Metaphysics By Aristotle Translated by W. D. Ross ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK I Part 1 "A !en by nat"re desire to #no$.

An indication o% this is the deli&ht $e ta#e in o"r senses' %or e(en apart %ro! their "se%"lness they are lo(ed %or the!sel(es' and abo(e all others the sense o% si&ht. )or not only $ith a (ie$ to action* b"t e(en $hen $e are not &oin& to do anythin&* $e pre%er seein& +one !i&ht say, to e(erythin& else. The reason is that this* !ost o% all the senses* !a#es "s #no$ and brin&s to li&ht !any di%%erences bet$een thin&s. "By nat"re ani!als are born $ith the %ac"lty o% sensation* and %ro! sensation !e!ory is prod"ced in so!e o% the!* tho"&h not in others. And there%ore the %or!er are !ore intelli&ent and apt at learnin& than those $hich cannot re!e!ber' those $hich are incapable o% hearin& so"nds are intelli&ent tho"&h they cannot be ta"&ht* e.&. the bee* and any other race o% ani!als that !ay be li#e it' and those $hich besides !e!ory ha(e this sense o% hearin& can be ta"&ht. "The ani!als other than !an li(e by appearances and !e!ories* and ha(e b"t little o% connected e-perience' b"t the h"!an race li(es also by art and reasonin&s. .o$ %ro! !e!ory e-perience is prod"ced in !en' %or the se(eral !e!ories o% the sa!e thin& prod"ce %inally the capacity %or a sin&le e-perience. And e-perience see!s pretty !"ch li#e science and art* b"t really science and art co!e to !en thro"&h e-perience' %or /e-perience !ade art/* as Pol"s says* /b"t ine-perience l"c#./ .o$ art arises $hen %ro! !any notions &ained by e-perience one "ni(ersal 0"d&e!ent abo"t a class o% ob0ects is prod"ced. )or to ha(e a 0"d&e!ent that $hen 1allias $as ill o% this disease this did hi! &ood* and si!ilarly in the case o% 2ocrates and in !any indi(id"al cases* is a !atter o% e-perience' b"t to 0"d&e that it has done &ood to all persons o% a certain constit"tion* !ar#ed o%% in one class* $hen they $ere ill o% this disease* e.&. to phle&!atic or bilio"s people $hen b"rnin& $ith %e(ers-this is a !atter o% art. "With a (ie$ to action e-perience see!s in no respect in%erior to art* and !en o% e-perience s"cceed e(en better than those $ho ha(e theory $itho"t e-perience. +The reason is that e-perience is #no$led&e o% indi(id"als* art o% "ni(ersals* and actions and prod"ctions are all concerned $ith the indi(id"al' %or the physician does not c"re !an* e-cept in an incidental $ay* b"t 1allias or 2ocrates or so!e other called by so!e s"ch indi(id"al na!e* $ho happens to be a !an. I%* then* a !an has the theory $itho"t the e-perience* and reco&ni3es the "ni(ersal b"t does not #no$ the indi(id"al incl"ded in this* he $ill o%ten %ail to c"re' %or it is the indi(id"al that is to be c"red., B"t yet $e thin# that #no$led&e and "nderstandin& belon& to art rather than to e-perience* and $e s"ppose artists to be $iser than !en o% e-perience +$hich i!plies that Wisdo! depends in all cases rather

on #no$led&e,' and this beca"se the %or!er #no$ the ca"se* b"t the latter do not. )or !en o% e-perience #no$ that the thin& is so* b"t do not #no$ $hy* $hile the others #no$ the /$hy/ and the ca"se. 4ence $e thin# also that the !aster$or#ers in each cra%t are !ore hono"rable and #no$ in a tr"er sense and are $iser than the !an"al $or#ers* beca"se they #no$ the ca"ses o% the thin&s that are done +$e thin# the !an"al $or#ers are li#e certain li%eless thin&s $hich act indeed* b"t act $itho"t #no$in& $hat they do* as %ire b"rns*-b"t $hile the li%eless thin&s per%or! each o% their %"nctions by a nat"ral tendency* the labo"rers per%or! the! thro"&h habit,' th"s $e (ie$ the! as bein& $iser not in (irt"e o% bein& able to act* b"t o% ha(in& the theory %or the!sel(es and #no$in& the ca"ses. And in &eneral it is a si&n o% the !an $ho #no$s and o% the !an $ho does not #no$* that the %or!er can teach* and there%ore $e thin# art !ore tr"ly #no$led&e than e-perience is' %or artists can teach* and !en o% !ere e-perience cannot. "A&ain* $e do not re&ard any o% the senses as Wisdo!' yet s"rely these &i(e the !ost a"thoritati(e #no$led&e o% partic"lars. B"t they do not tell "s the /$hy/ o% anythin&-e.&. $hy %ire is hot' they only say that it is hot. "At %irst he $ho in(ented any art $hate(er that $ent beyond the co!!on perceptions o% !an $as nat"rally ad!ired by !en* not only beca"se there $as so!ethin& "se%"l in the in(entions* b"t beca"se he $as tho"&ht $ise and s"perior to the rest. B"t as !ore arts $ere in(ented* and so!e $ere directed to the necessities o% li%e* others to recreation* the in(entors o% the latter $ere nat"rally al$ays re&arded as $iser than the in(entors o% the %or!er* beca"se their branches o% #no$led&e did not ai! at "tility. 4ence $hen all s"ch in(entions $ere already established* the sciences $hich do not ai! at &i(in& pleas"re or at the necessities o% li%e $ere disco(ered* and %irst in the places $here !en %irst be&an to ha(e leis"re. This is $hy the !athe!atical arts $ere %o"nded in 5&ypt' %or there the priestly caste $as allo$ed to be at leis"re. "We ha(e said in the 5thics $hat the di%%erence is bet$een art and science and the other #indred %ac"lties' b"t the point o% o"r present disc"ssion is this* that all !en s"ppose $hat is called Wisdo! to deal $ith the %irst ca"ses and the principles o% thin&s' so that* as has been said be%ore* the !an o% e-perience is tho"&ht to be $iser than the possessors o% any sense-perception $hate(er* the artist $iser than the !en o% e-perience* the !aster$or#er than the !echanic* and the theoretical #inds o% #no$led&e to be !ore o% the nat"re o% Wisdo! than the prod"cti(e. 1learly then Wisdo! is #no$led&e abo"t certain principles and ca"ses. Part 6 " "2ince $e are see#in& this #no$led&e* $e !"st in7"ire o% $hat #ind are the ca"ses and the principles* the #no$led&e o% $hich is Wisdo!. I% one $ere to ta#e the notions $e ha(e abo"t the $ise !an* this !i&ht perhaps !a#e the ans$er !ore e(ident. We s"ppose %irst* then* that the $ise !an #no$s all thin&s* as %ar as possible* altho"&h he has not #no$led&e o% each o% the! in detail' secondly* that he $ho can learn thin&s that are di%%ic"lt* and not easy %or !an to #no$* is $ise +sense-perception is co!!on to all* and there%ore easy and no

!ar# o% Wisdo!,' a&ain* that he $ho is !ore e-act and !ore capable o% teachin& the ca"ses is $iser* in e(ery branch o% #no$led&e' and that o% the sciences* also* that $hich is desirable on its o$n acco"nt and %or the sa#e o% #no$in& it is !ore o% the nat"re o% Wisdo! than that $hich is desirable on acco"nt o% its res"lts* and the s"perior science is !ore o% the nat"re o% Wisdo! than the ancillary' %or the $ise !an !"st not be ordered b"t !"st order* and he !"st not obey another* b"t the less $ise !"st obey hi!. "2"ch and so !any are the notions* then* $hich $e ha(e abo"t Wisdo! and the $ise. .o$ o% these characteristics that o% #no$in& all thin&s !"st belon& to hi! $ho has in the hi&hest de&ree "ni(ersal #no$led&e' %or he #no$s in a sense all the instances that %all "nder the "ni(ersal. And these thin&s* the !ost "ni(ersal* are on the $hole the hardest %or !en to #no$' %or they are %arthest %ro! the senses. And the !ost e-act o% the sciences are those $hich deal !ost $ith %irst principles' %or those $hich in(ol(e %e$er principles are !ore e-act than those $hich in(ol(e additional principles* e.&. arith!etic than &eo!etry. B"t the science $hich in(esti&ates ca"ses is also instr"cti(e* in a hi&her de&ree* %or the people $ho instr"ct "s are those $ho tell the ca"ses o% each thin&. And "nderstandin& and #no$led&e p"rs"ed %or their o$n sa#e are %o"nd !ost in the #no$led&e o% that $hich is !ost #no$able +%or he $ho chooses to #no$ %or the sa#e o% #no$in& $ill choose !ost readily that $hich is !ost tr"ly #no$led&e* and s"ch is the #no$led&e o% that $hich is !ost #no$able,' and the %irst principles and the ca"ses are !ost #no$able' %or by reason o% these* and %ro! these* all other thin&s co!e to be #no$n* and not these by !eans o% the thin&s s"bordinate to the!. And the science $hich #no$s to $hat end each thin& !"st be done is the !ost a"thoritati(e o% the sciences* and !ore a"thoritati(e than any ancillary science' and this end is the &ood o% that thin&* and in &eneral the s"pre!e &ood in the $hole o% nat"re. 8"d&ed by all the tests $e ha(e !entioned* then* the na!e in 7"estion %alls to the sa!e science' this !"st be a science that in(esti&ates the %irst principles and ca"ses' %or the &ood* i.e. the end* is one o% the ca"ses. "That it is not a science o% prod"ction is clear e(en %ro! the history o% the earliest philosophers. )or it is o$in& to their $onder that !en both no$ be&in and at %irst be&an to philosophi3e' they $ondered ori&inally at the ob(io"s di%%ic"lties* then ad(anced little by little and stated di%%ic"lties abo"t the &reater !atters* e.&. abo"t the pheno!ena o% the !oon and those o% the s"n and o% the stars* and abo"t the &enesis o% the "ni(erse. And a !an $ho is p"33led and $onders thin#s hi!sel% i&norant +$hence e(en the lo(er o% !yth is in a sense a lo(er o% Wisdo!* %or the !yth is co!posed o% $onders,' there%ore since they philosophi3ed order to escape %ro! i&norance* e(idently they $ere p"rs"in& science in order to #no$* and not %or any "tilitarian end. And this is con%ir!ed by the %acts' %or it $as $hen al!ost all the necessities o% li%e and the thin&s that !a#e %or co!%ort and recreation had been sec"red* that s"ch #no$led&e be&an to be so"&ht. 5(idently then $e do not see# it %or the sa#e o% any other ad(anta&e' b"t as the !an is %ree* $e say* $ho e-ists %or his o$n sa#e and not %or another/s* so $e p"rs"e this as the only %ree science* %or it alone e-ists %or its o$n sa#e.

