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# Ch 5 Energy in Steady Flow

Outline
The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics The continuity equation (principle of conservation of mass) The energy equation (Bernoulli equation) Application of the energy equation

Objectives
Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation Use of the Bernoulli Equation Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids

kinetic energy

## = volume mass = m = weight = W = = g

1 1 2 2 Kinetic energy , KE = mV = V 2 2

## Kinetic energy per unit weight

1 2 2 1 2 2 2

KE mV V V = = = Weight g 2g

## 5.1 Energies of a Flowing Fluid (Con)

Potential energy Due to gravity

P.E = mgh = gh
P.E. P.E gh = = =h Weight W gh

## 5.1 Energies of a Flowing Fluid (Con)

Pressure head Fluids have energy in the form of pressure.

From

## 5.2 Equation for Steady Motion of An Ideal Fluid Along A Streamline

Deriviation of Bernoulli equation Pressure forces:
upstream end downstream end +pdA -(p+dp)dA

## Gravity force: (Streamline dir)

pdA

F = ma
( p + dp ) dA gdAdz

du dt

## For steady flow ,velocity (u) only varies with distance(s)

du du ds du d u2 = =u = ( ) dt ds dt ds ds 2

## Substituting for du/dt

pdA ( p + dp ) dA gdAdz = dAds du dt

d p u2 (z + + )=0 ds g 2 g

p u2 z+ + =C g 2 g

## = const. ( Incompressible fluid ) Along the streamline (1-D) Steady flow

Bernoulli Equation

## The Bernoulli Equation is a statement of the conservation Mechanical Energy of ____________________

p u2 + z + = C 2g g

## Bernoullis eqn. is a useful relationship between p, V and z

p g

z= 2 u = Velocity head 2g

p g

+ z =

p u2 + z + = g 2g

## 5.3 Energy line (EL) and Hydraulic Grade line(HGL)

It is often convenient to plot mechanical energy graphically using heights. Hydraulic Grade Line P HGL = + z g Energy Line (or total energy)

Fig Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) for an one-dimensional flow

p u2 ( + z + ) g 2g

p + z

()

## For the two cross- sections

2 p1 u12 p2 u 2 z1 + + = z2 + + g 2 g g 2 g

Eliminate

Bernoulli

## Solving Steps with Bernoulli Equation

Three selections of steps for solving problems and one solving-method . 1.Selecting the datum plane. 2.Selecting computation cross sections: It should be the cross-section in uniform or gradually varied flows with variables already known as many as possible. 3.Selecting the computed point : For the tube flow, it is usually on the tube axis; while for the open channel flow, it is usually on the free surface. 4.Listing the energy equation and solving the problem.

## Bernoulli Equation: Simple Case (V = 0)

Reservoir (V = 0)
Put one point on the surface, one point anywhere else

z Pressure datum

1 2

p u2 +z + =C 2g g

Elevation datum

p2 p 1 +z1 = +z2 g gp
z1 z 2 =

## Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines (neglecting losses for now)

V2 z g + z + 2g = C p
V2 2g

g
z

## Energy Equation in Steady Total Flow

Real fluid steady total flow energy equation ( per unit weight fluid ) In which, zspecific elevation energy elevation head specific pressure energy pressure head, piezometric weight ) 2
v
2g
z+ p g

p g

p v 2 H = z+ + g 2 g

## Kinetic Energy Correction Factor

We have assumed in the derivation of Bernoulli equation that the velocity at the end sections (1) and (2) is uniform. But in a practical situation this may not be the case and the velocity can very across the cross section. A remedy is to use a correction factor for the kinetic energy term in the equation.

= u dA / V A
3 3

1v12
2g

v
2g

hw

2v22
2g

p1

p2 2

z1 1 0

z 2

z2 0

1v12
2g 1

hw

Water surface

2v22
2g 2

v1 z1 1

v2 2

z2

Summary

## By integrating F=ma along a streamline we found

That energy can be converted between pressure, elevation, and velocity That we can understand many simple flows by applying the Bernoulli equation

However, the Bernoulli equation can not be applied to flows where viscosity is large or where mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy.

Question
A diffuse pipe locates horizontally, as is shown in the figure. If the head loss is neglected, then the character of the pressures exerting on the crosssection's center is:

A. p1>p2 C. p1<p2

B. p1=p2 D. uncertain.

## Applications of Bernoulli Equation

Stagnation tube Pitot tube Free Jets Orifice Venturi Sluice gate Sharp-crested weir

## Applicable to contracting streamlines (accelerating flow).

Pitot Tubes

Can connect a differential pressure transducer to directly measure V2/2g Can be used to measure the flow of water in pipelines

Point measurement!

Pitot Tubes
Static pressure tube
H. De Pitot (1675-1771)

## Total energy at A = Total energy at B

2 B

2g

pB pA = g g
p A = g ( H 0 + h)

p B = gH 0
B =
2

( p A p B ) = 2 gh

## Example Venturi Tube

Given: Water 20oC, V1=2 m/s, p1=150 kPa, D=6 cm, d=3 cm Find: p2 and p3 Solution: Continuity Eq. D d
2 1
2

V1 A1 = V2 A2 A D V2 = V1 1 = V1 A2 d
Bernoulli Eq.
p1 V2 p V2 + z1 + 1 = 2 + z2 + 2 2g 2g

## Nozzle: velocity increases, pressure decreases

Similarly for 2 3, or 1 3

p2 = p1 + = p1 +

p3 = 150 kPa
Pressure drop is fully recovered, since we assumed no frictional losses Knowing the pressure drop 1 2 and d/D, we can calculate the velocity and flow rate
V2 = 2( p1 p2 )

2 (V12 V2 )

[1 (D / d )4 ]V12

= 150,000 +

## 1000 [1 (6 / 3)4 ]22 Pa 2 p2 = 120 kPa

[1 (d / D )4 ]

Example
Given: Velocity in outlet pipe from reservoir is 6 m/s and h = 15 m. Find: Pressure at A. Solution: Bernoulli equation
p1 V12 p A VA2 + z1 + = + zA + 2g 2g 0 pA VA2 +h+ = +0+ 2g 2g 0 18 VA2 ) p A = (h ) = 9800(15 2g 9.81 p A = 129.0 kPa
Point 1

Point A