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Tm hiu v GNS3

LI NI U

Qun l mng vin thng

Hin nay, vic gi lp v m phng mt h thng mng my tnh cng nh mng vin thng bng phn mm l rt quan trng trc khi a vo thc t. Ngoi ra, n cn gip cho vic hc tp tr nn d dng hn. Mt trong s cc phn mm mnh m v c a chung l GNS3. Bi GNS3 s dng IOS thc ca Cisco gi lp router nn n gi lp ging nh router tht ca Cisco v c th kt ni vi mng ngoi. V nhng l do m nhm mnh chn ti Tm hiu v GNS3 h tr cho mn hc Qun l mng vin thng. Trong bi vit ny s cp ch yu n cch ci t, cch cu hnh v cch m phng m hnh qun l mng vin thng. Mc tiu ca nhm l gip ngi c d hnh dung c cch lm qua hnh nh v nm c mt s kin thc, k nng c bn v s dng GNS3. Bi vit gm 4 phn chnh nh sau: Phn 1: Tng quan v GNS3 Phn 2: Hng dn ci t Phn 3: Hng dn s dng Phn 4: Gi lp m hnh Qun l mng Manager-Agent. Bi vit cn s hon thin hn na, mong thy c gio v cc bn ng gp kin. Cui cng chng em xin chn thnh cm n c Dng Th Thanh T hng dn chng em trong qua trnh nghin cu!

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Tm hiu v GNS3
M C L C

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LI NI U ......................................................................................................................... 1 MC LC ................................................................................................................................ 2 Phn 1: Tng quan v GNS3 .................................................................................................. 3 Phn 2: Hng dn ci t ..................................................................................................... 4 1. Ti v phn mm GNS3 v IOS images ................................................................. 4 2. Ci t ....................................................................................................................... 5 3. Cu hnh .................................................................................................................. 16 Phn 3: Hng dn s dng ................................................................................................. 20 1. Cu hnh IOS images ............................................................................................. 20 2. Tnh ton gi tr Idle PC ........................................................................................ 21 3. Ci t card mng cho Router .............................................................................. 25 3.1. Ci t card mng thc ...................................................................................... 25 3.2. Ci t card mng o (loopback) ....................................................................... 30 Phn 4: Gi lp m hnh Qun l mng Manager-Agent.............................................. 31 1. Quan im qun l Manager Agent qua cng c gi lp GNS3 ..................... 31 2. Gi lp m hnh qun l mng Manager Agent ............................................... 31 TNG KT ............................................................................................................................ 36 TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................... 37

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Tm hiu v GNS3
Phn 1: Tng quan v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

GNS3 l mt phn mm gi lp mng, cho php m phng li cc h thng mng my tnh. cung cp kh nng m phng chnh xc, GNS3 lin kt vi Dynamips (gi lp IOS ca Cisco), Qemu (mt phn mm m phng v o ha ngun m), VirtualBox (phn mm o ha min ph mnh m). GNS3 l mt cng c c lc h tr lab cc m hnh thc t cho cc k s mng, cc qun tr vin v nhng ngi mun hc cc chng ch ca CISCO nh CCNA, CCNP, CCIP, CCIE v chng ch ca Juniper nh JNCIA, JNCIS, JNCIE. Mt tnh nng khc ca GNS3 l c dng th nghim cc tnh nng ca IOS CISCO, JunOS Juniper hoc kim tra cu hnh cn trin khai trn cc b nh tuyn thc s. Thm kh nng tng thch vi VirtualBox, cc k s mng, cc nh qun tr by gi cng c th s dng cc tnh nng ca GNS3 hc hay nghin cu v Redhat (RHCE, RHCT), Microsoft (MCSE, MCSA), Novell (CLP)... y l mt chng trnh m ngun m v hin sn c trn Windows, Linux v MacOS.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
Phn 2: Hng dn ci t 1. Ti v phn mm GNS3 v IOS images.

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Ta c th dng nhiu cch download phn mm GNS3 trn mng, nhng bn nn chn nhng trang web c uy tn v cp nht kp thi thng tin v phin bn mi nht. Di y ti xin gii thiu cho cc bn mt trang web download phn mm GNS3, bng cch bn truy cp theo ng link sau: http://www.gns3.net/download/ Sau khi bn truy cp theo ng link trn ta nn chn: GNS3 v0.8.3.1 all-in-one download phn mm.