"4ence also the possession o% it !i&ht be 0"stly re&arded as beyond h"!an po$er' %or in !any $ays h"!an nat"re is in bonda&e* so that accordin& to 2i!onides /9od alone can ha(e this pri(ile&e/* and it is "n%ittin& that !an sho"ld not be content to see# the #no$led&e that is s"ited to hi!. I%* then* there is so!ethin& in $hat the poets say* and 0ealo"sy is nat"ral to the di(ine po$er* it $o"ld probably occ"r in this case abo(e all* and all $ho e-celled in this #no$led&e $o"ld be "n%ort"nate. B"t the di(ine po$er cannot be 0ealo"s +nay* accordin& to the pro(erb* /bards tell a lie/,* nor sho"ld any other science be tho"&ht !ore hono"rable than one o% this sort. )or the !ost di(ine science is also !ost hono"rable' and this science alone !"st be* in t$o $ays* !ost di(ine. )or the science $hich it $o"ld be !ost !eet %or 9od to ha(e is a di(ine science* and so is any science that deals $ith di(ine ob0ects' and this science alone has both these 7"alities' %or +1, 9od is tho"&ht to be a!on& the ca"ses o% all thin&s and to be a %irst principle* and +6, s"ch a science either 9od alone can ha(e* or 9od abo(e all others. All the sciences* indeed* are !ore necessary than this* b"t none is better. ":et the ac7"isition o% it !"st in a sense end in so!ethin& $hich is the opposite o% o"r ori&inal in7"iries. )or all !en be&in* as $e said* by $onderin& that thin&s are as they are* as they do abo"t sel%!o(in& !arionettes* or abo"t the solstices or the inco!!ens"rability o% the dia&onal o% a s7"are $ith the side' %or it see!s $onder%"l to all $ho ha(e not yet seen the reason* that there is a thin& $hich cannot be !eas"red e(en by the s!allest "nit. B"t $e !"st end in the contrary and* accordin& to the pro(erb* the better state* as is the case in these instances too $hen !en learn the ca"se' %or there is nothin& $hich $o"ld s"rprise a &eo!eter so !"ch as i% the dia&onal t"rned o"t to be co!!ens"rable. "We ha(e stated* then* $hat is the nat"re o% the science $e are searchin& %or* and $hat is the !ar# $hich o"r search and o"r $hole in(esti&ation !"st reach. Part ; " "5(idently $e ha(e to ac7"ire #no$led&e o% the ori&inal ca"ses +%or $e say $e #no$ each thin& only $hen $e thin# $e reco&ni3e its %irst ca"se,* and ca"ses are spo#en o% in %o"r senses. In one o% these $e !ean the s"bstance* i.e. the essence +%or the /$hy/ is red"cible %inally to the de%inition* and the "lti!ate /$hy/ is a ca"se and principle,' in another the !atter or s"bstrat"!* in a third the so"rce o% the chan&e* and in a %o"rth the ca"se opposed to this* the p"rpose and the &ood +%or this is the end o% all &eneration and chan&e,. We ha(e st"died these ca"ses s"%%iciently in o"r $or# on nat"re* b"t yet let "s call to o"r aid those $ho ha(e attac#ed the in(esti&ation o% bein& and philosophi3ed abo"t reality be%ore "s. )or ob(io"sly they too spea# o% certain principles and ca"ses' to &o o(er their (ie$s* then* $ill be o% pro%it to the present in7"iry* %or $e shall either %ind another #ind o% ca"se* or be !ore con(inced o% the correctness o% those $hich $e no$ !aintain. "O% the %irst philosophers* then* !ost tho"&ht the principles $hich

$ere o% the nat"re o% !atter $ere the only principles o% all thin&s. That o% $hich all thin&s that are consist* the %irst %ro! $hich they co!e to be* the last into $hich they are resol(ed +the s"bstance re!ainin&* b"t chan&in& in its !odi%ications,* this they say is the ele!ent and this the principle o% thin&s* and there%ore they thin# nothin& is either &enerated or destroyed* since this sort o% entity is al$ays conser(ed* as $e say 2ocrates neither co!es to be absol"tely $hen he co!es to be bea"ti%"l or !"sical* nor ceases to be $hen loses these characteristics* beca"se the s"bstrat"!* 2ocrates hi!sel% re!ains. 0"st so they say nothin& else co!es to be or ceases to be' %or there !"st be so!e entity-either one or !ore than one-%ro! $hich all other thin&s co!e to be* it bein& conser(ed. ":et they do not all a&ree as to the n"!ber and the nat"re o% these principles. Thales* the %o"nder o% this type o% philosophy* says the principle is $ater +%or $hich reason he declared that the earth rests on $ater,* &ettin& the notion perhaps %ro! seein& that the n"tri!ent o% all thin&s is !oist* and that heat itsel% is &enerated %ro! the !oist and #ept ali(e by it +and that %ro! $hich they co!e to be is a principle o% all thin&s,. 4e &ot his notion %ro! this %act* and %ro! the %act that the seeds o% all thin&s ha(e a !oist nat"re* and that $ater is the ori&in o% the nat"re o% !oist thin&s. "2o!e thin# that e(en the ancients $ho li(ed lon& be%ore the present &eneration* and %irst %ra!ed acco"nts o% the &ods* had a si!ilar (ie$ o% nat"re' %or they !ade Ocean and Tethys the parents o% creation* and described the oath o% the &ods as bein& by $ater* to $hich they &i(e the na!e o% 2ty-' %or $hat is oldest is !ost hono"rable* and the !ost hono"rable thin& is that by $hich one s$ears. It !ay perhaps be "ncertain $hether this opinion abo"t nat"re is pri!iti(e and ancient* b"t Thales at any rate is said to ha(e declared hi!sel% th"s abo"t the %irst ca"se. 4ippo no one $o"ld thin# %it to incl"de a!on& these thin#ers* beca"se o% the paltriness o% his tho"&ht. "Ana-i!enes and Dio&enes !a#e air prior to $ater* and the !ost pri!ary o% the si!ple bodies* $hile 4ippas"s o% Metaponti"! and 4eraclit"s o% 5phes"s say this o% %ire* and 5!pedocles says it o% the %o"r ele!ents +addin& a %o"rth-earth-to those $hich ha(e been na!ed,' %or these* he says* al$ays re!ain and do not co!e to be* e-cept that they co!e to be !ore or %e$er* bein& a&&re&ated into one and se&re&ated o"t o% one. "Ana-a&oras o% 1la3o!enae* $ho* tho"&h older than 5!pedocles* $as later in his philosophical acti(ity* says the principles are in%inite in n"!ber' %or he says al!ost all the thin&s that are !ade o% parts li#e the!sel(es* in the !anner o% $ater or %ire* are &enerated and destroyed in this $ay* only by a&&re&ation and se&re&ation* and are not in any other sense &enerated or destroyed* b"t re!ain eternally. ")ro! these %acts one !i&ht thin# that the only ca"se is the so-called !aterial ca"se' b"t as !en th"s ad(anced* the (ery %acts opened the $ay %or the! and 0oined in %orcin& the! to in(esti&ate the s"b0ect. 4o$e(er tr"e it !ay be that all &eneration and destr"ction proceed %ro! so!e one or +%or that !atter, %ro! !ore ele!ents* $hy does this happen and $hat is the ca"se< )or at least the s"bstrat"! itsel% does not !a#e itsel% chan&e' e.&. neither the $ood nor the bron3e ca"ses

the chan&e o% either o% the!* nor does the $ood !an"%act"re a bed and the bron3e a stat"e* b"t so!ethin& else is the ca"se o% the chan&e. And to see# this is to see# the second ca"se* as $e sho"ld say*-that %ro! $hich co!es the be&innin& o% the !o(e!ent. .o$ those $ho at the (ery be&innin& set the!sel(es to this #ind o% in7"iry* and said the s"bstrat"! $as one* $ere not at all dissatis%ied $ith the!sel(es' b"t so!e at least o% those $ho !aintain it to be one-as tho"&h de%eated by this search %or the second ca"se-say the one and nat"re as a $hole is "nchan&eable not only in respect o% &eneration and destr"ction +%or this is a pri!iti(e belie%* and all a&reed in it,* b"t also o% all other chan&e' and this (ie$ is pec"liar to the!. O% those $ho said the "ni(erse $as one* then none s"cceeded in disco(erin& a ca"se o% this sort* e-cept perhaps Par!enides* and he only inas!"ch as he s"pposes that there is not only one b"t also in so!e sense t$o ca"ses. B"t %or those $ho !a#e !ore ele!ents it is !ore possible to state the second ca"se* e.&. %or those $ho !a#e hot and cold* or %ire and earth* the ele!ents' %or they treat %ire as ha(in& a nat"re $hich %its it to !o(e thin&s* and $ater and earth and s"ch thin&s they treat in the contrary $ay. "When these !en and the principles o% this #ind had had their day* as the latter $ere %o"nd inade7"ate to &enerate the nat"re o% thin&s !en $ere a&ain %orced by the tr"th itsel%* as $e said* to in7"ire into the ne-t #ind o% ca"se. )or it is not li#ely either that %ire or earth or any s"ch ele!ent sho"ld be the reason $hy thin&s !ani%est &oodness and* bea"ty both in their bein& and in their co!in& to be* or that those thin#ers sho"ld ha(e s"pposed it $as' nor a&ain co"ld it be ri&ht to entr"st so &reat a !atter to spontaneity and chance. When one !an said* then* that reason $as present-as in ani!als* so thro"&ho"t nat"re-as the ca"se o% order and o% all arran&e!ent* he see!ed li#e a sober !an in contrast $ith the rando! tal# o% his predecessors. We #no$ that Ana-a&oras certainly adopted these (ie$s* b"t 4er!oti!"s o% 1la3o!enae is credited $ith e-pressin& the! earlier. Those $ho tho"&ht th"s stated that there is a principle o% thin&s $hich is at the sa!e ti!e the ca"se o% bea"ty* and that sort o% ca"se %ro! $hich thin&s ac7"ire !o(e!ent. Part = " "One !i&ht s"spect that 4esiod $as the %irst to loo# %or s"ch a thin&-or so!e one else $ho p"t lo(e or desire a!on& e-istin& thin&s as a principle* as Par!enides* too* does' %or he* in constr"ctin& the &enesis o% the "ni(erse* says>- " " o(e %irst o% all the 9ods she planned. " "And 4esiod says>- " ")irst o% all thin&s $as chaos !ade* and then "Broad-breasted earth... "And lo(e* /!id all the &ods pre-e!inent* " $hich i!plies that a!on& e-istin& thin&s there !"st be %ro! the %irst

