn dng cu trc ti tin PSI (payload structure identifier) bao gm
cc loi ti tin PT (payload type), tiu lin quan n kt ni ni tip v tiu (v d, bit iu
khin nhi v bit c hi) lin quan n vic thit lp nh x ca cc tn hiu khch hng vo ti
tin OPUk. Cc v tr ca tiu PSI v PT ca OPUk c th hin trong Hnh 3.48.

Hnh 3.48(Fig 15-23/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu OPUk

85

3.9.6.2 Cc thnh phn ca tiu OPUk OH


3.9.6.2.1 Ch s nh danh Cu trc Ti tin PSI (Payload Structure Identifier) ca OPUk
Mt byte c t trong tiu OPUk, vn chuyn tn hiu nhn dng cu trc ti tin PSI c
256 byte. Byte PSI nm dng 4, ct 15 ca tiu OPUk OH.
Ch s nh danh cu trc ti tin PSI (tn hiu PSI) bao gm 256-byte t PSI [0] n PSI [255],
c lin kt vi a khung ODUk (tc l byte PSI [0] hin din v tr a khung ODUk th 0 l
0000 0000, byte PSI [1] hin din v tr a khung ODUk th 1 l 0000 0001, byte PSI [2] hin
din v tr a khung ODUk th 2 l 0000 0010,... byte PSI [255] hin din v tr a khung
ODUk th 255 c gi tr l 1111 1111).
PSI[0] cha loi ti tin, ch c 1 byte. T PSI[1] n PSI[255] xc nh loi nh x v loi ghp
chui o cho ti tin, ngoi tr PT 0x01 (nh x th nghim) v PTs 80-0x8F (dnh ring).
3.9.6.2.1.1 Loi ti tin PT (Payload Type) ca OPUk
Loi ti tin PT c nh ngha bng 1 byte PSI [0] ca Ch s nh danh kt cu ti tin PSI,
xc nh cc thnh phn ca tn hiu OPUk. Cc im m nh x loi ti tin PT c quy nh
ti Bng 3.17.
Bng 3.17 : Cc im m loi ti tin (Bng 15-8/G.709)
MSB

LSB

M Hex

1234
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000

5678
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110

(Ghi ch 1)
01
02
03
04
05
06

0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000

0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100

07
08
09
0A
0B
0C

Gii thch
nh x th nghim (Ghi ch 3)
nh x tn hiu CBR khng ng b.
nh x tn hiu CBR ng b bit.
nh x tn hiu ATM.
nh x tn hiu GFP.
Tn hiu c ghp chui o

(Virtual

Concatenated signal) (Ghi ch 5)


nh x 1000BASE-X vo khung ODU0
nh x FC-1200 vo ODU2e
nh x GFP vo ti tin OPU2 m rng (Ghi ch 6)
nh x STM-1 vo ODU0, see 17.6.1
nh x STM-4 vo ODU0, see 17.6.1
nh x FC-100 vo ODU0, see 17.6.1
86

0000
0000
0000
0001
0001
0010
0010

1101
1110
1111
0000
0001
0110
0001

0D
0E
0F
10
11
20
21

nh x FC-200 vo ODU1, see 17.6.2


nh x FC-400 vo ODUflex, see 17.8
nh x FC-800 vo ODUflex, see 17.8
Dng bit c nh x thi gian byte (octet).
Dng bit khng c nh x thi gian byte.
Kt cu ghp ODU.
Cu trc ghp ODU h tr ODTUk.ts hoc

ODTUk.ts v ODTUjk (Ghi ch 7).


0101
0101
55
Khng dng (Ghi ch 2)
0110
0110
66
Khng dng (Ghi ch 2)
1000
xxxx
80-8F
Cc m dnh s dng c quyn (Ghi ch 4)
1111
1101
FD
nh x tn hiu kim tra NULL.
1111
1110
FE
nh x tn hiu ngu nhin kim tra PRBS.
1111
1111
FF
Khng dng (Ghi ch 2)
Ghi ch 1 C 216 m d phng dnh cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.
Ghi ch 2 Nhng gi tr ny b loi ra khi tp hp cc im m c sn. Nhng mu bit
ny c mt trong cc tn hiu bo tr ODUk.
Ghi ch 3 Gi tr "01" ch c s dng cho cc hot ng th nghim trong trng
hp mt m nh x khng c xc nh trong bng ny. nh x th nghim c th c
s hu bi cc nh cung cp thit b hoc nh cung cp mng. Nu mt trong cc nh
x/hot ng ny c chun ha bi ITU-T v ch nh mt im m, gi tr im m
mi c s dng thay cho im m 01.
Ghi ch 4 16 gi tr m ny s khng c tiu chun ho.
Ghi ch 5 i vi cc loi ti tin ca cc tn hiu ghp chui o, mt loi tiu ti tin
chuyn dng (vcPT) s c s dng.
Ghi ch 6- Nhm G.Sup43 ngh loi ti tin c im m l 87 lp nh x ny.
Ghi ch 7 - Thit b h tr ODTUk.ts cho OPU2 hoc OPU3 phi tng thch vi thit b
m ch h tr ODTUjk. Thit b c kh nng ODTUk.ts s pht PT = 21 m nhn c PT
= 20 t pha u xa s o sang tr li PT = 20 v hot ng ch trong ch ODTUjk
(tham kho G.798).

87

3.9.6.2.2 Tiu xc nh nh x OPUk


7 byte c dnh ring trong tiu OPUk dnh cho tiu xc nh nh x v kt ni lin
kt ti tin. Cc byte ny c t ti hng 1 n hng 3, cc ct 15 v 16 v ct 16 hng 4.
Ngoi ra, 255 byte trong PSI c dnh ring cho cc mc ch c th v lp nh x v kt ni
lin kt ti tin.
Vic s dng cc byte ny ph thuc vo lp nh x tn hiu khch hng c th (quy nh ti
khon 17 v 19/G709) v vic s dng kt ni lin kt ti tin (quy nh ti khon 18/G709).
3.10 Cc tn hiu bo tr mng (Maintenance signals)
1) Tn hiu ch th cnh bo AIS(alarm indication signal) v tn hiu ch th cnh bo
sai hng thun FDI(forward defect indication) l mt tn hiu c gi theo chiu
xung (downstream) ca dng tn hiu, nh l mt du hiu cho thy mt li hoc s c
c pht hin pha ngun pht. Mt tn hiu AIS/FDI c to ra trong mt khi
chc nng thch ng ca pha thu. Mt tn hiu AIS/FDI c tch ra trong khi chc
nng kt cui pha thu loi b cc ch th sai hng b pht hin, l mt h qu ca s
gin on cc tn hiu pht i ban u t mt im pha ngun pht.
Ch : - AIS v FDI l cc tn hiu tng t.
AIS c s dng nh l thut ng khi tn hiu l trong min s.
FDI c s dng nh mt thut ng khi tn hiu trong min quang; FDI c vn
chuyn nh tiu khng lin quan trong cc tn hiu tiu OTM ( OOS ).
2) Tn hiu ch th kt ni m OCI (open connection indication) l mt tn hiu c gi
theo chiu xung (downstream) ca dng tn hiu, nh l mt du hiu cho thy pha
ngun tn hiu khng c kt ni n mt ngun kt cui. Mt tn hiu OCI c to ra
trong mt khi chc nng kt ni v xut ra bi khi chc nng kt ni ny trn mi
im kt ni xut ra ca n, khi khng c kt ni vi mt trong nhng im kt ni
u vo ca n. Mt tn hiu OCI c pht hin trong mt khi chc nng kt cui
pha thu.
3) Tn hiu kha ( LCK ) l mt tn hiu c gi theo chiu xung (downstream) ca
dng tn hiu, nh l mt du hiu cho thy kt ni b "kha" pha ngun pht, v
khng c tn hiu c truyn qua.
88

4) Tn hiu ch th mt ti tin PMI (payload missing indication) l mt tn hiu c gi


theo chiu xung (downstream) ca dng tn hiu, nh l mt du hiu cho thy ti im
ngun pht ca tn hiu: hoc l khng c khe lung TS c mt tn hiu quang hoc mt
tn hiu quang khng c ti tin. PMI ny cho thy vic vn chuyn cc tn hiu lung
quang b gin on.
Mt tn hiu PMI c to ra trong khi chc nng ngun pht thch ng v n c tch
trong khi chc nng kt cui pha thu chn cc cnh bo LOS pht sinh trong iu
kin ny.
3.10.1 Cc tn hiu bo tr ca OTS
3.10.1.1 Ch th cnh bo mt ti tin OTS-PMI (OTS payload missing indication) ca OTS
OTS-PMI l ch th cnh bo cho bit ti tin OTS khng cha mt tn hiu quang.
3.10.2 Cc tn hiu bo tr ca OMS
C 3 tn hiu bo tr ca OMS c xc nh l : OMS-FDI-P, OMS-FDI-O and OMS-PMI.
3.10.2.1 Ch th s c ti tin thun OMS-FDI-P (forward defect indication Payload) ca
OMS
OMS-FDI-P l ch th cnh bo cho bit c s c trong vng ti tin lp my ch (server) ca
OMS trong lp mng OTS.
3.10.2.2 Ch th s c tiu thun OMS-FDI-O (OMS forward defect indication
Overhead) ca OMS
OMS-FDI-O l ch th cnh bo cho bit khi vn chuyn tiu OMS OH qua OOS b gin
on v b s c tn hiu khng iu kin trong OOS.
3.10.2.3 Ch th cnh bo mt ti tin OMS-PMI (OMS payload missing indication) ca
OMS
OMS-PMI l ch th cnh bo cho bit tt c cc OCC khng cha tn hiu quang.
3.10.3 Cc tn hiu bo tr cho OCh
C 3 tn hiu bo tr OCh : OCh-FDI-P, OCh-FDI-O v OCh-OCI.

89

3.10.3.1 Ch th sai hng ti tin thun OCh-FDI-P (forward defect indication Payload)
ca OCh
CH-FDI c to ra nh mt ch th cnh bo cho mt sai hng lp server OCh trong lp mng
OMS. Khi OTUk c kt cui, OCh-FDI tip tc c chc nng nh l mt tn hiu ODUk-AIS.
3.10.3.2 Ch th sai hng tiu thun OCh-FDI-O (OCh forward defect indication
Overhead)
OCH-FDI-O c to ra nh mt ch th cnh bo khi vn chuyn tiu OCh OH qua OOS b
gin on do iu kin tn hiu b s c trong OOS.
3.10.3.3 Ch th kt ni m OCh-OCI (OCh open connection indication)
Tn hiu OCh-OCI ch cho cc khi chc nng x l truyn ti theo chiu xung ca dng tn
hiu (downstream), l cc kt ni OCH : hoc khng b rng buc, hoc khng kt ni (thng
qua kt ni ma trn) n mt khi chc nng ngun pht kt cui. Tn hiu OCh-OCI c s
dng phn bit theo chiu xung ca dng tn hiu gia mt knh quang b mt do mt s c
hoc do kt ni b h (l kt qa ca mt lnh qun l).
3.10.4 Cc tn hiu bo tr OTUk
3.10.4.1 Tn hiu ch th cnh bo OTUk-AIS (alarm indication signal) ca OTUk
OTUk-AIS ( Hnh 3.49 ) l mt tn hiu AIS chung (xem mc 3.10.6.1). V dung lng OTUk (
130 560 bit) khng phi l mt bi s ca chiu di chui PN -11 (2047 bit), chui PN-11 c th
vt qua mt ranh gii khung OTUk
Ch : - OTUk-AIS c nh ngha h tr mt ng dng lp server tng lai . Thit b OTN
phi c kh nng tch s hin din ca tn hiu nh vy ; nhng thit b OTN khng cn thit
phi to ra tn hiu nh vy.

Hnh 3.49 (Fig 16-1/G.709/Y.1331)-Tn hiu ch th cnh bo OTUk-AIS

90

3.10.4.2 Tn hiu ch th cnh bo OTLk-AIS (alarm indication signal)


Framed-OTU3-AIS ( Hnh 3.50 pha trn ) l mt tn hiu AIS tng qut c m rng vi mt
nh dng khung (a khung) AIS c 7-byte, bao gm 3 byte OA1, 3 byte OA2 v mt byte
MFAS vi gi tr 0xFF. nh dng khung (a khung) AIS ny c chn vo mi 130.560 (tc
l 4 x 4080 x 8) bit v thay th cc byte PN-11 ban u.
Framed-OTU4-AIS ( Hnh 3.50 pha di ) l mt tn hiu AIS tng qut c m rng vi mt
nh dng khung (a khung) AIS c 6-byte, bao gm 3 byte OA1, 2 byte OA2 v mt byte
Logical Lane Marker vi gi tr 0xFF. nh dng khung (a khung) AIS ny c chn vo
mi 130.560 (tc l 4 x 4080 x 8) bit v thay th cc byte PN-11 ban u.

Hnh 3. 50(Fig 16-6/G.709/Y.1331)-Tn hiu Framed-OTUk-AIS


nh dng Framed-OTUk-AIS c phn phi trn n tuyn logic (logical lane) (n = 4 (OTU3), n
= 20 (OTU4)) ca mt OTM-0.mvn theo quy nh ti Ph lc C/G709. Tn hiu OTLk -AIS ca
tuyn truyn ti knh quang l nh dng hin hu trong mt tuyn logic (xem Hnh 3.51).
S hin din ca OTL3-AIS c pht hin bng cch gim st gi tr 0xFF ca trng MFAS
trong mt OTU3.
S hin din ca OTL4-AIS c pht hin bng cch gim st gi tr 0xFF ca trng Logical
Lane Marker trong mt OTU4.
91

Hnh 3.51(Fig 16-7/G.709/Y.1331)-OTLk-AIS


3.10.5 Cc tn hiu bo tr ODUk
3 tn hiu bo tr c nh ngha l: ODUk-AIS, ODUk-OCI v ODUk-LCK.
3.10.5.1 Tn hiu ch th cnh bo ODUk-AIS (ODUk alarm indication signal )
ODUk-AIS c quy nh t tt c cc bit l "1" trong ton b tn hiu ODUk, khng bao gm
tiu ng b khung (FA OH), tiu OTUk (OTUk OH) v ODUk FTFL (xem Hnh 3.52).

Hnh 3.52(Fig 16-2/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-AIS

92

Ngoi ra, tn hiu ODUk-AIS c th c m rng vi mt hoc nhiu cp kt ni b i TC


ca ODUk, GCC1, GCC2, EXP v/hoc tiu APS/PCC trc khi n c hin din ti giao
din OTM. iu ny ph thuc vo cc chc nng gia cc im chn ODUk-AIS v giao din
OTM. S hin din ca ODUk-AIS c tch bng cch gim st cc bit ODUk STAT trong
cc trng tiu PM v TCMi.
3.10.5.2 Tn hiu ch th kt ni m ODUk-OCI (ODUk open connection indication)
ODUk-OCI c quy nh nh mt nh dng lp i lp li "0110 0110" trong ton b tn hiu
ODUk, khng bao gm tiu ng b khung (FA OH) v tiu OTUk (OTUk OH) (xem
Hnh 3.53).

Hnh 3.53(Fig 16-3/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-OCI


Ch : - nh dng "0110 0110" lp i lp li l mc nh, cc mu nh dng khc cng
c php min l cc bit STAT trong cc trng tiu PM v TCMi c thit lp tr
"110".
Ngoi ra, tn hiu ODUk-OCI c th c m rng vi mt hoc nhiu cp kt ni b i TC
ca ODUk, GCC1, GCC2, EXP v / hoc tiu APS / PCC trc khi n c hin din ti
giao din OTM. iu ny ph thuc vo cc chc nng gia cc im chn ODUk-OCI v giao
din OTM.
S hin din ca ODUk-OCI c pht hin bng cch gim st cc bit ODUk STAT trong PM
v cc trng tiu TCMi.

93

3.10.5.3 Tn hiu ODUk b kho ODUk-LCK (ODUk locked)


ODUk-LCK c quy nh l mt nh dng "0101 0101" lp i lp li trong ton b tn hiu
ODUk, khng bao gm tiu ng b khung (FA OH) v tiu OTUk (OTUk OH) (xem
Hnh 3.54).

Hnh 3.54(Fig 16-4/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-LCK


Ch : - nh dng "0101 0101" lp i lp li l mc nh, cc mu nh dng khc cng
c php min l cc bit STAT trong cc trng tiu PM v TCMi c thit lp tr
"101".
Ngoi ra, tn hiu ODUk-LCK c th c m rng vi mt hoc nhiu cp kt ni b i
TC ca ODUk, GCC1, GCC2, EXP v/hoc tiu APS/PCC trc khi n c hin din ti
giao din OTM. iu ny ph thuc vo cc chc nng gia cc im chn ODUk-LCK v giao
din OTM.
S hin din ca ODUk-LCK c pht hin bng cch gim st cc bit ODUk STAT trong PM
v cc trng tiu TCMi.
3.10.6 Tn hiu bo tr khch hng (Client maintenance signal)
3.10.6.1 Cnh bo AIS tng qut (Generic AIS) dnh cho cc tn hiu tc bit khng i
Tn hiu AIS tng qut l mt tn hiu lp i lp li lin tc ca mt chui 2047-bit c tn gi l
chui a thc s 11 (PN-11). (Xem Hnh 3.55)

94

Hnh 3.55(Fig 16-5/G.709/Y.1331) Mch pht tn hiu AIS tng qut (Generic-AIS)

95

3.11. nh x cc loi tn hiu khch hng (mapping of client signals) vo cc khung tn


hiu OTN
Ban u cc thit lp nh x tn hiu khch hng c tc bit khng i CBR (Constant Bit
Rate) c nh ngha cho h thng OTN theo tiu chun G.709 l cc tn hiu SDH STM-16,
STM-64 v STM-256, v tng ng c gi l CBR2G5, CBR10G, v CBR40G. Ngoi cc tn
hiu khch hng CBR2G5, CBR10G v CBR40G, tiu chun G.709 cng cho php thit lp nh
x tn hiu khch hng vo OPU l chui bit c tc khng xc nh. Trong nh x ny, mt
tn hiu khch hng (hoc mt tp hp cc tn hiu ca khch hng) c ng gi vo mt tn
hiu khch hng CBR c cng tc vi (ngha l ng b vi) ti tin OPU. S tng thch tc
bt k phi c thc hin trc bn trong cc chui bit CBR nh l mt phn ca qu trnh
to ra n.
Phn ny trnh by vic thit lp nh x cho cc tn hiu sau y :

1) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i STM-16, STM-64, STM-256 nh x vo


OPUk s dng cc th tc nh x khng ng b/ng b bit AMP, BMP (Asynchronous
or Bit-synchronous mapping).
2) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i 10GBASE-R nh x vo OPU2e s dng
cc th tc nh x ng b bit BMP.
3) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i FC-1200, sau khi c chuyn m trong
sut vi thi gian TTT (timing transparent transcoding) vi mt t s nn dung lng l
50/51, s c nh x vo OPU2e s dng nh x ng b byte.
4) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i ln n 1,238 Gbit/s c nh x vo OPU0
v ln n 2,488 Gbit/s c nh x vo OPU1 s dng th tc nh x tng qut GMP
(generic mapping procedure). Trc cc tn hiu khch hng ny c th c chuyn
m trong sut thi gian TTT vi mt t s nn dung lng ph hp vi bng thng ti tin
OPUk.
5) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i gn vi tc 2.5, 10.0, 40.1 hoc 104,3
Gbit/s vo OPU1, OPU2 , OPU3 hoc OPU4 tng ng bng cch s dng th tc nh x
tng qut GMP. Trc cc tn hiu khch hng ny c th c chuyn m trong sut
thi gian TTT vi mt t s nn dung lng ph hp vi bng thng ti tin OPUk.
96

6) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i vo OPUflex s dng mt th tc nh x


ng b bit BMP.
7) Cc tn hiu nh dng truyn khng ng b ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cn
gi l t bo ATM (ATM cell).
8) Cc tn hiu dng gi (v d nh Ethernet, MPLS, IP) c ng gi vi cc th tc
khung chung ( GFP-F).
9) Cc tn hiu kim tra.
10) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i GPON nh dng lin tc vo OPU1 v s
dng th tc nh x khng ng b AMP.
11) Cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i XPON nh dng lin tc vo OPU2 v s
dng th tc nh x khng ng b AMP
vo OPUk .
3.11.0 Ch th s c tn hiu khch hng CSF (Client Signal Fail) ca OPUk
h tr cc h thng qun l a phng, mt ch th s c tn hiu khch hng CSF (Client
Signal Fail) ca OPUk ch c 1 bit c nh ngha, chuyn ti trng thi s c tn hiu CBR
v tn hiu gi ng Dnh ring khch hng EPL (Ethernet Private Line) nh x vo mt LO
OPUk ti nt vo mng ca OTN v n nt mng ra ca OTN.
CSF ca OPUk nm bit 1 ca byte PSI [2] ca s nhn dng cu trc ti tin PSI. Bit 2-8 ca
byte PSI [2] c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai. Cc bit ny c thit
lp tt c l 0.
CSF ca OPUk c thit lp bit "1" ch ra mt ch th s c tn hiu khch hng, nu khng
c s c CSF ca OPUk c thit lp bit "0".
3.11.1 nh x cc tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR10G3 v CBR40G vo OPUk
Cc tn hiu khch hng CBR2G5, CBR10G v CBR40G c ln lt nh x tng ng vo
cc khung OPU1, OPU2, v OPU3 ca h thng OTN. Cc ti tin OPUk c cu trc kt hp
vi cc nh x ny c th hin trong Hnh 3.56, trong D l mt byte d liu ti tin v FS l
mt byte nhi c nh.

97

Hnh 3.56 : nh x tn hiu CBR (tn hiu SDH) vo khung tn hiu OTN
Thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G (dung sai tc bit
ln n 20 ppm) vo mt OPUk (k = 1,2,3) c th c thc hin theo th tc lp nh
x ng b bit BMP da trn mt cu trc khung OPUk chung (xem Hnh 3.57).
98

Thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G (dung sai tc bit


ln n 45 ppm) vo mt OPUk (k = 1,2,3) c th c thc hin theo th tc lp nh
x khng ng b AMP da trn mt cu trc khung OPUk chung.
Thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (dung sai tc bit ln n 100 ppm) vo
mt OPUk (k = 2e) c th c thc hin theo th tc lp nh x ng b bit BMP.
Cc lu :
1) - V d v CBR2G5, CBR10G v tn hiu CBR40G l STM-16, STM-64 v STM-256.
Mt v d ca mt tn hiu CBR10G3 l 10GBASE-R.
2) - Dung sai tc bit ti a gia OPUk v ng h tn hiu ca khch hng, c th
c cung cp bi th tc nh x khng ng b AMP, l 65 ppm. Vi dung sai tc
bit ca 20 ppm cho ng h OPUk, dung sai tc bit tn hiu ca khch hng ti a
c th 45 ppm. Nu dung sai tn s ca khch hng ra khi phm vi dung sai ny ( 45
ppm), khi s khng c byte nhi (justification) trong tiu OPUk to nn s
tng thch tc .
3) - i vi OPUk (k = 1,2,3), dung sai ng h l 20 ppm. i vi OPU2e dung sai
ng h l 100 ppm v nh x khng ng b AMP khng th h tr cho tiu nhi
ny cho nn phi s dng th tc nh x ng b bit BMP.

Hnh 3.57(Fig 17-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPUk nh x tn hiu CBR2G5,


CBR10G hay CBR40G
99

Tiu OPUk dnh cho nh x bao gm (Hnh 3.57):


1) mt b ch s nhn dng cu trc ti tin PSI. B PSI gm 256 byte, trong 1 byte xc
nh loi ti tin PT v 255 byte cn li dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai (RES),
2) ba byte iu khin nhi JC (justification control). Mi byte JC bao gm hai bit (bit 7 v
8) kim sot s nhi v su bit cn li ( bit 1 cho n bit 6) dnh cho s chun ha
quc t trong tng lai RES.
3) mt byte c hi nhi m NJO (negative justification opportunity), v
4) 3 byte dnh cho s chun ho quc t trong tng lai (RES).
Ti tin OPUk dnh cho cc nh x bao gm 4x3808 byte, trong c mt byte c hi nhi
dng PJO (positive justification opportunity).
Cc tin trnh nh x ng b bit BMP v khng ng b AMP to ra cc byte JC, NJO v PJO
theo Bng 3.18 v Bng 3.19, tng ng. Qu trnh gii nh x gii thch cc byte JC, NJO v
PJO c trnh by trong Bng 3.20.
Bng 3.18: To lp cc byte JC, NJO and PJO bng tin trnh nh x AMP (Bng 171/G.709)
JC
00
01
10
11

NJO
byte nhi
byte d liu

PJO
byte d liu
byte d liu
Khng to lp nhi

byte nhi

byte nhi

Bng 3.19: To lp cc byte JC, NJO and PJO bng tin trnh nh x ng b bit BMP
(Bng 17-2/G.709)
JC

NJO

PJO

00
01
10
11

Byte nhi

data byte
Khng to nhi

100

Bng 3.20: Gii nh x cc byte JC, NJO and PJO (Bng 17-3/G.709)
JC

NJO

PJO

00
01
10
11

byte nhi
byte d liu
byte nhi
byte nhi

byte d liu
byte d liu
byte d liu
byte nhi

Khi byte NJO v PJO c s dng lm byte nhi, gi tr tt c cc bit ca chng l bng 0. B
thu c yu cu phi b qua cc gi tr cha trong cc byte nhi ny.
Tn hiu OPUk lp nh x khng ng b AMP c to ra t tn hiu ng h ni b
thit b; tn hiu ng h ny l c lp vi cc tn hiu ca khch hng CBR2G5,
CBR10G hoc CBR40G. Cc tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR40G c nh x vo
OPUk, s dng mt s nhi dng/m/zero (pnz).
Tn hiu ng h, dnh cho cho OPUk lp nh x ng b bit BMP, c ngun gc ly
ra t tn hiu ca khch hng CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G. Cc tn hiu ca khch
hng CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G c nh x vo OPUk m khng s dng kh
nng nhi ca khung OPUk : NJO cha mt byte nhi, PJO cha mt byte d liu, v cc
tn hiu JC c c nh gi tr l 00.
Cn lu rng khng ging nh SDH, khng c con tr nh du im bt u ca ti tin.
Trong iu kin xy ra s c ca tn hiu n l CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR40G hoc CBR10G3
(v d, trong trng hp mt tn hiu u vo), tc bit tn hiu ti tin OPUk phi nm trong
gii hn quy nh ca Bng 3.3 v khng xy ra gin on v tn s v khung. S ti lp ng
b cho cc tn hiu n CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR40G hoc CBR10G3 c thc hin m khng
xy ra gin on v tn s v khung.
C hai phng php to lp nh x tn hiu khch hng CBR vo OPUk :
1) nh x khng ng b AMP: Vi nh x khng ng b, tn hiu ng h OPUk c
to ra ti ngun ng h ni b thit b (trong gii hn quy nh trong Bng 3.3), c lp
vi tn hiu ca khch hng CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G. S thch ng gia tc
ti tin OPUk v tc tn hiu ca khch hng c thc hin thng qua vic s dng
byte iu khin nhi (JC) v cc byte C hi Nhi m NJO (Negative Justification
101

Opportunity) v byte C hi Nhi Dng PJO (Positive Justification Opportunity) theo


s nhi dng/m/zero [pnz].
Ch : tn hiu ca khch hng CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR40G c tc tng ng
l : 4(k1) 2 488 320 kbit/s (k = 1,2,3)).
2) nh x ng b bit BMP: Vi nh x ng b bit, tn hiu ng h cho khung OPU
c trch ra t tn hiu ng h khch hng (v d tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G,
CBR40G hay CBR10G3). V khung OPU c kha tn s v pha vi tn hiu ca khch
hng, cho nn khng cn s nhi tn s nh nh x AMP. Khi cc byte iu khin
nhi JC cha cc gi tr c nh xc nh l 00, NJO cha mt byte nhi v PJO cha mt
byte d liu.
3.11.2 nh x mt tn hiu CBR2G5 (v d STM-16) vo OPU1
Cc nhm 8 bit lin tip (khng nht thit phi l mt byte) ca tn hiu CBR2G5 c nh x
vo mt byte d liu (D) ca OPU1 (Hnh 3.58). Mi khung OPU1 c th thc hin hoc l nhi
dng hoc l nhi m.

Hnh 3.58 : nh x mt tn hiu CBR2G5 (v d STM-16) vo OPU1 (Hnh 17-2/G.709)


3.11.3 nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G (v d STM-64) vo OPU2
Cc nhm 8 bit lin tip (khng nht thit phi l mt byte) ca tn hiu CBR10G c nh x
vo mt byte d liu D ca OPU2 (Hnh 3.59). 64 byte nhi c nh FS (fixed stuff) c thm
vo trong cc ct t 1905 n 1920. Mi khung OPU2 c th thc hin nhi dng hoc nhi
m.

102

Hnh 3.59 :nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G (v d STM-64) vo OPU2 (17-3/G.709)


3.11.4 nh x mt tn hiu CBR40G (v d STM-256) vo OPU3
Cc nhm 8 bit lin tip (khng nht thit phi l mt byte) ca tn hiu CBR40G c nh x
vo mt byte d liu D ca OPU3 (Hnh 3.60). 128 byte nhi c nh FS (fixed stuff) c thm
vo trong cc ct t 1265 n 1280 v t ct 2545 n ct 2560. Mi khung OPU3 c th thc
hin nhi dng hoc nhi m.

Hnh 3.60 : nh x mt tn hiu CBR40G (v d STM-256) vo OPU3 (Hnh 17-4/G.709)


3.11.5 nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (v d, 10GBASE-R) vo OPU2e
Mi nhm 8 bit lin tip (khng nht thit phi l mt byte) ca tn hiu CBR10G3 c nh x
ng b bit vo mt byte d liu (D) ca OPU2e (xem Hnh 3.61). 64 byte nhi c nh FS
c thm vo trong ct 1905-1920.
103

Ch : - byte NJO s lun lun mang theo mt byte nhi, cc byte PJO s lun lun mang theo
mt byte d liu (D) v byte JC s lun lunc tt c bit l 0.

Hnh 3.61: nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (v d, 10GBASE-R) vo OPU2e (Hnh 175/G.709)


3.11.6 v 3.11.7 nh x cho cc khung tn hiu GFP v gi t bo ATM vo OPUk
(k=0,1,2,3)
nh x trc tip cho khung GFP v cc t bo ATM vo vng ti tin OPU c xc nh
trong G.709.
Chui gi t bo ATM c tc khng i s c dung lng gi ging vi vng ti tin OPUk (k
= 0,1,2,3) l nh giai on ghp cc gi t bo ATM to thnh mt tp hp cc tn hiu ATM
VP. Trong giai on ny, s thch ng tc c thc hin nh mt phn ca qu trnh to
chui gi t bo ATM ny, bng cch loi b cc gi t bo hoc xen cc gi t bo nhn ri.
Chui gi t bo ATM c nh x vo vng ti tin OPUk vi cu trc byte t bo ATM ng
b vi cu trc byte ti tin ODUk (xem Hnh 3.62). Do cc bin gi ATM ng b vi cc
cc bin byte ca ti tin OPUk. V dung lng ti tin OPUk (15.232 byte) khng phi l mt bi
s nguyn ca chiu di tnh theo n v byte ca gi t bo (53 byte) cho nn mt gi t bo c
th vt qua bin ca khung OPUk. Trng tin tc ca gi t bo ATM (48 byte) s c ngu
nhin ho trc khi c nh x vo OPUk. Trong hot ng ngc li, sau khi kt cui tn hiu
OPUk, trng tin tc ca gi t bo ATM (48 byte) s c gii ngu nhin ho trc khi
chuyn n lp ATM.

104

Hnh 3.62: nh x t bo ATM ln cc vng ti tin OPUk (Hnh 17-6/G.709/Y.1331)


S nh x ca khung theo th tc GFP c thc hin bng vic sp xp ng b cu trc byte
ca mi khung GFP vi cu trc byte ca ti tin OPUk (xem Hnh 3.63). V cc khung GFP c
chiu di thay i (s nh x khng p t hn ch bt k v di khung ti a), cho nn mt
khung c th nm vt qa ranh gii ca khung OPUk. Cc khung GFP khi truyn n l mt
chui bit lin tc, vi dung lng ging dung lng ca vng ti tin OPUk l do s chn khung
nhn ri giai on th tc ng gi GFP. Chui khung GFP c ngu nhin ho trong qu
trnh ng gi.
Khi nh x cho cc loi khung GFP, mt chui lin tc ca khung GFP c nh x theo cch
ng b byte vo ton b ti tin OPU, khng c tiu SDH (v khng c ct nhi c nh).
Cc nh x ny c trnh by trong Hnh 3.63. Phn nh khung GFP hoc ranh gii t bo
ATM c thc hin bng cch s dng thng tin tiu ca cc giao thc ny. Khung nhn ri
GFP hoc cc t bo ATM nhn ri c gi khi khng c d liu gi.

105

Hnh 3.63 : nh x khung GFP ln cc vng ti tin OPUk (Hnh 17-7/G.709/Y.1331)


Tiu OPUk thit lp nh x GFP bao gm mt ch s nh danh cu trc ti tin PSI bao
gm loi ti tin PT, mt ch th cnh bo s c ti tn hiu khch hng CSF(client signal fail) v
254 byte cng vi 7 bit dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai (RES), v by byte dnh cho tiu
chun quc t tng lai (RES). Ti tin OPUk lp nh x GFP gm 4 3808 byte.
Tng t s nh x ca khung theo th tc GFP vo ti tin OPU2e cng c thc hin bng
vic sp xp ng b cu trc byte ca mi khung GFP vi cu trc byte ca ti tin OPU2e
(xem Hnh 3.64).