V GNS3 s dng IOS images thc ca Cisco khng tch hp sn trong phn mm nn ta phi ti ring IOS images trn mng. Sau y l b tng i y cc IOS images m mnh tng hp, cc bn ti v theo link: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bw4HRFvP398TRHQzdnhPR2dXRms/edit

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Tm hiu v GNS3
2. Ci t.

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Bc 1: Vo th mc cha file ci t phn mm va ti v. Nhp p chut vo file ci t (GNS3-0.8.3.1-all-in-one).

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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Bc 2: Cc hp thoi ci t GNS3 ln lt xut hin, ta ch vic ln lt nhn Next-> I Agree-> Next-> Next-> Install. hp thoi th 4 ta tch chn tt c trong khung: Select components to install sau nhn Next.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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Bc 3: Sau khi bn hon thnh bc 2 th hp thoi th hin qu trnh chy ci t bt u. Trong qu trnh ny cn c mt s hp thoi xut hin yu cu ci t thm mt s phn mm h tr khc nh sau: - Ci t WinPcap 4.2.1: nhn ln lt Next->Next-> I Agree-> Install-> Finish.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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- Ci t Wireshark 1.6.8 (32bit): Ta ln lt nhn Next-> I Agree-> Next-> Next-> Next-> Install-> Next-> Finish.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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Bc 4: Kt thc ci t. Khi cc hp thoi xut hin ta ln lt nhn Next-> Finish.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
3. Cu hnh.

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- Sau khi nhn Finish kt thc phn ci t th mc nh phn mm GNS3 s khi ng v hin ln hp thoi Setup Wizard. Ta nhn chn s 1(khoanh trn)-> Hp thoi Preferences hin ln, nu cu hnh trong ch khoanh trn ging hnh v th khng cn chnh g c, nu khc th chnh cho ging-> Nhn Test Setting hin ln dng ch nh bn cnh l c. Sau nhn Apply v nhn OK.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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- Tip theo ta nhn s 3-> Hp thoi IOS images and hypervisors hin ln. Nhn vo vung c khoanh trn nh trn hnh.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

- Hp thoi Select an IOS image hin ln-> bn chn n ni th mc lu tr IOS images, chn IOS image ca router m bn mun cu hnh v nhn Open. Sau hp thoi IOS image hin ln bn chn YES hay NO cng c.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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- Chn ng nn (Platform) v loi (Model) ca router m bn mun cu hnh, nhn Save v Close. Nu bn mun cu hnh IOS image cho router no na th thc hin li tng t. Cui cng th nhn OK tt hp thoi Setup Wizard

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Tm hiu v GNS3
Phn 3: Hng dn s dng 1. Cu hnh IOS images.

Qun l mng vin thng

- Nh Mc 3 ca Phn 2 trn nu v cch cu hnh IOS images ngay trong qua trnh ci t. Vy trong qu trnh lm vic vi GNS3 nu bn mun thm IOS images ca mt router khc na th lm nh sau: Vo mc Edit > IOS images and hypervisors > Hp thoi IOS images and hypervisors bn ch cn lm theo ging mc 3. Cu hnh ca Phn 2.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
2. Tnh ton gi tr Idle PC.

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Trc tin, chng ta lm th mt v d nh hiu hn v gi tr Idle PC. Sau khi chng ta cu hnh xong IOS images. Chng ta nhn gi chut tri vo mt con router cu hnh IOS ri ko th vo khung lm vic v nhn nt start hnh tam gic. Theo di hot ng ca CPU: Trc khi ko router vo l 0% v sau khi ko vo l 25%.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