a ca"se $hich $ill !o(e thin&s and brin& the! to&ether. 4o$ these thin#ers sho"ld be arran&ed $ith re&ard to priority o% disco(ery let "s be allo$ed to decide later' b"t since the contraries o% the (ario"s %or!s o% &ood $ere also percei(ed to be present in nat"re-not only order and the bea"ti%"l* b"t also disorder and the "&ly* and bad thin&s in &reater n"!ber than &ood* and i&noble thin&s than bea"ti%"l-there%ore another thin#er introd"ced %riendship and stri%e* each o% the t$o the ca"se o% one o% these t$o sets o% 7"alities. )or i% $e $ere to %ollo$ o"t the (ie$ o% 5!pedocles* and interpret it accordin& to its !eanin& and not to its lispin& e-pression* $e sho"ld %ind that %riendship is the ca"se o% &ood thin&s* and stri%e o% bad. There%ore* i% $e said that 5!pedocles in a sense both !entions* and is the %irst to !ention* the bad and the &ood as principles* $e sho"ld perhaps be ri&ht* since the ca"se o% all &oods is the &ood itsel%. "These thin#ers* as $e say* e(idently &rasped* and to this e-tent* t$o o% the ca"ses $hich $e distin&"ished in o"r $or# on nat"re-the !atter and the so"rce o% the !o(e!ent-(a&"ely* ho$e(er* and $ith no clearness* b"t as "ntrained !en beha(e in %i&hts' %or they &o ro"nd their opponents and o%ten stri#e %ine blo$s* b"t they do not %i&ht on scienti%ic principles* and so too these thin#ers do not see! to #no$ $hat they say' %or it is e(ident that* as a r"le* they !a#e no "se o% their ca"ses e-cept to a s!all e-tent. )or Ana-a&oras "ses reason as a de"s e- !achina %or the !a#in& o% the $orld* and $hen he is at a loss to tell %ro! $hat ca"se so!ethin& necessarily is* then he dra&s reason in* b"t in all other cases ascribes e(ents to anythin& rather than to reason. And 5!pedocles* tho"&h he "ses the ca"ses to a &reater e-tent than this* neither does so s"%%iciently nor attains consistency in their "se. At least* in !any cases he !a#es lo(e se&re&ate thin&s* and stri%e a&&re&ate the!. )or $hene(er the "ni(erse is dissol(ed into its ele!ents by stri%e* %ire is a&&re&ated into one* and so is each o% the other ele!ents' b"t $hene(er a&ain "nder the in%l"ence o% lo(e they co!e to&ether into one* the parts !"st a&ain be se&re&ated o"t o% each ele!ent. "5!pedocles* then* in contrast $ith his precessors* $as the %irst to introd"ce the di(idin& o% this ca"se* not positin& one so"rce o% !o(e!ent* b"t di%%erent and contrary so"rces. A&ain* he $as the %irst to spea# o% %o"r !aterial ele!ents' yet he does not "se %o"r* b"t treats the! as t$o only' he treats %ire by itsel%* and its oppositeearth* air* and $ater-as one #ind o% thin&. We !ay learn this by st"dy o% his (erses. "This philosopher then* as $e say* has spo#en o% the principles in this $ay* and !ade the! o% this n"!ber. e"cipp"s and his associate De!ocrit"s say that the %"ll and the e!pty are the ele!ents* callin& the one bein& and the other non-bein&-the %"ll and solid bein& bein&* the e!pty non-bein& +$hence they say bein& no !ore is than non-bein&* beca"se the solid no !ore is than the e!pty,' and they !a#e these the !aterial ca"ses o% thin&s. And as those $ho !a#e the "nderlyin& s"bstance one &enerate all other thin&s by its !odi%ications* s"pposin& the rare and the dense to be the so"rces o% the !odi%ications* in the sa!e $ay these philosophers say the di%%erences in the ele!ents are the ca"ses o% all other 7"alities. These di%%erences* they say*

are three-shape and order and position. )or they say the real is di%%erentiated only by /rhyth! and /inter-contact/ and /t"rnin&/' and o% these rhyth! is shape* inter-contact is order* and t"rnin& is position' %or A di%%ers %ro! . in shape* A. %ro! .A in order* M %ro! W in position. The 7"estion o% !o(e!ent-$hence or ho$ it is to belon& to thin&s-these thin#ers* li#e the others* la3ily ne&lected. "Re&ardin& the t$o ca"ses* then* as $e say* the in7"iry see!s to ha(e been p"shed th"s %ar by the early philosophers. Part ? " "1onte!poraneo"sly $ith these philosophers and be%ore the!* the socalled Pytha&oreans* $ho $ere the %irst to ta#e "p !athe!atics* not only ad(anced this st"dy* b"t also ha(in& been bro"&ht "p in it they tho"&ht its principles $ere the principles o% all thin&s. 2ince o% these principles n"!bers are by nat"re the %irst* and in n"!bers they see!ed to see !any rese!blances to the thin&s that e-ist and co!e into bein&-!ore than in %ire and earth and $ater +s"ch and s"ch a !odi%ication o% n"!bers bein& 0"stice* another bein& so"l and reason* another bein& opport"nity-and si!ilarly al!ost all other thin&s bein& n"!erically e-pressible,' since* a&ain* they sa$ that the !odi%ications and the ratios o% the !"sical scales $ere e-pressible in n"!bers'-since* then* all other thin&s see!ed in their $hole nat"re to be !odelled on n"!bers* and n"!bers see!ed to be the %irst thin&s in the $hole o% nat"re* they s"pposed the ele!ents o% n"!bers to be the ele!ents o% all thin&s* and the $hole hea(en to be a !"sical scale and a n"!ber. And all the properties o% n"!bers and scales $hich they co"ld sho$ to a&ree $ith the attrib"tes and parts and the $hole arran&e!ent o% the hea(ens* they collected and %itted into their sche!e' and i% there $as a &ap any$here* they readily !ade additions so as to !a#e their $hole theory coherent. 5.&. as the n"!ber 1@ is tho"&ht to be per%ect and to co!prise the $hole nat"re o% n"!bers* they say that the bodies $hich !o(e thro"&h the hea(ens are ten* b"t as the (isible bodies are only nine* to !eet this they in(ent a tenth--the /co"nter-earth/. We ha(e disc"ssed these !atters !ore e-actly else$here. "B"t the ob0ect o% o"r re(ie$ is that $e !ay learn %ro! these philosophers also $hat they s"ppose to be the principles and ho$ these %all "nder the ca"ses $e ha(e na!ed. 5(idently* then* these thin#ers also consider that n"!ber is the principle both as !atter %or thin&s and as %or!in& both their !odi%ications and their per!anent states* and hold that the ele!ents o% n"!ber are the e(en and the odd* and that o% these the latter is li!ited* and the %or!er "nli!ited' and that the One proceeds %ro! both o% these +%or it is both e(en and odd,* and n"!ber %ro! the One' and that the $hole hea(en* as has been said* is n"!bers. "Other !e!bers o% this sa!e school say there are ten principles* $hich they arran&e in t$o col"!ns o% co&nates-li!it and "nli!ited* odd and e(en* one and pl"rality* ri&ht and le%t* !ale and %e!ale* restin& and !o(in&* strai&ht and c"r(ed* li&ht and dar#ness* &ood and bad* s7"are and oblon&. In this $ay Alc!aeon o% 1roton see!s also to ha(e concei(ed the !atter* and either he &ot this (ie$ %ro! the! or they

&ot it %ro! hi!' %or he e-pressed hi!sel% si!ilarly to the!. )or he says !ost h"!an a%%airs &o in pairs* !eanin& not de%inite contrarieties s"ch as the Pytha&oreans spea# o%* b"t any chance contrarieties* e.&. $hite and blac#* s$eet and bitter* &ood and bad* &reat and s!all. 4e thre$ o"t inde%inite s"&&estions abo"t the other contrarieties* b"t the Pytha&oreans declared both ho$ !any and $hich their contraricties are. ")ro! both these schools* then* $e can learn this !"ch* that the contraries are the principles o% thin&s' and ho$ !any these principles are and $hich they are* $e can learn %ro! one o% the t$o schools. B"t ho$ these principles can be bro"&ht to&ether "nder the ca"ses $e ha(e na!ed has not been clearly and artic"lately stated by the!' they see!* ho$e(er* to ran&e the ele!ents "nder the head o% !atter' %or o"t o% these as i!!anent parts they say s"bstance is co!posed and !o"lded. ")ro! these %acts $e !ay s"%%iciently percei(e the !eanin& o% the ancients $ho said the ele!ents o% nat"re $ere !ore than one' b"t there are so!e $ho spo#e o% the "ni(erse as i% it $ere one entity* tho"&h they $ere not all ali#e either in the e-cellence o% their state!ent or in its con%or!ity to the %acts o% nat"re. The disc"ssion o% the! is in no $ay appropriate to o"r present in(esti&ation o% ca"ses* %or. they do not* li#e so!e o% the nat"ral philosophers* ass"!e bein& to be one and yet &enerate it o"t o% the one as o"t o% !atter* b"t they spea# in another $ay' those others add chan&e* since they &enerate the "ni(erse* b"t these thin#ers say the "ni(erse is "nchan&eable. :et this !"ch is &er!ane to the present in7"iry> Par!enides see!s to %asten on that $hich is one in de%inition* Meliss"s on that $hich is one in !atter* %or $hich reason the %or!er says that it is li!ited* the latter that it is "nli!ited' $hile Aenophanes* the %irst o% these partisans o% the One +%or Par!enides is said to ha(e been his p"pil,* &a(e no clear state!ent* nor does he see! to ha(e &rasped the nat"re o% either o% these ca"ses* b"t $ith re%erence to the $hole !aterial "ni(erse he says the One is 9od. .o$ these thin#ers* as $e said* !"st be ne&lected %or the p"rposes o% the present in7"iry-t$o o% the! entirely* as bein& a little too nai(e* (i3. Aenophanes and Meliss"s' b"t Par!enides see!s in places to spea# $ith !ore insi&ht. )or* clai!in& that* besides the e-istent* nothin& non-e-istent e-ists* he thin#s that o% necessity one thin& e-ists* (i3. the e-istent and nothin& else +on this $e ha(e spo#en !ore clearly in o"r $or# on nat"re,* b"t bein& %orced to %ollo$ the obser(ed %acts* and s"pposin& the e-istence o% that $hich is one in de%inition* b"t !ore than one accordin& to o"r sensations* he no$ posits t$o ca"ses and t$o principles* callin& the! hot and cold* i.e. %ire and earth' and o% these he ran&es the hot $ith the e-istent* and the other $ith the non-e-istent. ")ro! $hat has been said* then* and %ro! the $ise !en $ho ha(e no$ sat in co"ncil $ith "s* $e ha(e &ot th"s !"ch-on the one hand %ro! the earliest philosophers* $ho re&ard the %irst principle as corporeal +%or $ater and %ire and s"ch thin&s are bodies,* and o% $ho! so!e s"ppose that there is one corporeal principle* others that there are !ore than one* b"t both p"t these "nder the head o% !atter' and on the other hand %ro! so!e $ho posit both this ca"se and besides this