Hnh 3.64 nh x khung GFP ln cc vng ti tin OPU2e (Hnh 17-8/G.709/Y.1331)


106

Ti tin OPU2 m rng, dnh cho vic lp nh x GFP, bao gm 4 3808 byte ca ti tin OPU2
cng vi 7 byte ca tiu OPU2.
3.11.8 nh x tn hiu kim tra vo OPUk
3.11.8.1 nh x tn hiu khch hng NULL vo OPUk
Mt tn hiu ti tin OPUk vi mt nh dng hon ton l bit 0 (xem Hnh 3.65) c xc nh
dnh cho mc ch th nghim kim tra. Tn hiu ti tin OPUk ny c gi l khch hng
NULL.

Hnh 3.65(Fig17-9/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk v nh x khch hng NULL vo


OPUk
3.11.8.2 nh x tn hiu kim tra PRBS vo OPUk
dnh cho mc ch th nghim kim tra, mt chui th nghim gi ngu nhin PRBS (2 31
1) c 2.147.483.647 bit theo quy nh ti 5.8/Khuyn ngh O.150 c nh x vo ti tin OPUk.
Nhm 8 bit lin tip ca tn hiu gi ngu nhin PRBS ny c nh x vo 8 bit d liu (8D)
(v d, mt byte) ca ti tin OPUk (xem Hnh 3.66).
Tiu OPUk nh x PRBS bao gm mt s nh danh cu trc nh ti tin PSI ( PSI bao
gm loi ti tin PT) v 255 byte dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai RES, v 7 byte dnh cho
tiu chun quc t tng lai (RES).
Ti tin OPUk nh x PRBS bao gm 4 3808 byte.
107

Hnh 3.66 (Fig 17-10/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk v nh x chui PRBS vo


OPUk
3.11.9 nh x chui bit khch hng khng xc nh (non-specific client) vo OPUk
Ngoi cc nh x ca cc tn hiu khch hng quy nh trong cc khon khc ca iu khon
ny trong G.709, mt nh x ca cc tn hiu khch hng khng xc nh vo OPUk c ch
nh. Bt k (b) tn hiu khch hng sau khi ng gi thnh mt chui bit lin tc vi tc bit
ca ti tin OPUk, c th c nh x vo ti tin OPUk (xem Hnh 3.67). Chui bit phi ng b
vi tn hiu OPUk. S nhi bt k phi c bao gm trong qu trnh to chui bit lin tc. Cc
chui bit lin tc phi ngu nhin ho trc khi nh x vo ti tin OPUk.

Hnh 3.67(Fig 17-11/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk dnh cho nh x chui bit
khng i ng b
108

Tiu OPUk nh x PRBS bao gm mt s nh danh cu trc nh ti tin PSI ( PSI bao
gm loi ti tin PT) v 255 byte dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai RES, v 7 byte dnh cho
mc ch xc nh khch hng CS (client-specific). nh ngha ca cc byte tiu CS c
thc hin theo tiu chun k thut ca qu trnh ng gi.
Ti tin OPUk nh x chui bit khch hng khng xc nh bao gm 4 3808 byte.
3.11.9.1 nh x chui bit c byte nh thi vo OPUk
Nu byte nh thi (octet timing) c sn, mi byte ca chui d liu n s c nh x vo mt
byte d liu ca ti tin OPUk.
3.11.9.2 Lp bn bit dng m khng c thi gian vo octet OPUk
Nu byte nh thi khng c sn, nhm 8 bit lin tip (khng nht thit l mt byte) ca chui
d liu n s c nh x vo mt byte d liu ca ti tin OPUk.
3.11.10 nh x cc tn hiu tc bit khng i khc vo OPUk bng cch nhi
nh x cc tn hiu khch hng tc bit khng i CBR khc ( dung sai tc bit ln n
100 ppm ) vo mt OPUk (k = 0,1, 2, 3, 4) c thc hin bi cc th tc nh x tng qut
GMP.
Khi mt trong cc tn hiu CBR ca khch hng n b s c (v d , trong trng hp mt tn
hiu u vo ), tn hiu n b s c c thay th bng cc tn hiu thay th thch hp theo quy
nh ti cc iu khon trnh by trong cc phn sau y .
Khi mt trong cc tn hiu ODUk/OPUk n b s c ( v d nh trong trng hp nhn mt
trong cc cnh bo ODUkAIS , ODUk - LCK , ODUk - OCI ) , tn hiu ca khch hng n b
s c cng c thay th bng cc tn hiu thay th thch hp theo quy nh ti cc iu khon
trnh by trong cc phn sau y .
Tiu OPUk lp nh x bao gm :
1) Mt ch s nh danh cu trc ti tin PSI bao gm loi ti tin PT, mt ch th cnh bo s
c ti tn hiu khch hng CSF(client signal fail) v 254 byte cng vi 7 bit dnh cho tiu
chun quc t tng lai (RES).
2) Ba byte iu khin nhi JC1 , JC2 , JC3 mang gi tr tiu GMP c k hiu l Cm ,

109

3) Ba byte iu khin nhi JC4 , JC5 , JC6 mang gi tr tiu GMP c k hiu l
CnD,
4) Mt byte dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai ( RES ) .
5) Cc byte JC1 , JC2 v JC3 bao gm mt trng Cm c 14-bit (bit C1, C2, .. , C14) , mt
trng Ch s Tng II (Increment Indicator) c 1 bit, mt trng Ch s Gim DI
(Decrement Indicator) c 1 bit v mt trng CRC-8 c 8-bit cha mt m kim tra li
cho cc trng JC1 , JC2 v JC3 .
6) Cc byte JC4 , JC5 v JC6 bao gm mt trng CnD c10-bit ( bit D1, D2, .. , D10 ),
mt trng CRC-5 c 5-bit (ti cc bit 4-8) cha mt m kim tra li cho cc trng JC4
, JC5 v JC6 v 9 bit dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai ( RES ). Gi tr mc nh ca
n trong CnD l 8. Gi tr h tr cho n = 1 l ph thuc khch hng v quy nh ti cc
iu khon ti y khi c yu cu.
3.11.10.1 nh x tn hiu khch hng CBR c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s (sub-1.238
Gbit/s) vo OPU0
Bng 3.21 (Table 17-4A/G.709/Y.1331) xc nh cc loi tn hiu khch hng v cc tham s
GMP ca chng l cm v Cm vi m = 8 (c8, C8) c gi tr ti thiu, danh ngha v ti a. Bng
3.22 (Table 17-4B/G.709/Y.1331) xc nh cc tham s GMP ca chng l cn v Cn vi n = 8
(c8, C8) cho cc loi tn hiu khch hng ny v c gi tr ti thiu, danh ngha v ti a. Bng
Bng 3.23(Table 17-5/G.709/Y.1331) quy nh c th tn hiu thay th cho nhng tn hiu khch
hng khi gp s c.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 1-bit (C1) th ph thuc tn hiu khch hng. Tn hiu khch
hng c thng tin thi gian trong Cm l 8-bit (vi m = 8) l cho nn s khng cn trin khai
vn chuyn C1D v gi tr JC4/5/6 s c c nh vi tt c cc bit u l 0.
Ti tin OPU0 lp nh x ny bao gm 4 3808 byte. Cc byte trong khu vc ti tin OPU0
c nh s t 1 n 15.232. Vic nh s byte ti tin OPU0 cho cc khi 1 byte (8-bit) GMP
c minh ha trong Hnh 3.68. Trong hng 1 ca khung OPU0, byte u tin s c dn nhn
1, byte tip theo s c dn nhn 2, vv

110

Cc nhm tm bit lin tip (khng cn thit l mt byte) ca tn hiu ca khch hng c nh
x vo mt byte ca vng ti tin OPU0 di s iu khin ca c ch GMP iu khin d
liu/nhi. Mi byte trong vng ti tin OPU0 hoc c th mang 8 bit ca khch hng, hoc mang
8 bit nhi. Cc bit nhi c t l bit 0.

Hnh 3.68 (Fig 17-12/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPU0 dnh cho vic lp nh x ca
tn hiu ca khch hng c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s
111

Bng 3.21(Table 17-4A/G.709/Y.1331) Tham s Cm (m = 8) cho cc tn hiu khch hng


c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s nh x vo OPU0

Bng 3.22(Table 17-4B/G.709/Y.1331) - Cn (n = 8 hoc 1) cho cc tn hiu khch hng c


tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s nh x vo OPU0

Bng 3.23(Table 17-5/G.709/Y.1331) - tn hiu thay th cho c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s


khi s c

3.11.10.1.1 Chuyn m 1000BASE-X


Tn hiu 1000BASE-X (c m ha 8B/10B, tc bit danh nh 1 250 000 kbit/s v dung sai
tc bit ln n 100 ppm c nh x ng b vo mt chui khung GFP-T 75-byte hot
112

ng vi tc bit 15/16 1 250 000 kbit / s 100 ppm (khong 1 171 875 kbit / s 100 ppm).
Qa trnh ny c gi l "chuyn m trong sut thi gian TTT (timing transparent
transcoding)". Cc tn hiu 15/16 1 250 000 kbit / s 100 ppm sau c nh x vo mt
OPU0 bng th tc nh x GMP nh quy nh ti 11.6.1/G709 v Ph lc D/G709.
lp nh x khch hng 1000BASE-X, thng tin thi gian 1-bit (C1) l khng cn thit, v
vy gi tr tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU0 s c t c nh tt c l bit 0.
3.11.10.2 Thit lp nh x mt siu tn hiu 1,238 (supra-1.238) vo tn hiu con ca tn
hiu khch hng CBR 2,488 Gbit/s (sub-2.488 Gbit/s) v k tip nh x vo OPU1
Bng 3.24 (Table 17-6A/G.709/Y.1331) xc nh cc loi tn hiu khch hng v cc tham s
GMP ca chng l cm v Cm vi m = 8 (c8, C8) c gi tr ti thiu, danh ngha v ti a. Bng
3.25 (Table 17-6B/G.709/Y.1331) xc nh cc tham s GMP ca chng l cn v Cn vi n = 8
(c8, C8) hoc n=1 (c1, C1) cho cc loi tn hiu khch hng ny. Bng 3.26 (Table 17-7
/G.709/Y.1331) quy nh c th tn hiu thay th cho nhng tn hiu khch hng khi gp s c
nhng vn cn ang nghin cu.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 8-bit (C8D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU1 th cn phi
c.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 1-bit (C1D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU1 th ph
thuc tn hiu khch hng.
Ti tin OPU1 lp nh x ny bao gm 4 3808 byte. Cc nhm 2 byte trong khu vc ti tin
OPU1 c nh s t 1 n 7616. Vic nh s byte ti tin OPU1 cho cc khi 2 byte (16-bit)
GMP c minh ha trong Hnh 3.69. Trong hng 1 ca khung OPU1, byte u tin s c
dn nhn 1, 2 byte tip theo s c dn nhn 2, vv..
Cc nhm 16 bit lin tip ca tn hiu ca khch hng c nh x vo mt nhm 2 byte lin
tip ca vng ti tin OPU1 di s iu khin ca c ch GMP iu khin d liu/nhi. Mi
nhm 2 byte trong vng ti tin OPU1 hoc c th mang 16 bit d liu ca khch hng, hoc
mang 16 bit nhi. Cc bit nhi c t l bit 0.

113

Hnh 3.69 (Fig 17-13/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU1 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt
tn hiu siu 1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s

Bng 3.24(Table 17-6A/G.709/Y.1331) - Cm (m = 16) dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn hiu


siu 1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s v k tip vo OPU1

Bng 3.25(Table 17-6B/G.709/Y.1331) - Cn (n = 8) dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn hiu


siu-1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s v k tip vo OPU1

114

3.11.10.3 nh x cc tn hiu khch hng CBR c tc bit gn vi 9.995 Gbit/s vo OPU2


Bng 17-8A/G709 xc nh cc loi tn hiu khch hng v cc tham s GMP ca chng l cm
v Cm vi m = 64 (c64, C64) c gi tr ti thiu, danh ngha v ti a. Bng 17-8B/G709 xc nh
cc tham s GMP ca chng l cn v Cn vi n=8 (c8, C8) hoc n=1 (c1, C1) cho cc loi tn hiu
khch hng ny. Bng 17-9/G709 quy nh c th tn hiu thay th cho nhng tn hiu khch
hng khi gp s c. Cc Bng 17-8 A/B/G709 v 17-9/G709 ang c nghin cu cho nn
cha c trnh by trong ti liu ny.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 8-bit (C8D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU2 th cn phi
c.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 1-bit (C1D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU2 th ph
thuc tn hiu khch hng.
Ti tin OPU2 lp nh x ny bao gm 4 3808 byte. Cc nhm 8 byte trong khu vc ti tin
OPU2 c nh s t 1 n 1904. Vic nh s byte ti tin OPU1 cho cc khi 8 byte (64-bit)
GMP c minh ha trong Hnh 3.70. Trong hng 1 ca khung OPU2, nhm 8 byte u tin s
c dn nhn 1, nhm 8 byte tip theo s c dn nhn 2, vv..
Cc nhm 64 bit lin tip ca tn hiu ca khch hng c nh x vo mt nhm 8 byte lin
tip ca vng ti tin OPU2 di s iu khin ca c ch GMP iu khin d liu/nhi. Mi
nhm 8 byte trong vng ti tin OPU2 hoc c th mang 64 bit d liu ca khch hng, hoc
mang 64 bit nhi. Cc bit nhi c t l bit 0.

115

Hnh 3.70(Fig 17-14/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU2 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt


tn hiu khch hng CBR
3.11.10.4 nh x cc tn hiu khch hng CBR c tc bit gn vi 40.149 Gbit/s vo
OPU3
Bng 17-10A/G709 xc nh cc loi tn hiu khch hng v cc tham s GMP ca chng l cm
v Cm vi m = 256 (c256, C256) c gi tr ti thiu, in hnh v ti a. Bng 17-10B/G709 xc
nh cc tham s GMP ca chng l cn v Cn vi n=8 (c8, C8) hoc n=1 (c1, C1) cho cc loi tn
hiu khch hng ny. Bng 17-11/G709 quy nh c th tn hiu thay th cho nhng tn hiu
khch hng khi gp s c. Cc Bng 17-10A/B/G709 v 17-11/G709 ang c nghin cu
ang c nghin cu cho nn cha c trnh by trong ti liu ny.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 8-bit (C8D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU3 th cn phi
c.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 1-bit (C1D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU3 th ph
thuc tn hiu khch hng.
116

Ti tin OPU3 lp nh x ny bao gm 4 3808 byte. Cc nhm 32 byte trong khu vc ti tin
OPU3 c nh s t 1 n 476. Vic nh s byte ti tin OPU3 cho cc khi 32 byte (256-bit)
GMP c trnh by trong Hnh 3.71. Trong hng 1 ca khung OPU3, nhm 32 byte u tin s
c dn nhn 1, nhm 32 byte tip theo s c dn nhn 2, vv..
Cc nhm 256 bit lin tip ca tn hiu ca khch hng c nh x vo mt nhm 32 byte lin
tip ca vng ti tin OPU3 di s iu khin ca c ch GMP iu khin d liu/nhi. Mi
nhm 32 byte trong vng ti tin OPU3 hoc c th mang 256 bit d liu ca khch hng, hoc
mang 256 bit nhi. Cc bit nhi c t l bit 0.

Hnh 3.71(Fig 17-15/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU2 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt


tn hiu khch hng CBR
117

3.11.10.5 nh x cc tn hiu khch hng CBR c tc bit gn vi 104.134 Gbit/s vo


OPU4
Bng 17-12A/G.709 xc nh cc loi tn hiu khch hng v cc tham s GMP ca chng l cm
v Cm vi m = 640 (c640, C640) c gi tr ti thiu, danh ngha v ti a. Bng 17-12B/G.709
xc nh cc tham s GMP ca chng l cn v Cn vi n=8 (c8, C8) hoc n=1 (c1, C1) cho cc loi
tn hiu khch hng ny. Bng 17-13/G.709 quy nh c th tn hiu thay th cho nhng tn hiu
khch hng khi gp s c. Cc Bng 17-12 A/B/G.709 v 17-13/G.709 ang c nghin cu
cho nn cha c trnh by trong ti liu ny.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 8-bit (C8D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU4 th cn phi
c.
S h tr cho thng tin thi gian 1-bit(C1D) trong tiu JC4/JC5/JC6 ca OPU4 th ph thuc
tn hiu khch hng.
Ti tin OPU4 lp nh x ny bao gm 4 3800 byte dnh cho d liu khch hng v 4x8
byte dnh cho nhi c nh. Cc nhm 80 byte trong khu vc ti tin OPU4 c nh s t 1
n 190. Vic nh s byte ti tin OPU4 cho cc khi 80 byte (640-bit) GMP c minh ha
trong Hnh 3.72. Trong hng 1 ca khung OPU4, 80 byte u tin s c dn nhn 1, 80 byte
tip theo s c dn nhn 2, vv..
Cc nhm 640 bit lin tip ca tn hiu ca khch hng c nh x vo mt nhm 80 byte lin
tip ca vng ti tin OPU4 di s iu khin ca c ch GMP iu khin d liu/nhi. Mi
nhm 80 byte trong vng ti tin OPU4 hoc c th mang 640 bit d liu ca khch hng, hoc
mang 640 bit nhi. Cc bit nhi c t l bit 0.

118

Hnh 3.72(Fig 17-16/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU4 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt


tn hiu khch hng CBR
3.11.11 Thit lp nh x tn hiu 1000BASE-X v FC-1200 thng qua chuyn m trong
sut thi gian vo OPUk
3.11.11.1 Mapping a 1000BASE-X signal into OPU0
Xem mc 3.11.6.1 v 3.11.6.1.1
3.11.11.2 Thit lp nh x tn hiu FC-1200 vo OPU2e
Tc ng dy danh nh ca FC-1200 l 10.518.750 kbit/s 100ppm , v do phi c
nn n mt t l thch hp ph hp vi vic nh x vo mt OPU2e .
S thch ng v tc ca cc tn hiu khch hng FC-1200 vi OPU2e c thc hin bng
cch m ha 64B/66B. M ho 64B/66B chuyn nh dng mt nhm tm khi 66B thnh mt
khi 513B (nh m t trong ph lc B/G.709), ghp 8 khi 513B vo mt siu khi (superblock)
119

516 byte v ng gi siu khi 516 byte thnh mt khung GFP 8800 byte nh minh ha trong
Hnh 3.74. Khung GFP gm 2200 hng vi 32 bit cho mi hng.
Hng u tin cha tiu li GFP (GFP Core Header), hng th hai cha tiu ti tin GFP
(GFP Payload Header). Bn hng tip theo cha 16 byte dnh cho tiu chun ha quc t trong
tng lai. 17x 129 hng tip theo cha 17 siu khi t # 1 n # 11. Hng cui cng cha cc
FCS ti tin GFP.
Bit c (F) ca khi 513B th # i (I = 0 .. 7) c thc hin trong bit c th # i nm trong trng
c siu khi (Superblock Flags). 512 bit cn li ca mi 8 khi 513B ca 1 siu khi c mang
trong 16 hng ca trng d liu siu khi; bit ca khi 513B th # 0 trong 16 hng u tin ca
siu khi, bit ca khi 513B th # 1 trong 16 hng tip theo, vv Mi khi 513B cha "j" (j = 0 ..
8) khi iu khin ( CB1 n CBj ) v " 8 - j" khi d liu ( DB1. . DB8 - j) theo quy nh ti
Ph lc B/G709. Hnh 3.74 trnh by mt khi 513B vi ba khi iu khin v nm khi d liu.
Mt khi 513B c th cha t 0 n 8 khi iu khin v mt siu khi c th cha t 0 n 64
khi iu khin.
Chui cc khung GFP 8800 byte c nh x ng b byte vo ti tin OPU2e bng vic ng b
cu trc byte ca mi khung GFP vi cu trc byte ca ti tin OPU2e (xem Hnh 3.73). 64 byte
nhi c nh (FS) c thm vo trong cc ct 1905-1920 ca ti tin OPU2e. Tt c cc khung
GFP c cng di (8800 byte). Cc khung GFP khng ng b vi cu trc ti tin OPU2e v
c th vt qua bin gia hai khung OPU2e.

Hnh 3.73(Fig 17-17/G.709/Y.1331) Lp nh x chuyn m FC-1200 vo OPU2e


120

Hnh 3.74(Fig 17-18/G.709/Y.1331) nh dng khung GFP dnh cho FC-1200 vo OPU2e
Khung GFP c s dng to iu kin phn nh cu trc siu khi (superblock) ti thit b
thu. Cc bit c hng u ca mi khi trong tm khi 513B, c di chuyn a vo mt byte
duy nht cui trng d liu siu khi 513 byte ( c tn nhn "C Siu khi "-Superblock
Flags ).
Ti tin FCS (CRC-32) c gn vo cui mi khung GFP v c tnh ton da trn trng
thng tin ti tin ca khung GFP. Mc ch ca ti tin FCS l cung cp kh nng hin th cc li
bit xy ra bt c ni no trong trng thng tin ti tin ca GFP v do lm tng phm vi sa
li c cung cp bi mi CRC-24 ca siu khi (m ch cung cp phm vi sa li cho tiu
"iu khin" trong mi siu khi). Ti tin FCS c mc ch ch dnh cho tp hp thng k.
121

3.11.12 nh x tn hiu CBR siu-2.488 Gbit/s (supra-2.488 CBR Gbit/s) vo OPUflex


nh x cc tn hiu khch hng siu 2.488 Gbit/s c tc bit khng i CBR (dung sai tc
bit ln n 100 ppm ) vo mt OPUflex c thc hin bi th tc nh x ng b bit BMP.
Bng 3.26 xc nh cc tn hiu khch hng cho trng hp ny.
Cc qu trnh thit lp nh x ng b bit BMP c trin khai nh x tn hiu khch hng
tc khng i vo mt OPUflex khng to ra bt k tn hiu iu khin nhi JC no.
Tn hiu ng h OPUflex nh x ng b bit BMP c ngun gc t tn hiu ca khch hng.
Trong trng hp tn hiu khch hng i n b s c (v d, trong trng hp mt tn hiu u
vo), tn hiu n b s c c thay th bng cc tn hiu thay th thch hp c quy nh ti
Bng 3.27.
Tc bit tn hiu ti tin OPUflex phi nm trong gii hn quy nh trong Bng 3.3 v khng
sinh ra gin on tn s hoc pha ca khung. Cc ng b ho li trn cc tn hiu n khch
hng c thc hin m khng gii thiu mt tn s hoc giai on khung gin on.
Trong trng hp tn hiu ODUflex / OPUflex i n b s c (v d, trong trng hp xut hin
cc cnh bo ODUflex-AIS, ODUflex-LCK, ODUflex-OCI), tn hiu i n b s c c thay
th bng cc tn hiu thay th thch hp c quy nh ti Bng 3.29.
Tiu OPUflex dnh cho thit lp nh x ny bao gm :
Mt ch s nh danh cu trc ti tin PSI bao gm loi ti tin PT c xc nh trong Bng
3.19 (Table 15-8/G709), mt ch th cnh bo s c ti tn hiu khch hng CSF(client signal
fail) v 254 byte cng vi 7 bit dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai (RES),
By byte dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai (RES).
Ti tin OPUflex lp nh x GFP gm 4 3808 byte (Hnh 3.75). Cc nhm tm bit lin tip
(khng nht thit phi l mt byte) ca tn hiu khch hng c nh x vo mt byte d liu
(D) ca vng ti tin OPUflex di s iu khin ca cc c ch kim sot BMP. Mi byte d
liu trong vng ti tin OPUflex mang 8 bit khch hng.

122

Hnh 3.75(Fig 17-19/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPUflex dnh cho vic lp nh x


ca tn hiu khch hng siu 2.488 Gbit/s
Bng 3.26(Table 17-14/G.709/Y.1331) Cc tn hiu khch hng siu 2.488 Gbit/s

Bng 3.27(Table 17-15/G.709/Y.1331) Tn hiu thay th cho cc tn hiu khch hng siu
2.488 Gbit/s

123

3.12 nh x cc tn hiu ODUj vo tn hiu ODTU v nh x ODTU vo cc khe lung TS


(tributary slots) ca OPUk bc cao HO OPUk
Phn ny trnh by quy nh ghp ca cc tn hiu nh sau :
Ghp ODU0 vo OPU1 bc cao (HO OPU1), ghp ODU1 vo OPU2 bc cao (HO OPU2),
ghp ODU1 v ODU2 vo OPU3 bc cao (HO OPU3) s dng cc th tc thit lp nh x
khng ng b AMP.
Ghp cc ODUj khc vo OPUk bc cao (HO OPUk) s dng th tc lp nh x tng qut
GMP. Vic ghp tn hiu ODUj ny vo OPUk bc cao (HO OPUk) c thc hin theo
hai bc:
B1) Thip lp nh x khng ng b AMP ca tn hiu ODUj vo n v lung d liu
knh quang (ODTU) bng cch s dng AMP hoc GMP;
B2) Thip lp nh x ng b byte ca ODTU vo mt hoc nhiu khe lung TS ca
OPUk bc cao (HO OPUk).
3.12.1 nh ngha khe lung TS ca OPUk
OPUk c chia thnh mt s khe lung (TS) v cc khe lung ny c an xen trong
OPUk. Mt khe lung TS bao gm mt phn vng tiu ca OPUk (OPUk OH) v mt
phn ca vng ti tin OPUk.
Cc byte ca khung ODUj c nh x vo vng ti tin ODTU v cc byte ODTU c
nh x vo khe lung TS ca OPUk hoc cn gi l khe (Slots). Cc byte ca tiu nhi
ca ODTU c nh x vo vng tiu ca OPUk (OPUk OH) .
C hai loi khe lung TS :
Khe lung TS vi bng thng khong 2,5 Gbit/s; mt OPUk c chia thnh n khe lung
TS, c nh s t 1 n n;
Khe lung TS vi bng thng khong 1,25 Gbit/s; mt OPUk c chia thnh 2n khe
lung TS, c nh s t 1 n 2n.
Cc cng giao din bc cao ca OPU2 v OPU3 (HO OPU2 v HO OPU3) h tr cc khe lung
TS 1,25 Gbit/s cng phi h tr kiu khe lung 2,5 Gbit/s hot ng lin kt vi cc cng
giao din ch h tr c kiu khe lung 2.5G. Khi hot ng trong ch khe lung TS 2.5G,

124

cc khe lung TS 1.25G th "i" v th " i + n" (i = 1 n n , n = 4 ( OPU2 ) v n = 16 ( OPU3 ) )


c chc nng nh mt khe lung TS 2.5G.
3.12.1.1 S phn b khe lung TS ca OPU2
Hnh 3.76 trnh by s phn b ca khe lung TS loi 2.5G v loi 1.25G ca khung tn hiu
OPU2. Mt khung tn hiu OPU2 c chia thnh 04 khe lung TS 2.5G nh s l 1-4, hoc
trong 8 khe lung TS 1.25 Gb/s nh s l 1-8.
Mt khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU2 chim 25% vng ti tin OPU2. N l mt cu trc vi
952 ct x 16 (4 x 4) hng (xem Hnh 12.1 v 19-7) cng vi tiu khe lung (TSOH). 04
khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU2 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin OPU2 v 04 tiu khe
lung TSOH ca OPU2 (OPU2 TSOH) c xen k khung trong vng tiu OPU2.
Mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2 chim 1.25% vng ti tin OPU2. N l mt cu trc vi
476 ct x 32 (8 x 4) hng (xem Hnh 12.1 v 12.7) cng vi tiu khe lung (TSOH). 08
khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin OPU2 v 08 tiu khe
lung TSOH ca OPU2 (OPU2 TSOH) c xen k khung trong vng tiu OPU2.
Mt khe lung TS 2.5G th "i" (i = 1,2,3,4) ca OPU2 c cung cp bi hai khe lung TS
1.25G th "i" v "i 4" ca OPU2 nh minh ha trong Hnh 3.76.
Tiu khe lung TSOH ca cc khe lung TS ca OPU2 nm trong cc ct 15-16 v hng 1, 2
v 3 ca khung OPU2.
TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 2.5G xut hin mt ln c mi 4 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 4 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 7 v 8 ca byte MFAS nh th hin trong Bng 3.28 v Hnh 3.76.
TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 1.25G xut hin mt ln c mi 8 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 8 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 6, 7 v 8 ca byte MFAS nh th hin trong Bng 3.28 v Hnh 3.76.

125

Hnh 3.76 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU2 (Figure 19-1/G.709/Y.1331)

Bng 3.28: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU2 (Figure 19-1/G.709/Y.1331)

126

3.12.1.2 S phn b ca khe lung OPU3


Hnh 3.77 trnh by s phn b ca khe lung TS loi 2.5G v loi 1.25G ca khung tn hiu
OPU3. Mt khung tn hiu OPU3 c chia thnh 16 khe lung TS 2.5G nh s l 1-16, hoc
trong 32 khe lung TS 1.25G nh s l 1-32.
Mt khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3 chim 6.25% vng ti tin OPU3. N l mt cu trc
vi 238 ct x 64 (16 x 4) hng (xem Hnh 3.77 v Hnh 3.84 (Fig 19-8/G709) ) cng vi tiu
khe lung (TSOH). 16 khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin
OPU3 v 16 tiu khe lung TSOH ca OPU3 (OPU3 TSOH) c xen k khung trong
vng tiu OPU3.
Mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 chim 3.125% vng ti tin OPU3. N l mt cu trc
vi 119 ct x 128 (32 x 4) hng (xem Hnh 3.77 v Hnh 3.84) cng vi tiu khe lung
(TSOH). 32 khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin OPU3 v 32
tiu khe lung TSOH ca OPU3 (OPU3 TSOH) c xen k khung trong vng tiu
OPU3.
Mt khe lung TS 2.5G th "i" (i = 1,2,3,4) ca OPU3 c cung cp bi hai khe lung TS
1.25G th "i" v "i 4" ca OPU3 nh minh ha trong Hnh 12.2.
Tiu khe lung TSOH ca cc khe lung TS ca OPU3 nm trong cc ct 15-16 v hng 1, 2
v 3 ca khung OPU3.
TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 2.5G xut hin mt ln c mi 16 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 16 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 5,6,7 v 8 ca byte MFAS nh th hin trong Bng 3.31 v Hnh 3.77.
TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 1.25G xut hin mt ln c mi 32 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 32 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 4, 5, 6,7 v 8 ca byte MFAS nh th hin trong Bng 3.31 v Hnh 3.77.

127

Hnh 3.77 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU3 (Figure 19-2/G.709/Y.1331)

128

Bng 3.29 : S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU3 (Table 19-2/G.709/Y.1331)

3.12.1.3 S nh v tr ca khe lung OPU1


Hnh 3.78 trnh by s phn b ca khe lung TS loi 1.25G ca khung tn hiu OPU1. Mt
khung tn hiu OPU1 c chia thnh 2 khe lung TS 1.25G nh s l 1-2.
- Mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1 chim 50% vng ti tin OPU1. N l mt cu trc vi
1904 ct x 8 (2 x 4) hng (xem Hnh 3.78) cng vi tiu khe lung (TSOH). 2 khe lung TS
1.25G ca OPU1 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin OPU1 v 2 tiu khe lung TSOH ca
OPU1 (OPU1 TSOH) c xen k khung trong vng tiu OPU1.
Tiu khe lung TSOH ca cc khe lung TS ca OPU1 nm trong cc ct 15-16 v hng 1, 2
v 3 ca khung OPU1.

129

TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 1.25G xut hin mt ln c mi 2 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 2 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 8 ca byte MFAS nh th hin trong Bng 3.32 v Hnh 3.78.

Hnh 3.78 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU3 (Figure 19-3/G.709/Y.1331)


Bng 3.30: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU3 (Table 19-3/G.709/Y.1331)

3.12.1.4 S phn b ca khe lung OPU4


Hnh 3.79, 3.80 trnh by s phn b ca khe lung TS 1.25G ca khung tn hiu OPU4. Mt
khung tn hiu OPU4 c chia thnh 80 khe lung TS 1.25G nh s l 1-80, nm trong cc
ct t 17 n 3816 v 8 ct nhi c nh nm trong cc ct t 3817 n 3824. Khung OPU4 c
th c trnh by theo nh dng 320 hng x3810 ct ( Hnh 3.79) hoc nh dng 160 hng x
7620 ct (Hnh 3.80).
- Mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU4 chim1.247% vng ti tin OPU4. N l mt cu trc vi
95 ct x 160 (80 x 4/2) hng (xem Hnh 12. 4B) cng vi tiu khe lung (TSOH). 80 khe

130

lung TS 1.25G ca OPU4 c xen k byte trong vng ti tin OPU4 v 80 tiu khe lung
TSOH ca OPU4 (OPU4 TSOH) c xen k khung trong vng tiu OPU4.
Tiu khe lung TSOH ca cc khe lung TS ca OPU4 nm trong cc ct 15-16 v hng 1, 2
v 3 ca khung OPU4.
TSOH cho mt khe lung TS 1.25G xut hin mt ln c mi 80 khung. Mt cu trc a khung,
gm 80 khung, c s dng cho nhim v ny. S th t ca cu trc a khung ny c xc
nh bi cc bit 2,3,4,5,6,7 v 8 ca byte OMFI nh th hin trong Bng 3.33.