Bn c th thy rng v d trc ca mnh lm cho CPU ca h thng hot ng tng ln ti 25% (con s ny ty thuc vo tc CPU) v lun nm ngng . iu ny l bi v Dynamips khng bit khi no router o ang ri v khi no n ang thc thi nhng cng vic hu ch. Lnh Idle PC thc hin phn tch trn mt tp tin nh ang chy xc nh cc im ging nht trong m i din mt chu k ngh ca IOS. Mt khi c p dng, Dynamips ngng router o thng xuyn khi chu k ngh c thc thi, gip lm gim s tiu tn CPU trn my ch m khng lm gim kh nng x l cng vic thc t ca router. Vi cc phin bn c hn th bn phi vo mn hnh Console ca GNS3 v g lnh idlepc get routername tnh ton gi tr Idle PC. Cn nu bn s dng phin bn 0.8.3.1 ny bn ch cn lm nh sau: - Nhn chut phi vo con router bn cn tnh ton gi tr Idle PC > nhn chn Idle PC v ch mt lc.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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- Hp thoi Idle PC values hin ln > chn gi tr Idle PC (nn chn gi tr c nh du hoa th *), nu khng c th ta lm li t u > Nhn Apply v OK.

- By gi ta kim tra li xem CPU c gim xung khng nh. Gi tr Idle PC l ring i vi mt tp tin nh IOS. Chng c th khc nhau i vi cc phin bn IOS khc nhau, v thm ch vi cc tp tnh nng khc nhau ca cng mt phin bn IOS. Tuy nhin gi tr Idle PC khng ph thuc vo my ca bn, h iu hnh hay phin bn ca Dynamips. C th Dynamips khng th tm thy cc gi tr Idle PC cho mt tp tin nh, hoc cc gi tr tm thy khng c tc dng. Nu iu ny xy ra, hy c gng th li qu trnh mt ln na. Hoc l bn khng gp may vi tp tin nh (mc d trng hp ny rt him khi xy ra).

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

Sau khi tm c mt gi tr Idle PC tt, ghi li s dng Hex (v d: 0x60bf30e0). Quay tr li tp tin nh IOS trn menu Edit > M hp thoi IOS images and hypervisors > nhp chn con router bn va tnh ton Idle PC xong bn s thy c gi tr Idle PC trong khung IDLE PC

Qua trnh bn tnh ton gi tr Idle PC ch cn lm mt ln cho mi IOS. Mi khi bn m GNS3, cc gi tr s c thit lp sn. Bn ch cn in gi tr Idle PC mi khi bn thit lp ln u tin cho mt phin bn IOS mi.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
3. Ci t card mng cho Router. 3.1. Ci t card mng thc.

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Khng ging nh Packet Tracer c th t card mng cho Router bng c dng lnh v giao din ha, GNS3 ch cho php lm vic ny bng dng lnh. V vy ta thc hin nh sau: - Chn Router > nhn nt Start hnh tam gic > Kch chut phi vo Router > Chn Consle (c th nhn vo biu tng mn hnh Consle trn thanh cng c).

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Tm hiu v GNS3
- Mn hnh Consle ca Router hin ln v bt u khi ng.

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- G lnh: sh ip int brief xem cc card mng ca Router. Ta thy l cha c card mng no c t a ch IP.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
- Bt u t a ch IP cho card mng ca router: + G lnh: config t (vo ch cu hnh).

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+ G lnh: int f0/0 (vo giao din cng FastEthernet0/0 ca Router)

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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+ G lnh: ip add ip address subnet mask (t a ch IP v mt n cho cng f0/0). V d: ip add 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0

+ G lnh: no shut ( router ch lm vic)

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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+ Kt thc qu trnh t a ch IP, g lnh: exit (tr v ch ban u).

- Sau khi t a ch IP cho card mng ca Router ta show li kim tra xem. Dng lnh: sh ip int brief.

* Lu : Cc cng khc ca Router nh Serial, Ethernet ta cng lm tng t. Nn t a ch IP cho cc cng lun mt th ri mi show IP.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
3.2. Ci t card mng o (loopback).

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Card Loopback l card mng o c dng kim tra li hoc test chng trnh no cn IP. Loopback c ngha d liu c gi v nhn trn cng 1 my. Hay ni cch khc to card loopback trn Router th bn thn Router c th t gi v nhn d liu qua card loopback. V d ta c th ping a ch ip ca card loopback ca Router t chnh Router . - Lm tng t t a ch ip cho card mng thc mc 3.1 ch khc lnh: int f0/0 thay bng lnh int loo1 hoc int loo2

Lu : Vng mng ca cc card loopback phi khc nhau v khc vi cc card mng thc. - Kim tra bng lnh ping. Vi d: ping 192.168.2.1 (card loopback1).