the so"rce o% !o(e!ent* $hich $e ha(e &ot %ro! so!e as sin&le and %ro! others as t$o%old. "Do$n to the Italian school* then* and apart %ro! it* philosophers ha(e treated these s"b0ects rather obsc"rely* e-cept that* as $e said* they ha(e in %act "sed t$o #inds o% ca"se* and one o% these-the so"rce o% !o(e!ent-so!e treat as one and others as t$o. B"t the Pytha&oreans ha(e said in the sa!e $ay that there are t$o principles* b"t added this !"ch* $hich is pec"liar to the!* that they tho"&ht that %init"de and in%inity $ere not attrib"tes o% certain other thin&s* e.&. o% %ire or earth or anythin& else o% this #ind* b"t that in%inity itsel% and "nity itsel% $ere the s"bstance o% the thin&s o% $hich they are predicated. This is $hy n"!ber $as the s"bstance o% all thin&s. On this s"b0ect* then* they e-pressed the!sel(es th"s' and re&ardin& the 7"estion o% essence they be&an to !a#e state!ents and de%initions* b"t treated the !atter too si!ply. )or they both de%ined s"per%icially and tho"&ht that the %irst s"b0ect o% $hich a &i(en de%inition $as predicable $as the s"bstance o% the thin& de%ined* as i% one s"pposed that /do"ble/ and /6/ $ere the sa!e* beca"se 6 is the %irst thin& o% $hich /do"ble/ is predicable. B"t s"rely to be do"ble and to be 6 are not the sa!e' i% they are* one thin& $ill be !any-a conse7"ence $hich they act"ally dre$. )ro! the earlier philosophers* then* and %ro! their s"ccessors $e can learn th"s !"ch. Part B " "A%ter the syste!s $e ha(e na!ed ca!e the philosophy o% Plato* $hich in !ost respects %ollo$ed these thin#ers* b"t had pec"llarities that distin&"ished it %ro! the philosophy o% the Italians. )or* ha(in& in his yo"th %irst beco!e %a!iliar $ith 1ratyl"s and $ith the 4eraclitean doctrines +that all sensible thin&s are e(er in a state o% %l"- and there is no #no$led&e abo"t the!,* these (ie$s he held e(en in later years. 2ocrates* ho$e(er* $as b"syin& hi!sel% abo"t ethical !atters and ne&lectin& the $orld o% nat"re as a $hole b"t see#in& the "ni(ersal in these ethical !atters* and %i-ed tho"&ht %or the %irst ti!e on de%initions' Plato accepted his teachin&* b"t held that the proble! applied not to sensible thin&s b"t to entities o% another #ind-%or this reason* that the co!!on de%inition co"ld not be a de%inition o% any sensible thin&* as they $ere al$ays chan&in&. Thin&s o% this other sort* then* he called Ideas* and sensible thin&s* he said* $ere all na!ed a%ter these* and in (irt"e o% a relation to these' %or the !any e-isted by participation in the Ideas that ha(e the sa!e na!e as they. Only the na!e /participation/ $as ne$' %or the Pytha&oreans say that thin&s e-ist by /i!itation/ o% n"!bers* and Plato says they e-ist by participation* chan&in& the na!e. B"t $hat the participation or the i!itation o% the )or!s co"ld be they le%t an open 7"estion. ")"rther* besides sensible thin&s and )or!s he says there are the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* $hich occ"py an inter!ediate position* di%%erin& %ro! sensible thin&s in bein& eternal and "nchan&eable* %ro! )or!s in that there are !any ali#e* $hile the )or! itsel% is in each case "ni7"e. "2ince the )or!s $ere the ca"ses o% all other thin&s* he tho"&ht their ele!ents $ere the ele!ents o% all thin&s. As !atter* the &reat and the s!all $ere principles' as essential reality* the One' %or %ro!

the &reat and the s!all* by participation in the One* co!e the ."!bers. "B"t he a&reed $ith the Pytha&oreans in sayin& that the One is s"bstance and not a predicate o% so!ethin& else' and in sayin& that the ."!bers are the ca"ses o% the reality o% other thin&s he a&reed $ith the!' b"t positin& a dyad and constr"ctin& the in%inite o"t o% &reat and s!all* instead o% treatin& the in%inite as one* is pec"liar to hi!' and so is his (ie$ that the ."!bers e-ist apart %ro! sensible thin&s* $hile they say that the thin&s the!sel(es are ."!bers* and do not place the ob0ects o% !athe!atics bet$een )or!s and sensible thin&s. 4is di(er&ence %ro! the Pytha&oreans in !a#in& the One and the ."!bers separate %ro! thin&s* and his introd"ction o% the )or!s* $ere d"e to his in7"iries in the re&ion o% de%initions +%or the earlier thin#ers had no tinct"re o% dialectic,* and his !a#in& the other entity besides the One a dyad $as d"e to the belie% that the n"!bers* e-cept those $hich $ere pri!e* co"ld be neatly prod"ced o"t o% the dyad as o"t o% so!e plastic !aterial. :et $hat happens is the contrary' the theory is not a reasonable one. )or they !a#e !any thin&s o"t o% the !atter* and the %or! &enerates only once* b"t $hat $e obser(e is that one table is !ade %ro! one !atter* $hile the !an $ho applies the %or!* tho"&h he is one* !a#es !any tables. And the relation o% the !ale to the %e!ale is si!ilar' %or the latter is i!pre&nated by one cop"lation* b"t the !ale i!pre&nates !any %e!ales' yet these are analo&"es o% those %irst principles. "Plato* then* declared hi!sel% th"s on the points in 7"estion' it is e(ident %ro! $hat has been said that he has "sed only t$o ca"ses* that o% the essence and the !aterial ca"se +%or the )or!s are the ca"ses o% the essence o% all other thin&s* and the One is the ca"se o% the essence o% the )or!s,' and it is e(ident $hat the "nderlyin& !atter is* o% $hich the )or!s are predicated in the case o% sensible thin&s* and the One in the case o% )or!s* (i3. that this is a dyad* the &reat and the s!all. )"rther* he has assi&ned the ca"se o% &ood and that o% e(il to the ele!ents* one to each o% the t$o* as $e say so!e o% his predecessors so"&ht to do* e.&. 5!pedocles and Ana-a&oras. Part C " "O"r re(ie$ o% those $ho ha(e spo#en abo"t %irst principles and reality and o% the $ay in $hich they ha(e spo#en* has been concise and s"!!ary' b"t yet $e ha(e learnt this !"ch %ro! the!* that o% those $ho spea# abo"t /principle/ and /ca"se/ no one has !entioned any principle e-cept those $hich ha(e been distin&"ished in o"r $or# on nat"re* b"t all e(idently ha(e so!e in#lin& o% the!* tho"&h only (a&"ely. )or so!e spea# o% the %irst principle as !atter* $hether they s"ppose one or !ore %irst principles* and $hether they s"ppose this to be a body or to be incorporeal' e.&. Plato spo#e o% the &reat and the s!all* the Italians o% the in%inite* 5!pedocles o% %ire* earth* $ater* and air* Ana-a&oras o% the in%inity o% thin&s co!posed o% si!ilar parts. These* then* ha(e all had a notion o% this #ind o% ca"se* and so ha(e all $ho spea# o% air or %ire or $ater* or so!ethin& denser than %ire and rarer than air' %or so!e ha(e said the pri!e ele!ent is o% this #ind. "These thin#ers &rasped this ca"se only' b"t certain others ha(e !entioned

the so"rce o% !o(e!ent* e.&. those $ho !a#e %riendship and stri%e* or reason* or lo(e* a principle. "The essence* i.e. the s"bstantial reality* no one has e-pressed distinctly. It is hinted at chie%ly by those $ho belie(e in the )or!s' %or they do not s"ppose either that the )or!s are the !atter o% sensible thin&s* and the One the !atter o% the )or!s* or that they are the so"rce o% !o(e!ent +%or they say these are ca"ses rather o% i!!obility and o% bein& at rest,* b"t they %"rnish the )or!s as the essence o% e(ery other thin&* and the One as the essence o% the )or!s. "That %or $hose sa#e actions and chan&es and !o(e!ents ta#e place* they assert to be a ca"se in a $ay* b"t not in this $ay* i.e. not in the $ay in $hich it is its nat"re to be a ca"se. )or those $ho spea# o% reason or %riendship class these ca"ses as &oods' they do not spea#* ho$e(er* as i% anythin& that e-ists either e-isted or ca!e into bein& %or the sa#e o% these* b"t as i% !o(e!ents started %ro! these. In the sa!e $ay those $ho say the One or the e-istent is the &ood* say that it is the ca"se o% s"bstance* b"t not that s"bstance either is or co!es to be %or the sa#e o% this. There%ore it t"rns o"t that in a sense they both say and do not say the &ood is a ca"se' %or they do not call it a ca"se 7"a &ood b"t only incidentally. "All these thin#ers then* as they cannot pitch on another ca"se* see! to testi%y that $e ha(e deter!ined ri&htly both ho$ !any and o% $hat sort the ca"ses are. Besides this it is plain that $hen the ca"ses are bein& loo#ed %or* either all %o"r !"st be so"&ht th"s or they !"st be so"&ht in one o% these %o"r $ays. et "s ne-t disc"ss the possible di%%ic"lties $ith re&ard to the $ay in $hich each o% these thin#ers has spo#en* and $ith re&ard to his sit"ation relati(ely to the %irst principles. Part D " "Those* then* $ho say the "ni(erse is one and posit one #ind o% thin& as !atter* and as corporeal !atter $hich has spatial !a&nit"de* e(idently &o astray in !any $ays. )or they posit the ele!ents o% bodies only* not o% incorporeal thin&s* tho"&h there are also incorporeal thin&s. And in tryin& to state the ca"ses o% &eneration and destr"ction* and in &i(in& a physical acco"nt o% all thin&s* they do a$ay $ith the ca"se o% !o(e!ent. )"rther* they err in not positin& the s"bstance* i.e. the essence* as the ca"se o% anythin&* and besides this in li&htly callin& any o% the si!ple bodies e-cept earth the %irst principle* $itho"t in7"irin& ho$ they are prod"ced o"t o% one anothers-I !ean %ire* $ater* earth* and air. )or so!e thin&s are prod"ced o"t o% each other by co!bination* others by separation* and this !a#es the &reatest di%%erence to their priority and posteriority. )or +1, in a $ay the property o% bein& !ost ele!entary o% all $o"ld see! to belon& to the %irst thin& %ro! $hich they are prod"ced by co!bination* and this property $o"ld belon& to the !ost %ine-&rained and s"btle o% bodies. )or this reason those $ho !a#e %ire the principle $o"ld be !ost in a&ree!ent $ith this ar&"!ent. B"t each o% the other thin#ers a&rees that the ele!ent o% corporeal thin&s is o% this sort. At least none o% those $ho na!ed one ele!ent clai!ed that earth $as the ele!ent* e(idently beca"se o% the coarseness o% its &rain. +O% the other three