Hnh 3.79 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU4 (Figure 19-4A/G.709/Y.1331)


131

Hnh 3.80: Cc khe lung OPU4 theo nh dng 160 hng x 7620 ct (Figure 194B/G.709/Y.1331)

132

Bng 3.31: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU4 (Table 19-4/G.709/Y.1331)

133

3.12.2 nh ngha n v lung d liu knh quang ODTU (Optical channel Data
Tributary Unit)
n v lung d liu knh quang ODTU mang mt tn hiu ODU c nhi.
C hai loi ODTU l:
1) ODTUjk ((j, k) = {(0,1), (1,2), (1,3), (2,3); ODTU01, ODTU12, ODTU13 v ODTU23),
trong mt tn hiu ODUj c nh x bng th tc khng ng b AMP theo quy nh
ti mc 12.5;
2) ODTUk.ts ((k, ts) = (2,1 .. 8), (3,1 .. 32), (4,1 .. 80)), trong mt tn hiu ODU bc thp
hn (ODU0, ODU1, ODU2, ODU2e, ODU3, ODUflex) c nh x bng th tc nh x
tng qut GMP theo quy nh ti mc 3.12.6.
n v lung d liu knh quang ODTU jk
n v lung d liu knh quang jk (ODTUjk) l mt cu trc bao gm mt vng ti tin v mt
tiu (Hnh 3.81). Vng ti tin ODTUjk c c ct v r hng (xem Bng 3.34) v vng tiu
ODTUjk c "ts" ln 4 byte, trong "ts" ln 1 byte c th mang ti tin.
ODTUjk c mang trong "ts" khe lung TS 1.25G hoc TS 2.5G ca mt OPUk bc cao (HO
OPUk).
V tr ca tiu ODTUjk ph thuc vo cc khe lung TS ca OPUk c s dng khi ghp
cc ODTUjk trong OPUk (xem 3.12.1.1, 3.12.1.2, 3.12.1.3). Cc ts ca tiu ODTUjk c th
khng c phn phi bng nhau.
Cc tiu ODTUjk mang tiu nhi AMP theo quy nh ti 3.12.4.
Ghi ch Cc phin bn khe lung 1.25G v 2.5G ca mt ODTU12 l ging ht nhau
khi hai khe lung 1.25G mang ODTU12 l TSa v TSa+4. Cc phin bn khe lung
1.25G v 2.5G ca mt ODTU13 l ging ht nhau khi hai khe lung 1.25G mang
ODTU12 l TSa v TSa+16. Cc phin bn khe lung 1.25G v 2.5G ca mt ODTU23
l ging ht nhau khi 8 khe lung 1.25G mang ODTU23 l TSa, TSb, TSc, TSd, Tsa+16,
TSb+16, TSc+16 v TSd+16.

134

Hnh 3.81: Cc nh dng khung OTDUjk (Figure 19-5/G.709/Y.1331)


Bng 3.32: Cc c tnh OTDUjk dnh cho TS 2.5G v 1.25G (Figure 19-5/G.709/Y.1331)

n v lung d liu knh quang ODTU k.ts


n v lung d liu knh quang k.ts (ODTUk.ts) l mt cu trc bao gm mt vng ti tin
ODTUk.ts v mt tiu ODTUk.ts (Hnh 3.82). Vng ti tin ODTUk.ts c (j x ts) ct v r hng
(xem Bng 3.35) v vng tiu ODTUk.ts c 1 ln 6 byte.
ODTUk.ts c mang trong "ts" khe lung TS 1.25G ca mt OPUk bc cao (HO OPUk).

135

V tr ca tiu ODTUk.ts ph thuc vo cc khe lung TS ca OPUk c s dng khi ghp


cc ODTUk.ts trong OPUk (xem 3.12.1.1, 3.12.1.2, 3.12.1.4). V d n gin ca tiu
ODTUk.ts nm TSOH ca khe lung TS cui cng ca OPUk c phn b cho cc
ODTUk.ts.
Cc tiu ODTUk.ts mang tiu nhi GMP theo quy nh ti 3.12.4.

Hnh 3.82 : Cc nh dng khung OTDUk.ts (Figure 19-6/G.709/Y.1331)


Bng 3.33 : Cc c tnh OTDUk.ts (Figure 19-6/G.709/Y.1331)

3.12.3 Ghp tn hiu ODTU vo OPUk


1) Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU01 vo mt OPU1 c thc hin bng cch nh x tn hiu
ODTU01 vo mt trong hai khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1.
2) Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU12 vo mt OPU2 c thc hin bng cch nh x cc tn hiu
ODTU12 vo mt trong bn khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU2 hoc vo hai (trong s tm)
khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU2: TSa v TSb vi 1 a <b 8.

136

3) Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU13 vo mt OPU3 c thc hin bng cch nh x tn hiu


ODTU13 vo 1 trong mi su khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3 hoc vo trong hai (ca
32) khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU3: TSa v TSb vi 1 a < b 32.
4) Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU23 vo mt OPU3 c thc hin bng cch nh x cc tn hiu
ODTU23 vo 4 trong s 16 khe lung TS 2.5G ty ca OPU3: TSa, TSb v TSc vi 1
a < b< c < d 16; hoc nh x vo 8 trong s 32 khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU3:
TSa, TSb,TSc, TSd, TSe, TSf, TSg v TSh vi 1 a < b < c < d < e < f < g < h 32.
Ghi ch : a, b, c, d, e, f, g v h khng nht thit phi l cc con s lin tip (a = i, b =
i+1, c = i+2, d = i+3, e=i+4, f=i+5, g=i+6, h=i+7); cc con s ny c th l chn tu
ngn nga s phn mnh bng thng.
Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU2.ts vo mt OPU2 c thc hin bi lp nh x cc tn hiu
ODTU2.ts vo trong ts (trong s 8) khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU2: TSa, TSb,TSc,
v TSp vi 1 a < b < < p 8.
Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU3.ts vo mt tn hiu OPU3 c thc hin bng cch lp nh
x tn hiu ODTU3.ts vo trong ts (ca 32) khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU3: TSa,
TSb, v TSq vi 1 a < b < < q 32.
Ghp mt tn hiu ODTU4.ts vo mt tn hiu OPU4 c thc hin bng cch lp nh
x tn hiu ODTU4.ts vo ts (ca 80) khe lung TS 1.25G ty ca OPU3: TSa, TSb,
v TSr vi 1 a < b < < r 80.
Tiu OPUk dnh cho cc tn hiu ghp ny bao gm : loi ti tin PT, nh danh cu trc ghp
MSI, nh danh a khung ca OPU4 (k = 4), tiu khe lung OPUk mang tiu ODTU v
ty thuc vo loi ODTU, mt hay nhiu byte RES (dnh cho tiu chun ha quc t trong
tng lai).
3.12.3.1 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU12 vo mt khe lung TS ca OPU2
Vo khe lung TS 2.5G : Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU12 c nh x vo mt byte thuc
vng ti tin ca mt khe lung TS 2.5G th # i (i = 1,2,3,4) ca OPU2, nh c ch ra
trong Hnh 3.83 (bn tri). Mt byte ca tiu ODTU12 c nh x vo mt byte
TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe lung TS 2.5G th # i ca OPU2.
137

Vo khe lung TS 1.25G : Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU12 c nh x vo mt byte


thuc vng ti tin ca mt trong 2 khe lung TS 1.25G th # A, B (A, B = 1,2, .., 8) ca
OPU2, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.83 (bn phi). Mt byte ca tiu ODTU12 c
nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe lung TS 1.25G th # a, b ca OPU2.
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU2 trong ct 15 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t
trong tng lai.

Hnh 3.83 (Fig 19-7/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU12 vo mt khe lung TS


2.5G ca OPU2 (tri) v hai khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2 (bn phi).

138

3.12.3.2 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU13 vo mt khe lung TS ca OPU3


Vo khe lung TS 2.5G : Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU13 c nh x vo mt byte thuc
vng ti tin ca mt khe lung TS 2.5G th # i (i = 1,2,..,16) ca OPU3, nh c ch ra
trong Hnh 3.84 (bn tri). Mt byte ca tiu ODTU13 c nh x vo mt byte
TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe lung TS 2.5G th # i ca OPU3.
Vo khe lung TS 1.25G : Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU13 c nh x vo mt byte
thuc vng ti tin ca mt trong 2 khe lung TS 1.25G th # A, B (A, B = 1,2, .., 8) ca
OPU3, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.84 (bn phi). Mt byte ca tiu ODTU13 c
nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe lung TS 1.25G th # a, b ca OPU3.
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU3 trong ct 15 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t
trong tng lai.

Hnh 3.84 (Fig 19-8/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU13 vo mt khe lung TS


2.5G ca OPU3 (tri) v hai khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 (bn phi).
139

3.12.3.3 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU23 vo 4 khe lung TS ca OPU3


Vo khe lung TS 2.5G :Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU23 c nh x vo mt byte thuc
vng ti tin ca mt trong s 4 khe lung TS 2.5G th # A,B,C,D (A,B,C,D =1,2,..,16)
ca OPU3, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.85 (bn tri). Mt byte ca tiu ODTU23
c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe lung TS 2.5G th # a,b,c,d ca
OPU3.
Vo khe lung TS 1.25G :Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU23 c nh x vo mt byte
thuc vng ti tin ca mt trong 8 khe lung TS 1.25G th # A, B, C, D, E,F, G, H
(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H = 1,2,..,32) ca OPU3, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.85 (bn phi).
Mt byte ca tiu ODTU23 c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe
lung TS 1.25G th # a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h ca OPU3.
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU3 trong ct 15 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t
trong tng lai.

140

Hnh 3.85 (Fig 19-9/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU23 vo 4 khe lung TS


2.5G (#A, #B, #C, #D vi A<B<C<D) ca OPU3 (trn) v 8 khe lung TS 1.25G (#A, #B,
#C, #D, #E, #F, #G, #H vi A<B<C<D<E<F<G<H) ca OPU3 (di).
3.12.3.4 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU01 vo mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1
Mt byte ca tn hiu ODTU01 c nh x vo mt byte thuc vng ti tin ca mt khe lung
TS 1.25G th # i (i = 1,2) ca OPU1, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.86 dnh cho mt nhm 4
hng ngoi ODTU01.
Mt byte ca tiu TSOH ca ODTU01 c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 16 ca khe
lung TS 1.25G th # i ca OPU1.
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU1 trong ct 15 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t
trong tng lai.

141

Hnh 3.86 (Fig 19-10/G.709/Y.1331)Thit lp nh x ca ODTU01(khng bao gm tiu


JOH) vo mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1.
3.12.3.5 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU2.ts vo ts khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2
Mt byte ca tn hiu ti tin ODTU2.ts c nh x vo mt byte thuc vng ti tin ca mt khe
lung TS 1.25G th # i (i = 1,..,ts) ca OPU2, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.87.
Mt byte ca tiu ca ODTU2.ts c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 15,16, hng t 1
n 3 ca khe lung TS 1.25G cui cng ca OPU2, (TS ny c phn b vo ODTU2.ts).
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU2 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.

142

Hnh 3.87(Fig 19-11/G.709/Y.1331) Hnh 12.11/G.709/Y.1331 Thit lp nh x ca


ODTU2.ts vo tskhe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2.
3.12.3.6 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU3.ts vo ts khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3
Mt byte ca tn hiu ti tin ODTU3.ts c nh x vo mt byte thuc vng ti tin ca mt khe
lung TS 1.25G th # i (i = 1,..,ts) ca OPU3, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.88.
Mt byte ca tiu ca ODTU3.ts c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 15,16, hng t 1
n 3 ca khe lung TS 1.25G cui cng ca OPU3, (TS ny c phn b vo ODTU3.ts).
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU3 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.

143

Hnh 3.88 (Fig 19-12/G.709/Y.1331)Thit lp nh x ca ODTU3.ts vo tskhe lung TS


1.25G ca OPU3.
3.12.3.7 Thit lp nh x tn hiu ODTU4.ts vo ts khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU4
Mt byte ca tn hiu ti tin ODTU4.ts c nh x vo mt byte thuc vng ti tin ca mt khe
lung TS 1.25G th # i (i = 1,..,ts) ca OPU4, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 3.89.
Mt byte ca tiu ca ODTU4.ts c nh x vo mt byte TSOH trong ct 15,16, hng t 1
n 3 ca khe lung TS 1.25G cui cng ca OPU4, (TS ny c phn b vo ODTU4.ts).
Cc byte TSOH cn li ca OPU4 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.
144

Hnh 3.89(Fig 19-13/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU4.ts vo tskhe lung TS


1.25 G ca OPU4.
3.12.4 Tiu ghp knh (Multiplex Overhead) ca OPUk v tiu nhi (Justification
Overhead) ca ODTU
Tiu ghp knh ca OPUk (k=1,2,3,4) gm c s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI
(Multiplex Structure Identifier) v tiu ODTU. Tiu ghp knh ca OPUk (k=4) c s
nhn dng a khung OMFI (OPU Multi-Frame Identifier) ca OPU. Cc v tr tiu OPUk
MSI c trnh by trong Hnh 3.90, 3.91, 3.92 v v tr tiu OMFI c trnh by trong Hnh
3.92.
145

Tiu ODTUjk
Tiu ODTUjk c cha tiu nhi AMP, bao gm cc tn hiu iu khin nhi JC
(Justification Control) v c hi nhi m NJO(Negative Justification Opportunity) trong ct 16
ca hng 1 n 4.
Byte tiu ODTUjk ti ct 15 v hng 1, 2 v 3 c dnh ring cho tiu chun ha quc t
trong tng lai RES.
Tiu ODTUjk bao gm 3 byte iu khin nhi JC v 1 byte c hi nhi m NJO trn u.
Cc v tr tiu JC v NJO c trnh by trong Hnh 3.90 v 3.91. Ngoi ra, hai hoc n ln
ca 2 byte tiu nhi dng ( PJO1 , PJO2 ) nm trong vng ti tin ODTUjk . Lu rng cc
v tr PJO1 v PJO2 l a khung , ph thuc khe lung ca ODUj v OPUk.
Cc PJO1 cho mt ODU1 trong khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU2 hoc OPU3 th # i (i : 1 .. 4 hoc
1 .. 16 tng ng ), nm ct u tin ca khe lung TS 2.5G th # i ca OPUk (ct 16 + I ca
OPUk) v PJO2 nm ct th hai ca khe lung TS 2.5G th # i ca OPUk (ct 20 + i ca
OPU2, ct 32 + I ca OPU3) trong khung # i ca a khung c 4 hoc 16 khung.
V d 1:
ODU1 trong TS (1) ca OPU2 hoc OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +1 = 17, PJO2 trong ct 20
+1 = 21 ( OPU2 ) v 32 +1 = 33 ( OPU3 ).
ODU1 trong TS (4) ca OPU2: PJO1 trong ct 16 +4 = 20, PJO2 trong ct 20 +4 = 24.
ODU1 trong TS (16) ca OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +16 = 32 , PJO2 trong ct 32 +16 = 48.
4 PJO1s cho mt ODU2 trong khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3 th # a, # b , c # v # d nm trong
ct u tin ca khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3 th #a (ct 16 + a ca OPU3) trong cc khung #
a, # b , c # v # d ca a khungc 16 khung. Bn PJO2 cho mt ODU2 trong khe lung TS 2.5G
ca OPU3 th # a, # b , c # v # d nm trong ct u tin ca trong khe lung TS 2.5G ca
OPU3 th # b (ct 16 + b ca OPU3) trong cc khung # a, # b , c # v # d ca a khung c 16
khung. Hnh 19 -14A trnh by mt v d vi 4 ODU2s trong OPU3 c nh x vo khe lung
TS 2.5G ( 1,5,9,10 ) , ( 2,3,11,12 ) , ( 4,14,15,16 ) v ( 6,7,8,13 ).
V d 2:
ODU2 trong TS ( 1,2,3,4 ) ca OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +1 = 17, PJO2 trong ct 16 +2 =
18.
146

ODU2 trong TS ( 13,14,15,16 ) ca OPU3 : PJO1 trong ct 16 +13 = 29, PJO2 trong ct
16 +14 = 30.
Cc PJO1 cho mt ODU0 trong khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1 th # i (i : 1,2) nm ct u
tin ca khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1 th # i (ct 16 + I ca OPU1) v PJO2 nm ct th
hai ca khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1 th # i (ct 18 + I ca OPU1) trong khung th # i ca a
khung c 2 khung.
Cc PJO1 cho mt ODU1 trong trong khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2 hoc OPU3 th # a v b
(a: 1 .. 7 hoc 1 .. 31 tng ng ; b : 2 .. 8 hoc 2 .. 32 tng ng) nm ct u tin ca khe
lung TS 1.25G ca OPUk th #a (ct 16 + a ca OPUk) v PJO2 nm ct u tin ca khe
lung TS 1.25G ca OPUk th # b (ct 16 + b ca OPUk) trong cc khung # a v #b ca a
khung c 8 hoc 32 khung.
V d 3:
ODU1 trong TS (1,2) ca OPU2 hoc OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +1 = 17, PJO2 trong ct
16 +2 = 18.
ODU1 trong TS ( 7,8 ) ca OPU2: PJO1 trong ct 16 +7 = 23, PJO2 trong ct 16 +8 =
24.
ODU1 trong TS ( 31,32 ) ca OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +31 = 47 , PJO2 trong ct 16 +32
= 48.
8 PJO1s cho mt ODU2 trong khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 th # a, # b, c #, # d # e, f #, # # g
v h nm ct u tin ca khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 th #a (ct 16 + a ca OPU3) trong
cc khung # a, # b, c #, # d # e, f #, # # g v h ca a khung c 32 khung.
8 PJO2s cho mt ODU2 trong khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 th # a, # b, c #, # d # e, f #, # # g
v h ang nm ct u tin ca khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 th # b (ct 16 + b ca OPU3)
trong khung # a, # b, c #, # d # e, f #, # # g v h ca ca a khung c 32 khung.
Hnh 19-14B trnh by mt v d c 2 ODU2 v 2 ODU1 trong OPU3 c nh x vo cc khe
lung TS 1.25G(1,5,9,10,17,19,20,21), (25,26,27,28,29 , 30,31,32), (2,3) v (4,24).
V d 4:
ODU2 trong TS (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8) ca OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +1 = 17, PJO2 trong ct
16 +2 = 18.
147

ODU2 trong TS (25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32) ca OPU3: PJO1 trong ct 16 +25 = 41, PJO2


trong ct 16 +26 = 42.

Hnh 3.90 (Figure19-14A/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi


ch mt ODTUjk (PT = 20)
148

Hnh 3.91(Figure19-14B/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi


ch mt ODTUjk (PT = 21)
149

Tiu ODTUk.ts
Tiu ODTUk.ts cha tiu nhi GMP , gm c :
1) 3 byte iu khin nhi (JC1, JC2, JC3); JC1, JC2, JC3 mang 14-bit thng tin GMP Cm v
khch hng/LO ODU
2) 3 byte ca iu khin nhi (JC4, JC5, JC6 ); JC4, JC5, JC6 mang 10-bit thng tin GMP
C8D.
V tr cc tiu trn JC1, JC2, JC3, JC4, JC5 v JC6 c trnh by trong Hnh 3.92.

Hnh 3.92(Figure19-14C/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi


mt ODTUjk (PT = 21)
150

3.12.4.1 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) ca
OPUk
Tiu ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSIca OPUk (k=1,2,3,4) thc hin m ha cu
trc ghp knh ODU trong OPU. MSI nm vng nh x ca cc tn hiu PSI (tham kho
Hnh12.14A cho v tr MSI trong OPUk vi PT = 20, tham kho Hnh12.14B v Hnh12.14C
cho v tr MSI trong OPUk vi PT = 21). MSI c mt chiu di c th dnh cho OPU (OPU1: 2
byte, OPU2: 4 hoc 8 byte, OPU3: 16 hoc 32 byte, OPU4: 80 byte) v khe lung TS (2.5G,
1.25G)
v ch ra ni dung ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca mt OPU. Mt byte MSI c s dng
cho mi TS.
3.12.4.1.1 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) ca
OPU2- vi loi ti tin 20 (PT=20)
i vi 4 khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU2, 4 byte ca PSI c s dng (PSI [2] .. PSI [5]) c
chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh 3.92 v Hnh 3.93. MSI cho bit ni dung
ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU2. Mt byte PSI c s dng cho mi khe lung TS.
-Loi ODTU trong bit 1 v 2 c c nh gi tr 00, ch ra s hin din ca mt ODTU12.
-Cng lung th # cho bit s cng ca ODU1 ang c vn chuyn trong khe lung TS 2.5G
ny; s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l c nh, s cng bng s khe lung TS.

Hnh 3.93(Figure 19-15/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU2 loi ti tin PT= 20


3.12.4.1.2 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) ca
OPU3- vi loi ti tin 20 (PT=20)
i vi 16 khe lung TS 2.5G ca OPU3, 16 byte ca PSI c s dng (PSI [2] .. PSI [17]) c
chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh 3.90, 3.94 v 3.95. MSI cho bit ni dung
ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU3. Mt byte PSI c s dng cho mi khe lung TS.
151

Loi ODTU trong bit 1 v 2 ch ra s hin din ca mt ODTU13 hoc ODTU23 trong TS
ca OPU3. Loi ODTU mc nh l ODTU13, hin din khi hoc mt khe lung TS mang
mt ODTU13, hoc khng c b tr mang mt ODTU.
Cng lung th # trong bit t 3 n 8, ch ra cho bit s cng ca ODTU13/23 ang c
vn chuyn trong khe lung TS 2.5G ny;
i vi trng hp ODTU13, s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l c nh, s cng
bng s khe lung TS.
i vi trng hp ODTU23, s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l thay i c. Khe
lung TS ca ODTU23 c nh s t 1 n 4.

Hnh 3.94(Figure 19-16A/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU3 loi ti tin PT= 20

152

Hnh 3.95 (Figure 19-16B/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU3 loi ti tin PT= 20


3.12.4.1.3 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (OPU1 Multiplex Structure Identifier)
ca OPU1- vi loi ti tin 20 (PT=20)
i vi 2 khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1, 2 byte ca PSI c s dng (PSI [2],PSI [3]) c
chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh Hnh 3.90 v Hnh 3.96. MSI cho bit ni
dung ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU1. Mt byte PSI c s dng cho mi khe lung
TS.
-Loi ODTU trong bit 1 v 2, c c nh l 2 tr bit 11, ch ra s hin din ca mt ODTU01.
-Cng lung th # trong bit t 3 n 8, ch ra cho bit s cng ca ODTU01 ang c vn
chuyn trong khe lung TS 1.25G ny; s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l c nh, s cng
bng s khe lung TS.

Hnh 3.96 (Figure 19-17/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU1 loi ti tin PT= 20


3.12.4.1.4 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) ca
OPU4- vi loi ti tin 21 (PT=21)
i vi 80 khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU4, 80 byte ca PSI c s dng (t PSI [2] n PSI
[81]) c chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh Hnh 3.92, Hnh 3.97 v Hnh 3.98.
153

MSI cho bit ni dung ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU4. Mt byte PSI c s dng cho
mi khe lung TS.
- Bit ch th s chim v tr ca TS (occupation bit) ch c 1 bit u tin, cho bit khe lung TS
c xc nh v tr hoc cha xc nh.
- Cng lung th # trong bit t 2 n 8, ch ra cho bit s cng ca ODTU4.ts ang c vn
chuyn trong khe lung TS 1.25G ny; s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l c nh, s cng
bng s khe lung TS 1.25G. i vi trng hp ODTU4.ts, mang 2 TS hoc nhiu hn, s gn
s ca cng cho khe lung TS l thay i c. Khe lung TS 1.25G ca ODTU4.ts c nh
s t 1 n 80. Gi tr c thit lp tt c l bit 0, khi bit ch th s chim v tr ca TS c gi tr
0 (khe lung TS l khng xc nh v tr).

Hnh 3.97 (Figure 19-18A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI TS 1.25G ca OPU4Loi PT= 21

Hnh 3.98 (Figure 19-18B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU4Loi PT= 21


154

3.12.4.1.5 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) ca
OPU2- vi loi ti tin 21 (PT=21)
i vi 8 khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2, 8 byte ca PSI c s dng (t PSI [2] n PSI [9])
c chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh Hnh 3.91, Hnh 3.99 v Hnh 3.100.
MSI cho bit ni dung ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU2. Mt byte PSI c s dng cho
mi khe lung TS.
-Loi ODTU trong bit 1 v 2 ch ra s hin din ca mt ODTU12 hoc ODTU2.ts trong TS
1.25G ca OPU2. Loi ODTU mc nh l 11 ( ngha l cha nh v tr), hin din khi mt khe
lung TS khng c b tr mang mt ODTU.
- Cng lung th # trong bit t 3 n 8, ch ra cho bit s cng ca ODTU ang c vn
chuyn trong khe lung TS 1.25G ny; s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l thay i c.
Khe lung TS 1.25G ca ODTU12 c nh s t 1 n 4, ODTU4.ts c nh s t 1 n 8.
Gi tr c thit lp tt c l bit 0, khi loi ODTU c gi tr 11 (khe lung TS l khng xc nh
v tr).

Hnh 3.99 (Figure 19-19A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU2Loi PT= 21

155

Hnh 3.100 (Figure 19-19B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU2Loi PT= 21


3.12.4.1.6 Ch s nhn dng cu trc ghp knh MSI (Multiplex Structure Identifier) vi khe
lung TS 1.25G (loi ti tin PT=21) ca OPU3
i vi 32 khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3, 32 byte ca PSI c s dng (t PSI [2] n PSI
[33]) c chc nng nh MSI byte, c trnh by trong Hnh Hnh 3.91, Hnh 3.101 v Hnh
3.102. MSI cho bit ni dung ODTU ca mi khe lung TS ca OPU3. Mt byte PSI c s
dng cho mi khe lung TS.
-Loi ODTU trong bit 1 v 2 ch ra s hin din ca mt ODTU13 hoc ODTU3.ts trong TS
1.25G ca OPU3. Loi ODTU mc nh l 11 (ngha l cha nh v tr), hin din khi mt khe
lung TS khng c b tr mang mt ODTU.
-Cng lung th # trong bit t 3 n 8, ch ra cho bit s cng ca ODTU ang c vn chuyn
trong khe lung TS 1.25G ny; s gn s ca cng cho khe lung TS l thay i c. Khe
lung TS 1.25G ca ODTU13 c nh s t 1 n 16, ODTU23 c nh s t 1 n 4 v
ODTU2.ts c nh s t 1 n 32. Gi tr c thit lp tt c l bit 0, khi loi ODTU c gi
tr 11 (khe lung TS l khng xc nh v tr).

156

Hnh 3.101(Figure 19-20A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU3Loi PT= 21

Hnh 3.102 (Figure 19-20B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU3Loi PT= 21


3.12.4.2 Tiu dnh ring nhn dng cu trc ti tin RES (Reserved overhead) ca
OPUk
Cc byte 253 (OPU1), 251 hoc 247 (OPU2), 239 hoc 223 (OPU3) v 175 (OPU4) c dnh
ring trong PSI ca OPUk tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai. Cc byte ny c t ti
PSI [1] v PSI [3] (OPU1), PSI [6] hoc PSI [10] (OPU2), PSI [18] hoc PSI [34] (OPU3), PSI
[82] (OPU4 ) cho PSI [255] ca tiu OPUk. Cc byte ny c thit lp tt c l Zero.
3.12.4.3 Tiu nhi ghp knh JOH (Multiplex Justification Overhead) ca OPUk
Hai th tc nh x c s dng nh x ODUj, hoc bng th tc nh x khng ng b
AMP hoc bng th tc nh x tng qut GMP vo ODTUjk hoc ODTUk.ts, tng ng.
AMP s dng ODUj v nhi c nh cho OPUk v nh ngha c hi nhi (ODTUjk).

157

GMP s dng ODUj v nhi c lp cho OPUk v nh ngha c hi nhi (ODTUk.ts).


V tr nhi trong mt ODTUk.ts c xc nh bng cng thc c quy nh trong
19.4.3.2/G.709.
3.12.4.3.1 Th tc lp nh x khng ng b (AMP)
Tiu nhi ghp knh JOH nm ct 16 ca OPUk (k = 1,2,3) nh c ch ra trong Hnh
3.90 v 3.91( Fig12.14A v 12.14B) bao gm 3 byte iu khin nhi JC v mt byte c hi nhi
dng NJO. Ba byte JC c t ti hng 1, 2 v 3. Byte NJO nm hng 4.
Bit 7 v 8 ca mi byte JC c s dng iu khin s nhi. 6 bit khc c dnh ring cho
tiu chun ha quc t trong tng lai.
3.12.4.3.2 Th tc nh x tng qut GMP (Generic Mapping Procedure)
Tiu nhi ghp knh JOH dnh cho GMP bao gm hai nhm 3 byte iu khin nhi JC; tng
qut (JC1 , JC2 , JC3 ) v xc nh nh x khch hng vo LO ODU ( JC4 , JC5 , JC6 ). Xem
Hnh 3.92.
Cc byte JC1 , JC2 v JC3 bao gm:
1) mt trng Cm 14-bit (bit C1, C2, .. , C14 ) ,
2) mt trng ch s tng II (Increment Indicator) ch 1-bit,
3) mt trng ch s gim DI ch c 1 -bit v
4) mt trng CRC-8 c 8-bit. CRC-8 l m kim tra li cho cc trng JC1 , JC2 v JC3.
Cc byte JC4 , JC5 v JC6 bao gm :
1) mt trng CnD c 10-bit (bit D1, D2, .. , D10 );
2) trng CRC-5 c 5-bit t bit 4 n bit 8 (l m kim tra li cho cc trng JC4, JC5 v
JC6) v;
3) 9 bit dnh cho tiu chun quc t tng lai ( RES ).
Gi tr ca m trong Cm l 8ts (l s khe lung TS chim bi ODTUk.ts).
Gi tr ca n i din cho chi tit nh thi (timing granularity) ca tham s Cn ca GMP; n
cng c mt trong CnD. Gi tr ca n l 8.
Gi tr ca Cm iu khin s phn b ca cc nhm gm ts byte d liu LO ODUj a vo cc
nhm gm ts byte ti tin ODTUk.ts.

158

Gi tr ca CnD cung cp thng tin thi gian b sung n-bit. Thng tin thi gian ny l cn thit
iu khin cht lng rung pha v wander (jitter v wander) ca cc tn hiu LO ODUj .
Gi tr ca Cn c tnh nh sau : Cn(t) = m x Cm(t) + ( CnD(t) - CnD(t-1) ).
Ghi ch : Gi tr CnD l mt ch th hiu qa ca s lng d liu trong hng i o ca b nh
x m n khng c th gi i trong a khung, v lng d liu t hn mt t M- byte. i vi
trng hp, gi tr ca CnD trong mt a khung th t b hng, gi tr ca CnD c th phc
hi trong a khung tip theo th t +1.
3.12.4.4 Tiu nhn dng a khung OPU OMFI (OPU Multi Frame Identifier overhead)
Mt byte tiu nhn dng a khung OPU4 l OMFI, c nh ngha trong dng 4, ct 16 ca
tiu OPU4 (Hnh 3.103). Gi tr ca cc bit 2 n 8 ca byte OMFI s c tng ln mi
khung OPU4,
cung cp mt a khung c 80 khung dnh cho ghp LO ODU vo OPU4.
Ch : - y l mt tu chn sp xp ng b v tr OMFI = 0 vi v tr MFAS = 0 c mi
1280 chu k khung (1280 l bi s chung nh nht ca 80 v 256).

Hnh 3.103 (Fig 19-21/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu nhn dng a khung OMFI ca OPU4
159

3.12.5 nh x ODUj vo ODTUjk


nh x cc tn hiu ODUj (c dung sai tc bit ln n 20 ppm) vo tn hiu ODTUjk ( ( j,
k)= { (0,1), (1,2) , (1,3) , (2, 3) } ) c thc hin nh mt nh x khng ng b.
Ch : - dung sai tc bit ti a gia OPUk v tn hiu ng h ODUj, c cung cp bi th
tc nh x khng ng b ny, l :
1) -130 n +65 ppm ( ODU0 vo OPU1 ) ,
2) -113 n +83 ppm (ODU1 vo OPU2),
3) -96 n +101 ppm (ODU1 vo OPU3) v
4) -95 n +101 ppm (ODU2 vo OPU3).
Tn hiu ODUj c m rng thm tiu ng b khung FAS (Frame Alignment) theo quy
nh ti mc 15.6.2.1 v 15.6.2.2 v mt nh dng nhi tt c bit 0 trong vng tiu OTUj
(xem Hnh 3.104).

Hnh 3.104 (Figure 19-22/G.709/Y.1331)Cu trc khung ODUj m rng (Extended


ODUj) (bao gm FA OH, v vng OTUj OH cha cc bit nhi c nh l bit 0)
Tn hiu ODUj m rng thch ng vi ng h ODUk ni b thit b, bng nh x khng ng
b vi s nhi dng/m/zero (pnz) l -1/ 0 / +1 / +2.
Mt byte ODUj m rng c nh x vo mt byte ODTUjk .
Qu trnh lp nh x khng ng b to ra JC, NJO , PJO1 v PJO2 theo Bng 3.34. Qu trnh
gii nh x s ly thng tin x l trong cc byte JC, NJO , PJO1 v PJO2 theo Bng 3.34. a
s (2/3) byte JC c s dng a ra quyt nh nhi trong qu trnh gii nh x bo v
chng li li xy ra ti mt trong ba tn hiu JC.