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Tm hiu v GNS3
Phn 4: Gi lp m hnh Qun l mng Manager-Agent

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1. Quan im qun l Manager Agent qua cng c gi lp GNS3. Cc quan im v qun l u cho rng chc nng quan trng nht trong qun l chnh l s truyn thng gia thc th qun l v thc th b qun l. V iu ny c thc hin da trn m hnh yu cu-phn hi.

Trong GNS3, ta c th m phng m hnh qun l Manager Agent bng 1 Router i din cho Manager v 1 Computer i din cho Agent. Hoc cng c th dng 1 Router va i din cho c Manager v Agent bng cch to card mng o loopback. 2. Gi lp m hnh qun l mng Manager Agent. GNS3 thng qua vic s dng Dynamips c th to cu ni gia interface trn router o vi interface trn my tht, cho php mng o giao tip c vi mng tht. Trn h thng Windows, th vin Wincap c s dng to kt ni ny. kt ni cc router o trong GNS3 vi h thng mng tht ta dng thit b Cloud. Trong bi ny, ta s s dng 1 Router v 1 Cloud (chnh l my tnh ca mnh).

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

Gi s ta cn kt ni t router o n card mng tn l Local Area Connection c a ch l 192.168.1.3

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Tm hiu v GNS3

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- Ko vo khung lm vic 1 Router v 1 Cloud. Cu hnh cho Cloud: nhn chut phi vo biu tng Cloud > chn Configure.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

- Hp thoi Node configurator hin ln: Chn C1 > Trong khung Generic Ethernet NIO chn card mng tht ca my tnh bn > nhn Add > nhn Apply > nhn OK.

- Bn c th kim tra card mng ca my tnh bng cch vo Network Device list.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

- Kt ni vt l gia Router v Cloud: Nhn vo biu tng hnh que kem > Chn FastEthernet > nhn ln lt vo Router v Cloud > nhn du X > nhn nt Start hnh tam gic.

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Tm hiu v GNS3

Qun l mng vin thng

- Sau khi bn kt ni vt l cho m hnh th ta t card mng cho Router nh Mc 3 - Phn 3. Lu : Lp mng ca cng ca router kt ni vi Cloud phi cng lp mng vi my tnh tht ca bn. V d cng F0/0: ip add 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0 Ngoi ra, nh mc 1 ca phn ny mnh cng nu cch m phng m hnh Manager Agent ch dng 1 Router bng cch to card mng o Loopback (xem li Mc 3.2 Phn 3). Bn c th chn mt trong hai cch trn gi lp m hnh Manager Agent. V sau s dng lnh ping kim tra.

TNG KT Cui cng mnh xin tng kt li cc ni dung c bn trong bi vit ny. Th nht, chng ta bit thm mt phn mm c th gi lp mng l GNS3. Hiu r hn v cc tnh nng, c im ca phn mm ny v cch lm vic vi n. C th l chng ta bit cch ci t, cch s dng (ci t card mng, cu hnh IOS, tnh ton gi tr Idle pc), cch gi lp m hnh mng. Th hai, phn mm GNS3 l cng c hu ch cho vic hc tp mn Qun l mng vin thng.

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Tm hiu v GNS3
TI LIU THAM KHO

Qun l mng vin thng

1. Gio trnh: Qun l mng vin thng, Hc vin Cng ngh bu chnh vin thng, 2010; 2. LAB CCNA, TT o to qun tr mng Trng Tn; 3. GNS3 Documentation v3.0 beta, Bi Quc Hon Din n AdminVietnam (www.adminvietnam.vn); 4. LAB Hng dn s dng GNS3, TT o to qun tr mng v An ninh mng Quc t ATHENA; 5. Cc Website tham kho: http://forum.bachkhoa-npower.vn http://vi.wikipedia.org http://sinhvienit.net http://tongquanvienthong.blogspot.com http://forum.itlab.com.vn http://www.nhatnghe.com http://qpsolution.com http://www.sysprobs.com

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