ele!ents each has %o"nd so!e 0"d&e on its side' %or so!e !aintain that %ire* others that $ater* others that air is the ele!ent. :et $hy* a%ter all* do they not na!e earth also* as !ost !en do< )or people say all thin&s are earth 4esiod says earth $as prod"ced %irst o% corporeal thin&s' so pri!iti(e and pop"lar has the opinion been., Accordin& to this ar&"!ent* then* no one $o"ld be ri&ht $ho either says the %irst principle is any o% the ele!ents other than %ire* or s"pposes it to be denser than air b"t rarer than $ater. B"t +6, i% that $hich is later in &eneration is prior in nat"re* and that $hich is concocted and co!po"nded is later in &eneration* the contrary o% $hat $e ha(e been sayin& !"st be tr"e*-$ater !"st be prior to air* and earth to $ater. "2o !"ch* then* %or those $ho posit one ca"se s"ch as $e !entioned' b"t the sa!e is tr"e i% one s"pposes !ore o% these* as 5!pedocles says !atter o% thin&s is %o"r bodies. )or he too is con%ronted by conse7"ences so!e o% $hich are the sa!e as ha(e been !entioned* $hile others are pec"liar to hi!. )or $e see these bodies prod"ced %ro! one another* $hich i!plies that the sa!e body does not al$ays re!ain %ire or earth +$e ha(e spo#en abo"t this in o"r $or#s on nat"re,' and re&ardin& the ca"se o% !o(e!ent and the 7"estion $hether $e !"st posit one or t$o* he !"st be tho"&ht to ha(e spo#en neither correctly nor alto&ether pla"sibly. And in &eneral* chan&e o% 7"ality is necessarily done a$ay $ith %or those $ho spea# th"s* %or on their (ie$ cold $ill not co!e %ro! hot nor hot %ro! cold. )or i% it did there $o"ld be so!ethin& that accepted the contraries the!sel(es* and there $o"ld be so!e one entity that beca!e %ire and $ater* $hich 5!pedocles denies. "As re&ards Ana-a&oras* i% one $ere to s"ppose that he said there $ere t$o ele!ents* the s"pposition $o"ld accord thoro"&hly $ith an ar&"!ent $hich Ana-a&oras hi!sel% did not state artic"lately* b"t $hich he !"st ha(e accepted i% any one had led hi! on to it. Tr"e* to say that in the be&innin& all thin&s $ere !i-ed is abs"rd both on other &ro"nds and beca"se it %ollo$s that they !"st ha(e e-isted be%ore in an "n!i-ed %or!* and beca"se nat"re does not allo$ any chance thin& to be !i-ed $ith any chance thin&* and also beca"se on this (ie$ !odi%ications and accidents co"ld be separated %ro! s"bstances +%or the sa!e thin&s $hich are !i-ed can be separated,' yet i% one $ere to %ollo$ hi! "p* piecin& to&ether $hat he !eans* he $o"ld perhaps be seen to be so!e$hat !odern in his (ie$s. )or $hen nothin& $as separated o"t* e(idently nothin& co"ld be tr"ly asserted o% the s"bstance that then e-isted. I !ean* e.&. that it $as neither $hite nor blac#* nor &rey nor any other colo"r* b"t o% necessity colo"rless' %or i% it had been colo"red* it $o"ld ha(e had one o% these colo"rs. And si!ilarly* by this sa!e ar&"!ent* it $as %la(o"rless* nor had it any si!ilar attrib"te' %or it co"ld not be either o% any 7"ality or o% any si3e* nor co"ld it be any de%inite #ind o% thin&. )or i% it $ere* one o% the partic"lar %or!s $o"ld ha(e belon&ed to it* and this is i!possible* since all $ere !i-ed to&ether' %or the partic"lar %or! $o"ld necessarily ha(e been already separated o"t* b"t he all $ere !i-ed e-cept reason* and this alone $as "n!i-ed and p"re. )ro! this it %ollo$s* then* that he !"st say the principles are the One +%or this is si!ple and "n!i-ed, and the Other* $hich is o% s"ch a nat"re as $e s"ppose the inde%inite

to be be%ore it is de%ined and parta#es o% so!e %or!. There%ore* $hile e-pressin& hi!sel% neither ri&htly nor clearly* he !eans so!ethin& li#e $hat the later thin#ers say and $hat is no$ !ore clearly seen to be the case. "B"t these thin#ers are* a%ter all* at ho!e only in ar&"!ents abo"t &eneration and destr"ction and !o(e!ent' %or it is practically only o% this sort o% s"bstance that they see# the principles and the ca"ses. B"t those $ho e-tend their (ision to all thin&s that e-ist* and o% e-istin& thin&s s"ppose so!e to be perceptible and others not perceptible* e(idently st"dy both classes* $hich is all the !ore reason $hy one sho"ld de(ote so!e ti!e to seein& $hat is &ood in their (ie$s and $hat bad %ro! the standpoint o% the in7"iry $e ha(e no$ be%ore "s. "The /Pytha&oreans/ treat o% principles and ele!ents stran&er than those o% the physical philosophers +the reason is that they &ot the principles %ro! non-sensible thin&s* %or the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* e-cept those o% astrono!y* are o% the class o% thin&s $itho"t !o(e!ent,' yet their disc"ssions and in(esti&ations are all abo"t nat"re' %or they &enerate the hea(ens* and $ith re&ard to their parts and attrib"tes and %"nctions they obser(e the pheno!ena* and "se "p the principles and the ca"ses in e-plainin& these* $hich i!plies that they a&ree $ith the others* the physical philosophers* that the real is 0"st all that $hich is perceptible and contained by the so-called /hea(ens/. B"t the ca"ses and the principles $hich they !ention are* as $e said* s"%%icient to act as steps e(en "p to the hi&her real!s o% reality* and are !ore s"ited to these than to theories abo"t nat"re. They do not tell "s at all* ho$e(er* ho$ there can be !o(e!ent i% li!it and "nli!ited and odd and e(en are the only thin&s ass"!ed* or ho$ $itho"t !o(e!ent and chan&e there can be &eneration and destr"ction* or the bodies that !o(e thro"&h the hea(ens can do $hat they do. ")"rther* i% one either &ranted the! that spatial !a&nit"de consists o% these ele!ents* or this $ere pro(ed* still ho$ $o"ld so!e bodies be li&ht and others ha(e $ei&ht< To 0"d&e %ro! $hat they ass"!e and !aintain they are spea#in& no !ore o% !athe!atical bodies than o% perceptible' hence they ha(e said nothin& $hate(er abo"t %ire or earth or the other bodies o% this sort* I s"ppose beca"se they ha(e nothin& to say $hich applies pec"liarly to perceptible thin&s. ")"rther* ho$ are $e to co!bine the belie%s that the attrib"tes o% n"!ber* and n"!ber itsel%* are ca"ses o% $hat e-ists and happens in the hea(ens both %ro! the be&innin& and no$* and that there is no other n"!ber than this n"!ber o"t o% $hich the $orld is co!posed< When in one partic"lar re&ion they place opinion and opport"nity* and* a little abo(e or belo$* in0"stice and decision or !i-t"re* and alle&e* as proo%* that each o% these is a n"!ber* and that there happens to be already in this place a pl"rality o% the e-tended bodies co!posed o% n"!bers* beca"se these attrib"tes o% n"!ber attach to the (ario"s places*-this bein& so* is this n"!ber* $hich $e !"st s"ppose each o% these abstractions to be* the sa!e n"!ber $hich is e-hibited in the !aterial "ni(erse* or is it another than this< Plato says it is di%%erent' yet e(en he thin#s that both these bodies and their ca"ses are n"!bers* b"t that the intelli&ible n"!bers are ca"ses* $hile the others are sensible.

Part E " " et "s lea(e the Pytha&oreans %or the present' %or it is eno"&h to ha(e to"ched on the! as !"ch as $e ha(e done. B"t as %or those $ho posit the Ideas as ca"ses* %irstly* in see#in& to &rasp the ca"ses o% the thin&s aro"nd "s* they introd"ced others e7"al in n"!ber to these* as i% a !an $ho $anted to co"nt thin&s tho"&ht he $o"ld not be able to do it $hile they $ere %e$* b"t tried to co"nt the! $hen he had added to their n"!ber. )or the )or!s are practically e7"al to-or not %e$er than-the thin&s* in tryin& to e-plain $hich these thin#ers proceeded %ro! the! to the )or!s. )or to each thin& there ans$ers an entity $hich has the sa!e na!e and e-ists apart %ro! the s"bstances* and so also in the case o% all other &ro"ps there is a one o(er !any* $hether the !any are in this $orld or are eternal. ")"rther* o% the $ays in $hich $e pro(e that the )or!s e-ist* none is con(incin&' %or %ro! so!e no in%erence necessarily %ollo$s* and %ro! so!e arise )or!s e(en o% thin&s o% $hich $e thin# there are no )or!s. )or accordin& to the ar&"!ents %ro! the e-istence o% the sciences there $ill be )or!s o% all thin&s o% $hich there are sciences and accordin& to the /one o(er !any/ ar&"!ent there $ill be )or!s e(en o% ne&ations* and accordin& to the ar&"!ent that there is an ob0ect %or tho"&ht e(en $hen the thin& has perished* there $ill be )or!s o% perishable thin&s' %or $e ha(e an i!a&e o% these. )"rther* o% the !ore acc"rate ar&"!ents* so!e lead to Ideas o% relations* o% $hich $e say there is no independent class* and others introd"ce the /third !an/. "And in &eneral the ar&"!ents %or the )or!s destroy the thin&s %or $hose e-istence $e are !ore 3ealo"s than %or the e-istence o% the Ideas' %or it %ollo$s that not the dyad b"t n"!ber is %irst* i.e. that the relati(e is prior to the absol"te*-besides all the other points on $hich certain people by %ollo$in& o"t the opinions held abo"t the Ideas ha(e co!e into con%lict $ith the principles o% the theory. ")"rther* accordin& to the ass"!ption on $hich o"r belie% in the Ideas rests* there $ill be )or!s not only o% s"bstances b"t also o% !any other thin&s +%or the concept is sin&le not only in the case o% s"bstances b"t also in the other cases* and there are sciences not only o% s"bstance b"t also o% other thin&s* and a tho"sand other s"ch di%%ic"lties con%ront the!,. B"t accordin& to the necessities o% the case and the opinions held abo"t the )or!s* i% )or!s can be shared in there !"st be Ideas o% s"bstances only. )or they are not shared in incidentally* b"t a thin& !"st share in its )or! as in so!ethin& not predicated o% a s"b0ect +by /bein& shared in incidentally/ I !ean that e.&. i% a thin& shares in /do"ble itsel%/* it shares also in /eternal/* b"t incidentally' %or /eternal/ happens to be predicable o% the /do"ble/,. There%ore the )or!s $ill be s"bstance' b"t the sa!e ter!s indicate s"bstance in this and in the ideal $orld +or $hat $ill be the !eanin& o% sayin& that there is so!ethin& apart %ro! the partic"lars-the one o(er !any<,. And i% the Ideas and the partic"lars that share in the! ha(e the sa!e %or!* there $ill be so!ethin& co!!on to these' %or $hy sho"ld /6/ be one and the sa!e in the perishable 6/s or in those $hich are !any