160

Bng 3.34(Table 19-7/G.709/Y.1331) S to lp v tch JC, NJO, PJO1 v PJO2


JC

NJO

PJO1

PJO2

ngha

78
0 0 byte nhi
byte d liu
byte d liu
Khng nhi (0)
0 1 byte d liu
byte d liu
byte d liu
Nhi m (1)
1 0* byte nhi
byte nhi
byte nhi
Nhi dng kp (+2)
1 1 byte nhi
byte nhi
byte d liu
Nhi dng (+1)
*) Ghi ch : m ny khng c s dng cho trng hp ODU0 a vo OPU1.
Gi tr cha trong NJO, PJO1 v PJO2 khi chng c s dng lm byte nhi th tt c bit
u l 0.
Phn thu b qua cc gi tr cha trong cc byte NJO , PJO1 v PJO2 ny, khi chng c s
dng lm byte nhi.
Trong trng hp tn hiu khch hng ODUj n b s c (v d , c cnh bo OTUj - LOF ), tn
hiu khch hng ODUj n b s c s thay th bng tn hiu ODUj-AIS theo quy nh ti mc
16.5.1/G.709. Sau tn hiu ODUj-AIS c nh x vo ODTUjk .
i vi trng hp cc ODUj thu c t u ra ca mt card ma trn chuyn mch (chc nng
kt ni ODU), tn hiu n thay bng ( trng hp ma trn kt ni m) cc tn hiu ODUj-OCI
theo quy nh ti 16.5.2/G.709. Tn hiu ODUj-OCI ny sau c nh x vo ODTUjk.
Cc OPUk v do tn hiu ODTUjk (k=1,2,3 ) c to ra t mt tn hiu ng h a phng
( vi gii hn quy nh trong Bng 17-3/G.709 ), cho nn c lp vi tn hiu ca khch hng
ODUj (j = 0,1,2 ).
Cc tn hiu ODUj (j = 0,1,2 ) c nh x vo ODTUjk (k = 1,2,3 ) s dng mt vi s nhi
dng/m/zero (pnz) l -1/ 0 / +1 / +2.
Gii nh x cc tn hiu ODUj t cc tn hiu ODTUjk ( ( ( j, k) = { (0,1), (1,2) , (1,3) , (2,3) )
c thc hin bng cch tch cc tn hiu ODUj m rng t OPUk di s iu khin ca tiu
(JC, NJO, PJO1, PJO2 ).
Ghi ch: - i vi trng hp cc tn hiu ODUj l tn hiu u ra nh l mt tn hiu
OTUj , ng b khung ca cc tn hiu ODUj m rng c tch ra s c khi phc
cho php nh x ng b khung ca ODUj vo tn hiu OTUj.
161

Khi tn hiu n ODUk/OPUk b s c (v d , trong trng hp nhn cnh bo ODUk-AIS,


ODUk- LCK, ODUk - OCI ), tn hiu ODUj - AIS (theo quy nh ti 16.5.1/G.709) c to ra
thay th cho tn hiu ODUj b mt.
3.12.5.1 nh x ODU1 vo ODTU12
Mt byte ca tn hiu ODU1 c nh x vo mt byte thng tin ca ODTU12 (xem Hnh
3.105). C mi 4 khung OPU2, hoc l nhi dng hoc nhi m c thc hin. Khung c
nhi c thc hin, lin quan n TSOH ca TS 2.5G ca OPU2 trong ODTU12 c nh
x (Hnh 3.76). Hnh 3.105 cho thy trng hp nh x trong TS1 2.5G ca OPU2.
Mt byte ca tn hiu ODU1 c nh x vo mt byte thng tin ca ODTU12 (xem Hnh
3.106). C mi 8 khung OPU2, hoc l nhi dng hoc nhi m c thc hin. Khung c
nhi c thc hin, lin quan n TSOH ca TS 1.25G ca OPU2 trong ODTU12 c nh
x (Hnh 3.76). Hnh 3.105 cho thy trng hp nh x trong TS2 v TS4 1.25G ca OPU2.

162

Hnh 3.105 (Fig 19-23A/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU12 v nh x ca ODU1


(trng hp nh x trong TS1 2.5G)
Bng 3. 35(Table19-7/G.709/Y.1331)S pht v rt ra tin tc ca cc byte JC, NJO, PJO1
v PJO2

163

Hnh 3.106 (Fig19-1119-23B/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU12 v nh x ca


ODU1 (trng hp nh x trong TS1 2.5G)
3.12.5.2 nh x ODU1 vo ODTU13
Mt byte ca tn hiu ODU1 c nh x vo mt byte thng tin ca ODTU13 (xem Hnh
3.107). Ct 119 ca ODTU13 c nhi c nh. Mt nh dng ton bit 0 c chn vo cc
byte nhi c nh .C mi 16 khung OPU3, hoc l nhi dng hoc nhi m c thc hin.
Khung c nhi c thc hin, lin quan n TSOH ca TS 2.5G ca OPU3 trong ODTU13
c nh x (Hnh 12.2). Hnh 3.107 cho thy trng hp nh x trong TS3 2.5G ca OPU3.

164

Mt byte ca tn hiu ODU1 c nh x vo mt byte thng tin ca ODTU13 (xem Hnh


3.108). C mi 2 ln 32 khung OPU3, hoc l nhi dng hoc nhi m c thc hin. Khung
c nhi c thc hin, lin quan n TSOH ca TS 1.25G ca OPU3 trong ODTU13 c
nh x (Hnh 3.77). Hnh 3.107 cho thy trng hp nh x trong TS2 v TS25 1.25G ca
OPU3.

Hnh 3.107(Fig 19-24A/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU13 v nh x ca ODU1


(trng hp nh x trong TS3 2.5G)

165

Hnh 3.108(Fig 19-24B/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU13 v nh x ca ODU1


(trng hp nh x trong TS2 v TS25 1.25G)
3.12.5.3 nh x ODU2 vo ODTU23
Thc hin tng t nh 3.12.5.2.
3.12.5.4 nh x ODU0 vo ODTU01
Thc hin tng t.
166

3.12.6 nh x ODUj vo ODTUk.ts


nh x cc tn hiu ODUj (j = 0, 1, 2, 2e, 3, flex) (c dung sai tc bit ln n 100 ppm) vo
tn hiu ODTUk.ts (k = 2,3,4; ts = M) c thc hin nh mt nh x ng b tng qut GMP.
Cc OPUk v do cc tn hiu ODTUk.ts (k = 2,3,4 ) c to ra t mt ng h ni ( trong
gii hn quy nh trong Bng 17-3/G.709 ) , cho nn c lp ca tn hiu khch hng ODUj.
Tn hiu ODUj c m rng vi tiu FA (Frame Alignment) theo quy nh ti
15.6.2.1/G.709 v 15.6.2.2/G.709 v tt c bit 0 trong trng tiu OTUj (xem Hnh 3.104) .
Tn hiu ODUj m rng c thch ng vi OPUk / ODTUk.ts to ra t ng h ni bng th
tc nh x GMP. Cc gi tr ca n trong c(t) v C( t) c quy nh ti Ph lc D/G709. Gi tr
ca M l s khe lung b chim bi ODUj ; ODTUk.ts = ODTUk.M.
Nhm M byte ODUj m rng lin tip c nh x vo mt nhm M byte ODTUk.M lin
tip.
Qu trnh nh x GMP i vi trng hp tn hiu ODUj (j = 0,1,2,2 e, 3, flex) to ra mt ln
cho mi a khung ODTUk.M thng tin Cm(t) v C(t) theo Ph lc D/G.709 v m ha cc thng
tin ny trong tiu iu khin nhi JC1/JC2/JC3 v JC4/JC5/JC6 ca ODTUk.ts. Qu trnh
gii nh x Cm(t) v CnD(t) t JC1/JC2/JC3 v JC4/JC5/JC6 v tch Cm(t) v CnD(t) theo Ph
lc D. CRC-8 c s dng bo v chng li li trong JC1, JC2, JC3. CRC-5 s c s
dng bo v chng li li trong JC4, JC5, JC6.
Khi tn hiu ODUj n b s c, tn hiu n s c thay th bi tn hiu ODUj-AIS theo
quy nh ti 16.5.1/G.709. Sau ODUj-AIS c nh x vo ODTUk.M.
i vi trng hp cc ODUj nhn c t ng ra ca mt ma trn chuyn mch( c chc nng
kt ni ODU), cc tn hiu n (trng hp ma trn kt ni m) s c thay th bi tn hiu
ODUj-OCI theo quy nh ti 16.5.2/G.709. Tn hiu ODUj-OCI ny sau c nh x vo
ODTUk.M.
3.12.6.1 nh x ODUj vo ODTU2.M
Nhm M byte k tip ca tn hiu ODUj m rng (j = 0, flex) c nh x vo mt nhm M
byte k tip ca vng ti tin ODTU2.M di s iu khin ca cc c ch iu khin d

167

liu/nhi GMP. Tng nhm M byte trong vng ti tin ODTU2.M c th hoc mang M byte
ODU, hoc thc hin M byte nhi.
Gi tr ca cc byte nhi c thit lp tt c bng bit 0.
Cc nhm M byte trong vng ti tin ODTU2.M c nh s 1-15.232.
Vic nh s byte ti tin ODTU2.M cho khi M-byte (m-bit) GMP c trnh by trong Hnh
3.109. Trong hng 1 ca a khung ODTU2.M, M-byte u tin s c dn nhn 1, Mbytes tip
theo s c dn nhn 2, vv..

Hnh 3.109(Figure 19-27/G.709/Y.1331)nh s byte ti tin ODTU2.M cho khi Mbyte(m-bit) GMP
Bng 3.36(Table 19-8/G.709/Y.1331 - Cm v Cn (n = 8) nh x ODUj vo ODTU2.M )

3.12.6.2 nh x ODUj vo ODTU3.M


Thc hin tng t.
3.12.6.3 nh x ODUj vo ODTU4.M
Thc hin tng t.
168

3.13. Cc phng thc nh x tn hiu ca OTN


3.13.1 Gii thiu
Ci tin gn y cho mng OTN gii quyt nhu cu pht trin cung cp mt lp vn ti gi
d liu v cho cc mng nh hng theo d liu. Nhng ci tin bao gm nh ngha cc tc
mi trong h thng phn cp OTN nh ODU0 cho GbE v Fibre Channel -100, ODU2e cho
10GbE v FC-1200, v ODU/OTU4 cho 100GbE. Ngoi ra, ODUflex cng c nh ngha
vn chuyn khch hng c tc bit khng i CBR (Constant Bit Rate) vi cc tc trn
2.5Gbit/s v cho dng gi tin c ng gi GFP.
Nhng b sung mi c kt qu trong cc tnh hung lp nh x client/server c yu cu di thch
ng tc nhiu hn c x l vi th tc nh x khng ng b AMP (Asynchronous
Mapping Procedure) hoc th tc nh x ng b bit BMP (Bit-synchronous Mapping
Procedure). Kt qu l cc Th tc nh x tng qut GMP (Generic Mapping Procedure)
c nh ngha cung cp kh nng nh x tn hiu bt k ca khch hng vo my ch bt
k bt k chnh lch tc ca chng, my ch c cung cp nhanh hn.
Tuy cc khi nim c bn tng t nh AMP, nhng cc tiu chun k thut ca GMP khc
nhau ng k trong cc thut ton nhi v bo hiu. Cc kch bn nh x/ghp knh ca AMP
hoc BMP vn khng thay i, trong khi GMP xy dng nhiu kch bn mi p ng cho vic
phi thch ng phm vi ln hn ca chnh lch tc khch hng v khung cha OTN.
3.13.1.1 Khi nim thit lp nh x (mapping) v ghp knh (multiplexing) trong OTN
Trong mng OTN, mt khung OPUk c th cha :
1) Hoc ch mt tn hiu khch hng duy nht khng c nh dng khung OTN. Trong
trng hp ny, mt tn hiu khch hng c nh x vo ton b khung OPUk.
2) Hoc cha nhiu khung ODUj c tc thp hn. Ti tin khung OPUk c phn chia
thnh cc khe lung TS (Tributary Slot). Mi mt ODUj c tc thp hn OPUk s
c nh x vo mt n v lung (Tributary Unit) c tn gi l ODTU. Mi mt ODTU
chim mt hoc nhiu khe lung TS. Cc ODTUs sau c ghp vo cc khe lung
TS ca OPUk c tc cao hn.

169

Trong c hai trng hp, cc th tc nh x c s dng phi gii quyt chnh lch tc bt
k.
Cc khch hng c tc bit khng i CBR c nh x trong sut vo mt khung OPUk v
khng phn nh t r rng c yu cu. Do , b bit lin tip ca khch hng c nh x
da trn kch thc ca khung OPUk. Khi lp nh x ODUjs c tc thp hn vo ODTUs,
tuy nhin, b cc byte ca ODUj c nh x vo cng mt s byte ca ODTU.
Khi mt tn hiu khch hng c nh x vo mt khung OPUk, tn ti 2 kh nng thch ng tc
:
u tin, c th kha tc ca khung OPUk vi tc tn hiu khch hng, nh vy s
thch ng tc r rng l khng cn thit.
Th hai, tc ca khung OPUk c th c lp vi tc tn hiu khch hng, khi
i hi mt c ch cho php mt s t ca ca khung OPUk c th cha hoc byte d
liu, hoc cc byte nhi cn thit. Trong trng hp ghp ODUj vo OPUk, cc tc
ODTU c ngun gc t cc OPUk v do khng th b kha cho mi ODUj ring r.
Khi , mt c ch thch ng tc lun lun c yu cu.
3.13.1.2 Th tc nh x ng b bit BMP (Bit-synchronous Mapping Procedure)
BMP l c ch nh x n gin nht lin quan n vic khng thc hin c ch nhi thch
ng vi tc d liu khch hng. Th tc nh x BMP c s dng nu tn hiu ng h
dng to lp khung OPUk c rt ra t tn hiu khch hng.
Khi s dng BMP nh x mt tn hiu khch hng vo khung OPUk, tn hiu server chi tit
(granularity) lun lun l 1 byte. Do , 8 bit lin tip ca tn hiu khch hng c t trong
mi byte ti tin ca khung OPUk. Tt c cc byte ti tin ca khung OPUk lun lun mang theo
d liu khch hng.
Vic gii m cho cc byte iu khin nhi JC cho th tc nh x BMP trnh by trong Hnh
3.110.

170

Hnh 3.110: Gii m cc byte iu khin nhi JC cho th tc BMP


Cc v d nh x BMP ca khung tn hiu OTN c trnh by sau y.
V d 1 : Thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G (c dung
sai tc bit ln n 20 ppm) vo mt OPUk(k = 1,2,3) c th c thc hin theo th
tc lp nh x ng b bit BMP.
V d 2 : Thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (c dung sai tc bit ln n
100 ppm) vo mt OPUk(k = 2e) c thc hin bng th tc BMP.
ng h ca OPUk thit lp ng b bit BMP c ngun gc t cc tn hiu ca khch hng.
Trong thi gian tn hiu khch hng n b s c (v d, trong trng hp mt tn hiu u vo),
tc bit tn hiu ti tin OPUk phi nm trong gii hn quy nh v khng xy ra gin on tn
s hoc mt lin tc pha ca khung. S ti ng b ho li tn hiu khch hng c thc hin
m khng khng xy ra gin on tn s hoc mt lin tc pha ca khung.
3.13.1.3 Th tc nh x Khng ng b (Asynchronous Mapping Procedure)
Nh tn gi, AMP l mt c ch nh x mt tn hiu khch hng vo mt khung OPUk khi hai
tc l khng ng b hoc c lp.
Trong cc kch bn ny, c tn hiu khch hng v khung OPUk c tc bit bnh thng danh
nh l tng ng nhng mi tn hiu li c mt dung sai khc nhau. Kt qu l, tc tn
hiu khch hng c th cao hn so vi tc khung OPUk hoc tc khung OPUk cao hn so
vi tc tn hiu khch hng. thch ng iu ny, c ch nh x AMP c c 2 c ch nhi
l nhi dng v nhi m.
Hnh 3.111 cho thy cc chi tit ca tn hiu khch hng CBR nh x vo OPUk (l ti tin mang
mt phn ca khung ODUk ) bng th tc AMP .

171

Ngoi tr byte C hi Nhi Dng PJO ti hng 4, ct 17 v mt s ct nhi c nh


(fixed stuff) trong mt s trng hp, ton b khu vc ti tin OPUk lun lun c
chim bi d liu khch hng. Sau , trn c s truyn khung lin tip khung, byte NJO
v byte PJO c th c hoc c th khng c truyn i ph thuc vo tc bit tng
i ca tn hiu khch hng vi tc khung OPUk. Tc bnh thng ca ti tin
OPUk, bao gm c cc byte PJO, bng vi tc bnh thng ca tn hiu khch hng
CBR.

Hnh 3.111: Tn hiu khch hng CBR c nh x vo khung OPUk bng th tc AMP
Khi tc tn hiu khch hng chm hn so vi tc ti tin OPUk, cc byte NJO s
khng bao gi mang d liu cn byte PJO s khng mang d liu theo nh k.
Khi tc tn hiu khch hng ln hn tc ti tin OPUk, cc byte PJO s lun lun
mang d liu v byte NJO s mang d liu theo nh k.
Trong mi khung, 2 bit t ngha nht LSB ca cc byte iu khin nhi l JC1, JC2, JC3
ch th vic s dng NJO v PJO cho khung .
Cng c th xy ra trng hp l tn hiu khch hng v khung OPUk c cng mt tc
chnh xc khi s dng AMP. Khi iu ny xy ra, cc byte PJO s lun lun mang theo
d liu v byte NJO khng bao gi mang theo d liu. iu ny tng ng chnh xc vi
vic s dng BMP nh x ti tin vo khung OPUk. tng thch vi AMP v cho
php mt b gii nh x duy nht (demapper) c s dng cho mt trong hai th tc,
cc v tr byte JC1/JC2/JC3 ( khi khng yu cu bt c iu g bo hiu trong BMP) s
172

thit lp c nh cho cc thng s gi tr AMP l d liu c cha trong PJO v tn hiu


nhi cha trong NJO.
Vic s dng cc byte NJO v PJO cha mt dung sai tc khim tn gia tn hiu khch
hng CBR vi ti tin OPUk. i vi tn hiu khch hng SDH c dung sai tc l 20ppm v
dung sai tc ca OPUk cng l 20ppm, tt c dung sai ny nm trong phm vi nhi ca
AMP.
Th tc nh x AMP cng c s dng ghp cc tn hiu tc thp hn l ODUj vo
khung ODUk c tc cao hn; c k hiu l ODUj/k (v d ODU1 vo ODU2 hoc ODU3).
Trong nhng trng hp ny, thc s c hai byte PJO do s khc bit tc bnh thng,
nhng mc ch vn l qun l mt tn hiu khch hng 20ppm c ghp vo mt khung
OPUk dung sai 20ppm c tc bnh thng rt gn nhau.
Vic gii m cho cc byte iu khin nhi JC, NJO, PJO cho th tc nh x AMP trnh by
trong Hnh 3.112.

a) Byte iu khin nhi JC s dng 2 bit LSB m ho nhi

b) Ni dung ca cc byte nhi NJO, PJO t thuc 2 bit LSB ca byte JC


Hnh 3.112 : Cc byte iu khin nhi JC, NJO,PJO ca th tc AMP

173

Gi tr cha trong byte NJO v PJO khi chng c s dng lm byte nhi l tt c bng bit
0. Pha thu khi gii nhi s b qua cc gi tr bit 0 cha trong cc byte NJO/PJO khi lm chc
nng l byte nhi.
Lu : Trong trng hp ng truyn gim cht lng lm xut hin sai li bit c th dn n
pha thu nhn 2 bit MSB ca byte iu khin nhi JC khng ng nh trong Hnh 3.113. V vy

pha thu sau khi nhn 3 byte JC, s s dng 2 byte JC a ra quyt nh gii nhi trong
qu trnh gii nh x bo v chng li xy ra mt li trong ba tn hiu JC.

Hnh 3.113 : ng truyn ti gim cht lng lm sai 2 bit LSB ca byte JC.
V d thit lp nh x ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G hoc CBR40G (dung sai tc
bit ln n 45 ppm) vo mt OPUk (k = 1,2,3) c th c thc hin theo th tc lp
nh x khng ng b AMP. Khi cc tn hiu OPUk lp nh x khng ng b
AMP c to ra t ng h ni ca thit b OTN, khng ph thuc vo tn hiu ca
khch hng. Cc tn hiu khch hng c nh x vo OPUk s dng s nhi
dng/m/zero chng trnh bin h tch cc. Dung sai tc bit ti a gia OPUk v
ng h tn hiu ca khch hng, c hnh thnh t th tc nh x khng ng b AMP
s l 65 ppm. Vi kh nng chu ng dung sai tc bit ti a 20 ppm ca ng h
OPUk, suy ra dung sai tc bit ti a cho tn hiu ca khch hng s 45 ppm.
Hnh 3.114 trnh by thit lp nh x AMP ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5 vo OPU1. Theo
, mi b 8 bit lin tip ca tn hiu CBR2G5 c nh x vo mt byte d liu (D) ca
OPU1. Trong mi khung OPU1, tu thuc chnh lch tc gia CBR2G5 v OPU1, th
tc nh x AMP thc hin nhi dng PJO hoc nhi m NJO. Trong Hnh 3.114 trnh
by c 2 trng hp nhi dng PJO hoc nhi m NJO.

174

Hnh 3. 114: Thit lp nh x AMP ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5 vo OPU1


3.13.1.4 Th tc nh x tng qut GMP (Generic Mapping Procedure)
3.13.1.4.1 S pht trin ca GMP
Vi nh ngha OPU4 l khung tn hiu ch (server) 100G dnh cho lung tn hiu khch hng
100GE v cc lung khch hng OPU c tc thp hn, v nh ngha ODUflex dnh cho mt
khch hng c tc bt k a vo khung ch (server) c tc ln hn 10G, cc tc
khch hng bnh thng khng cn lun lun gn vi tc khung ch. Ngoi ra, cc khung
khch hng CBR mi c tc khng gn vi tc 1,25 hoc 2,5 Gbit/s nh STM-4 v FC200 c nh x vo OPU0 v OPU1.
Nhng c im mi ny i hi mt c ch thch ng vi nhiu byte nhi cho mi khung ti
tin ch ph hp c s khc bit tc v dung sai tc bit khch hng rng hn ln n
100 ppm cho mt s khch hng mi.
Hai xut c pht trin trong ITU cho mt th tc lp nh x p ng cc yu cu ny.
Mt l thc hin mt s thay i thch ng ca AMP v hai l xy dng mt c ch mi s dng
mt thut ton phn phi nhi/d liu mm do.
ngh 1 vn da trn AMP c xy dng trn c s thit lp nh x STM-64 vo
OPU2 v STM- 256 vo OPU3 v ng thi cc ct nhi c nh c s dng gim
175

ti tin OPUk n mt tc gn vi tc khch hng. h tr iu ny cho cp tn


hiu khch hng/khung ch bt k, s lng v v tr ca ct nhi c nh c xc nh
da trn mt thut ton n gin. Sau , nhng iu chnh thch ng chi tit hn
cha dung sai tc bit c qun l vi c ch AMP s dng ln n 7 byte nhi.
Tng nh vi th tc nh x AMP, vic s dng cc byte ny cho mi khung c bo
hiu trong cc byte JC1/JC2/JC3.
ngh 2 s dng phng php tip cn vi mc tiu t c s phn phi tt nht c
th ca d liu v nhi thng qua khung ch. Trong trng hp ny, t ti tin bt k c
th l d liu hoc nhi ty thuc vo t l tng th ca d liu i vi ti tin. Mt cng
thc da trn v tr ti tin hin ti, tng s khch hng t d liu khch hng v tng s t
ti tin xc nh xem mi v tr ti tin s truyn i l d liu khch hng hoc byte nhi.
thc hin tnh ton ny ti b gii nh x (demapper), s m t d liu khch hng
phi c bo hiu hn l ch s dng cc v tr nhi c nh ngha.
ngh th hai, s dng mt thut ton Sigma/Delta lm cng c tnh ton phn phi d
liu/nhi. Cui cng ngh 2 c T chc ITU thng qua vi tn gi l Th tc nh x
chung GMP v tnh linh hot v hiu sut rung pha ca tn hiu khch hng cao.
3.13.1.4.2 Ni dung ca GMP
Cng thc iu chnh ca thut ton Sigma / Delta tnh v xc nh ni dung ca tng v tr ti
tin s l :
d liu: nu (v tr ti tin x s byte d liu) mod (Pserver) < s lng t d liu;
nhi : nu (v tr ti tin x s byte d liu) mod (Pserver) s lng t d liu;
Trong :
Pserver = tng s # ca cc v tr t d liu (word) trong ti tin khung ch;
V tr t d liu (word) trong ti tin = 1 .. Pserver;
Trong mi trng hp ca nh x, Pserver lun lun c bit trc v c nh. Tng t nh
vy, v tr t d liu (word) ca ti tin ang c nh gi cng c bit. Bin cui cng, s
lng t d liu, thay i t khung ny sang khung ph hp vi tc ca khch hng c
nh x. Cho mi khung, s m thch hp c xc nh bi b nh x ( mapper) v c bo

176

hiu trong tiu OPUk a n b gii nh x (demapper) bng cch s dng cc byte
JC1/JC2/JC3.
S m c bo hiu l 14 bit, h tr 15.232 byte ti tin trong mt khung OPUk, v ko di
c JC1 v JC2. m bo pha thu nhn c tt thng tin trong s hin din ca li, JC3
cha mt m CRC-8 cho php pht hin li v s lng li nht nh c th sa sai. Ngoi ra
cn c mt s m ha cho gia tng hoc gim bt v mt thit ch trng thi pha thu c s
dng qun l cc gi tr thu c v bo v chng li bit li. iu quan trng cn lu l cc
b gii nh x (demapper) i hi tnh trc khi v tr ti tin u tin xy ra, v vy n phi c
xc nh v bo hiu trong khung trc.
Hnh 3.115 cho thy mt v d v s phn b d liu/nhi t c bng thut ton Sigma/Delta
ni c kch thc t l mt byte. Trn mt tp cc t ti tin lin tc bt k, t l ca d liu i
vi nhi th ging nh t l trn ton b khung hnh.

Hnh 3.115: GMP da trn thut ton Sigma / Delta


S Hnh 3.111 trnh by vic s dng cc byte tiu OPUk. Nh cp, JC1/2/3 mang
s m t d liu thc s dnh cho khung tip theo. Ngoi ra, p ng yu cu jitter i vi
mt s nh x, mt ch th ca phn cn li t mt phn ca d liu khch hng khng nh x
c yu cu. iu ny c cung cp bi mt s m khc trong JC4/5/6, nhng mt
granularity nh hn kch thc t. V d, STM-4 c nh x vo OPU0 vi mt kch thc t
177

8 bit, do s m trong JC1/2/3 l mt s byte. Sau , thng tin ct li cn thit cho phn cn
li l 1 bit, v vy s lng cn li trong JC4/5/6 l mt s bit trong khong 0-7 .
Kch thc t c s dng cho GMP da trn khung ch c s dng. Kch thc nh x chi
tit (granularity) thp nht l 8 bit c s dng khi nh x GMP mt khch hng khng phi
OTN thnh mt khung OPU0 1.25Gbit/s hoc ghp mt ODU0 thnh mt khe lung TS
(Tributary Slot)1.25Gbit/s duy nht ca mt OPUk (k = 2,3,4 ) c tc cao hn.
i vi cc khung ch OPUk ln hn, nh x GMP chi tit (granularity) c bn l 8 bit cho mi
1.25Gbit/s ca tc khung ch. Khi lp nh x 100GE vo OPU4, mt nh x GMP chi tit
640 bit c s dng. iu ny c ch nh ng b vi bus d liu rng hn c s dng
cho cc gii php tc d liu cao hn.
Tiu nhi JOH ca th tc nh x GMP c trnh by trong Hnh 3.116. Tiu nhi JOH
ca th tc nh x GMP bao gm hai nhm mi nhm c 3 byte iu khin nhi JC:
Nhm 3 byte chung l JC1, JC2, JC3 v
Nhm 3 byte JC4, JC5, JC6 c xc nh dnh cho khch hng hoc LO ODU.

Hnh 3.116 : Tiu nhi JOH ca th tc nh x GMP


Tm li
Vi nhng ci tin gn y, OTN c th cung cp vn chuyn d liu hiu qu hn v vt qu
kh nng ca AMP, nh cung cp mt c ch thit lp nh x mm do ph hp. AMP v BMP
vn gi vai tr hin ti nhng c GMP b sung x l cc kt hp mi ca tc khch
178

hng vi khung ch. Vi kh nng x l bt k tc khch hng vo tc khung ch bt k,


GMP cng ha hn h tr cc tc khch hng v khung ch c nh ngha.
3.13.2 Cc nguyn tc th tc nh x tng qut GMP theo Mc D ca Khuyn ngh G.709
3.13.2.1 Nguyn tc c bn (Mc D.1/G.709)
i vi tn hiu khch hng CBR cho trc bt k, s lng thc th d liu n-bit (v d n =
1/8, 1, 8) n trong mt khung my ch hoc chu k thi gian a khung my ch c xc nh
bi:

fclient: tc bit ca khch hng


Tserver: chu k khung ca khung my ch hoc a khung my ch;
cn: s lng thc th d liu n-bit ca tn hiu khch hng cha trong mi khung tn hiu
my ch hoc a khung tn hiu my ch.
V ch c mt s nguyn ca cc n v d liu n-bit l c th c vn chuyn trn mi khung
my ch hoc a khung, gi tr s nguyn Cn(t) ca cn phi c s dng. V thng tin khch
hng khng c mt, qu trnh lm trn n gi tr s nguyn phi bo ton c cc phn l, v
d nh mt cn vi gi tr 10.25 phi c i din bi cc dy s nguyn l 10,10,10,11. Ch
gi tr trng bnh ca 10,10,10,11 s l 10.25.

Cn(t): l s lng n v d liu n-bit ca tn hiu khch hng trong mi khung my ch t hoc
a khung t. Ch Cn(t) l s nguyn.
i vi trng hp cn khng phi l mt s nguyn, Cn(t) l gi tr nm gia 2 gi tr sau y:

179

(Tc ) Thi gian ca 1 khung my ch hoc a khung c xc nh bi tc bit my ch


v s bit cho mi khung my ch hoc a khung:

fserver : tc bit my ch
Bserver : s bit cho mi khung my ch hoc a khung
Kt hp (D5) vi (D1) v (D2) s cho kt qu trong:

V cc d liu khch hng phi nm trong gii hn ca vng ti tin ca tn hiu my ch, cho
nn gi tr ti a ca Cn v nh vy tc bit ti a ca tn hiu khch hng c gii hn bi
kch thc ca vng ti tin my ch.

Trong Pserver: s lng ti a cc n v d liu n bits trong ca vng ti tin


my ch.
Tc bit ca tn hiu khch hng v my ch l c lp. iu ny cho php xc nh tc bit
my ch c lp vi tc bit ca khch hng. Hn na s suy gim tn hiu ng h ca tn
hiu khch hng khng nhn bit c ti ng h my ch. Nu tc bit ca khch hng hoc

180

my ch thay i do dung sai tn s khch hng hoc my ch, cn v Cn(t) s thay i tng
ng cho ph hp.
Mt th tc c bit phi chm sc m Cn(t) c thay i nhanh sa ng gi tr trong
qu trnh khi ng hoc trong mt bc tc bit ca khch hng (v d nh khi cc tn hiu
khch hng c thay th bi tn hiu AIS ca n hoc tn hiu AIS c thay th bng cc tn
hiu ca khch hng). Th tc ny c thit k ngn chn m qu l (over-/underflow).
Mt nh x trong sut phi xc nh Cn(t) trn mt (a)khung my ch theo c s (a) khung.
trch xut s lng chnh xc ca cc n v thng tin khch hng ti b gii nh x
(demapper), Cn(t) phi c truyn ti trong vng tiu ca khung hoc a khung my ch i
t b nh x n b gii nh x. Hnh 3.117(Fig D.1/G.709) trnh by chc nng tng qut ca
mch nh x v gii nh x.
1) Ti b nh x, Cn(t) c xc nh da trn ng h my khch v my ch. Cc d liu
khch hng c lin tc ghi vo b nh m. Cc d liu c ra khi b nh m c
iu khin bi gi tr ca Cn(t).
2) Ti b gii nh x, Cn(t) c trch ra t tiu . Cn(t) iu khin tn hiu cho php ghi
vo b m. ng h khch hng c to ra da trn c s ng h my ch v gi tr
ca Cn(t). Cn(t) phi c xc nh trc, sau n c a vo tiu v sau s
lng l Cn(t) ca n v d liu khch hng phi c a vo vng ti tin ca my ch
nh trong Hnh 3.118 (Fig D.2/G.709).

Hnh 3.117 (Fig D.1/G.709/Y.1331) Chc nng tng qut ca b nh x v gii nh x

181

Hnh 3.118 (Fig.D.2/G.709/Y.1331) Dng x l Cn ti b nh x v gii nh x


Thc th d liu Cn(t) ca khch hng c nh x vo vng ti tin ca khung my ch hoc a
khung s dng mt th tc phn phi nh x d liu/nhi Sigma/Delta. Th tc Sigma/Delta
cung cp mt nh x phn phi nh trnh by trong Hnh 3.119 (Fig D.3/G.709). Trng ti tin
th j (j = 1 .. Pserver) mang thng tin d liu khch hng hoc nhi theo cc iu kin nh sau :
1) L byte d liu khch hng (D) nu [ (j x Cn(t)) mod Pserver ] < Cn(t)

(D10)

2) L byte nhi (S) nu [ (j x Cn(t)) mod Pserver ] Cn(t)

(D11)

Hnh 3.119 (Fig D.3/G.709/Y.1331) nh x theo th tc Sigma/Delta


Thc th d liu Cn(t) ca khch hng phi c phn b trn cc Pserver. Do vy mt thc th
d liu khch hng phi c an xen vi khong cch l

. Gi tr khong cch ny bnh

thng khng phi l mt gi tr s nguyn, tuy nhin n c th c m phng theo mt tnh

182

ton s nguyn bng cch s dng phng php Sigma-Delta da trn mt b tch lu trn
(overflow accumulator) nh th hin trong Hnh 3.120(Fig D.4/G.709).
B nh tch lu c t tr 0 ti mi khung bt u ca khung my ch. Ti mi v tr ca vng
ti tin, Cn(t) s c thm vo b nh v kt qu c so snh vi Pserver. Nu kt qu thp
hn so vi Pserver, gi tr Cn(t) c lu tr tr li vo b nh v khng c d liu khch hng
c ch nh cho v tr ti tin ny. Nu Cn(t) l bng hoc ln hn Pserver, Pserver c tr vo
Cn(t) v kt qu tr mi c lu li trong b nh. Thm na, d liu khch hng c ch nh
cho v tr ca khch hng.