b"t eternal* and not the sa!e in the /6/ itsel%/ as in the partic"lar 6< B"t i% they ha(e not the sa!e %or!* they !"st ha(e only the na!e in co!!on* and it is as i% one $ere to call both 1allias and a $ooden i!a&e a /!an/* $itho"t obser(in& any co!!"nity bet$een the!. "Abo(e all one !i&ht disc"ss the 7"estion $hat on earth the )or!s contrib"te to sensible thin&s* either to those that are eternal or to those that co!e into bein& and cease to be. )or they ca"se neither !o(e!ent nor any chan&e in the!. B"t a&ain they help in no $ise either to$ards the #no$led&e o% the other thin&s +%or they are not e(en the s"bstance o% these* else they $o"ld ha(e been in the!,* or to$ards their bein&* i% they are not in the partic"lars $hich share in the!' tho"&h i% they $ere* they !i&ht be tho"&ht to be ca"ses* as $hite ca"ses $hiteness in a $hite ob0ect by enterin& into its co!position. B"t this ar&"!ent* $hich %irst Ana-a&oras and later 5"do-"s and certain others "sed* is (ery easily "pset' %or it is not di%%ic"lt to collect !any ins"perable ob0ections to s"ch a (ie$. "B"t* %"rther* all other thin&s cannot co!e %ro! the )or!s in any o% the "s"al senses o% /%ro!/. And to say that they are patterns and the other thin&s share in the! is to "se e!pty $ords and poetical !etaphors. )or $hat is it that $or#s* loo#in& to the Ideas< And anythin& can either be* or beco!e* li#e another $itho"t bein& copied %ro! it* so that $hether 2ocrates or not a !an 2ocrates li#e !i&ht co!e to be' and e(idently this !i&ht be so e(en i% 2ocrates $ere eternal. And there $ill be se(eral patterns o% the sa!e thin&* and there%ore se(eral )or!s' e.&. /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/ and also /!an hi!sel%/ $ill be )or!s o% !an. A&ain* the )or!s are patterns not only sensible thin&s* b"t o% )or!s the!sel(es also' i.e. the &en"s* as &en"s o% (ario"s species* $ill be so' there%ore the sa!e thin& $ill be pattern and copy. "A&ain* it $o"ld see! i!possible that the s"bstance and that o% $hich it is the s"bstance sho"ld e-ist apart' ho$* there%ore* co"ld the Ideas* bein& the s"bstances o% thin&s* e-ist apart< In the Phaedo/ the case is stated in this $ay-that the )or!s are ca"ses both o% bein& and o% beco!in&' yet $hen the )or!s e-ist* still the thin&s that share in the! do not co!e into bein&* "nless there is so!ethin& to ori&inate !o(e!ent' and !any other thin&s co!e into bein& +e.&. a ho"se or a rin&, o% $hich $e say there are no )or!s. 1learly* there%ore* e(en the other thin&s can both be and co!e into bein& o$in& to s"ch ca"ses as prod"ce the thin&s 0"st !entioned. "A&ain* i% the )or!s are n"!bers* ho$ can they be ca"ses< Is it beca"se e-istin& thin&s are other n"!bers* e.&. one n"!ber is !an* another is 2ocrates* another 1allias< Why then are the one set o% n"!bers ca"ses o% the other set< It $ill not !a#e any di%%erence e(en i% the %or!er are eternal and the latter are not. B"t i% it is beca"se thin&s in this sensible $orld +e.&. har!ony, are ratios o% n"!bers* e(idently the thin&s bet$een $hich they are ratios are so!e one class o% thin&s. I%* then* this--the !atter--is so!e de%inite thin&* e(idently the n"!bers the!sel(es too $ill be ratios o% so!ethin& to so!ethin& else. 5.&. i% 1allias is a n"!erical ratio bet$een %ire and earth and $ater and air* his Idea also $ill be a n"!ber o% certain other "nderlyin& thin&s' and !an hi!sel%* $hether it is a n"!ber in a sense or not* $ill still be a n"!erical ratio o% certain thin&s and not a n"!ber proper* nor $ill it be a o% n"!ber !erely beca"se it is a n"!erical

ratio. "A&ain* %ro! !any n"!bers one n"!ber is prod"ced* b"t ho$ can one )or! co!e %ro! !any )or!s< And i% the n"!ber co!es not %ro! the !any n"!bers the!sel(es b"t %ro! the "nits in the!* e.&. in 1@*@@@* ho$ is it $ith the "nits< I% they are speci%ically ali#e* n"!ero"s abs"rdities $ill %ollo$* and also i% they are not ali#e +neither the "nits in one n"!ber bein& the!sel(es li#e one another nor those in other n"!bers bein& all li#e to all,' %or in $hat $ill they di%%er* as they are $itho"t 7"ality< This is not a pla"sible (ie$* nor is it consistent $ith o"r tho"&ht on the !atter. ")"rther* they !"st set "p a second #ind o% n"!ber +$ith $hich arith!etic deals,* and all the ob0ects $hich are called /inter!ediate/ by so!e thin#ers' and ho$ do these e-ist or %ro! $hat principles do they proceed< Or $hy !"st they be inter!ediate bet$een the thin&s in this sensible $orld and the thin&s-the!sel(es< ")"rther* the "nits in !"st each co!e %ro! a prior b"t this is i!possible. ")"rther* $hy is a n"!ber* $hen ta#en all to&ether* one< "A&ain* besides $hat has been said* i% the "nits are di(erse the Platonists sho"ld ha(e spo#en li#e those $ho say there are %o"r* or t$o* ele!ents' %or each o% these thin#ers &i(es the na!e o% ele!ent not to that $hich is co!!on* e.&. to body* b"t to %ire and earth* $hether there is so!ethin& co!!on to the!* (i3. body* or not. B"t in %act the Platonists spea# as i% the One $ere ho!o&eneo"s li#e %ire or $ater' and i% this is so* the n"!bers $ill not be s"bstances. 5(idently* i% there is a One itsel% and this is a %irst principle* /one/ is bein& "sed in !ore than one sense' %or other$ise the theory is i!possible. "When $e $ish to red"ce s"bstances to their principles* $e state that lines co!e %ro! the short and lon& +i.e. %ro! a #ind o% s!all and &reat,* and the plane %ro! the broad and narro$* and body %ro! the deep and shallo$. :et ho$ then can either the plane contain a line* or the solid a line or a plane< )or the broad and narro$ is a di%%erent class %ro! the deep and shallo$. There%ore* 0"st as n"!ber is not present in these* beca"se the !any and %e$ are di%%erent %ro! these* e(idently no other o% the hi&her classes $ill be present in the lo$er. B"t a&ain the broad is not a &en"s $hich incl"des the deep* %or then the solid $o"ld ha(e been a species o% plane. )"rther* %ro! $hat principle $ill the presence o% the points in the line be deri(ed< Plato e(en "sed to ob0ect to this class o% thin&s as bein& a &eo!etrical %iction. 4e &a(e the na!e o% principle o% the line-and this he o%ten posited-to the indi(isible lines. :et these !"st ha(e a li!it' there%ore the ar&"!ent %ro! $hich the e-istence o% the line %ollo$s pro(es also the e-istence o% the point. "In &eneral* tho"&h philosophy see#s the ca"se o% perceptible thin&s*

$e ha(e &i(en this "p +%or $e say nothin& o% the ca"se %ro! $hich chan&e ta#es its start,* b"t $hile $e %ancy $e are statin& the s"bstance o% perceptible thin&s* $e assert the e-istence o% a second class o% s"bstances* $hile o"r acco"nt o% the $ay in $hich they are the s"bstances o% perceptible thin&s is e!pty tal#' %or /sharin&/* as $e said be%ore* !eans nothin&. ".or ha(e the )or!s any conne-ion $ith $hat $e see to be the ca"se in the case o% the arts* that %or $hose sa#e both all !ind and the $hole o% nat"re are operati(e*-$ith this ca"se $hich $e assert to be one o% the %irst principles' b"t !athe!atics has co!e to be identical $ith philosophy %or !odern thin#ers* tho"&h they say that it sho"ld be st"died %or the sa#e o% other thin&s. )"rther* one !i&ht s"ppose that the s"bstance $hich accordin& to the! "nderlies as !atter is too !athe!atical* and is a predicate and di%%erentia o% the s"bstance* ie. o% the !atter* rather than !atter itsel%' i.e. the &reat and the s!all are li#e the rare and the dense $hich the physical philosophers spea# o%* callin& these the pri!ary di%%erentiae o% the s"bstrat"!' %or these are a #ind o% e-cess and de%ect. And re&ardin& !o(e!ent* i% the &reat and the s!all are to he !o(e!ent* e(idently the )or!s $ill be !o(ed' b"t i% they are not to be !o(e!ent* $hence did !o(e!ent co!e< The $hole st"dy o% nat"re has been annihilated. "And $hat is tho"&ht to be easy-to sho$ that all thin&s are one-is not done' %or $hat is pro(ed by the !ethod o% settin& o"t instances is not that all thin&s are one b"t that there is a One itsel%*-i% $e &rant all the ass"!ptions. And not e(en this %ollo$s* i% $e do not &rant that the "ni(ersal is a &en"s' and this in so!e cases it cannot be. ".or can it be e-plained either ho$ the lines and planes and solids that co!e a%ter the n"!bers e-ist or can e-ist* or $hat si&ni%icance they ha(e' %or these can neither be )or!s +%or they are not n"!bers,* nor the inter!ediates +%or those are the ob0ects o% !athe!atics,* nor the perishable thin&s. This is e(idently a distinct %o"rth class. "In &eneral* i% $e search %or the ele!ents o% e-istin& thin&s $itho"t distin&"ishin& the !any senses in $hich thin&s are said to e-ist* $e cannot %ind the!* especially i% the search %or the ele!ents o% $hich thin&s are !ade is cond"cted in this !anner. )or it is s"rely i!possible to disco(er $hat /actin&/ or /bein& acted on/* or /the strai&ht/* is !ade o%* b"t i% ele!ents can be disco(ered at all* it is only the ele!ents o% s"bstances' there%ore either to see# the ele!ents o% all e-istin& thin&s or to thin# one has the! is incorrect. "And ho$ co"ld $e learn the ele!ents o% all thin&s< 5(idently $e cannot start by #no$in& anythin& be%ore. )or as he $ho is learnin& &eo!etry* tho"&h he !ay #no$ other thin&s be%ore* #no$s none o% the thin&s $ith $hich the science deals and abo"t $hich he is to learn* so is it in all other cases. There%ore i% there is a science o% all thin&s* s"ch as so!e assert to e-ist* he $ho is learnin& this $ill #no$ nothin& be%ore. :et all learnin& is by !eans o% pre!isses $hich are +either all or so!e o% the!, #no$n be%ore*-$hether the learnin& be by de!onstration or by de%initions' %or the ele!ents o% the de%inition !"st be #no$n

be%ore and be %a!iliar' and learnin& by ind"ction proceeds si!ilarly. B"t a&ain* i% the science $ere act"ally innate* it $ere stran&e that $e are "na$are o% o"r possession o% the &reatest o% sciences. "A&ain* ho$ is ho$ is this to there !i&ht be syllables' so!e say 3a is distinct so"nd one to co!e to #no$ $hat all thin&s are !ade o%* and be !ade e(ident< This also a%%ords a di%%ic"lty' %or a con%lict o% opinion* as there is abo"t certain !ade o"t o% s and d and a* $hile others say it is a and none o% those that are %a!iliar.

")"rther* ho$ co"ld $e #no$ the ob0ects o% sense $itho"t ha(in& the sense in 7"estion< :et $e o"&ht to* i% the ele!ents o% $hich all thin&s consist* as co!ple- so"nds consist o% the cle!ents proper to so"nd* are the sa!e. Part 1@ " "It is e(ident* then* e(en %ro! $hat $e ha(e said be%ore* that all !en see! to see# the ca"ses na!ed in the Physics* and that $e cannot na!e any beyond these' b"t they see# these (a&"ely' and tho"&h in a sense they ha(e all been described be%ore* in a sense they ha(e not been described at all. )or the earliest philosophy is* on all s"b0ects* li#e one $ho lisps* since it is yo"n& and in its be&innin&s. )or e(en 5!pedocles says bone e-ists by (irt"e o% the ratio in it. .o$ this is the essence and the s"bstance o% the thin&. B"t it is si!ilarly necessary that %lesh and each o% the other tiss"es sho"ld be the ratio o% its ele!ents* or that not one o% the! sho"ld' %or it is on acco"nt o% this that both %lesh and bone and e(erythin& else $ill e-ist* and not on acco"nt o% the !atter* $hich he na!es*-%ire and earth and $ater and air. B"t $hile he $o"ld necessarily ha(e a&reed i% another had said this* he has not said it clearly. "On these 7"estions o"r (ie$s ha(e been e-pressed be%ore' b"t let "s ret"rn to en"!erate the di%%ic"lties that !i&ht be raised on these sa!e points' %or perhaps $e !ay &et %ro! the! so!e help to$ards o"r later di%%ic"lties. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK II Part 1 " "T45 in(esti&ation o% the tr"th is in one $ay hard* in another easy. An indication o% this is %o"nd in the %act that no one is able to attain the tr"th ade7"ately* $hile* on the other hand* $e do not collecti(ely %ail* b"t e(ery one says so!ethin& tr"e abo"t the nat"re o% thin&s* and $hile indi(id"ally $e contrib"te little or nothin& to the tr"th* by the "nion o% all a considerable a!o"nt is a!assed. There%ore* since the tr"th see!s to be li#e the pro(erbial door* $hich no one can %ail to hit* in this respect it !"st be easy* b"t the %act that $e can ha(e a $hole tr"th and not the partic"lar part $e ai! at sho$s the di%%ic"lty o% it.

"Perhaps* too* as di%%ic"lties are o% t$o #inds* the ca"se o% the present di%%ic"lty is not in the %acts b"t in "s. )or as the eyes o% bats are to the bla3e o% day* so is the reason in o"r so"l to the thin&s $hich are by nat"re !ost e(ident o% all. "It is 0"st that $e sho"ld be &rate%"l* not only to those $ith $hose (ie$s $e !ay a&ree* b"t also to those $ho ha(e e-pressed !ore s"per%icial (ie$s' %or these also contrib"ted so!ethin&* by de(elopin& be%ore "s the po$ers o% tho"&ht. It is tr"e that i% there had been no Ti!othe"s $e sho"ld ha(e been $itho"t !"ch o% o"r lyric poetry' b"t i% there had been no Phrynis there $o"ld ha(e been no Ti!othe"s. The sa!e holds &ood o% those $ho ha(e e-pressed (ie$s abo"t the tr"th' %or %ro! so!e thin#ers $e ha(e inherited certain opinions* $hile the others ha(e been responsible %or the appearance o% the %or!er. "It is ri&ht also that philosophy sho"ld be called #no$led&e o% the tr"th. )or the end o% theoretical #no$led&e is tr"th* $hile that o% practical #no$led&e is action +%or e(en i% they consider ho$ thin&s are* practical !en do not st"dy the eternal* b"t $hat is relati(e and in the present,. .o$ $e do not #no$ a tr"th $itho"t its ca"se' and a thin& has a 7"ality in a hi&her de&ree than other thin&s i% in (irt"e o% it the si!ilar 7"ality belon&s to the other thin&s as $ell +e.&. %ire is the hottest o% thin&s' %or it is the ca"se o% the heat o% all other thin&s,' so that that ca"ses deri(ati(e tr"ths to be tr"e is !ost tr"e. 4ence the principles o% eternal thin&s !"st be al$ays !ost tr"e +%or they are not !erely so!eti!es tr"e* nor is there any ca"se o% their bein&* b"t they the!sel(es are the ca"se o% the bein& o% other thin&s,* so that as each thin& is in respect o% bein&* so is it in respect o% tr"th. Part 6 " "B"t e(idently there is a %irst principle* and the ca"ses o% thin&s are neither an in%inite series nor in%initely (ario"s in #ind. )or neither can one thin& proceed %ro! another* as %ro! !atter* ad in%init"! +e.&. %lesh %ro! earth* earth %ro! air* air %ro! %ire* and so on $itho"t stoppin&,* nor can the so"rces o% !o(e!ent %or! an endless series +!an %or instance bein& acted on by air* air by the s"n* the s"n by 2tri%e* and so on $itho"t li!it,. 2i!ilarly the %inal ca"ses cannot &o on ad in%init"!*-$al#in& bein& %or the sa#e o% health* this %or the sa#e o% happiness* happiness %or the sa#e o% so!ethin& else* and so one thin& al$ays %or the sa#e o% another. And the case o% the essence is si!ilar. )or in the case o% inter!ediates* $hich ha(e a last ter! and a ter! prior to the!* the prior !"st be the ca"se o% the later ter!s. )or i% $e had to say $hich o% the three is the ca"se* $e sho"ld say the %irst' s"rely not the last* %or the %inal ter! is the ca"se o% none' nor e(en the inter!ediate* %or it is the ca"se only o% one. +It !a#es no di%%erence $hether there is one inter!ediate or !ore* nor $hether they are in%inite or %inite in n"!ber., B"t o% series $hich are in%inite in this $ay* and o% the in%inite in &eneral* all the parts do$n to that no$ present are ali#e inter!ediates' so that i% there is no %irst there is no ca"se at all. ".or can there be an in%inite process do$n$ards* $ith a be&innin& in the "p$ard direction* so that $ater sho"ld proceed %ro! %ire* earth

%ro! $ater* and so al$ays so!e other #ind sho"ld be prod"ced. )or one thin& co!es %ro! another in t$o $ays-not in the sense in $hich /%ro!/ !eans /a%ter/ +as $e say /%ro! the Isth!ian &a!es co!e the Oly!pian/,* b"t either +i, as the !an co!es %ro! the boy* by the boy/s chan&in&* or +ii, as air co!es %ro! $ater. By /as the !an co!es %ro! the boy/ $e !ean /as that $hich has co!e to be %ro! that $hich is co!in& to be/ or /as that $hich is %inished %ro! that $hich is bein& achie(ed/ +%or as beco!in& is bet$een bein& and not bein&* so that $hich is beco!in& is al$ays bet$een that $hich is and that $hich is not' %or the learner is a !an o% science in the !a#in&* and this is $hat is !eant $hen $e say that %ro! a learner a !an o% science is bein& !ade,' on the other hand* co!in& %ro! another thin& as $ater co!es %ro! air i!plies the destr"ction o% the other thin&. This is $hy chan&es o% the %or!er #ind are not re(ersible* and the boy does not co!e %ro! the !an +%or it is not that $hich co!es to be so!ethin& that co!es to be as a res"lt o% co!in& to be* b"t that $hich e-ists a%ter the co!in& to be' %or it is th"s that the day* too* co!es %ro! the !ornin&-in the sense that it co!es a%ter the !ornin&' $hich is the reason $hy the !ornin& cannot co!e %ro! the day,' b"t chan&es o% the other #ind are re(ersible. B"t in both cases it is i!possible that the n"!ber o% ter!s sho"ld be in%inite. )or ter!s o% the %or!er #ind* bein& inter!ediates* !"st ha(e an end* and ter!s o% the latter #ind chan&e bac# into one another* %or the destr"ction o% either is the &eneration o% the other. "At the sa!e ti!e it is i!possible that the %irst ca"se* bein& eternal* sho"ld be destroyed' %or since the process o% beco!in& is not in%inite in the "p$ard direction* that $hich is the %irst thin& by $hose destr"ction so!ethin& ca!e to be !"st be non-eternal. ")"rther* the %inal ca"se is an end* and that sort o% end $hich is not %or the sa#e o% so!ethin& else* b"t %or $hose sa#e e(erythin& else is' so that i% there is to be a last ter! o% this sort* the process $ill not be in%inite' b"t i% there is no s"ch ter!* there $ill be no %inal ca"se* b"t those $ho !aintain the in%inite series eli!inate the 9ood $itho"t #no$in& it +yet no one $o"ld try to do anythin& i% he $ere not &oin& to co!e to a li!it,' nor $o"ld there be reason in the $orld' the reasonable !an* at least* al$ays acts %or a p"rpose* and this is a li!it' %or the end is a li!it. "B"t the essence* also* cannot be red"ced to another de%inition $hich is %"ller in e-pression. )or the ori&inal de%inition is al$ays !ore o% a de%inition* and not the later one' and in a series in $hich the %irst ter! has not the re7"ired character* the ne-t has not it either. )"rther* those $ho spea# th"s destroy science' %or it is not possible to ha(e this till one co!es to the "nanalysable ter!s. And #no$led&e beco!es i!possible' %or ho$ can one apprehend thin&s that are in%inite in this $ay< )or this is not li#e the case o% the line* to $hose di(isibility there is no stop* b"t $hich $e cannot thin# i% $e do not !a#e a stop +%or $hich reason one $ho is tracin& the in%initely di(isible line cannot be co"ntin& the possibilities o% section,* b"t the $hole line also !"st be apprehended by so!ethin& in "s that does not !o(e %ro! part to part.-A&ain* nothin& in%inite can e-ist' and i% it co"ld* at least the notion o% in%inity is not in%inite.

"B"t i% the #inds o% ca"ses had been in%inite in n"!ber* then also #no$led&e $o"ld ha(e been i!possible' %or $e thin# $e #no$* only $hen $e ha(e ascertained the ca"ses* that b"t that $hich is in%inite by addition cannot be &one thro"&h in a %inite ti!e. Part ; " "The e%%ect $hich lect"res prod"ce on a hearer depends on his habits' %or $e de!and the lan&"a&e $e are acc"sto!ed to* and that $hich is di%%erent %ro! this see!s not in #eepin& b"t so!e$hat "nintelli&ible and %orei&n beca"se o% its "n$ontedness. )or it is the c"sto!ary that is intelli&ible. The %orce o% habit is sho$n by the la$s* in $hich the le&endary and childish ele!ents pre(ail o(er o"r #no$led&e abo"t the!* o$in& to habit. Th"s so!e people do not listen to a spea#er "nless he spea#s !athe!atically* others "nless he &i(es instances* $hile others e-pect hi! to cite a poet as $itness. And so!e $ant to ha(e e(erythin& done acc"rately* $hile others are annoyed by acc"racy* either beca"se they cannot %ollo$ the conne-ion o% tho"&ht or beca"se they re&ard it as petti%o&&ery. )or acc"racy has so!ethin& o% this character* so that as in trade so in ar&"!ent so!e people thin# it !ean. 4ence one !"st be already trained to #no$ ho$ to ta#e each sort o% ar&"!ent* since it is abs"rd to see# at the sa!e ti!e #no$led&e and the $ay o% attainin& #no$led&e' and it is not easy to &et e(en one o% the t$o. "The !in"te acc"racy o% !athe!atics is not to be de!anded in all cases* b"t only in the case o% thin&s $hich ha(e no !atter. 4ence !ethod is not that o% nat"ral science' %or pres"!ably the $hole o% nat"re has !atter. 4ence $e !"st in7"ire %irst $hat nat"re is> %or th"s $e shall also see $hat nat"ral science treats o% +and $hether it belon&s to one science or to !ore to in(esti&ate the ca"ses and the principles o% thin&s,. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK III Part 1 " "W5 !"st* $ith a (ie$ to the science $hich $e are see#in&* %irst reco"nt the s"b0ects that sho"ld be %irst disc"ssed. These incl"de both the other opinions that so!e ha(e held on the %irst principles* and any point besides these that happens to ha(e been o(erloo#ed. )or those $ho $ish to &et clear o% di%%ic"lties it is ad(anta&eo"s to disc"ss the di%%ic"lties $ell' %or the s"bse7"ent %ree play o% tho"&ht i!plies the sol"tion o% the pre(io"s di%%ic"lties* and it is not possible to "ntie a #not o% $hich one does not #no$. B"t the di%%ic"lty o% o"r thin#in& points to a /#not/ in the ob0ect' %or in so %ar as o"r tho"&ht is in di%%ic"lties* it is in li#e case $ith those $ho are bo"nd' %or in either case it is i!possible to &o %or$ard. 4ence one sho"ld ha(e s"r(eyed all the di%%ic"lties be%orehand* both %or the p"rposes $e ha(e stated and beca"se people $ho in7"ire $itho"t %irst statin& the di%%ic"lties are li#e those $ho do not #no$ $here they ha(e to &o' besides* a !an does not other$ise #no$ e(en $hether he has at any &i(en ti!e %o"nd $hat he is loo#in& %or or not' %or the