Hnh 3. 120 (Fig.D.4/G.709/Y.1331) B tch lu Sigma-Delta


V gi tr bt u ging nhau v Cn(t) c s dng ti b nh x v gii nh x l cng mt gi
tr cho nn t c s lin kt mng.
3.13.2.2 p dng th tc nh x tng qut GMP trong mng OTN (Mc D.2/G.709)
Trong Khuyn ngh G.709, mc 17.6 v 19.6 xc nh GMP l phng php nh x khng ng
b tng qut dnh cho nh x cc tn hiu khch hng CBR vo LO OPUk v nh x ca cc tn
hiu LO ODUj thnh vo mt HO OPUk (thng qua ODTUk.ts).
Ch : - GMP b sung cho phng php nh x khch hng/my truyn thng c quy nh ti
khon 17.5/G.709 v 19.5/G.709. GMP c thit k cung cp s nhi cho tn hiu khch
hng loi CBR mi nh x vo OPUk.
nh x khng ng b trong OTN c mc chi tit nh thi mc nh 8-bit. Chi tit nh thi 8bit (granularity) c h tr trong GMP bng gi tr cn vi n=8 (c8). Cc yu cu v
jitter/wander cho mt s cc tn hiu khch hng OTN c th a n l chi tit nh thi 8-bit
183

c th khng . Trong trng hp , mt chi tit nh thi 1-bit c h tr trong GMP bng
cn vi n = 1 (ngha l c1).
Khon 17.6/G.709 v 19.6/G.709 xc nh rng nh x ca mt tn hiu khch hng CBR vo ti
tin ca mt LO OPUk v nh x ca mt tn hiu LO ODUj vo ti tin ca mt ODTUk.ts c
thc hin bi s bit l 8 M-bit (M tnh theo byte).
Vic chn cc d liu khch hng CBR vo vng ti tin ca khung OPUk v vic a cc d
liu LO ODUj vo vng ti tin ca a khung ODTUk.ts ti b nh x c thc hin trong MB
(hoc m-bit, m=8 x M) thc th d liu, k hiu l Cm(t). Cc thc th d liu CnD(t) cn li
c bo hiu trong tiu nhi phn tin tc pha/nh thi.

V ch c mt s nguyn ca cc n v d liu m-bit l c th c vn chuyn trn mi khung


my ch hoc a khung, gi tr s nguyn Cm(t) ca cm phi c s dng. V thng tin khch
hng khng c mt, qu trnh lm trn n gi tr s nguyn phi bo ton c cc phn l, v
d nh mt cm vi gi tr 10.25 phi c i din bi cc dy s nguyn l 10,10,10,11.

Cm(t): l s lng n v d liu m-bit ca tn hiu khch hng trong mi khung my ch t hoc
a khung t. Ch Cm(t) l s nguyn.
i vi trng hp cn khng phi l mt s nguyn, Cm(t) l gi tr nm gia 2 gi tr sau y:

Phn cn li ca cn v Cm(t) l cnD c tnh theo cc cng thc sau y :

184

V ch c mt s nguyn cc thc th d liu n-bit cnD l c th c bo hiu cho mi khung


my ch hoc a khung, gi tr s nguyn CnD(t) ca cnD phi c s dng. Gi tr s nguyn
CnD(t) l :

CnD(t) l s nguyn nm gia

V cc d liu khch hng phi nm trong gii hn ca vng ti tin ca tn hiu my ch, cho
nn gi tr ti a ca Cm v nh vy tc bit ti a ca tn hiu khch hng c gii hn bi
kch thc ca vng ti tin my ch.

Trong Pm,server l s lng ti a cc n v d liu m bits trong vng ti tin my ch.


trch xut s lng chnh xc ca cc n v thng tin khch hng ti b gii nh x, Cm(t)
phi c vn chuyn trong vng tiu ca khung hoc a khung my ch i t b nh x n
b gii nh x.
Ti b nh x Cn(t) c xc nh da trn tn hiu my khch v tn hiu ng h my ch. Cc
d liu khch hng c lin tc ghi vo b nh m. Cc s liu c ra ngoi c iu khin
bi gi tr ca Cm(t).
Ti b gii nh x Cm(t) v CnD(t) c trch ra t tiu v c s dng tnh ton Cn(t).
Cm(t) iu khin tn hiu cho php vit vo b m. Tn hiu ng h khch hng c to ra
trn c s ng h my ch v gi tr ca Cn(t).
Cn(t) phi c xc nh u tin, sau n phi c a vo tiu l Cm(t) v CnD(t) v sau
s lng Cm(t) thc th d liu ca khch hng phi c a vo vng ti tin ca my ch
nh th hin trong Hnh 3.121(Fig D.5/G.709).

185

Hnh 3.121 (Fig. D.5/G.709/Y.1331) Tin trnh x l GMP trong mng OTN
Trong qu trnh khi ng hoc trong mt bc tc bit khch hng, gi tr ca Cn(t) s khng
ph hp vi s lng thc th d liu n-bit khch hng khi n b m nh x v tin trnh xc
nh Cn(t) phi iu chnh gi tr ca n vi s lng thc th d liu khch hng n-bit i n.
Phng php iu chnh ny thc hin c th. Trong khong thi gian chnh lch, mc ghi ca
b m nh x c th tng nu c nhiu thc th d liu khch hng n-bit n trn mi a khung
hn l s c pht i, hoc gim nu c t hn thc th d liu khch hng n-bit n trn mi a
khung hn l s c pht i.
ngn chn s kin trn (overflow) hoc n chm (underflow) ca b m nh x v do
lm mt d liu, mc lp y ca b m nh x phi c theo di. i vi trng hp qu
nhiu thc th d liu khch hng m-bit trong b m, khi cn phi chn tm thi s thc
th d liu khch hng m-bit trong (a) khung my ch nhiu hn so vi yu cu ca Cn(t). i
vi trng hp s n v d liu m-bit ca khch hng qu t c trong b m, khi phi
chn tm thi s thc th d liu khch hng m-bit trong (a) khung my ch t hn so vi yu
cu ca Cn(t). Phn ng ny cng tng t nh phn ng ca AMP theo cc iu kin ny.
Mng OTN h tr mt s loi tn hiu khch hng c yu cu nghim ngt v tr truyn
(transfer delay) v bin thin ca tr truyn. Cc loi tn hiu khch hng ny yu cu rng
tr truyn pht sinh bi b m nh x v gii nh x phi c gim ti thiu.
Cn(t) l mt gi tr trong phm vi t Cn,min n Cn,max.
Cm(t) thc th d liu khch hng c nh x vo vng ti tin ca khung my ch hoc a
khung s dng th tc nh x d liu/nhi sigma/delta. Th tc ny cung cp mt nh x c
186

phn phi nh th hin trong Hnh 3.118(Fig D.2/G.709). Trng ti tin th j (j = 1 .. Pm, server)
mang thng tin d liu khch hng hoc nhi theo cc iu kin nh sau :
1) L byte d liu khch hng (D) nu [ (j x Cm(t)) mod Pm,server ] < Cm(t)

(D18)

2) L byte nhi (S) nu [ (j x Cm(t)) mod Pm,server ] Cm(t)

(D19)

Cc gi tr ca n, m, M, fclient, fserver, Tserver, Bserver v Pm, server ca LO OPU v ODTUk.ts.


Cc gi tr ca n, m, M, fclient, fserver, Tserver, Bserver v Pm, server c xc nh trong Bng 3.37(
Table D.1/G.709).
Bng 3.37 (Table D.1/G.709/Y.1331)-Cc gi tr tham s GMP ca LO OPUk v DTUk.ts
Thng s GMP

Tn hiu khch hng CBR


nh x vo LO OPUk

Tn hiu LO ODUj nh x vo
HO OPUk (ODTUk.ts)

8 (tr gn sn)
1 (khch hng)

m = 8x M

OPU0:
OPU1:
OPU2:
OPU3:
OPU4:

ODTU2.ts: 8 x ts
ODTU3.ts: 8 x ts
ODTU4.ts: 8 x ts

f clie nt

Dung sai v tc bit khch Dung sai v tc bit LO ODUj


hng CBR
(Table 7-2)

f se rv e r

Dung sai v tc bit ti tin Dung sai v tc bit ti tin


OPUk (Table 7-3)
ODTUk.ts (Table 7-7)

Tse rv e r

Chu k a khung ODUk/OPUk


(Table 7-4)

Chu k a khung OPUk


(Table 7-6)

B se rv e r

OPU0:
OPU1:
OPU2:
OPU3:
OPU4:

8 x 15232
8 x 15232
8 x 15232
8 x 15232
8 x 15200

ODTU2.ts: 8 x ts x 15232
ODTU3.ts: 8 x ts x 15232
ODTU4.ts: 8 x ts x 15200

Pm , se rv e r

OPU0:
OPU1:
OPU2:
OPU3:
OPU4:

15232
7616
1904
476
190

ODTU2.ts: 15232
ODTU3.ts: 15232
ODTU4.ts: 15200

8x1=8
8 x 2 = 16
8 x 8 = 64
8 x 32 = 256
8 x 80 = 640

187

OPU0:
OPU1:
OPU2:
OPU3:
OPU4:

Di C1D (cho
cc
khch
hng c
chn)

OPU0:
OPU1:
OPU2:
OPU3:
OPU4:

N/A
0 to +1
0 to +7
0 to +31
0 to +79

ODTUk.1:
ODTUk.2:
ODTUk.3:
ODTUk.4:
:
ODTUk.8:
:
ODTUk.32:
:
ODTUk.79:
ODTUk.80:

N/A
0 to +1
0 to +2
0 to +3
0 to +7
0 to +31
0 to +78
0 to +79

Khng p dng

0 to +7
0 to +15
0 to +63
0 to +255
0 to +639

3.13.2.3 M ha v gii m Cm(t) (Mc D.3/G709)


Cm(t) c m ha trong cc byte kim sot nhi ca ODTUk.ts l JC1, JC2 v JC3, c quy
nh ti 3.12.4. Cm(t) l mt s nh phn biu din s lng cc nhm m-bit ti tin LO OPU,
mang m bit khch hng. Cm(t) c gi tr gia 2 gi tr l Floor(Cm,min) v Ceiling(Cm,max).
Ci(i = 1 .. 14) bits bao gm Cm(t) c s dng ch ra l gi tr c tng ln hoc gim i so
vi gi tr trong khung trc. Bng 3.40(Table D.2/G.709) trnh by nh dng o ca Ci bit
c o ngc ch gi tr tng hay gim ca Cm(t). K t "I" trong bng ch th s o ngc
ca bit .
Cc nh dng o ngc bit p dng cho gi tr hin ti Cm(t), trc khi tng hoc gim, s
c nh du bng cc nh dng o ngc. Cc gi tr Cm(t) tng ln hoc gim i s tr
thnh gi tr c bn cho vic truyn ti tiu GMP tip theo.
- Khi gi tr ca Cm(t) c tng ln +1 hoc +2, mt tp hp con ca cc bit Ci c quy nh
ti Bng 3.38(Table D.2/G.709) s c o ngc v bit Ch s Tng II(Increment Indicator)
c thit lp tr 1.

188

- Khi gi tr ca Cm(t) c gim i -1 hoc -2, mt tp hp con ca cc bit Ci c quy nh ti


Bng 3.40(Table D.2/G.709) s c o ngc v bit Ch s Gim DI (Decrement Indicator)
c thit lp tr 1.
- Khi gi tr ca Cm(t) b thay i mt gi tr ln hn +2 hoc -2, c 2 bit II v DI c thit lp
tr 1 v cc bit Ci cha gi tr Cm(t) mi. CRC-8 kim tra xem gi tr Cm(t) c thu c mt
cch chnh xc, v cung cp ty chn sa li duy nht.
- Khi gi tr ca Cm(t) l khng thay i, c hai bit II v DI c thit lp tr 0.
Bng 3.38(Table D.2/G.709/Y,1331) Cc nh dng ch th tng v gim Cm(t)
C1
U
I
U
U
I

C2
U
U
I
I
U

C3
U
I
U
I
U

C4
U
U
I
U
I

C5
U
I
U
U
I

C6
U
U
I
I
U

C7
U
I
U
I
U

C8
U
U
I
U
I

C9 C10 C11
U U U
I U
I
U I
U
U I
I
I U U

C12
U
U
I
U
I

C13
U
I
U
U
I

Tr nh phn

C14
U
U
I
I
U

II DI
0 0
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1

Thay i
0
+1
-1
+2
-2

1 Nhiu hn +2/-2

Ghi ch :
- I ch th bit Ci b o
- U ch th bit Ci khng thay i

CRC-8 nm trong JC3 c tnh trn c s cc bit JC1 v JC2.


3.13.2.4 M ha v gii m CnD(t) ( Mc D.4/G.709)
Gi tr tch ly ca CnD(t) ( CnD(t) c m ha trong cc bit 4-8 ca cc byte iu khin nhi
byte JC4, JC5 v JC6 ca LO OPUk v ODTUk.ts. Bit D1 n D10 trong JC4 v JC5 mang gi
tr ca CnD(t). Bit D1 l bit c ngha quan trng nht v bit D10 l bit t quan trng nht. CRC5 nm JC6 c tnh trn bit D1-D10 trong JC4 v JC5.

189

Phn II : Tng quan mng v h thng thit b OTN ca mt s


Hng cung cp thit b vin thng
4. H thng thit b OTN ca Ciena
4.1 Cc c im chung ca mng OTN phn lp trong h thng thit b Ciena
Mng truyn ti quang OTN c nh ngha trong ITU G.709, cho php cc nh khai thc
mng hi t cc mng truyn ti ang s dng nhiu loi giao thc c vi cc mng h tr cc
giao thc khch hng mi. Cc im li th ca OTN c trnh by :
Trong sut i vi vic truyn ti cc tn hiu khch hng, bo v thng tin qun l khch
hng trong tiu ;
Lng thng tin t dnh cho tiu truyn ti hiu qu v gim tr;
Kh nng qun l c tng cng cho tn hiu i xuyn qua cc mng c nhiu nh khai
thc mng khc nhau.
C phn tiu Sa sai Li Chuyn tip FEC ci thin truyn ti c ly di
Tuy th, Ciena vn ci tin cu trc khung OTN trong thit b :
H tr giao din khch hng c tc d liu thp v tch hp vo ti tin OTU1;
Gia tng ln cc bc sng con mt cch trong sut s dng dung lng hiu qu, ci
thin thng lng mng;
S dng cc tc ng dy OTU2e , OTU2f, truyn ti trong sut tng ng cc
lung d liu khch hng 10GbE l 10 Gb/s Ethernet v 10G FC l knh quang FC (Fiber
Channel).
S dng mt phng iu khin (Control Plane) thng minh, cho php kt ni mng li
t ng v thi gian phc hi mng li 50ms gia cc mng khc nhau Ethernet, OTN ,
v SDH.
Phn sau y s trnh by ln lt cc c im thay i trong thit b OTN ca Ciena so vi
Khuyn ngh G.709.

190

4.2. Cu trc OTN trong thit b ca Ciena


4.2.1. Cu trc thng tin khi truyn ti quang OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca
Ciena
Theo Khuyn ngh G.709, khi truyn ti quang OTM (Optical Transport Module) l cu trc
thng tin c vn chuyn qua giao din nt mng OTN. Trong thit b Ciena, cu trc phn cp
tn hiu OTN c trnh by trong Hnh 4.1. Theo Hnh 4.1, khi truyn ti quang OTM c
truyn theo nh dng tng t (analog) v dnh cho nh khai thc qun l khi tn hiu quang
tng t truyn ti trn mng cp quang. Ti thit b Ciena, khi truyn ti quang OTM c
chuyn i t tn hiu quang sang tn hiu s, dng in: OTU dnh cho chc nng truyn ti,
ODU dnh cho chc nng ghp knh v chuyn mch v OPU dnh cho chc nng nh x cc
tn hiu ca khch hng.

Hnh 4.1 : Cu trc tn hiu phn cp OTN ca thit b Ciena

191

Trn mng OTN ca Ciena, khi truyn ti quang OTM c phn nh chc nng qun l gia
cc nt mng OTN theo Hnh 4.2 bao gm :
knh quang OCh (Optical Channel) dnh cho chc nng qun l min quang gia 2 nt
mng OADM/ROADM,
kt ni knh quang OCC (Optical Channel Connection) dnh cho chc nng qun l min
quang gia 2 nt mng OADM/ROADM c cc bc sng khc nhau,

on truyn dn quang OTS (Optical Transmission Section) dnh cho chc nng qun l min
quang gia 2 nt mng lin tip c tn hiu knh dch v quang OSC,

on ghp knh quang OMS (Optical Multiplex Section) dnh cho chc nng qun l min
quang gia 2 nt mng OADM/ROADM c tn hiu knh dch v quang OSC.

on ng dn quang OPS (Optical Path Section) dnh cho chc nng qun l min quang gia
2 nt mng OADM/ROADM khng c tn hiu knh dch v quang OSC.

Hnh 4.2 : Cu trc thng tin OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca Ciena
Ciena c mt s thay i khi vn dng Khuyn ngh G.709 vo thit b OTN ca hng c trnh by
trong Hnh 4.3. Ciena c s to lp ring cho cu trc OPU ghp thnh khung OTU1 (G.709). C th
Ciena nh ngha cc b cha o cho ti tin knh quang OPVC (Optical Channel Payload Virtual

192

Container). Mt b cha OPVC c th kt ni ni tip nhiu b cha 155.52 Mb/s vo OTU1. Mt b


cha OPVC c tiu OH ring. Cc tn hiu khch hng nh SDH, GFP, Ethenet FC 100/200, ESCON
... c tc thp s c tch hp vo b cha OPVC. Mt b cha OPVC s to lp ti tin tng
ng vi ti tin OPU ca Khuyn ngh G.709. Mt b cha OPVC kt hp vi phn tiu OH c
ghp vo ti tin ODU, tng t nh ti tin OPU kt hp vi phn tiu OH c ghp vo ti tin
ODU.

Hnh 4.3 : Cu trc thng tin OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca Ciena vi b cha o
cho ti tin knh quang OPVC (Optical Channel Payload Virtual Container)
Trong Hnh 4.4, mu vng trnh by cc tc bit chun theo Khuyn ngh G.709; mu ch
ra s khc bit ca tc bit trong thit b ca Ciena. Nh trnh by trn, Ciena s dng
OTU2e vn chuyn tn hiu khch hng 10GbE v OTU2f vn chuyn tn hiu khch hng
10G FC.

193

Hnh 4.4: B cha o cho ti tin knh quang OPVC ca Ciena trong OTU1
4.2.2.Cc im m loi ti tin PT trong thit b OTN ca Ciena
Theo Khuyn ngh G.709, tiu OH ca OPU h tr to lp nh x v kt ni lin tip cc tn
hiu ca khch hng v cung cp thng tin v cc loi tn hiu vn chuyn. Vi vic thay ti tin
OPU bng ti tin OPVC, tiu OPVC cng tng t nh tiu OH ca OPU (G.709) nhng
ch c im khc bit quy nh im m nh x cho loi ti tin OPVC l 80 trong thit b ca
Ciena. Cc quy nh cho tiu OH ca OPVC c trnh by trong Hnh 4.5.

Hnh 4.5: Cc im m loi ti tin PT trong thit b OTN ca Ciena


Ciena tng cng cc kh nng OTN thng qua OPVC. OPVC cung cp s tch hp trong sut
v gia tng cc bc sng con thng qua lin kt cc khe thi gian 155 Mb/s. Cc khe thi gian
155 Mb/s ca OPVC h tr nhiu dch v d liu v TDM tc thp, ti a ha hiu qu mng
li trong lp OTN.

194

Hnh 4.6 trnh by mt v d thit b CN 4200 ca Ciena ti a ha hiu qu mng li trong lp


OTN.

Hnh 4.6: Thit b CN 4200 ca Ciena


Thit b CN 4200 ca Ciena ghp c ng thi cc loi dch v khch hng khc nhau bao
gm : 7 x1GbE, 1xSTM1 v 6xFC100 vo khung ODU1, k tip ODU1 ny c ghp vo
khung OTU1.
4.2.3. Cu trc ghp knh OTN trong thit b Ciena
Cu trc ghp knh OTN trong thit b Ciena c trnh by trong Hnh 4.7.

195

Hnh 4.7: Cu trc ghp knh OTN trong thit b Ciena


Trong Hnh 4.7 trnh by cu trc ghp knh OTN ca Ciena, ngoi tr cc im thay i
trnh by trn. So vi Khuyn ngh G.709, cu trc ghp knh OTN ca thit b Ciena c nhng
c im khc bit nh sau :
Mi khung OPU2f c th ti c 1x 10G FC.
Mi khung OPU2e c th ti c 1x 10GbE hoc (3x2G FC + 1x4G FC).
Mi khung OPU1 c th ti hoc 1xSTM16 hoc 1xOPTUG1. OPTUG1 ny c th c
ghp t cc OPTU1 cha cc OPVC1 tng ng c lit k sau y :
Mi OPVC1 c th ti c 1xSTM1 hoc 1xFE v cha trong 1xOPTU1.
Mi OPVC1-2n c th ti c 1xESCON v cha trong 2xOPTU1.
Mi OPVC1-4n c th ti c 1xSTM4 v cha trong 4xOPTU1.
Mi OPVC1-6n c th ti c 1xFC100 v cha trong 6xOPTU1.
196

Mi OPVC1-7n c th ti c 1xGbE v cha trong 7xOPTU1.


Mi OPVC1-Xn c th ti c 1xAny Rate (tn hiu khch hng c tc bt k nh
hn 155Mb/s) v cha trong X x OPTU1.
Cc loi khung ti tin khc trong cu trc mng OTN ca Ciena v c bn vn theo Khuyn ngh
G.709. C th nh sau :
Mi OPU2 c th ti c 1xSTM64, hoc 1x10GbE hoc 1xODTUG2. Lu ODTUG2
ny c to lp t 4xODU1.
Mi OPU3 c th ti c 1xSTM256, hoc hoc 1xODTUG3. Lu ODTUG3 ny
c to lp t 4xODU2.
4.3. Cc tn hiu khch hng trong mng OTN Ciena
4.3.1 Cc loi loi tn hiu khch hng trn mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena
Cc cng thit b OTN ca Ciena c kh nng cung cp dch v bt k, trn cng bt k v bt
c lc no. Hnh 4.8 trnh by mt cng tch hp cc loi dch v khc nhau vo khung OTN
OTU1 trn thit b Ciena.

Hnh 4.8 : cng tch hp cc loi dch v khc nhau vo khung OTN OTU1 trn thit b
Ciena
Trong thit b OTN ca Ciena, cc loi tn hiu khch hng khc nhau (TDM v gi Ethenet)
c truyn ti bi cc loi b cha OTN c trnh by trong Bng 4.1 sau y.

197

Bng 4. 1: Cc loi tn hiu khch hng khc nhau truyn ti trn thit b OTN ca Ciena

K hiu :
1) WAN (Wide Area Network) = mng din rng,
2) LAN PHY(Local Area Network)=mng ni b,
3) Physical Layer Device=thit b lp vt l,
4) GFC (Gigabit Fibre Channel)= knh si quang Gigabit.
4.3.2 S chuyn mch nh tuyn cho tn hiu khch hng trn thit b OTN ca Ciena
Tu theo tc dch v khch hng cn truyn ti theo nhiu ng dn v tuyn khc nhau,
cc lung tn hiu khch hng c thc hin chuyn mch trn thit b Ciena theo 1 trong 3
cch sau y.
1. Tn hiu khch hng c gi vo bn trong mt b cha OTN ti ng ra thit b Ciena
Tn hiu khch hng khi n thit b Ciena s c tch thnh cc lung cha trong cc b chc
o VC v c nh tuyn i cc hng theo yu cu ca khch hng ti card chuyn mch. Ti
ng ra card chuyn mch, cc b chc o VC tip tc c gi vo bn trong mt b cha OTN
c cng kch thc hoc ghp mt b cha OTN ln hn (nu c nhiu tn hiu khch hng
cng hng n).
Trong Hnh 4.9, cc lung tn hiu khch hng SDH STM-16 v STM-4 n thit b Ciena c
ly ra cc b cha o VC-Xv c tc tng ng a n card chuyn mch (phn SDH)
198

nh tuyn hng n. Ti ng ra card chuyn mch, b chc o VC-Xv cng hng n c


ghp vo STM-64 v tip tc c gi vo bn trong mt b cha OTN l ODU-2 v tip tc
thm FEC thnh OTU-2 v truyn ti trn mng OTN Ciena. Trn mng OTN sau , khung
ODU-2 c th c chuyn mch nh tuyn ti card chuyn mch m khng cn tch tr li cc
VC-Xv nh tuyn nh trn.

Hnh 4.9: Tn hiu khch hng c gi vo bn trong mt b cha OTN ti ng ra thit b


Ciena
2. Tn hiu khch hng c nh x trong sut vo mt khung OTN ti ng vo thit b
Ciena
Cc tn hiu khch hng c nh x trong sut bit-by-bit vo mt khung OTN c cng kch
thc ( thng l khung ODU-2) v c chuyn mch nh tuyn ti card chuyn mch trc
khi ghp vo khung OTU cp cao hn truyn ti trn mng OTN Ciena. Trong Hnh 4.10,
lung tn hiu khch hng SDH STM-64 n thit b Ciena (khng ly ra cc b cha o VCXv) c nh x trong sut bit-by-bit vo mt khung ODU-2 v a n card chuyn mch
(phn OTN) nh tuyn hng n. Ti ng ra card chuyn mch, ODU-2 tip tc ghp cc
ODU-2 thnh OTU-3 v truyn ti trn mng OTN Ciena. Nh vy trng hp ny, bn trong
card chuyn mch x l nh tuyn hon ton trn khung OTN ODU-2, khng thc hin ghp
tng dung lng lung nh trng hp trn.

199

Hnh 4.10: Tn hiu khch hng c nh x trong sut vo mt khung OTN ti ng vo


thit b Ciena
3. Cc tn hiu khch hng c trn vi khung OTN trn cng bc sng
Cc tn hiu khch hng tc thp khng tng thch vi mt khung OTN s c tch hp
vo mt khung OTN c kch thc ln hn v c chuyn mch nh tuyn ti card chuyn
mch trc khi ghp vo khung ODU, OTU cp cao hn c cng hng n truyn ti trn
mng OTN Ciena. Vi cch ghp trn vi khung OTN dung lng ln hn cho php tch hp
cc khung tn hiu SDH c tc thp hn khng tng thch vi khung OTN. C th nh nh
x STM-1 vo ODU-0 trong khi vn thc hin chuyn mch GbE trong nh dng ti u nht l
ODU-0). Nh vy cc tn hiu SDH v OTN vo s c ti u ha bc sng ti ng i ra ca
thit b Ciena.
Trong Hnh 4.11, cc lung tn hiu khch hng SDH 2xSTM-16, STM-4 n thit b Ciena :
STM-16 th nht c nh x vo ODU-1 a n card chuyn mch (phn OTN);
STM-16 th hai v STM-4 c ly ra cc b cha o VC-Xv nh tuyn ti card
chuyn mch (phn SDH); hoc nh x c nh x trong sut bit-by-bit vo mt khung
ODU-2 v a n card chuyn mch (phn SDH) nh tuyn hng n.
Ti ng ra card chuyn mch, cc b cha o VC-Xv cng hng s tip tc ghp STM-16 v
nh x vo ODU-1, sau ghp vi ODU-1 trn vo cng ODU-2 v tip tc ghp vo thnh
OTU-3 v truyn ti trn mng OTN Ciena. Nh vy trng hp ny, bn trong card chuyn
mch x l nh tuyn l bao gm c 2 trng hp trn.

Hnh 4.11: Cc tn hiu khch hng c trn vi cc khung OTN trn cng bc sng ti
ng ra thit b Ciena
200

Hnh 4.12 l mt v d tuyn 40G OTU-3 trn mng OTN ca Ciena. Trong v d ny tuyn
40G OTU-3 c chia mt na lu lng gia SDH v OTN - 20G lu lng SDH v 20G lu
lng OTN vo 2 ng dy (line) sau y:
1) 20G SDH 2xSTM-64s a vo cc tuyn SDH c nhng ODU-2 ;
2) 20G OTN trnh by y l 2xODU-2 nhng cng c th ODU-0 v ODU-1.

Hnh 4.12: Tuyn OTU-3 40Gb/s bao gm 3 ng dy con (sub-lines)


Mt ng dy OTN ging nh ng dy OTN bt k khc vi dung lng thch hp l bng
dung lng tuyn OTN tng ng tr i dung lng SDH. Lun lun l mt dng OTN duy
nht vi mt giao thng c sn ca tng lin kt OTN tr lu lng SDH trn tuyn .
Theo v d, mt giao din vt l 40G mang 3 ng dy con (sub-lines) l gic mt phng iu
khin ring bit l :
1) ng dy con l gic mt phng iu khin # 1: SDH ln n tng ng 64xVC-4 ;
2) ng dy con l gic mt phng iu khin # 2: SDH ln n tng ng 64xVC-4;
3) ng dy con l gic mt phng iu khin # 3: OTN ln n tng ng 32xODU-0.
ng dy con l gic SDH nhng c vai tr nh ng dy STM-64 vt l i vi mt phng
iu khin SDH: ng dy con logic STM-64 nhng hot ng nh mt ng dy con vt l
STM-64 tiu chun c y cc tnh nng truy cp OAM & P.
Cc ng dy con l gic c th c tng hp cng vi cc ng dy vt l STM-64 khc
vo trong cng mt nhm tp hp lin kt (a link aggregation group) (ngha l tp hp vi c hai
loi l ng dy con l gic STM-64 nhng v ng dy con l gic vt l STM-64) n
gin ha kin trc.

201

4.4. Kin trc mt phng iu khin thng minh trong thit b OTN ca Ciena
4.4.1 Tng quan v mt phng iu khin (control plane)
Mng quang cng cc nt mng c nh khai thc mng vn hnh m bo cht lng dch v
khch hng nh h thng qun l mng. Cc chc nng chnh ca h thng qun l mng l :
Chc nng 1 : Qun l dch v khch hng, bao gm cc tho thun vi khch hng v cc ni
dung sau y :
Cp dch v SLA (service level agreement) vi khch hng;
Bo hnh dch v SLA : kim tra xem cc iu khon SLA cam kt c thc hin;
Thanh ton cc (billing).
Chc nng 2 : Bo mt dch v khch hng. H thng gim st mng m bo kim sot s truy
cp vo mng ch dnh cho cc khch hng k hp ng SLA, m bo an ton tuyt i
thng tin khch hng c truyn ti.
Chc nng 3 : Qun l cu hnh. H thng gim st mng qun l v kim sot hiu qa vic
thnh lp cc kt ni cho khch hng theo ng hp ng SLA.
Chc nng 4 : Qun l li/s c bt k xy ra trn mng bao gm cp quang v thit b. H
thng gim st mng m bo :
Hin th cnh bo v mi tng quan gia cc cnh bo theo cc mc phn cp trn tuyn
truyn dn v thit b theo cc Khuyn ngh ITU-T.
Kch hot bo v v phc hi tuyn thng tin cho khch hng m bo theo tho thun
SLA vi khch hng.
Chc nng 5 : Qun l cht lng tn hiu truyn ti trn mng bao gm cp quang v thit b.
H thng gim st mng m bo gim st cht lng ca tn hiu vn chuyn 2 u (end-toend) ca khch hng.
Cc cu trc h thng qun l mng truyn ti c trnh by trong Hnh 4.13. Theo s pht
trin ca cc h thng truyn ti, cc nh dng cu trc ca h thng qun l mng l :
1) Cu trc h thng qun l mng kiu tp trung :
Cu trc h qun l mng tp trung c s dng trong cc mng SDH truyn thng. Thit b ti
mi nt mng c kt ni vi mt h thng h tr khai thc trung tm OSS (central Operation
Support System). OSS thng c t ti thnh ph chnh tip nhn thng tin qun l tt c
202

nt mng. Thng tin qun l ca mi nt mng s theo knh truyn thng gim st DCC (SDH)
hoc knh truyn gim st dnh ring v OSS.
Mt tiu chun ITU-T in hnh cho h thng qun l mng kiu tp trung l mng qun l vin
thng TMN( Telecommunication Management Network ) trong cc mng SDH truyn thng.
2) Cu trc h thng qun l mng kiu phn b :
Cu trc h qun l mng phn b c s dng trong cc mng gi IP truyn thng. Theo cc
giao thc quy nh trc, thit b router ti mi nt mng IP s gi cc thng ip cho nhau
trao i trng thi ca chnh nt mng ng thi lu gi v cp nht trng thi ca cc nt mng
ln cn v t s c thng tin trng thi c mng. nhn thng tin qun l tt c nt mng. Mt
tiu chun in hnh cho h thng qun l mng kiu phn b l cc giao thc nh ngha bi t
chc IETF ( Internet Engineering Task Force ).
3) Cu trc h thng qun l mng kiu mt phng iu khin (control plane):
Xu hng hin nay cho cu trc h qun l mng quang: i t kiu tp trung hoc kiu phn b
chuyn sang kiu lai. Ni dung qun l ca h thng qun l mng kiu mt phng iu khin
l:
Cc chc nng nhy cm vi thi gian (thit lp kt ni, bo v / phc hi, pht hin nt
mng ln cn) c thc hin trong mt mt phng iu khin phn b ;
Cc chc nng khc (ti u ha cu hnh mng lu di, qun l dch v) nm trong mt
phng qun l tp trung.
Tiu chun in hnh cho h thng qun l mng kiu mt phng iu khin l th tc chuyn
mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching) nh
ngha bi t chc IETF.

203

a) Kiu tp trung

b) Kiu phn b

c) Kiu ghp lai (= kiu mt phng


iu khin)

Hnh 4.13: Cc kiu cu trc h thng qun l mng truyn ti


Mt kt ni trong h thng qun l mng kiu mt phng iu khin GMPLS c gi l
ng dn c chuyn mch nhn LSP ( Label switched path). GMPLS nh ngha mt h
thng phn cp cc kt ni LSP m bo kh nng m rng tt hn cho mng v ng thi
h tr qun l c ng thi lu lng nhiu loi cng ngh khc nhau (IP, SDH, WDM ...).
Hnh 4.14 trnh by s phn cp cc loi kt ni LSP trong mng GMPLS. H thng GMPLS
qun l cc kt ni si quang gia cc nt mng, thng qua m my LSP si quang FSC (fiber
LSPs); cc kt ni gia cc bc sng thng qua m my lambda LSC (lambda LSPs), cc
kt ni gia cc khung truyn ti thng qua m my TDM (TDM LSPs) v cc kt ni gia
cc gi truyn ti thng qua m my PSC (Packet LSPs).

Hnh 4.14 : S phn cp cc loi kt ni LSP trong mng GMPLS


204

Cc c ch chnh ca th tc chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS bao gm tp
hp cc giao thc l :
1) Giao thc nh tuyn thc hin cc ni dung sau:
Cc nt mng trao i cho nhau trng thi ca tuyn/lin kt m chng kt ni n thng
qua thng ip qung b trng thi lin kt link state advertisement.
Mi lin kt c mt s o i din cho cc chi ph s dng n (c th ph thuc vo chiu
di, ti trng ca n, vv ...)
Mi nt mng c mt c s d liu y v cu trc min (domain topology).
2) Thut ton nh tuyn tm ng ngn nht ti u theo k thut lu lng(OSPF-TE).
Nt bin vo mng (cn gi l ngun) s tnh ton ng dn ngn nht (ng dn c chi ph
thp nht) n nt bin i ra khi mng (cn gi l im n) bng OSPF-TE. Thut ton ny
ni chung l c quyn ca nh sn xut thit b (cha c tiu chun chung).
3) Cc giao thc bo hiu (RSVP-TE hoc CR-LDP). Mt trong hai giao thc bo hiu ny
c s dung thc hin cc ni dung sau y :
Nt bin vo mng (cn gi l ngun) s thng bo cho cc nt dc theo ng dn ti
u tnh ton trong thit lp cu hnh bng OSPE-TE thit lp kt ni n nt bin i ra
khi mng (cn gi l im n).
Mt thng ip xc nhn (acknowledgment message) c gi tr li cho thy s thnh

cng hay tht bi ca vic thit lp kt ni.


4.4.2 Mt phng iu khin trong mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena
1. Mt phng iu khin a lp ca h thng thit b Ciena
Mt phng iu khin (control plane) l trung tm ca h thng thit b truyn ti OTN, v n l
cc thnh phn mng c s dng giao tip vi nhau ci t thnh phn iu khin, xy
dng cc tuyn ng dn gim st c, cho php s kt hp ca cc thnh phn mng mi
vo mng, to lp v quay tr li cc tuyn ng dn bo v.
Cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng chp nhn cc gii php mt phng iu khin cho cc
dch v IP, MPLS, v Ethernet cung cp dch v linh hot ng thi n gin ha s khai
thc. Ciena ng dng m hnh mt phng iu khin trin khai cc mng quang thng
205

minh trong nhiu mng li cung cp dch v. Cc gii php mt phng iu khin ca Ciena
c da trn mt b giao thc nh tuyn v bo hiu, cho php mng Ethernet quang p ng
vi cc yu cu dch v, bng cch phn b ti nguyn mng mt cch t ng , gia 2 u cui
(end-to end) i xuyn qua cc mng ca nh cung cp thit b n hoc a cng ngh. Nhng
li ch ca mt phng iu khin Ethernet quang c kim chng thc t trong mng li
ca khch hng. Vic phn tch cung cp dch v v Chi ph khai thc (OPEX) v chi tiu vn
u t (CAPEX) cho thy tit kim ng k t vic trin khai cc mng mt phng iu khin
thng minh quang.
Cc gii php mt phng iu khin Ciena c m rng trn lp 0, 1 v 2 bng cc thit b
h ActivFlex nh th hin trong Hnh 4.15. Mt phng iu khin ti mi lp hot ng c lp
nhng vn c th lm vic xuyn trn nhiu lp chia s thng tin c lu gi hoc cho php
thc hin cc chc nng cao cp. Thit b Ciena 5400 v 6500 c tch hp mt phng iu
khin c trnh by trong Hnh 4.15.

Hnh 4. 15: Mt phng iu khin a lp ca h thng thit b Ciena


Mt phng iu khin c kh nng t ng pht hin v lin kt cu trc thnh cng trong h
thng Ghp Bc sng quang DWDM v kt ni cho quang, ng thi h tr nh tuyn v
bo hiu trong vic cung cp dch v t ng v cng nh phc hi mng li sau s c.
2. Tng quan cc chc nng mt phng iu khin quang ca h thng thit b Ciena

206

Mt mt phng iu khin iu khin quang cho php cc mng truyn ti thc hin t ng v
phn phi nhiu chc nng m trc y phi thc hin thng qua s kt hp ca h thng qun
l gim st tp trung v quy trnh thc hin th cng. Nh kt qu ca s t ng ha ny, mng
phn ng linh hot v h tr trin khai nhanh chng cc dch v mi. Mt phng iu khin h
tr cc tnh nng sau:
1) T ng pht hin (Auto-discovery) : cung cp mt bc tranh chnh xc ca cu trc
lin kt mng li v ngun ti nguyn sn sng to lp cc c s d liu ca mng.
2) T ng gim st dch v (Auto-provisioning): tng tc ca thit lp v hu dch
v;
3) T ng phc hi (Auto-restoration): n gin ho vic x l li bng cch khi phc
li dch v ngay lp tc vi ngun ti nguyn sn c, ngay c sau khi b lin tip nhiu s
c.
Cc nhu cu v chnh sch, kh nng m rng v cht lng thng i hi mt mng c cu
trc thnh cc min khc nhau, tch bit khch hng v mng ti giao din ngi dng-nmng UNI (User-to-Network Interface).
Chin lc mt phng iu khin ca Ciena h tr mt kin trc a min vi cc im giao din
UNI tiu chun v giao din mng ngoi n mng E-NNI (External Network-to Network
Interface) nh th hin trong Hnh 4.16. Trong m hnh ny ca Ciena, thit b ca khch hng
A ti UNI yu cu mt kt ni cho khch hng thit b B, nhng khng nhn c thng tin chi
tit v cu trc lin kt cc mng li kt ni phi i qua. Kt ni c th i qua mt hoc nhiu
min. Thit b khch hng ch bit c nt mng NE vo v ra khi mng quang. Tuy nhin,
mi nt NE trong cng mt min u khng c nhn thc v cc nt bt k ca thuc min
khc, cng khng bit cc khch hng trong min khc.

207

Hnh 4.16: Mt phng iu khin lp 1 ca h thng thit b Ciena


Mt phng iu khin h tr pht hin ca nt mng NE hng xm lin k ca mt nt NE,
thng qua trao i trong bng ca thng ip pht hin cu trc lin kt a phng ca mt nt.
Giao thc nh tuyn phn phi cu trc lin kt mng v thng tin trng thi cho tt c cc nt
nm trong cng mt min ni b, cc nt ny c th xc nh cc tuyn ng ti u, da
trn mt chnh sch qun tr c quy nh bi ngi khai thc mng. Cc giao thc h tr chc
nng nh tuyn in hnh gia tt c cc nt mng v qung b thng tin v bng thng
(bandwidth advertisements), ghi nhn nhng thay i trong ti nguyn ang sn c.
Mt giao thc bo hiu-kt ni phn phi cho php thit lp kt ni v phc hi trn ton mng.
Trong mt mng chuyn mch quang Ciena, v d, mt lnh tnh ton ng duy nht n nt
ngun s khi to mt chui bo hiu i qua mng to ra mt ng i trn cc bc sng,
hoc mt kt ni mng con SNC (Network Connection), gia hai nt NE bt k.
Mt phng iu khin Ciena thc hin theo cc khuyn ngh ca Din n Internet Quang OIF
(Optical Internet-working Forum), Mng quang Chuyn mch T ng ASON (Automatically
Switched

Optical

Network)

ca

ITU-T

(International

Telecommunications

Union

Telecommunications) v Chuyn mch Nhn a giao thc Tng qut GMPLS (Generalized
Multi-Protocol Label Switching) ca T chc IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force ) c 4
chc nng chnh, ng thi bao gm thm cc chc nng thng minh.
4 chc nng chnh ca mt phng iu khin h thng thit b Ciena l :
208

1. T ng nhn dng cu trc mng (Automated Self-Inventory)


T pht hin ra cu trc lin kt mng, loi b cc li thng qua nhp h s vo h thng
qun l danh mc thit b khc nhau, m bo d liu mng lun c tnh trng mi nht
v lm gim cc tin trnh hot ng kch hot mng.
2. Qun l kt ni t ng (Automated Connection Management)
Qun l kt ni t ng cho php thc hin gim st theo kiu tr-v-nhn chut
(point-and-click), hoc t h thng gim st mng NMS Ciena hoc t Cng thng tin
bng thng theo nhu cu. Bt k hnh ng gim st kim tra hoc ng dng ch cn
thng tin v cc dch v, khng cn thng tin v mng - iu ny c x l t ng
bng mt phng iu khin.
3. S dch chuyn lu lng mng (Controlled Traffic Migration)
Hot ng khai thc hng ngy c n gin ha mnh nh mt phng iu khin chuyn lu lng cho cc cng vic k thut d kin trc c th c kch hot t xa
bng cch bm vo mt nt. iu quan trng l mng ti ti u ha (hoc chng phn
mnh lu lng) c th ch thc s c thc hin nu lu lng c ti nh tuyn nh
mt phng iu khin.
4. Mng t phc hi (Self-Healing Network)
Phc hi cho mng cu trc li c th c thc hin nh c ch phc hi nguyn gc
hoc dng h tr bo v 1:N hoc 1+1 trong gii hn nh hn 50 msec.
Ngoi 4 chc nng chnh trn, mt phng iu khin Ciena c cc chc nng thng minh b
sung l :
1) Chc nng Li Nhanh (FastMesh) : thc hin cu trc li v phc hi s c li
nhanh, v chc nng ny c th c trin khai mt mnh hoc ng thi vi chuyn
mch OTN hoc C ch bo v ng dy SDH. Nh vy, bo v tuyn tnh v vng c
th c thc hin ng thi vi c ch phc hi Li Nhanh FastMesh cung cp
cc cp cao nht ca dch v sn c. FastMesh khi phc cc kt ni trn c s 2 u cui
(end-to-end) v hot ng c lp vi cc c ch bo v vng v tuyn tnh. V vy,
ngoi chuyn mch bo v t ng APS 50ms trn cng hoc mc khch hng,
mng cng cung cp mt nn tng cho mt h thng phn cp bo v a tng s dng mt
209

phng iu khin, c th khi phc li mng ngay c t thin tai nh ng t, bo v


mt in trn din rng.
2) Tch hp Lin kt (Link Aggregation): cho php nhiu lin kt gia hai nt c qun l
nh mt lin kt duy nht. Tch hp lin kt gip m rng quy m mng li, thi gian
phc hi nhanh hn v n gin ha mng.
3) Phc hi cu trc li theo chn a phng LSMR (Local Span Mesh Restoration):
h tr thi gian phc hi nhanh hn trong mt mng. p ng vi mt s c nh t
cp quang, cc kt ni SNCs trn si quang s c khi phc li t cc nt ngun
ca chng bng cch s dng chc nng bo hiu ngang qua mng. LSMR cho php cc
kt ni SNCs khi phc a phng, ngha l gia cc nt lin k vi nt ang b t si
quang, nh vy lm tng tc phc hi dch v.
4) S ti kim (Crankback): cung cp kim tra li lin tc s phc hi SNC nu kim tra
ln u tin b chn. Mi ln th li s tm kim cc ng dn thay th trong mng s
dng dung lng bt k sn c, cho php khi phc li hot ng ngay c trong s hin
din ca cc iu kin thay i nhanh chng v nhiu s c.
4.4.3. Tnh nng mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena khi c mt phng iu khin
Khi c mt phng iu khin mng OTN ca Ciena c cc c im k thut vt tri hn so
vi mang SDH truyn thng. C th nh sau.
Ci thin hiu qa s dng ti nguyn v dch v sn c thng qua mng cu trc li
Khng ging nh cc mng truyn thng ch c bo v cp ng dy, mng cu trc
li ca Ciena thng minh chia s bng thng Ciena bo v trn nhiu dch v lm vic,
loi b cc yu cu v dung lng cn bng trn bng thng lm vic v bng thng bo
v; v kt qu l tit kim ng k trn thit b truyn ti v chuyn mch mng.
Bi v thit b c th khi phc cc dch v vi bng thng d phng ti bt c ni no
trong mng, mng cu trc li Ciena cung cp tnh sn sng dch v cao hn so vi cc
mng bo v cp ng dy hin v c vi tin cy dch v l 69s.
Mt mng cu trc li vi tin cy dch v cp 1, cn c gi l 69s , c ngha l
phn trm thi gian bo m dch v t ln hn 6 s 9 (> 99.9999 %) v c nh bi
thng s s s c phn triu DPM (defects per million) theo cng thc sau y :
210

Cc thnh phn ca cng thc tnh s s c phn triu DPM l :


1) Outage Minutes : l s pht dch v b gin on lin lc;
2) # of SNC Circuits affected : l s lng knh kt ni SNC b s c;
3) Total Network In-service Time : l tng thi gian dch v truyn ti trn mng
(tnh bng pht);
4) # of SNC Circuits : l tng s lng knh kt ni SNC;
Hnh 4.17 minh ho mng cu trc li t tin cy dch v ca mng cu trc li c
cp cht lng 1 (ngha l 69s) so vi tin cy dch v thc t.

Hnh 4.17: tin cy dch v mng cu trc li thc t v mng cu trc li c cp cht
lng 1 (69s).
Mt mng cu trc li vi tin cy dch v cp 1 ngoi vic lm tng im s v s
hi lng v lng trung thnh ca khch hng, tnh sn sng dch v cao c th dn n
tng doanh thu cho cc nh cung cp dch v, nh trnh by trong Hnh 4.18. Biu
trong Hnh 4.18 so snh tin cy v tnh sn sng dch v ca cc mng cu trc vng
phc hi truyn thng vi mng cu trc li phc hi thng minh. Trong khi mng cu
trc li phc hi thng minh x l nhiu s c lin tip d dng, cc mng vng truyn
thng c thit k khi phc li dch v mt cch nhanh chng trong trng hp ch
c mt s c duy nht nhng thng khng c th x l lin tip cho mt s c th hai
211

v yu cu phi sa cha nhn cng. S phc hi ca mng cu trc li s khi phc li


s lng bt k s c n im m ti mng c phn hoch, ti a ha s hot
ng, thi gian mng to doanh thu.

Hnh 4.18: Thi gian gim st mng cu trc li gim


Chi ph khai thc gim nh t ng ha : T ng ha cc chc nng khai thc -chng
hn nh iu hnh gim st dch v, kim k thit b v cp nht cc bn cu trc lin
kt- cho php gim nhn lc khai thc mng trong khi cho php phn ng nhanh hn cc
yu cu v di chuyn, thm v thay i dch v mi. Kch hot dch v t ng c th
lm tng doanh thu, nh th hin trong Hnh 4.19. Hnh 4.20 minh ha c ton b
vng i ca mch v cho thy nhng u im gim st t ng, so vi phng php
truyn thng. Ban u, mch ln lt ln trn mng thng minh t c mt th t
cng nhanh hn trn cc mng truyn thng, lm gim thi gian nhn ri ca mch
v to ra doanh thu thay cho chi ph bo tr. Sau , gim st t ng s tng tc qu trnh
hu (tear-down) v lm gim thi gian nhn ri cho n khi mch sn sng s dng
li.

212

Hnh 4.19: Bo v dch v trong trng hp c 2 s c lin tip


Ngoi doanh thu tng nhanh hn do thit lp nhanh dch v, cp nht c s d liu t ng dn
n tit kim khai thc. Mt phng iu khin thng minh s t ng cp nht danh sch thit b
v thay i cu trc lin kt, m bo chnh xc c s d liu v loi b s b sung cng vic
c lin quan n li nhp c s d liu ca con ngi.

Hnh 4.20: Tin trnh thit lp v hu dch v.

213

4.5. H thng thit b OTN ActivFlex ca Ciena


4.5.1. H thit b ActivFlex 5400
4.5.1.1 Tng quan v h thit b ActivFlex 5400
H thit b ActivFlex 5400 l h thng chuyn mch ti cu hnh (Reconfigurable Switching
System). H thit b chuyn mch 5400 cung cp mt lot cc dch v OTN quang, SDH, v
Ethernet kt hp vi mt lot cc kh nng bo v. Thit b chuyn mch 5400 bao gm cc
chuyn mch quang-in-quang (OEO) thng minh kt hp vi mt mt phng iu khin c
trang b card chuyn mch c kh nng chuyn mch ba giai on, khng chn (non-blocking),
mt v /hoc hai chiu ti cc tc t ODU0 n ODU3, VC-3, v mc gi d liu t cng
u vo bt k n cng u ra bt k khc. Kin trc phn cng ca h thit b 5400 c trnh
by trong Hnh 4.21.

Hnh 4.21: Kin trc phn cng ca thit b ActivFlex 5400


Cc mt phng logic phn cng ca h thit b 5400 c trnh by trong Hnh 4.22 bao gm :
mt phng iu khin (control plane), mt phng d liu (data plane) v mt phng thi gian
(timing plane).
1) Mt phng iu khin cung cp mt nn tng cho tt c cc chc nng phn mm iu
khin ca thit b 5400. Mt phng iu khin cung cp kim sot d phng, iu khin,
214

tp hp trng thi, v duy tr thng k cht lng cho thit b 5400. Mt phng iu khin
cng cung cp mt c s h tng cho cc nhim v lp mng, chng hn nh pht hin
cu trc mng (topology) v nh tuyn cuc gi, v thc hin chuyn mch bo v khi b
s c.
2) Mt phng d liu ca thit b 5400 l mt nn tng phn cng c kh nng chuyn mch
mt v /hoc hai chiu ba giai on, khng chn (non-blocking), c kh nng chuyn i
t bt k cng u vo vi bt k cng u ra khc. Mt phng d liu s bao gm cc
thc th lp ng dn, ng dy, OTN, SDH t cng vo n cng u ra.
3) Mt phng thi gian : song song vi mt phng d liu, mt phng thi gian tip nhn v
phn phi thng tin thi gian trong thit b 5400. Thng tin thi gian c tip nhn t
giao din BITS bn ngoi, c x l ni b, v phn phi cho cc giao din BITS bn
ngoi. Vic tip nhn, x l v phn phi thi gian cho php mt thit b 5400 c tch
hp vo OTN v mng s ng b.

Hnh 4.22: Cc mt phng logic phn cng ca thit b ActivFlex 5400


H 5400 cung cp cc giao din tn hiu tc GE t 1 n 100 Gb/s, SDH t 155 Mb/s n 10
Gb/s, v chuyn mch OTN t ODU-0 n ODU-4, bao gm ODUflex. Mi card OTN/SDH

215

cung cp giao din I/O 120 Gb/s. H thit b h tr c tiu chun quang tm ngn cng nh giao
din DWDM c tch hp y vi cc h thng ng dy quang ca Ciena.
4.5.1.2 Cc loi thit b thuc h ActivFlex 5400
Cc thit b thuc h ActivFlex 5400 bao gm 2 loi l :
H thng chuyn mch ti cu hnh ActivFlex 5410 trong Hnh 4.23 : l 01 gi
khung c 10 khe cm m-un ng dy vi 120G cho mi khe, cung cp ban u dung
lng chuyn mch 1,2 Tb/s cho mi nt mng. Thit b 5410 c kh nng cung cp :
ln n 30 giao din quang 40G (10 m-un ng dy vi 3 cng 40G trn mi mun ng dy);
ln n 120 giao din quang 10G (10 m-un ng dy vi 12 cng 10G trn mi mun ng dy);
ln ti 480 giao din quang 2.5G (10 m-un ng dy vi 48 cng 2.5G trn mi mun ng dy).
H thng chuyn mch ti cu hnh ActivFlex 5430 trong Hnh 4.24 : l 01 gi ton
khung c 30 khe cm, cung cp ban u dung lng chuyn mch 3,6 Tb/s cho mi nt
mng. Thit b 5430 c kh nng cung cp :
ln n 90 giao din quang 40G (30 m-un ng dy vi 3 cng 40G trn mi mun ng dy);
ln n 360 giao din quang 10G (30 m-un ng dy vi 12 cng 10G trn mi mun ng dy);
ln ti 1440 giao din quang 2.5G (30 m-un ng dy vi 48 cng 2.5G trn mi
m-un ng dy).

216

Hnh 4. 23 : Thit b ActivFlex 5410

Hnh 4. 24: Thit b ActivFlex 5430

4.5.1.3 Phng thc nh x tn hiu OTN ca thit b ActivFlex 5400


Cc thit b thuc h ActivFlex 5400 c 2 phng thc nh x tn hiu l n tng v a tng :
1) Phng thc nh x tn hiu n tng: to lp nh x ODU0s, ODU1s, v ODU2s trc
tip t cc khe thi gian c sn. V d: Nu mt ODU0 l cn thit trong OTU-3, c th
ly trc tip ODU0 t cc khe thi gian.
2) Phng thc nh x tn hiu a tng (Hnh 4.25): to lp nh x ln lt t cc khung
OTN trung gian tc thp hn. V d mt OTU-2 c mt ODU2 v sau lng
4xODU1s vi 2xODU0s lng vo trong mi ODU1. c c ODU0, qu trnh gii
nh x phi c thc hin.

217

Hnh 4.25: nh x tn hiu a tng ODU4 (100Gb/s) t cc ODU0 (1GbE) ca h thit b


ActivFlex 5400
4.5.1.4 Gim st dch v khch hng qua cc cp b i TCM ca h thit b ActivFlex
5400
Theo Khuyn ngh G.709, mng OTN cho php cc nh khai thc dch v s dng ti a 6 cp
gim st b i TCM qun l dch v 2 u ca khch hng. Hnh trnh by mt trng hp
ca h thng gim st ca h thit b ActivFlex 5400 s dng 4 cp b i TCMi (i=1 n 4)
qun l cht lng dch v 2 u cui ca mt ng dn khch hng PM. Trong v d v TCM
trong Hnh 4.26, TCM1 l gim st b i QoS khch hng ti bin mng ca khch hng 2
u. TCM2 l gim st b i QoS ca khch hng ti vng qun l ca nh khai thc dch v
A. TCM3 l gim st b i QoS ca khch hng ti mi min qun l ca nh khai thc dch v
A, nh khai thc dch v B v lin kt ni gia 2 min qun l ca nh khai thc dch v A v B.
TCM4 l gim st b i QoS tuyn bo v cho dch v ca khch hng ti min qun l ca
nh khai thc dch v A.

218

Hnh 4.26: V d gim st dch v qua cc cp b i TCM ca h thit b ActivFlex 5400


4.5.1.5 Cc c tnh h tr OTN ca h thit b ActivFlex 5400
Bt u vi phin bn 2.0, h thit b ActivFlex 5400 h tr chuyn mch mng truyn ti
quang OTN, theo quy nh ca G.709, trong vic thit lp nh x trong sut cc tn hiu khch
hng vo b cha (container) OTN, qun l chung 2 u dch v (end-to-end) bt k loi khch
hng, v s dng bng thng hiu qu hn trong mng.
Cng vi thit lp nh x v ghp knh theo tiu chun G.709, phin bn 2.0 ca h thit b
ActivFlex 5400 cng h tr kt ni mng con SNC OTN (OTN Subnetwork Connections). Kh
nng ny cho php ngi dng to lp, qun l v bo v SNCs ca ODUk/j ca m-un ng
dy t mt phng iu khin.
Kt ni mng con SNC OTN hot ng rt ging vi kt ni mng con SNC SDH truyn thng :
SNC SDH c ngun gc t cc im kt cui kt ni CTP (Connection Termination Points) l
VC-Xc v c nh tuyn qua mng thng qua giao thc bo hiu v nh tuyn ph hp tiu
chun ca 5400. Vi vic to ra cc dch v OTN, SNCs ca thit b 5400 c th bt ngun v
kt thc ti CTPs ODUk/j. SNC ODU0 qua SNC ODU3 cng c h tr.
Mt SNC OTN c th bt ngun t giao din OTN, SDH, hoc Ethernet. i vi cc giao din
khch hng OTUk, cc khe thi gian ODUk/j lin quan n mt thc th tng t nh mt khe
thi gian SDH VC-Xc. i vi mt giao din khch hng SDH hoc Ethernet, ton b khch
hng l nh x trong sut vo ODUk/j cho php mt dch v ng tin cy v trong sut thc s 2
u cui. Mt giao din khch hng SDH c nh x trong sut vo OPU1 (STM16 ) hoc
219

OPU2 (STM64), trong khi mt khch hng Ethernet c nh x vo mt OPU0 (GbE) hoc
OPU2 (10GbE).
Cc SNCs OTN s dng mt phng iu khin G.ASON/GMPLS ph hp ca tiu chun, mt
mt phng iu khin tng t c s dng cho SNC SDH, nhng hot ng nh mt thc th
ring bit. Cc tuyn OTN s dng tiu GCC OTN vn chuyn cc thng ip mt phng
iu khin v ng dy SDH s dng tiu DCC SDH. Hai trng hp c lp ny c th
cng tn ti trong cng mt nt cng nh trong cng mt mng hot ng c lp nh hai lp
ring bit. SDH c h tr cng vi OTN trong phin bn 2.0. Bi v c rt nhiu lp trong h
thng phn cp OTN, c 3 knh truyn thng ring bit m c th c s dng : GCC0 trn
OTU v GCC1 hoc GCC2 trn ODU. Ty thuc vo cu hnh ngi dng c th chn chy
OSRP trong GCC0, GCC1, GCC2 hoc mt knh kt hp GCC1/GCC2. Cc tuyn OTN qung
b s lng ODU3/2/1/0 h tr trn ng dy.
Cc tuyn SDH qung b bng thng v s lng khe thi gian VC-3 ang c sn.
Mt giao din OTN h tr c hai loi kt ni SDH v OTN, nhng phn SDH ca bng thng
ny phi c phn nh bi ngi s dng v khng c xc nh bi mt phng iu khin.
Mt SNC OTN c th mang SDH l bng thng OTN. Tng t nh vy khng cn phi xc
nh bng thng SDH trn cc nt trung gian m ch ti cc im ngun v kt cui.
Kin trc thit b OTN h 5400 ca Ciena cho php mt cng c th c h tr bi mt trong
cc giao din nh sau:
n v truyn ti quang (OTU) - Khi c gim st trong ch ny, cng 40G hot ng
nh giao din OTU3 v cng 10G hot ng nh giao din OTU2. H thit b 5400 thc
hin ghp knh v gii ghp cc bc sng ODU2 v/hoc ODU1 v/hoc ODU0 v cc
kt ni cho ODUk/j trc tip. Cc dch v sau c th c thc hin trong sut trong b
cha OTN :
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE);
OC-48/STM-16 (trong sut hoc ch CBR);
10GbE LAN PHY (10GbE);
OC-192/STM-64 (trong sut hoc ch CBR).

220

4.5.2. H thit b ActivFlex 6500


4.5.2.1. Tng quan v h thit b ActivFlex 6500
H thit b Ciena 6500 tch hp ton din cc cng ngh OTN, WDM v kh nng Ethernet vo
cng mt nn tng. H thit b Ciena 6500 cung cp s linh hot khai thc dch v v phi lin
tc pht trin mng li v ti u ha c s h tng da trn Ethernet nh cc c im sau y.
iu chnh cc yu cu ca tiu chun k thut mi nt mng c th tng ng vi 3 bin
th ca gi 6500;
H tr giao din 40G v 100G ti a ha li nhun trn u t bng cch cung cp
dung lng lu lng truy cp hn 10 ln trn cng mng hin ti;
B v in cho tn sc, loi b s cn thit phi b tn sc c nh v cc b khuch i
lin quan, ng thi lm n gin ha k thut ca mng;
Cung cp ROADM c tch hp y cc b chuyn mch chn bc sng WSS
(Wavelength-Selective Switch) thc hin tc ng linh hot mi bc sng nh
thm/rt/i xuyn(passthrough) mi bc sng v chuyn mch mi bc sng;
H tr lp nh x OTN,ghp knh,chuyn mch, v truyn ti trn c s qun l theo
chun OTN;
Cung cp ghp knh tch hp/thng k trn cc giao din gi ( theo Khuyn ngh MEF)
cho php cung cp hiu qu cc dch v gi vi vi SLAs nghim ngt;
Cung cp kh nng OAM y v kh nng truyn ti cng cp nh nhau trn lp 0, 1
v 2 , trong khi vn gi cc gi tr hot ng ca mng chuyn mch gi v mt m hnh
tng t.
Mt phng iu khin ca h thit b ActivFlex 6500 h tr cc tnh nng sau :
Mt phng iu khin OTN;
Gim st t ng theo kiu tr-v-nhn chut (point-and-click);
Tnh ton ng dn t ng;
T ng pht hin cc ti nguyn mng;
Lin kt nhm tuyn truyn dn (bundling) cho kh nng m rng mng li rng ln
hn;
221

Cc lp bo v/phc hi dch v nhiu tng;


nh tuyn theo trng s qun tr (administrative weight routing);
nh tuyn theo tr (latency routing);
Phc hi cu trc li theo chn a phng LSMR (Local Span Mesh Restoration);
Khi phc theo cu trc li-SNCP MR-SNCP (Mesh restore-SNCP) dnh cho bo v
nhanh v kh nng m bo dch v cao nht (ultra-survivability);
4.5.2.2. Cc loi thit b h ActivFlex 6500
Cc thit b thuc h ActivFlex 6500 trong Hnh 4.27 bao gm 2 nh dng chnh l : 01 gi 13
RU c 14 khe cm v 01 gi 22 RU khung c 32 khe cm, cung cp 1,6 Tb/s chuyn mch.
Cc phn t mng ActivFlex 6500 c s dng cho cc gii php bng rng 40G/100G cho cc
giao din khch hng knh quang FC, Ethernet, SDH v OTN. Chc nng mt phng iu khin
v chuyn mch ca thit b cho php thc hin mt gii php mng ng (dynamic networking)
m rng t mng li n mng metro v n bin ca cc mng khch hng.

Hnh 4.27: H thit b ActivFlex 6500

222

4.5.2.3 Cc loi hnh dch v ca h thit b ActivFlex 6500


Cc loi hnh dch v c cung cp bi thit b ActivFlex 6500 :
Cc dch v tch hp Ethernet (Ethernet Aggregation)
Mt kha cnh quan trng to iu kin cho vic chuyn i sang mt c s h tng
truyn ti gi l kh nng t c s ghp tch hp/thng k trn cc giao din gi
ca thit b. H thit b Ciena 6500 cung cp cc giao din khc nhau (theo tiu chun
MEF) c kh nng chuyn mch lp 2. u tin, cc chuyn mch dch v lp 2
L2SS(Layer 2 Service Switch) v L2 MOTR cung cp QoS Ethernet v chc nng qun
l lu lng trn c s lu lng ca mi khch hng v cho php cung cp dch v vi
SLA nghim ngt. lu lng ca mi khch hng thp 64 kb/s vn c h tr. Hiu qu
chi ph v bo v Ethernet xc nh c cung cp vi s h tr cng ngh vng bo v
Ethernet (Ethernet Protection Ring) theo Khuyn ngh G.8032.
Dch v Ethernet trn mng cp ng hin ti
S dng chc nng Cng PDH ca thit b 6500, cc nh cung cp dch v c th cung
cp dch v Ethernet cho c s h tng truy cp cp ng PDH (T1/E1/T3/E3) da trn
thit b 6500 hin c ca h, m khng i hi bt k nng cp mng truy cp c
trin khai. Cc cng PDH c thit lp da trn th tc GFP, kt ni o VCAT(Virtual
Concatenation) v s hiu chnh dung lng tuyn LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment
Scheme).
Cc ng dng phn phi dch v Ethernet LAN ring o hoc dch v video
Multicast/Broadcast
Bi v thit b Ciena 6500 h tr kt ni bt k-n-bt k (any-to-any), cc giao din
L2 trn 6500 cng c th c s dng cho mng Ethernet LAN ring o hoc dch v
video Multicast/Broadcast, mang li cng cc gi tr ghp thng k, Ethernet QoS v
qun l lu lng cho cc ng dng ny.
H tr y cho cc mng khng dy ng trc OTN (OTN-Wireless Backhaul) v
thay th kt ni cho th h k tip (Next-generation Cross-Connect)

223

Thit b 6500 h tr thit lp cc dch v OTN vi mt cao v linh hot. Cc dch v


khch hng nh x GE, 10GE, FC100/200/400/800/1200 (v tng ng FICON),
STM1/4/16/256, 40GE v 100GE vo cc b cha OTN l ODU0/1/2/3/4 v ODU-Flex.

5. H thng thit b OTN ca ALU


5.1. S pht trin kin trc mng OTN ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS
H thng thit b ALU 1830 PSS phin bn 1,2,3 c xy dng p ng cho cu trc mng
truyn ti 4 lp WAN, RAN, MAN v LAN theo Hnh 5.1.

Hnh 5.1: Kin trc mng ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-2-3.
Kin trc mng ch yu p ng cc lu lng thoi tch hp gi IP/Ethernet tng ng cc c
ly khc nhau: mng LAN tng ng c ly # 1 Km, mng MAN l 10 Km, mng RAN l 100
Km v mng WAN l 1000 Km.
Tc bit c bn cho mng truyn ti l 155 Mb/s (STM-1) v tc c bit cao hn ln lt l
STM-4, STM-16, STM-64 v STM-256 thao Bng 5.1.

224

Bng 5.1: Tc bit cc lung trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-2-3.

H thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-2-3 trang b ch yu l cc thit b kt ni cho STM-1e
v ghp/gii ghp knh c lung bc cao hn l STM-16e v s dng b chuyn i inquang E/O v O/E truyn ti trn mng cp quang (Hnh 5.2).

Hnh 5.2: Thit b kt ni cho bc thp STM-1 trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn
1-2-3.
Vi s pht trin a dch v gi (ngoi thoi), ALU thc hin cc nghin cu c trnh by
trong Hnh 5.3. Hnh 5.3a) trnh by cc lp ca mng vin thng hin nay (theo ALU): lp 0 l
cc mng cp quang, lp 1 bao gm cc li bc sng thuc cc bng ITU-T khc nhau ca h
thng DWDM v CWDM v cc khung truyn dn OTN theo G.709, lp 2,5 l cc gi MPLS,
lp 3 l cc gi IP. Hnh 5.3b) trnh by hiu sut tiu th cng sut theo tc bit(Watts/Gig)
ca cc loi h thng vin thng khc nhau theo tng trng lu lng IP. T 2012 tr i, tc
lu lng IP ngy cng tng nhanh chng theo hm m, trong khi hiu sut tiu th cng
sut theo tc bit ca thit b router (gi IP) l cao nht, thp nht l cc thit b kt ni cho
225

ton quang OOO-XC,thp k tip l cc thit b kt ni cho ton quang ODU-XC (tc thit b
OTN) v tip theo l thit b kt ni cho ton quang SDH-XC v n chuyn mch gi
(ethernet). T cho thy, cc nh khai thc vin thng cn u t cc loi thit b OOO-XC,
ODU-XC trong thit b ROADM p ng tc lu lng gi ngy cng tng nhanh.

a)Phn lp mng vin thng theo ALU b) Hiu sut tiu th cng sut theo tc bit ca cc
loi thit b kt ni cho (theo ALU)
Hnh 5.3: Phn lp mng truyn ti v hiu sut tiu th cng sut theo tc bit ca cc
loi thit b kt ni cho
Theo xu hng ny, ALU pht trin h thit b chuyn mch dch v quang PSS (Photonic
Service Switch) 1830 phin bn 4 (Rel 4) b sung chc nng chuyn mch mng truyn ti
quang OTN a-terabit (Hnh 5.4) cho mng ghp bc sng quang DWDM hin hu. H thit
b PSS 1830 Rel 4 bao gm cc thit b ROADM 100G, qun tr v bo tr (OA&M), cc cng
c thit k v c ly quang di. Dung lng truyn ti ca thit b PSS 1830 Rel 4 l : 96 x 10
Gbit/s cho c ly vi nghn km v 96 x 100 Gbit/s cho c ly 1500 km.

226

Hnh 5.4: Cu trc phn cp tn hiu OTN trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4
227

Cu trc OTN trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4 ( Hnh 5.4 ) tun theo Khuyn ngh
G.709 phin bn 3. Trong Hnh 5.4, cc knh quang OCh tng ng bc sng khc nhau c
ghp vo n v ghp knh quang OMU (Optical Multiplex Unit). OMU ghp vi knh dch v
quang OSC hnh thnh mdun truyn ti quang OTM (Optical Transport Module).

Hnh 5. 5: Tc cc cp tn hiu OTN trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4.


Trong Hnh 5.5, tn hiu OTN bc thp nht l 1,25Gb/s thay cho STM-1 (155 Mbit/s) trong h
thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4. Cc tn hiu SDH (STM-1, ,STM-256, 100G), Ethernet
(1GE, 10GE, 40GE, 100GE) c bao bc ( digital wrapper ) trong khung ODU-n (
n=0,1,2,3,4 ) ca mng OTN v qua b E/O chuyn sang tn hiu quang OC (Optical Channel)
truyn ti trn mng quang.
5.2. Mng OTN vi thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4
5.2.1 Kin trc mng OTN ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4

228

Hnh 5.6: Mng truyn ti a lp ca h thng thit b ALU OTN


Hnh 5.6 trnh by kin trc mng truyn ti a lp ca h thng thit b ALU OTN. Lp kt ni
mng mc bc sng s c cc nt mng chuyn mch bc sng quang hay/v chuyn mch
in HO-ODU dnh cho cc lung c lu lng rt ln. yu cu chuyn mch cho cc lung
c lu lng thp hn (bng mt phn ca lu lng truyn ti ca 1 bc sng) s l cc nt
mng chuyn mch in LO-ODU v chng kt ni n cc router IP/MPLS truyn ti cho
cc tn hiu khch hng. Cc tn hiu khch hng c yu cu tc ln hn vn c th truy nhp
cc nt mng chuyn mch in LO-ODU khng qua cc router IP/MPLS. Cc b cha ODU
hon ton trong sut cho tn hiu khch hng thch ng truyn ti gi Ethernet.

229

Hnh 5.7: Kin trc mng OTN phn cp ca ALU


Hnh 5.7 trnh by kin trc mng OTN phn cp ca ALU bao gm 3 min :
1) Min truy nhp n khch hng dnh cho cc h thit b 1830 PSS-1 v PSS-1, ch c
cc nt mng loi OADM, vi bng sng CWDM. Min truy nhp ca mng ALU s kt
ni n cc thit b c v khng dy RAN, GPON/VDSL.
2) Min th (metro) dnh cho cc h thit b chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical Core
Switching) 1830 PSS-16/32/36/64, vi bng sng CWDM v DWDM dnh cho c 2 loi
nt mng OADM hoc ROADM. Min th ca mng ALU s kt ni n cc thit b
router dch v cung cp cc loi dch v gi cho khch hng, truyn ti cho cc data
center v nh tuyn lu lng gi i quc t.
3) Min trc (backbone) dnh cho 3 h thit b chuyn mch li quang OCS 1830 PSS32/36/64, ch vi bng sng DWDM dnh cho c 2 loi nt mng OADM hoc ROADM.
Min trc ca mng ALU s kt ni n cc thit b router li nh tuyn truyn ti
lu lng ln cho cc router dch v.
230

Min trc v min th p ng c cc tc OTN t tc thp ODU0 cho n ODU3/4


(40/100G). Min truy nhp p ng c cc tc OTN t tc thp ODU0 cho n
ODU1/2 (2.5/10G). Mt phng iu khin ASON/GMPLS h tr qun l c c 2 min th
v min trc vi cc kt ni bo v SNC v SNC 1+1 trong min in v quang. Min truy nhp
khng h tr qun l bi ASON/GMPLS v c 2 loi kt ni bo v l SNCP trong min in
v quang v OPS 1+1.
5.2.2 Kin trc chuyn mch trn lp OTN
H thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64 c tch hp c 2 kh nng chuyn mch OTN trn 2 min
ca lp OTN trnh by trong Hnh 5.8 a) l :
1) Min in chuyn mch c thc hin trong card ma trn chuyn mch cc khung
ODUk c tc c nhhoc cc khung c tc thay i c ODUflex.
2) Min quang (photonic) chuyn mch c thc hin trong card chuyn mch chn bc
sng WSS cc knh quang OCh tng ng cc bc sng.
Dung lng chuyn mch ln ti nhiu tetrabit. Hnh 5.8b) trnh by kh nng kt ni 3 tc
khc nhau gia cc cng ca h thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64 vi cc router:
1) Mc 1 tc thp ch bng mt phn ca tc cng (sub-port) dnh cho VLAN trong
mi cng router;
2) Mc 2 tc trung bnh bng tc cng (port) dnh cho cng ca router;
3) Mc 3 tc cao vi tc truyn ti trn mi bc song c dnh cho knh quang
OCh ca thit b 1830 PSS lm trung k lin kt router n cc trung tm d liu (data
center) ;

231

a)
b)
Hnh 5.8: Kin trc chuyn mch trn lp OTN ca h thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64
Mng OTN 3 cp tc kt ni gia thit b chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical Core
Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64 vi thit b router 7750 truyn ti hiu qa lung gi IP c
trnh by trong Hnh 5.9.

Hnh 5.9: Kin trc kt ni mng OTN gia thit b chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical
Core Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64 vi thit b router 7750 truyn ti hiu qa lung gi
IP.
232

1) tc mc 1, cc VLAN khc nhau ca router 7750 i trong mt cng Ethernet n


thit b 1830 PSS-32/64 v a n ghp tng ng vo cc ODUflex khc nhau. Cc
ODUflex ( tng ng cc VLAN ) c nh tuyn trong ma trn chuyn mch tu theo
hng ch v c ghp vo cc HO ODU, a n ghp vo cc knh quang OCh
tng ng vi cc bc sng lambda khc nhau. Cc bc sng lambda tip tc c
nh tuyn chuyn mch trong card WSS tu theo hng ch ca tuyn cp quang
c truyn ti trn mng cp quang.
2) tc mc 2, cc lung cng Ethernet ca router 7750 n thit b 1830 PSS-32/64 s
hoc thng qua ma trn chuyn mch hoc s i trc tip ghp vo cc HO ODU v tip
tc ghp vo cc knh quang OCh tng ng vi cc bc sng lambda khc nhau v
tip tc c nh tuyn chuyn mch trong card WSS, tu theo hng ch ca tuyn
cp quang c truyn ti trn mng cp quang.
3) tc mc 3, cc lung cng Ethernet s ghp trc tip vo HO ODU v ghp vo
knh quang OCh tng ng vi cc bc sng lambda khc nhau ti cng ca router
7750. Khi ra khi router 7750 l bc sng lambda khc nhau a n ti cng thit b
1830 PSS-32/64 v sau chuyn thng n mt cng ca card WSS v tip tc c
nh tuyn chuyn mch trong card WSS, tu theo hng ch ca tuyn cp quang
c truyn ti trn mng cp quang.

Hnh 5.10: Lp nh tuyn/chuyn mch trong kin trc kt ni mng OTN gia thit b
chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical Core Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64 vi thit b router
7750 truyn ti hiu qa lung gi IP.
233

Hnh 5.10 trnh by s tch hp nh tuyn ca router 7750 vi s chuyn mch ca thit b
chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical Core Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64. Cc gi IP c nh
tuyn L3 trong router 7750 v a vo cc VLAN n cc cng Ethernet. Cc VLAN khi n
thit b 1830 PSS-36/64 a vo cc ODUflex v thc hin chuyn mch L2 (min in) v tip
tc ghp vo cc HO ODUk a n knh quang OCh v mt ln na c chuyn mch
L1(min quang) truyn ti trn mng quang.
Thit b router qun l bng thng hiu qa v linh ng cho c mng i vi cc khch hang c
yu cu tc thp. Mt khc, v thit b 1830 PSS , lu lng IP c tc l mt phn hoc c
cng router c nh x vo b cha truyn ti ti u. Tip theo chuyn mch ODU tc
mt phn hoc c bc sng gip ti u s dng lu lng c th truyn ti ca mt bc sng.
Nh ti u ho 2 cp dung lng cha truyn ti nh vy trong thit b 1830 PSS lm gim
chi ph trn mi bit.
5.2.3. Mt phng iu khin ASON/GMPLS ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4
H thng thit b Alcatel-Lucent 1830 PSS-64 v Alcatel-Lucent PSS-36 c kh nng hot ng
v

phc hi khi c s c mt cch t ng khi c tch hp mt phng iu khin

ASON/GMPLS, c tn gi l mt phng iu khin mng a min MRN (Multi-Regional


Network) (Hnh 5.11).
Mt phng iu khin MRN cho php mt lot cc li ch, bao gm c trin khai dch v mng
v d phng dch v t ng cho cc dch v bng thng theo yu cu v c s phc hi ty
chn linh hot cho s khc bit dch v v h tr SLA.The Alcatel-Lucent 1830 PSS vi kh
nng chuyn mch trn lp OTN v bc sng sn sng h tr phc hi GMPLS a lp lm
gim ngun lc cn thit bo v v gii phng bng thng cho lu lng to doanh thu.

234

Hnh 5.11: Kh nng phc hi t ng cho lu lng b s c trn lp OTN v bc sng


ca MRN
5.3. H thit b 1830 PSS-36/1830 PSS-64 ca ALU
H thit b chuyn mch dch v quang 1830 PSS-64 v PSS-36 ( Hnh 5.12 ) l mt lp ca
nn tng chuyn mch li quang (optical-core) vi dung lng terabit v h tr OTN cho cu
trc li quang thng minh th h tip theo.
Thit b 1830 PSS-64 bt u vi dung lng 2 Tb/s trong mt khung duy nht c 64-na khe
(halfslot) v c th m rng dung lng ma trn chuyn mch ln n 8 Tb/s. Thit b 1830
PSS-36 bt u vi dung lng 1 Tb/s trong mt khung duy nht v cng c kh nng nng cp
ln dung lng 4 Tb/s.
C hai thit b chuyn mch cung cp kin trc mt cao vi s linh hot chia nhu cu lu
lng gia tng vi s kt hp bt k gia cc giao din mng Ethernet, OTN v SDH.
5.3.1. Cu trc thit b 1830 PSS

235

Hnh 5.12: H thit b 1830 PSS vi 2 thit b mi 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64

Hnh 5.13: Cc loi card h tr khung OTN ca thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64
Hnh 5.13 trnh by cc loi card OTN theo Khuyn ngh G.709 ca thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830
PSS-64 phin bn 4.
1) Card GE c 24 cng vo c th khai bo tc bt k cho mi cng vo vi tc ti a
tng ng l GE/ STM1/4/16 v a n ng ra ca card vi tc l OTU1.

236

2) Card 40GE c 2 cng 40G/OTU3/OTU3e2 ng vo v a n ng ra ca card c tc


l OTU3.
3) Card 10x10GE c 10 cng vo 10G c th khai bo tc bt k cho mi cng vo vi
tc ti a tng ng l 10GE(LAN/WAN)/STM64/ OTU2/OTU2e/2e1/8FC, v a
n ng ra ca card c tc l 100G/OTU4 trn knh OCh ca mt bc sng lambda.
Phin bn 6 ca h thit b 1830 PSS-36/1830 PSS-64 c card 100G c 1 cng ng vo
100GE v a n ng ra ca card c tc l 100GE/OTU4 trn knh OCh ca mt
bc sng lambda.
Trong cc loi card ca thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64, cc khung OTN tc bc
thp l ODU0/ODU1/2/2e/3/3e2/4 v ODUflex; cc khung OTN tc bc cao l ODU1
(cha tn hiu khch hng tc 2,5Gbs) tng ng ghp vi OTU1, ODU2/2e (khch
hng tc 10Gbs) tng ng ghp vi OTU2/2e, ODU3/3e (khch hng tc 40Gbs)
tng ng ghp vi OTU3/3e2 v ODU4 (khch hng tc 100Gbs) tng ng ghp
vi OTU4.
5.3.2. Gii thiu card 11DPM12 OT
Transponder 11DPM12 l card c 2 cng 10G ng dy h tr ADM v cc chc nng ESNCP, cc tn hiu khch hng tc thay i linh hot c th c truyn ti trong sut bit
hoc k t theo cu trc phn cp OTN.

Hnh 5.14: Mt trc ca card 11DPM12 OT


Hnh 5.14 trnh by mt trc ca card 11DPM12 OT. Hai cng ng dy OTU2
(10.709Gbps) vi EFEC (G.975.1 I.4) v RS FEC (G.709) ca card 11DPM12 h tr 88 knh
khi cu hnh vi mt XFP thay i c bc sng nhng vi mt XFP c nh ch h tr 44
bc sng. Card 11DPM12 h tr cho cc giao din khch hng nh sau: STM1, STM4,
STM16, OTU-1 (G.709), 1Gb Ethernet, FC100/200/400, HD-SDI quang, SD-SDI quang, 3GSDI .
Card 11DPM12 h tr lp nh x ODU0/ODU1/ODUflex tiu chun G.709 l :
237

Cc tn hiu khch hng Sub-1.25G c nh x ti mt b cha ODU0 (STM-1, STM-4,


GbE, FC-100, hoc SD-SDI).
Cc tn hiu khch hng Sub-2.5G c nh x ti mt b cha ODU1 (FC-200, HD-SDI,
STM-16, hoc OTU1).
Cc tn hiu khch hng Super-2.5G c nh x ti mt b cha ODUflex (3G-SDI v
FC-400).
Hnh 5.15 di y cho thy 11DPM12 thit lp nh x cho tn hiu ca khch hng.

Hnh 5.15: Card 11DPM12 h tr lp nh x ODU0/ODU1/ODUflex tiu chun G.709


Card 11DPM12 cng h tr cc nh x c quyn ca ALU (ngoi tiu chun G.709) cho STM1 v STM-4 khch hng ci thin vic s dng bng thng. Phn cng 11DPM12 c th nh
x 16xSTM-1 khch hng hoc 4xSTM-4 khch hng vo mt ODU1 duy nht. Trong phin
bn R3.6, phn mm h tr 11DPM12 t 3xSTM-1 hoc 3xSTM-4 khch hng vo mt ODU1
duy nht theo Hnh 5.16.

238

Hnh 5.16: Card 11DPM12 h tr cc nh x c quyn ca ALU cho STM-1 v STM-4


Card 11DPM12 c 12 cng khch hng, bao gm 4 nhm cng (Port Group). Mi nhm cng c
bng thng u vo ti a l 5Gb/s (4x1.25Gb/s). S gn ca nhm cng l c nh, nh Hnh
5.17 di y.

Hnh 5.17: 4 nhm cng ca card 11DPM12.


Tng s bng thng b cha ODU c s dng trong mi nhm cng khng th vt qu
5Gb/s (4x1.25Gb / s). Bng thng ca cc loi b cha ODU c lit k trong Bng 5.2 sau
y.

239

Bng 5.2: Bng thng ca cc loi b cha ODU ca card 11DPM12

V d s dng bng thng theo Bng 5.2 : Khi cng 1 c cung cp vi mt b cha
ODU0, v cng 2 c cung cp vi ODU1, khi cng 3 ch c th cho php mt b
cha ODU0, bi v tng cc bng thng ch c th l 5Gb/s ( 1xODU0 + 1xODU1 +
1xODU0 = 5Gb/s ).
Mi cng ng dy (tc l mt ODU2 duy nht) c th cho php ODU bc thp vi bng
thng 10G.
S gii hn ca nh x ODU1PTF/OPTSG : Vi mt b cha nh x OPTSG cho khch hng
STM-1 v STM-4, mi ODU1PTF ch c th cho php mt nhm cng. Ni cch khc, mi
ODU1PTF (bng thng 2.5Gb/s) ch c th cho php 3 cng khch hng. Nu mt cng c
cung cp cho nh x OPTSG, hai cng khc trong cng nhm nn c cung cp nh x
OPTSG vo cng mt ODU1PTF c hiu qu v bng thng.
6. H thng thit b OTN ca Fujitsu
6.1. Kin trc OTN v phn min trn mng truyn ti OTN ca h thng thit b Fujitsu
Tiu chun OTN bao gm mt h thng phn cp ghp knh tiu chun, xc nh chnh xc cch
thc cc tn hiu tc thp c nh x vo ti tin c tc cao hn. iu ny cho php
chuyn mch OTN v WDM bt k gia tng tc tn hiu in v chuyn mch cc dch v tc
thp trong cc bc sng 10 Gbps, 40 Gbps, hoc 100 Gbps, m khng cn phi gii ghp
knh bc sng v to lin kt bng nhn cng.
S trong Hnh 6.1 m t phin bn n gin cc nh x ph bin nht trong thit b OTN
Fujitsu. V d, mt tn hiu 2,5 Gbps c nh x vo mt khung OTU1. Bn tn hiu 2,5 Gbps
c th c nh x vo mt khung OTU2.
240

Hnh 6.1: Kin trc OTN n gin ho trong thit b OTN ca Fujitsu
B cha OTN nh nht c xc nh l ti tin ODU0, c tc l 1,25 Gbps. Ban u, ti tin
ODU0 c d nh h tr tn hiu 1 GbE, nhng hin nay c m rng bao gm ty
chn nh x b sung cho cc dch v khc, chng hn nh tn hiu STM1 v STM-4. Trong khi
ODU0 c th c s dng vi nhiu loi tn hiu khc thay v ch c mt dch v duy nht l 1
GbE c cho php mi b cha ODU0. Tuy nhin vic lp nh x mt dch v duy nht l
STM1 hoc STM4 vo mt b cha ODU0 khng cho hiu qu v bng thng, v vy ng dng
ODU cho dch v tc di 1 Gbps rt hn ch.
Hng Fujitsu xc nh mt th h mi ca thit b mng quang c gi l h thng mng
truyn dn quang chuyn mch gi m Packet ONP (Packet Optical Networking Platform). Nn
tng mi ny to ra mt c s vng chc cho cung cp kh nng m rng qun l kt ni, thng
qua vic tch hp m-un ca cc cng ngh truyn ti Ethernet, ROADM v SDH trn mt
phn t thuc lp mng quang ch c mt a ch duy nht.
H thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 cung cp s hp nht nhiu thnh phn tch hp cng trn mt
h thng truyn dn, cu trc phn cp ca thit b c nh tuyn kt ni Ethernet. Nhng
cng ngh truyn dn SDH v ROADM c xy dng da trn vic nh a ch trong lp
thnh phn ca mng quang. Mng chuyn mch gi m Packet ONP ng thi tch hp cng
ngh truyn ti Ethernet nh hng kt ni COE (Connection-Oriented Ethernet) v cng ngh
241

truyn ti lp 1. N cung cp bng thng cao, gi cht lng cao, dch v TDM v WDM trn
mt nn tng m c xy dng cho mi trng a giao thc.
H thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 thuc loi Packet ONP, l mt h thng hon ton mun ho cho php cc nh cung cp mng thit lp cu hnh chnh xc nhng g h cn cho mt
ng dng c th. H thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 c th c lp s dng ch dnh cho
cu hnh SDH, hoc ch cho ROADM, hoc ch dnh cho cu hnh Ethernet m khng yu cu
ngi s dng thm chi ph. Hn na, khi kt hp cc tnh nng ca c 3 cu hnh trn vo ch
gi mt n FLASHWAVE 9500, nng lc c thit b thc s l ti a.
S tch hp ca cng ngh gi v truyn ti l mt s pht trin t nhin ca mng th v
mng khu vc v n thay i cung cp cc gii php c chi ph-hiu qu cho cc ng dng
bng thng ngy cng tng. Cng ngh c th c a vo h thng FLASHWAVE 9500
pht trin, bao gm:
1) Tch hp COE lp 2 vi lp 1;
2) Tp trung chuyn mch gi/OTN vi SDH;
3) Ethernet truyn trn TDM/SDH lin kt mng Ethernet

Hnh 6.2: Phn min trn mng truyn ti OTN ca Fujitsu


Hnh 6.2 trnh by s phn chia mng truyn ti OTN trong h thng thit b Fujitsu thnh 3
min :

242

1) Min truy nhp : tch hp cc loi dch v khch hnh vo khung OTN bng h thit b
Flashwave 7120.
2) Min th (metro) : s dng chuyn mch OTN min in nh hng n cho cc
tn hiu OTN, bng h thit b Flashwave 9500.
3) Min trc : s dng chuyn mch OTN min quang nh hng n cho cc tn hiu
quang OCh, (bng cc card WSS ca h thit b Flashwave 9500).
6.2. Gii thiu h thit b FLASHWAVE 9500
H thit b Flashwave 9500 l thuc loi chuyn mch gi m ONPs, c thit k tch hp
hiu qu v chuyn mch cc dch v Ethernet, cng vi dch v TDM/SDH; cung cp kt ni
hng dch v Ethernet (10 Mbps-1 GbE) qua mng th.
Mt khc, phn x l OTN ca h thit b Flashwave 9500 thc hin hiu qu cho dch v tc
rt cao, v d dch v c tc ln hn 1 GbE. Tuy nhin v b cha OTN nh nht l ODU0
1,25 Gbps, dch v c tc t hn 1 GbE khng em li hiu qu v bng thng OTN. Phn x
l OTN s b sung gi ONPs, v c a vo cc thit b ny cng vi tn hiu Ethernet v
TDM a n hiu qu v bng thng OTN.
H thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 h tr ROADM 40G c 2 hng lp trong 1/4 ca gi,
dung lng 480G ca SDH v bng thng gi trn cc card nm trn khu vc 1/3 ca gi.
H thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 h tr mt lot cc giao din dch v bao gm c a dch
v, giao din SDH a tc , giao din gi Ethernet, v giao din transponder v muxponder
nh trnh by trong Hnh 6.3.

Hnh 6. 3: Cc loi card giao din ca h thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500

243

Giao din SDH bao gm 01 card c 2 cng STM-64 bng rng v 01 card n cng
STM-64 bng hp vi cc giao din quang c th c kt ni trc tip vi mt mng
ROADM nhng c xy dng bng cch s dng thit b FLASHWAVE 7500 hoc kt
ni trc tip vo thit b ROADM trong h thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500.
Mt card giao din a dch v, a tc v c 08 cng c ngha ci tin so vi card c
giao thc c nh v nhiu cng. Mi card giao din c th c cu hnh trn mt c s
ring cho mi cng nh STM-1/STM-4/STM-16, hoc Gigabit Ethernet chy Ethernet
trn SDH.
Card giao din Ethernet bao gm 2 cng 10GigE bng rng hoc 01 cng 10 GigE bng
hp c th c s dng nh mt bc sng u vo t mng DWDM bn ngoi vo mt
mng ROADM hin c, chng hn nh mt trong nhng tnh nng thit b
FLASHWAVE 7500 l c th c truy nhp vo thit b ROADM ca h thng thit b
FLASHWAVE 9500. Ngoi ra, c mt card giao din Gigabit Ethernet gm 20-cng.
Mi card Ethernet c kh nng x l gi tin y c kh nng cung cp tt c cc
loi hnh dch v E-Line v E-LAN.
Cc giao din transponder bao gm mt card n cng 10G tng qut h tr linh hot
ng thi cc loi giao din khch hng l OTU2, LAN PHY 10 GigE, WAN PHY 10
GigE, v STM-64.

-------------------------------------------------------End---------------------------------------------------------------

244

MC LC

Phn I : C s v mng truyn ti quang OTN


(Optical Transport Network)
1. Th no l mng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) ? ............ 2
1.1 Cc yu cu ca mng quang qun l bng thng mng quang DWDM 100G, 500G,
1Tb/s. ...........................................................................................................................................2
1.1.1 Cc yu t thc y hin i ho mng thng tin quang ................................................2
1.1.2 Hin i ho mng thng tin trn nn tng cng ngh OTN ..........................................4
1.2 V tr ca lp mng OTN trong mng ghp bc sng quang DWDM ................................7
1.3. Cc thit b mng truyn ti quang OTN .............................................................................7
1.4 Tnh hiu qa ca mng OTN trong mng DWDM 100G, 500G, 1Tb/s..............................9
1.4.1 Cc u im ca mng OTN so vi mng SDH truyn thng .......................................9
1.4.2. Nhc im ca mng OTN ........................................................................................10

2. Cc c im mi ca mng OTN .......................................................................... 10


2.1 Sa li Chuyn tip FCC (Forward Error Correction) ........................................................10
2.2 Gim st Kt ni B i TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring) ....................................13
2.3 Truyn ti trong sut cc tn hiu khch hng mng OTN ................................................14
2.4 M rng dung lng chuyn mch (Switching Scalability) ..............................................14

3. Mng truyn ti quang OTN (Optical Transport Network) theo Khuyn ngh
ITU-T G.709/Y.1331/V3 ............................................................................................... 17
3.1. Gii thiu Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331/V3.............................................................17
3.2. H thng phn cp truyn ti quang (OTH) .......................................................................18
3.3.Cu trc giao din mng truyn ti quang (Optical transport network interface structure) 22
3.3.1 Cu trc tn hiu OTN c bn.......................................................................................23
245

3.3.2 Cu trc thng tin cho cc giao din OTN ...................................................................25


3.4. Cc nguyn tc ghp khung/ nh x v cc tc bit ca cc khung tn hiu phn cp
OTN trong min in ................................................................................................................28
3.4.1 nh x (Mapping).........................................................................................................30
3.4.2 Tc bit v dung lng (Bit rates and capacity) ca cc khung tn hiu phn cp
OTN .......................................................................................................................................30
3.4.4 Ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk (Time-Division Multiplex) .............................36
3.4.5 Cc v d minh ho ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk ..........................................45
3.5 Knh quang OCh (Optical channel) ...................................................................................47
3.5.1 Knh quang cc chc nng OCh ............................................................................47
3.5.2 Knh quang OCh khng y cc chc nng (OChr) .............................................47
3.6. n v truyn ti knh quang OTU (Optical channel transport unit) ................................48
3.6.1 Cu trc khung OTUk .................................................................................................48
3.6.2 Ngu nhin ho khung OTUk ......................................................................................49
3.7 n v d liu quang ODUk (Optical channel data unit) ...................................................49
3.7.1 Cu trc khung ODUk .................................................................................................49
3.7.2 Tc bit v dung sai tc bit ca ODUk ................................................................50
3.8 n v ti tin knh quang OPUk (Optical channel payload unit) ......................................53
3.9 Tiu ca cc khung tn hiu mng OTN ........................................................................54
3.9.1 Cc loi tiu .............................................................................................................57
3.9.2 Nhn dng du vt v nh ngha nh danh im truy cp (Trail trace identifier and
access point identifier definition) ..........................................................................................58
3.9.3 Tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk (OTUk/ODUk frame alignment overhead) ....60
3.9.4 Tiu OTUk OH ........................................................................................................62
246

3.9.5 Tiu ca ODUk ( ODUk OH ) .................................................................................66


3.9.6 Tiu OPUk OH .......................................................................................................85
3.10 Cc tn hiu bo tr mng (Maintenance signals) .............................................................88
3.10.1 Cc tn hiu bo tr ca OTS .....................................................................................89
3.10.2 Cc tn hiu bo tr ca OMS ....................................................................................89
3.10.3 Cc tn hiu bo tr cho OCh ......................................................................................89
3.10.4 Cc tn hiu bo tr OTUk ..........................................................................................90
3.10.5 Cc tn hiu bo tr ODUk .........................................................................................92
3.10.6 Tn hiu bo tr khch hng (Client maintenance signal) .........................................94
3.11. nh x cc loi tn hiu khch hng (mapping of client signals) vo cc khung tn hiu
OTN ...........................................................................................................................................96
3.11.0 Ch th s c tn hiu khch hng CSF (Client Signal Fail) ca OPUk......................97
3.11.1 nh x cc tn hiu CBR2G5, CBR10G, CBR10G3 v CBR40G vo OPUk ...........97
3.11.2 nh x mt tn hiu CBR2G5 (v d STM-16) vo OPU1 ......................................102
3.11.3 nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G (v d STM-64) vo OPU2 ......................................102
3.11.4 nh x mt tn hiu CBR40G (v d STM-256) vo OPU3 ....................................103
3.11.5 nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (v d, 10GBASE-R) vo OPU2e ..........................103
3.11.6 v 3.11.7 nh x cho cc khung tn hiu GFP v gi t bo ATM vo OPUk
(k=0,1,2,3) ...........................................................................................................................104
3.11.8 nh x tn hiu kim tra vo OPUk .........................................................................107
3.11.9 nh x chui bit khch hng khng xc nh (non-specific client) vo OPUk .......108
3.11.10 nh x cc tn hiu tc bit khng i khc vo OPUk bng cch nhi ............109
3.11.11 Thit lp nh x tn hiu 1000BASE-X v FC-1200 thng qua chuyn m trong
sut thi gian vo OPUk ......................................................................................................119
247

3.11.12 nh x tn hiu CBR siu-2.488 Gbit/s (supra-2.488 CBR Gbit/s) vo OPUflex .122
3.12 nh x cc tn hiu ODUj vo tn hiu ODTU v nh x ODTU vo cc khe lung TS
(tributary slots) ca OPUk bc cao HO OPUk ........................................................................124
3.12.1 nh ngha khe lung TS ca OPUk ........................................................................124
3.12.2 nh ngha n v lung d liu knh quang ODTU (Optical channel Data Tributary
Unit) .....................................................................................................................................134
3.12.3 Ghp tn hiu ODTU vo OPUk ...............................................................................136
3.12.4 Tiu ghp knh (Multiplex Overhead) ca OPUk v tiu nhi (Justification
Overhead) ca ODTU ..........................................................................................................145
3.12.5 nh x ODUj vo ODTUjk .....................................................................................160
3.12.6 nh x ODUj vo ODTUk.ts ...................................................................................167
3.13. Cc phng thc nh x tn hiu ca OTN ....................................................................169
3.13.1 Gii thiu ..................................................................................................................169
3.13.2 Cc nguyn tc th tc nh x tng qut GMP theo Mc D ca Khuyn ngh G.709
.............................................................................................................................................179

Phn II : Tng quan mng v h thng thit b OTN ca mt s Hng


cung cp thit b vin thng
4. H thng thit b OTN ca Ciena .......................................................................... 190
4.1 Cc c im chung ca mng OTN phn lp trong h thng thit b Ciena ...................190
4.2. Cu trc OTN trong thit b ca Ciena.............................................................................191
4.2.1. Cu trc thng tin khi truyn ti quang OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca Ciena
.............................................................................................................................................191
4.2.2.Cc im m loi ti tin PT trong thit b OTN ca Ciena ........................................194
4.2.3. Cu trc ghp knh OTN trong thit b Ciena ...........................................................195

248

4.3. Cc tn hiu khch hng trong mng OTN Ciena ............................................................197


4.3.1 Cc loi loi tn hiu khch hng trn mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena .........197
4.3.2 S chuyn mch nh tuyn cho tn hiu khch hng trn thit b OTN ca Ciena ...198
4.4. Kin trc mt phng iu khin thng minh trong thit b OTN ca Ciena ....................202
4.4.1 Tng quan v mt phng iu khin (control plane) ..................................................202
4.4.2 Mt phng iu khin trong mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena.........................205
4.4.3. Tnh nng mng OTN ca h thng thit b Ciena khi c mt phng iu khin .....210
4.5. H thng thit b OTN ActivFlex ca Ciena ....................................................................214
4.5.1. H thit b ActivFlex 5400 ........................................................................................214
4.5.2. H thit b ActivFlex 6500 ........................................................................................221

5. H thng thit b OTN ca ALU ........................................................................... 224


5.1. S pht trin kin trc mng OTN ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS .................................224
5.2. Mng OTN vi thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4.................................................................228
5.2.1 Kin trc mng OTN ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4 ............................228
5.2.2 Kin trc chuyn mch trn lp OTN ........................................................................231
5.2.3. Mt phng iu khin ASON/GMPLS ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4 234
5.3. H thit b 1830 PSS-36/1830 PSS-64 ca ALU .............................................................235
5.3.1. Cu trc thit b 1830 PSS .........................................................................................235
5.3.2. Gii thiu card 11DPM12 OT ...................................................................................237

6. H thng thit b OTN ca Fujitsu ....................................................................... 240


6.1. Kin trc OTN v phn min trn mng truyn ti OTN ca h thng thit b Fujitsu...240
6.2. Gii thiu h thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 ......................................................................243

DANH SCH CC HNH ......................................................................................... 251


249

DANH SCH CC BNG ........................................................................................ 259


Ph lc ......................................................................................................................... 261
V d tnh tc ca cc giao din OTN theo cc bng tc c bn OPUk,ODUk, OTUk
trong Khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331/V3 trong mc 3.4 .............................................................261

Ti liu tham kho ...................................................................................................... 264

250

DANH SCH CC HNH


Hnh 1. 1 : Tc tng trng lu lng d liu Internet .............................................................2
Hnh 1. 2 : B qua b nh tuyn li thay bng vic s dng chuyn mch OTN .........................5
Hnh 1.3 : S ca thit b ROADM th h sau...........................................................................8
Hnh 1.4 : Mng OTN cung cp mt cng ngh truyn ti lu lng hi t ti u .....................10
Hnh 2.1 : FEC ci thin cht lng truyn ti c 6dB ti BER=10E-15.................................12
Hnh 2.2 : Gim st Kt ni B i TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring) ............................13
Hnh 3.1: Dng tn hiu c bn ca OTN .....................................................................................19
Hnh 3.2 : H thng phn cp truyn ti quang (OTH) theo Khuyn ngh G.709 ........................19
Hnh 3.3 : Phn lp chc nng ca mng OTN tng ng loi thit b OTN ..............................20
Hnh 3.4 : S phn cp chc nng ca tn hiu OTN hin ti ......................................................21
Hnh 3.5:Mi quan h ca cc lp tn hiu khch hng, OPU, ODU, v OTU vi cc tiu ....22
Hnh 3. 6 : V d v chc nng phn lp trong lin kt gia cc mng OTN ..............................23
Hnh 3.7 (H 6-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc ca cc giao din OTN ............................................24
Hnh 3.8 (H.6-2/G.709/Y.1331)-Mi quan h gia cc b cha tin tc OTM-nm ......................26
Hnh 3.9 (H.6-6/G.709/Y.1331) Cc lung thng tin trn mng OTN .........................................27
Hnh 3.10 (7-1A/G.709/Y.1331) : Cu trc ghp knh v nh x cho cc tn hiu OTN min in
.......................................................................................................................................................30
Hnh 3.11 (Figure 7-2/G.709/Y.1331) : Ghp 04 tn hiu ODU1 vo tn hiu OPU2 thng qua tn
hiu ODTUG2 (PT = 20) ..............................................................................................................38
Hnh 3.12 (Figure 7-3/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp knh ln n 16 tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc ln n 4
tn hiu ODU2 vo tn hiu OPU3. ...............................................................................................39
Hnh 3.13(Figure 7-4/G.709/Y.1331) Ghp 02 tn hiu ODU0 vo tn hiu OPU1 thng qua
ODTUG1 (PT = 20). .....................................................................................................................40
Hnh 3.14 (Figure 7-5/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp ln n 8 tn hiu ODU0, v/hoc ln n 4 tn hiu
ODU1 v/hoc ln n 8 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU2 thng qua ODTUG2 (PT = 21).
.......................................................................................................................................................41

251

Hnh 3.15 (Figure 7-6/G.709/Y.1331): Ghp ln n 32 tn hiu ODU0 v / hoc ln n 16 tn


hiu ODU1 v / hoc ln n 4 tn hiu ODU2 v /hoc ln n 3 tn hiu ODU2e v / hoc ln
n 32 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU3 thng qua ODTUG3 (PT = 21). ............................42
Hnh 3.16 ((Figure 7-7/G.709/Y.1331):) Ghp ln n 80 tn hiu ODU0 v/hoc ln n 40 tn
hiu ODU1 v/hoc ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2 v/hoc ln n 10 tn hiu ODU2e v/hoc ln
n 2 tn hiu ODU3 v/hoc ln n 80 tn hiu ODUflex vo tn hiu OPU4 thng qua tn hiu
ODTUG4 (PT = 21). .....................................................................................................................44
Hnh 3.17 : Ghp 4 tn hiu ODU1 thnh mt ODU2 ..................................................................45
Hnh 3.18 : Ghp 2 tn hiu ODU0 thnh mt ODU1. .................................................................46
Hnh 3. 19 (Figure 10-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc knh quang cc chc nng OCh ...............47
Hnh 3.20( Figure 10-2/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc knh quang khng cc chc nng Ochr .....47
Hnh 3.21 (Fig 11-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OTUk .....................................................48
Hnh 3. 22(H 11-2/G.709/Y.1331): Th t truyn ca cc bit trong khung OTUk......................49
Hnh 3.23 (Figure 12-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung ODUk ................................................50
Hnh 3. 24 (Fig 12-2/G.709/Y.1331) Pht tn hiu ng h ODUflex cho tn hiu CBR .........52
Hnh 3.25 (Fig 12-3/G.709/Y.1331) Pht tn hiu ng h ODUflex cho tn hiu khch hng
gi c nh x GFP-F .................................................................................................................53
Hnh 3.26 (Fig 13-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPUk .....................................................53
Hnh 3.27 (Fig 15-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cc thnh phn logic ca tiu OTSn, OMSn v OCh
trong OOS .....................................................................................................................................54
Hnh 3.28(Fig 15-2/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OTUk, ng b khung FAS v tiu
OTUk.............................................................................................................................................55
Hnh 3.29(Fig 15-3/G.709/Y.1331)Cu trc khung ODUk, tiu ODUk v OPUk ...............56
Hnh 3.30 (Fig 15-4/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc TTI ....................................................................58
Hnh 3.31 (Fig 15-5/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc nh danh im truy cp ...................................59
Hnh 3. 32(Fig 15-6/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ng b khung OTUk/ODUk .............................60
Hnh 3.33(Fig 15-7/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc tiu tn hiu ng b khung ..........................61
Hnh 3.34(Fig 15-8/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu tn hiu ng b a khung ...................................61
252

Hnh 3.35(Fig 15-9/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu OTUk ......................................................................62


Hnh 3.36(Fig 15-10/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu gim st on OTUk ..........................................62
Hnh 3.37(Fig 15-11/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca OTUk SM .....................................64
Hnh 3.38: Tiu ODUk (Hnh 15-12/G.709) ............................................................................66
Hnh 3.39 : Tiu gim st ng dn v gim st kt ni b i ODUk .................................67
Hnh 3.40 (Fig 15-15/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca ODUk PM ....................................69
Hnh 3.41(Hnh 15-16/G.709/Y.1331)- V d cc kt ni gim st ca ODUk kiu ni tip v
lng nhau. ......................................................................................................................................73
Hnh 3.42(Hnh 15-17/G.709/Y.1331)- V d cc kt ni gim st ca ODUk kiu chng cho.
.......................................................................................................................................................74
Hnh 3.43(Fig 15-18/G.709/Y.1331) Tnh ton BIP-8 ca ODUk TCM ..................................75
Hnh 3.44 (Fig 15-19/G.709/Y.1331) - V d v gn trng tiu TCM ..................................78
Hnh 3.45 (Fig 15-20/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc thng ip FTFL .............................................82
Hnh 3.46 (Fig 15-21/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc trng theo chiu thun/ngc ..........................82
Hnh 3.47 (Fig 15-22/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc trng nhn dng nh khai thc .........................83
Hnh 3.48(Fig 15-23/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu OPUk ...................................................................85
Hnh 3.49 (Fig 16-1/G.709/Y.1331)-Tn hiu ch th cnh bo OTUk-AIS .................................90
Hnh 3. 50(Fig 16-6/G.709/Y.1331)-Tn hiu Framed-OTUk-AIS ..............................................91
Hnh 3.51(Fig 16-7/G.709/Y.1331)-OTLk-AIS ...........................................................................92
Hnh 3.52(Fig 16-2/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-AIS ...........................................................................92
Hnh 3.53(Fig 16-3/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-OCI ..........................................................................93
Hnh 3.54(Fig 16-4/G.709/Y.1331) ODUk-LCK .........................................................................94
Hnh 3.55(Fig 16-5/G.709/Y.1331) Mch pht tn hiu AIS tng qut (Generic-AIS) ...............95
Hnh 3.56 : nh x tn hiu CBR (tn hiu SDH) vo khung tn hiu OTN .................................98
Hnh 3.57(Fig 17-1/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPUk nh x tn hiu CBR2G5,
CBR10G hay CBR40G .................................................................................................................99
Hnh 3.58 : nh x mt tn hiu CBR2G5 (v d STM-16) vo OPU1 (Hnh 17-2/G.709) ......102
Hnh 3.59 :nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G (v d STM-64) vo OPU2 (17-3/G.709) ................103
253

Hnh 3.60 : nh x mt tn hiu CBR40G (v d STM-256) vo OPU3 (Hnh 17-4/G.709) ....103


Hnh 3.61: nh x mt tn hiu CBR10G3 (v d, 10GBASE-R) vo OPU2e (Hnh 17-5/G.709)
.....................................................................................................................................................104
Hnh 3.62: nh x t bo ATM ln cc vng ti tin OPUk (Hnh 17-6/G.709/Y.1331) ............105
Hnh 3.63 : nh x khung GFP ln cc vng ti tin OPUk (Hnh 17-7/G.709/Y.1331) ............106
Hnh 3.64 nh x khung GFP ln cc vng ti tin OPU2e (Hnh 17-8/G.709/Y.1331) ............106
Hnh 3.65(Fig17-9/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk v nh x khch hng NULL vo
OPUk ...........................................................................................................................................107
Hnh 3.66 (Fig 17-10/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk v nh x chui PRBS vo OPUk
.....................................................................................................................................................108
Hnh 3.67(Fig 17-11/G.709/Y.1331)cu trc khung OPUk dnh cho nh x chui bit khng i
ng b ........................................................................................................................................108
Hnh 3.68 (Fig 17-12/G.709/Y.1331) Cu trc khung OPU0 dnh cho vic lp nh x ca tn
hiu ca khch hng c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s ..................................................................111
Hnh 3.69 (Fig 17-13/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU1 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn
hiu siu 1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s ................................................114
Hnh 3.70(Fig 17-14/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU2 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn
hiu khch hng CBR..................................................................................................................116
Hnh 3.71(Fig 17-15/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU2 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn
hiu khch hng CBR..................................................................................................................117
Hnh 3.72(Fig 17-16/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPU4 dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn
hiu khch hng CBR..................................................................................................................119
Hnh 3.73(Fig 17-17/G.709/Y.1331) Lp nh x chuyn m FC-1200 vo OPU2e ...............120
Hnh 3.74(Fig 17-18/G.709/Y.1331) nh dng khung GFP dnh cho FC-1200 vo OPU2e121
Hnh 3.75(Fig 17-19/G.709/Y.1331) cu trc khung OPUflex dnh cho vic lp nh x ca tn
hiu khch hng siu 2.488 Gbit/s ..............................................................................................123
Hnh 3.76 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU2 (Figure 19-1/G.709/Y.1331) ..............................126
Hnh 3.77 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU3 (Figure 19-2/G.709/Y.1331) ..............................128
254

Hnh 3.78 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU3 (Figure 19-3/G.709/Y.1331) ..............................130


Hnh 3.79 : S phn b ca khe lung OPU4 (Figure 19-4A/G.709/Y.1331) ...........................131
Hnh 3.80: Cc khe lung OPU4 theo nh dng 160 hng x 7620 ct (Figure 194B/G.709/Y.1331) .......................................................................................................................132
Hnh 3.81: Cc nh dng khung OTDUjk (Figure 19-5/G.709/Y.1331) ...................................135
Hnh 3.82 : Cc nh dng khung OTDUk.ts (Figure 19-6/G.709/Y.1331) ...............................136
Hnh 3.83 (Fig 19-7/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU12 vo mt khe lung TS
2.5G ca OPU2 (tri) v hai khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2 (bn phi). ..................................138
Hnh 3.84 (Fig 19-8/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU13 vo mt khe lung TS
2.5G ca OPU3 (tri) v hai khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU3 (bn phi). ..................................139
Hnh 3.85 (Fig 19-9/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU23 vo 4 khe lung TS 2.5G
(#A, #B, #C, #D vi A<B<C<D) ca OPU3 (trn) v 8 khe lung TS 1.25G (#A, #B, #C, #D,
#E, #F, #G, #H vi A<B<C<D<E<F<G<H) ca OPU3 (di)..................................................141
Hnh 3.86 (Fig 19-10/G.709/Y.1331)Thit lp nh x ca ODTU01(khng bao gm tiu
JOH) vo mt khe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU1. ..........................................................................142
Hnh 3.87(Fig 19-11/G.709/Y.1331) Hnh 12.11/G.709/Y.1331 Thit lp nh x ca
ODTU2.ts vo tskhe lung TS 1.25G ca OPU2. ....................................................................143
Hnh 3.88 (Fig 19-12/G.709/Y.1331)Thit lp nh x ca ODTU3.ts vo tskhe lung TS
1.25G ca OPU3. ........................................................................................................................144
Hnh 3.89(Fig 19-13/G.709/Y.1331) Thit lp nh x ca ODTU4.ts vo tskhe lung TS 1.25
G ca OPU4. ...............................................................................................................................145
Hnh 3.90 (Figure19-14A/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi ch
mt ODTUjk (PT = 20) ...............................................................................................................148
Hnh 3.91(Figure19-14B/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi ch
mt ODTUjk (PT = 21) ...............................................................................................................149
Hnh 3.92(Figure19-14C/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu ghp knh OPUk (k = 1,2,3) kt hp vi mt
ODTUjk (PT = 21) ......................................................................................................................150
Hnh 3.93(Figure 19-15/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU2 loi ti tin PT= 20 ..........151
Hnh 3.94(Figure 19-16A/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU3 loi ti tin PT= 20 .......152
255

Hnh 3.95 (Figure 19-16B/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU3 loi ti tin PT= 20 ......153
Hnh 3.96 (Figure 19-17/G.709/Y.1331) M ho MSI ca OPU1 loi ti tin PT= 20 .........153
Hnh 3.97 (Figure 19-18A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI TS 1.25G ca OPU4Loi PT= 21 ..154
Hnh 3.98 (Figure 19-18B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU4Loi PT= 21 ...................154
Hnh 3.99 (Figure 19-19A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU2Loi PT= 21 ...................155
Hnh 3.100 (Figure 19-19B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU2Loi PT= 21 .................156
Hnh 3.101(Figure 19-20A/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU3Loi PT= 21 ..................157
Hnh 3.102 (Figure 19-20B/G.709/Y.1331)M ho MSI ca OPU3Loi PT= 21 .................157
Hnh 3.103 (Fig 19-21/G.709/Y.1331) Tiu nhn dng a khung OMFI ca OPU4 ..........159
Hnh 3.104 (Figure 19-22/G.709/Y.1331)Cu trc khung ODUj m rng (Extended ODUj)
(bao gm FA OH, v vng OTUj OH cha cc bit nhi c nh l bit 0) ..................................160
Hnh 3.105 (Fig 19-23A/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU12 v nh x ca ODU1
(trng hp nh x trong TS1 2.5G) ...........................................................................................163
Hnh 3.106 (Fig19-1119-23B/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU12 v nh x ca ODU1
(trng hp nh x trong TS1 2.5G) ...........................................................................................164
Hnh 3.107(Fig 19-24A/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU13 v nh x ca ODU1
(trng hp nh x trong TS3 2.5G) ...........................................................................................165
Hnh 3.108(Fig 19-24B/G.709/Y.1331)- nh dng khung ODTU13 v nh x ca ODU1
(trng hp nh x trong TS2 v TS25 1.25G) ..........................................................................166
Hnh 3.109(Figure 19-27/G.709/Y.1331)nh s byte ti tin ODTU2.M cho khi M-byte(mbit) GMP......................................................................................................................................168
Hnh 3.110: Gii m cc byte iu khin nhi JC cho th tc BMP ..........................................171
Hnh 3.111: Tn hiu khch hng CBR c nh x vo khung OPUk bng th tc AMP .......172
Hnh 3.112 : Cc byte iu khin nhi JC, NJO,PJO ca th tc AMP .....................................173
Hnh 3.113 : ng truyn ti gim cht lng lm sai 2 bit LSB ca byte JC. .......................174
Hnh 3. 114: Thit lp nh x AMP ca mt tn hiu CBR2G5 vo OPU1 ...............................175
Hnh 3.115: GMP da trn thut ton Sigma / Delta ..................................................................177
Hnh 3.116 : Tiu nhi JOH ca th tc nh x GMP ...........................................................178
Hnh 3.117 (Fig D.1/G.709/Y.1331) Chc nng tng qut ca b nh x v gii nh x .......181
256

Hnh 3.118 (Fig.D.2/G.709/Y.1331) Dng x l Cn ti b nh x v gii nh x ..................182


Hnh 3.119 (Fig D.3/G.709/Y.1331) nh x theo th tc Sigma/Delta ..................................182
Hnh 3. 120 (Fig.D.4/G.709/Y.1331) B tch lu Sigma-Delta ...............................................183
Hnh 3.121 (Fig. D.5/G.709/Y.1331) Tin trnh x l GMP trong mng OTN ......................186

Hnh 4.1 : Cu trc tn hiu phn cp OTN ca thit b Ciena ...................................................191


Hnh 4.2 : Cu trc thng tin OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca Ciena ..............................192
Hnh 4.3 : Cu trc thng tin OTM (Optical Transport Module) ca Ciena vi b cha o cho ti
tin knh quang OPVC (Optical Channel Payload Virtual Container) ........................................193
Hnh 4.4: B cha o cho ti tin knh quang OPVC ca Ciena trong OTU1. ...........................194
Hnh 4.5: Cc im m loi ti tin PT trong thit b OTN ca Ciena .........................................194
Hnh 4.6: Thit b CN 4200 ca Ciena........................................................................................195
Hnh 4.7: Cu trc ghp knh OTN trong thit b Ciena ............................................................196
Hnh 4.8 : cng tch hp cc loi dch v khc nhau vo khung OTN OTU1 trn thit b Ciena
.....................................................................................................................................................197
Hnh 4.9: Tn hiu khch hng c gi vo bn trong mt b cha OTN ti ng ra thit b
Ciena ...........................................................................................................................................199
Hnh 4.10: Tn hiu khch hng c nh x trong sut vo mt khung OTN ti ng vo thit b
Ciena ...........................................................................................................................................200
Hnh 4.11: Cc tn hiu khch hng c trn vi cc khung OTN trn cng bc sng ti ng
ra thit b Ciena ...........................................................................................................................200
Hnh 4.12: Tuyn OTU-3 40Gb/s bao gm 3 ng dy con (sub-lines) ..................................201
Hnh 4.13: Cc kiu cu trc h thng qun l mng truyn ti .................................................204
Hnh 4.14 : S phn cp cc loi kt ni LSP trong mng GMPLS ...........................................204
Hnh 4. 15: Mt phng iu khin a lp ca h thng thit b Ciena .......................................206
Hnh 4.16: Mt phng iu khin lp 1 ca h thng thit b Ciena ..........................................208
Hnh 4.17: tin cy dch v mng cu trc li thc t v mng cu trc li c cp cht
lng 1 (69s). .............................................................................................................................211
Hnh 4.18: Thi gian gim st mng cu trc li gim ............................................................212
257

Hnh 4.19: Bo v dch v trong trng hp c 2 s c lin tip ...............................................213


Hnh 4.20: Tin trnh thit lp v hu dch v. ...........................................................................213
Hnh 4.21: Kin trc phn cng ca thit b ActivFlex 5400 .....................................................214
Hnh 4.22: Cc mt phng logic phn cng ca thit b ActivFlex 5400 ...................................215
Hnh 4. 23 : Thit b ActivFlex 5410

Hnh 4. 24: Thit b ActivFlex 5430 ............................217

Hnh 4.25: nh x tn hiu a tng ODU4 (100Gb/s) t cc ODU0 (1GbE) ca h thit b


ActivFlex 5400 ............................................................................................................................218
Hnh 4.26: V d gim st dch v qua cc cp b i TCM ca h thit b ActivFlex 5400 ....219
Hnh 4.27: H thit b ActivFlex 6500 .......................................................................................222
Hnh 5.1: Kin trc mng ca h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-2-3. ..............................224
Hnh 5.2: Thit b kt ni cho bc thp STM-1 trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-23. ..................................................................................................................................................225
Hnh 5.3: Phn lp mng truyn ti v hiu sut tiu th cng sut theo tc bit ca cc loi
thit b kt ni cho .....................................................................................................................226
Hnh 5.4: Cu trc phn cp tn hiu OTN trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4. .......227
Hnh 5. 5: Tc cc cp tn hiu OTN trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 4. ...........228
Hnh 5.6: Mng truyn ti a lp ca h thng thit b ALU OTN ............................................229
Hnh 5.7: Kin trc mng OTN phn cp ca ALU ...................................................................230
Hnh 5.8: Kin trc chuyn mch trn lp OTN ca h thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64....232
Hnh 5.9: Kin trc kt ni mng OTN gia thit b chuyn mch li quang OCS (Optical Core
Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64 vi thit b router 7750 truyn ti hiu qa lung gi IP. ........232
Hnh 5.10: Lp nh tuyn/chuyn mch trong kin trc kt ni mng OTN gia thit b chuyn
mch li quang OCS (Optical Core Switching) 1830 PSS-36/64 vi thit b router 7750
truyn ti hiu qa lung gi IP. .................................................................................................233
Hnh 5.11: Kh nng phc hi t ng cho lu lng b s c trn lp OTN v bc sng ca
MRN ............................................................................................................................................235
Hnh 5.12: H thit b 1830 PSS vi 2 thit b mi 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64 .......................236
Hnh 5.13: Cc loi card h tr khung OTN ca thit b 1830 PSS-36 /1830 PSS-64...............236
Hnh 5.14: Mt trc ca card 11DPM12 OT ............................................................................237
258

Hnh 5.15: Card 11DPM12 h tr lp nh x ODU0/ODU1/ODUflex tiu chun G.709 ........238


Hnh 5.16: Card 11DPM12 h tr cc nh x c quyn ca ALU cho STM-1 v STM-4 .....239
Hnh 5.17: 4 nhm cng ca card 11DPM12..............................................................................239
Hnh 6.1: Kin trc OTN n gin ho trong thit b OTN ca Fujitsu .....................................241
Hnh 6.2: Phn min trn mng truyn ti OTN ca Fujitsu ......................................................242
Hnh 6. 3: Cc loi card giao din ca h thng thit b FLASHWAVE 9500 .........................243

DANH SCH CC BNG


Bng 3.1: Cc loi v tc bit ca OTU (Bng 7-1/G.709) .......................................................31
Bng 3.2: Cc loi v tc bit ca ODU (Bng 7-2/G.709) ......................................................31
Bng 3.3: Cc loi v tc bit ca OPU (Bng 7-3/G.709) .......................................................32
Bng 3.4: Chu k ca khung OTUk / ODUk / OPUk (Bng 7-4/G.709) .....................................33
Bng 3.5: Thi gian chu k ca a khung HO OPUk ca khe lung TS 2.5G and 1.25G (Bng 76/G.709) ........................................................................................................................................33
Bng 3.6: Bng tn ti tin ODTU kbit/s (Bng 7-7/G.709) ..........................................................34
Bng 3.7: Cc tc bit v dung sai ca ODUflex(GFP) (Bng 7-8/G.709) ..............................34
Bng 3.8: S lng cc khe lung TS cn c ghp ODUj vo HO OPUk (Bng 7-9/G.709) .35
Bng 3.9 Cc loi nh x ODUj vo OPUk (Table 7-10/G.709) ..................................................37
Bng 3.10 (Table 15-1/G.709/Y.1331) Ch th BEI/BIAE ca OTUk SM ..................................65
Bng 3.11(Table 15-2/G.709/Y.1331): Ch th BEI ca ODUk PM ............................................70
Bng 3.12 : ngha ch th trng thi STAT ca ODUk PM (Bng 15-3/G.709) .......................70
Bng 3.13(Table 15-4/G.709/Y.1331) Ch th BEI/BIAE ca ODUk TCM ...............................76
Bng 3.14 : Trnh by trng thi ODUk TCM (Bng 15-5/G.709) ..............................................77
Bng 3.15 a khung cho php tch bit APS/PCC dnh cho mi cp gim st (Bng 156/G.709) ........................................................................................................................................80
Bng 3.16 (Table 15-7/G.709/Y.1331) M ch th li ..................................................................83
Bng 3.17 : Cc im m loi ti tin (Bng 15-8/G.709) .............................................................86
Bng 3.18: To lp cc byte JC, NJO and PJO bng tin trnh nh x AMP (Bng 17-1/G.709)
.....................................................................................................................................................100

259

Bng 3.19: To lp cc byte JC, NJO and PJO bng tin trnh nh x ng b bit BMP (Bng
17-2/G.709) .................................................................................................................................100
Bng 3.20: Gii nh x cc byte JC, NJO and PJO (Bng 17-3/G.709) .....................................101
Bng 3.21(Table 17-4A/G.709/Y.1331) Tham s Cm (m = 8) cho cc tn hiu khch hng c
tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s nh x vo OPU0 ...........................................................................112
Bng 3.22(Table 17-4B/G.709/Y.1331) - Cn (n = 8 hoc 1) cho cc tn hiu khch hng c tc
con ca 1,238 Gbit/s nh x vo OPU0 .................................................................................112
Bng 3.23(Table 17-5/G.709/Y.1331) - tn hiu thay th cho c tc con ca 1,238 Gbit/s khi
s c ............................................................................................................................................112
Bng 3.24(Table 17-6A/G.709/Y.1331) - Cm (m = 16) dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn hiu
siu 1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s v k tip vo OPU1......................114
Bng 3.25(Table 17-6B/G.709/Y.1331) - Cn (n = 8) dnh cho vic lp nh x mt tn hiu siu1,238 vo tn hiu khch hng CBR con-2,488 Gbit/s v k tip vo OPU1 .............................114
Bng 3.26(Table 17-14/G.709/Y.1331) Cc tn hiu khch hng siu 2.488 Gbit/s ...............123
Bng 3.27(Table 17-15/G.709/Y.1331) Tn hiu thay th cho cc tn hiu khch hng siu
2.488 Gbit/s .................................................................................................................................123
Bng 3.28: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU2 (Figure 19-1/G.709/Y.1331) ...................126
Bng 3.29 : S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU3 (Table 19-2/G.709/Y.1331) ...................129
Bng 3.30: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU3 (Table 19-3/G.709/Y.1331) ....................130
Bng 3.31: S phn b tiu khe lung ca OPU4 (Table 19-4/G.709/Y.1331) ....................133
Bng 3.32: Cc c tnh OTDUjk dnh cho TS 2.5G v 1.25G (Figure 19-5/G.709/Y.1331) ..135
Bng 3.33 : Cc c tnh OTDUk.ts (Figure 19-6/G.709/Y.1331) .............................................136
Bng 3.34(Table 19-7/G.709/Y.1331) S to lp v tch JC, NJO, PJO1 v PJO2 .................161
Bng 3. 35(Table19-7/G.709/Y.1331)S pht v rt ra tin tc ca cc byte JC, NJO, PJO1 v
PJO2 ............................................................................................................................................163
Bng 3.36(Table 19-8/G.709/Y.1331 - Cm v Cn (n = 8) nh x ODUj vo ODTU2.M ) .........168
Bng 3.37 (Table D.1/G.709/Y.1331)-Cc gi tr tham s GMP ca LO OPUk v DTUk.ts
.....................................................................................................................................................187
Bng 3.38(Table D.2/G.709/Y,1331) Cc nh dng ch th tng v gim Cm(t) ...................189
260

Bng 4. 1: Cc loi tn hiu khch hng khc nhau truyn ti trn thit b OTN ca Ciena ......198
Bng 5.1: Tc bit cc lung trong h thng thit b 1830 PSS phin bn 1-2-3. ..................225
Bng 5.2: Bng thng ca cc loi b cha ODU ca card 11DPM12 ......................................240

Ph lc
V d tnh tc ca cc giao din OTN theo cc bng tc c bn OPUk,ODUk, OTUk
trong Khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331/V3 trong mc 3.4
Phn sau y trnh by 2 v d tnh tc OTU1 v OTU2.
Cc bng tng kt tc OPUk,ODUk, OTUk trong Khuyn ngh

261

1.1 V d tnh tc OTU1


Tc ti tin OPU1 = 2.488 Gbps (STM16)

Thm 16 bytes tiu vo OPU1 v ODU1:


3808/16 = 238, (3808+16)/16 = 239
ODU1 rate: 2.488 x 239/238 ~ 2.499Gbps

Thm FEC
Tc OTU1: ODU1 x 255/239 = 2.488 x 239/238 x 255/239
= 2.488 x 255/238 ~ 2.667Gbps

1.2 V d tnh tc OTU2


Theo cng th tc tnh nh OTU1 :
OPU2 = 9.953 Gbps (OC192/STM64)
OTU2 = 9.953 x 255/238 ~ 10.664 Gbps
nh x 4 x ODU1 vo ti tin OPU2
4 x ODU1 = 4 x 2.498 = 9.9951 Gbps
S khc bit tc s l :
9.953 9.995 ~ 41.82 Mbps ~ 4182 ppm
Thm nhi bit NJO/PJO khng th b cho s khc bit tc 4182 ppm
V vy phi thm bit nhi c nh( fixed stuff )

262

(3808-16)/16 = 237, 3808/16 = 238


OPU2 = 9.953 x 238/237 ~ 9.9952 Gbps
Tc khc bit l : 9.9952 9.9951 ~ 177 Kbps = 18 ppm

OTU2 = 9.953 x 238/237 x 239/238 x 255/239 = 9.953 x 255/237


Tc OTU2 ~ 10.709 Gbps.

263

Ti liu tham kho


Phn I : (Ti liu tm trn mng Internet ca cc Hng v ITU )
1) Lowering Network TCO through Integrated Digital Switching and WDM transport.pdf
(Infinera)
2) OTN: Delivering Assured, Flexible Transport Topology for Enterprise Networks.pdf
(Ciena)
3) The Key Benefits of OTN Networks.pdf (Fujitsu)
4) Standardization Activities for the Optical Transport Network.pdf (NTT)
5) G709 Optical Transport Network Tutorial.pdf (JDSU)
6) G_709V3-approved.pdf and Optical Transport Network (OTN) Tutorial.pdf ( ITU )
7) Optical Transport Network Switching.pdf (Nokia Siemens)
8) OTN: Delivering Assured, Flexible Transport Topology for Enterprise Networks.pdf
(Ciena)
9) The Emerging Optical Control Plane.pdf (Fujitsu)
10) ITU_G.8251.pdf ( ITU Amendment 3 - 10/2012)
11) [slices] OTN : Overview.pdf (Infinera) (Ti liu ca on o VTN)
12) [slices] ti liu ca on o VTN] Understanding OTN Optical Transport Network.pdf
(ALU) (Ti liu ca on o VTN)
Phn II :
Ciena :
1) ActivFlex 6500 OTN Control Plane Solution.pdf
2) e2_ActivFlex 6500 Data Sheet.pdf
3) Intelligent_Optical_Control_Plane_Architecture.pdf
4) OTN Technology Discussion for VTN.pdf
ALU :
1) VTN_OTN Solution Update.pdf
2) Alcatel-Lucent 1830 Photonic Service Switch (PSS-64 and PSS-36).pdf
Fujitsu:
1) FLASH WAVE9500-PACKET OPTICAL NETWORKING PLATfORm.pdf
264