end is not clear to s"ch a !an* $hile to hi! $ho has %irst disc"ssed the di%%ic"lties it is clear. )"rther* he $ho has heard all the contendin& ar&"!ents* as i% they $ere the parties to a case* !"st be in a better position %or 0"d&in&. "The %irst proble! concerns the s"b0ect $hich $e disc"ssed in o"r pre%atory re!ar#s. It is this-+1, $hether the in(esti&ation o% the ca"ses belon&s to one or to !ore sciences* and +6, $hether s"ch a science sho"ld s"r(ey only the %irst principles o% s"bstance* or also the principles on $hich all !en base their proo%s* e.&. $hether it is possible at the sa!e ti!e to assert and deny one and the sa!e thin& or not* and all other s"ch 7"estions' and +;, i% the science in 7"estion deals $ith s"bstance* $hether one science deals $ith all s"bstances* or !ore than one* and i% !ore* $hether all are a#in* or so!e o% the! !"st be called %or!s o% Wisdo! and the others so!ethin& else. And +=, this itsel% is also one o% the thin&s that !"st be disc"ssed-$hether sensible s"bstances alone sho"ld be said to e-ist or others also besides the!* and $hether these others are o% one #ind or there are se(eral classes o% s"bstances* as is s"pposed by those $ho belie(e both in )or!s and in !athe!atical ob0ects inter!ediate bet$een these and sensible thin&s. Into these 7"estions* then* as $e say* $e !"st in7"ire* and also +?, $hether o"r in(esti&ation is concerned only $ith s"bstances or also $ith the essential attrib"tes o% s"bstances. )"rther* $ith re&ard to the sa!e and other and li#e and "nli#e and contrariety* and $ith re&ard to prior and posterior and all other s"ch ter!s abo"t $hich the dialecticians try to in7"ire* startin& their in(esti&ation %ro! probable pre!ises only*-$hose b"siness is it to in7"ire into all these< )"rther* $e !"st disc"ss the essential attrib"tes o% these the!sel(es' and $e !"st as# not only $hat each o% these is* b"t also $hether one thin& al$ays has one contrary. A&ain +B,* are the principles and ele!ents o% thin&s the &enera* or the parts present in each thin&* into $hich it is di(ided' and +C, i% they are the &enera* are they the &enera that are predicated pro-i!ately o% the indi(id"als* or the hi&hest &enera* e.&. is ani!al or !an the %irst principle and the !ore independent o% the indi(id"al instance< And +D, $e !"st in7"ire and disc"ss especially $hether there is* besides the !atter* any thin& that is a ca"se in itsel% or not* and $hether this can e-ist apart or not* and $hether it is one or !ore in n"!ber* and $hether there is so!ethin& apart %ro! the concrete thin& +by the concrete thin& I !ean the !atter $ith so!ethin& already predicated o% it,* or there is nothin& apart* or there is so!ethin& in so!e cases tho"&h not in others* and $hat sort o% cases these are. A&ain +E, $e as# $hether the principles are li!ited in n"!ber or in #ind* both those in the de%initions and those in the s"bstrat"!' and +1@, $hether the principles o% perishable and o% i!perishable thin&s are the sa!e or di%%erent' and $hether they are all i!perishable or those o% perishable thin&s are perishable. )"rther +11, there is the 7"estion $hich is hardest o% all and !ost perple-in&* $hether "nity and bein&* as the Pytha&oreans and Plato said* are not attrib"tes o% so!ethin& else b"t the s"bstance o% e-istin& thin&s* or this is not the case* b"t the s"bstrat"! is so!ethin& else*-as 5!pedocles says* lo(e' as so!e one else says* %ire' $hile another says $ater or air. A&ain +16, $e as# $hether the principles are "ni(ersal or li#e indi(id"al thin&s* and +1;, $hether they e-ist potentially or act"ally* and %"rther* $hether they are potential or

act"al in any other sense than in re%erence to !o(e!ent' %or these 7"estions also $o"ld present !"ch di%%ic"lty. )"rther +1=,* are n"!bers and lines and %i&"res and points a #ind o% s"bstance or not* and i% they are s"bstances are they separate %ro! sensible thin&s or present in the!< With re&ard to all these !atters not only is it hard to &et possession o% the tr"th* b"t it is not easy e(en to thin# o"t the di%%ic"lties $ell. Part 6 " "+1, )irst then $ith re&ard to $hat $e !entioned %irst* does it belon& to one or to !ore sciences to in(esti&ate all the #inds o% ca"ses< 4o$ co"ld it belon& to one science to reco&ni3e the principles i% these are not contrary< ")"rther* there are !any thin&s to $hich not all the principles pertain. )or ho$ can a principle o% chan&e or the nat"re o% the &ood e-ist %or "nchan&eable thin&s* since e(erythin& that in itsel% and by its o$n nat"re is &ood is an end* and a ca"se in the sense that %or its sa#e the other thin&s both co!e to be and are* and since an end or p"rpose is the end o% so!e action* and all actions i!ply chan&e< 2o in the case o% "nchan&eable thin&s this principle co"ld not e-ist* nor co"ld there be a &ood itsel%. This is $hy in !athe!atics nothin& is pro(ed by !eans o% this #ind o% ca"se* nor is there any de!onstration o% this #ind-/beca"se it is better* or $orse/' indeed no one e(en !entions anythin& o% the #ind. And so %or this reason so!e o% the 2ophists* e.&. Aristipp"s* "sed to ridic"le !athe!atics' %or in the arts +he !aintained,* e(en in the ind"strial arts* e.&. in carpentry and cobblin&* the reason al$ays &i(en is /beca"se it is better* or $orse*/ b"t the !athe!atical sciences ta#e no acco"nt o% &oods and e(ils. "B"t i% there are se(eral sciences o% the ca"ses* and a di%%erent science %or each di%%erent principle* $hich o% these sciences sho"ld be said to be that $hich $e see#* or $hich o% the people $ho possess the! has the !ost scienti%ic #no$led&e o% the ob0ect in 7"estion< The sa!e thin& !ay ha(e all the #inds o% ca"ses* e.&. the !o(in& ca"se o% a ho"se is the art or the b"ilder* the %inal ca"se is the %"nction it %"l%ils* the !atter is earth and stones* and the %or! is the de%inition. To 0"d&e %ro! o"r pre(io"s disc"ssion o% the 7"estion $hich o% the sciences sho"ld be called Wisdo!* there is reason %or applyin& the na!e to each o% the!. )or inas!"ch as it is !ost architectonic and a"thoritati(e and the other sciences* li#e sla(e$o!en* !ay not e(en contradict it* the science o% the end and o% the &ood is o% the nat"re o% Wisdo! +%or the other thin&s are %or the sa#e o% the end,. B"t inas!"ch as it $as described/ as dealin& $ith the %irst ca"ses and that $hich is in the hi&hest sense ob0ect o% #no$led&e* the science o% s"bstance !"st be o% the nat"re o% Wisdo!. )or since !en !ay #no$ the sa!e thin& in !any $ays* $e say that he $ho reco&ni3es $hat a thin& is by its bein& so and so #no$s !ore %"lly than he $ho reco&ni3es it by its not bein& so and so* and in the %or!er class itsel% one #no$s !ore %"lly than another* and he #no$s !ost %"lly $ho #no$s $hat a thin& is* not he $ho #no$s its 7"antity or 7"ality or $hat it can by nat"re do or ha(e done to it. And %"rther in all cases also $e thin# that the #no$led&e o% each e(en o% the thin&s o% $hich de!onstration

is possible is present only $hen $e #no$ $hat the thin& is* e.&. $hat s7"arin& a rectan&le is* (i3. that it is the %indin& o% a !ean' and si!ilarly in all other cases. And $e #no$ abo"t beco!in&s and actions and abo"t e(ery chan&e $hen $e #no$ the so"rce o% the !o(e!ent' and this is other than and opposed to the end. There%ore it $o"ld see! to belon& to di%%erent sciences to in(esti&ate these ca"ses se(erally. "B"t +6,* ta#in& the startin&-points o% de!onstration as $ell as the ca"ses* it is a disp"table 7"estion $hether they are the ob0ect o% one science or o% !ore +by the startin&-points o% de!onstration I !ean the co!!on belie%s* on $hich all !en base their proo%s,' e.&. that e(erythin& !"st be either a%%ir!ed or denied* and that a thin& cannot at the sa!e ti!e be and not be* and all other s"ch pre!isses>-the 7"estion is $hether the sa!e science deals $ith the! as $ith s"bstance* or a di%%erent science* and i% it is not one science* $hich o% the t$o !"st be identi%ied $ith that $hich $e no$ see#.-It is not reasonable that these topics sho"ld be the ob0ect o% one science' %or $hy sho"ld it be pec"liarly appropriate to &eo!etry or to any other science to "nderstand these !atters< I% then it belon&s to e(ery science ali#e* and cannot belon& to all* it is not pec"liar to the science $hich in(esti&ates s"bstances* any !ore than to any other science* to #no$ abo"t these topics.-And* at the sa!e ti!e* in $hat $ay can there be a science o% the %irst principles< )or $e are a$are e(en no$ $hat each o% the! in %act is +at least e(en other sciences "se the! as %a!iliar,' b"t i% there is a de!onstrati(e science $hich deals $ith the!* there $ill ha(e to be an "nderlyin& #ind* and so!e o% the! !"st be de!onstrable attrib"tes and others !"st be a-io!s +%or it is i!possible that there sho"ld be de!onstration abo"t all o% the!,' %or the de!onstration !"st start %ro! certain pre!isses and be abo"t a certain s"b0ect and pro(e certain attrib"tes. There%ore it %ollo$s that all attrib"tes that are pro(ed !"st belon& to a sin&le class' %or all de!onstrati(e sciences "se the a-io!s. "B"t i% the science o% s"bstance and the science $hich deals $ith the a-io!s are di%%erent* $hich o% the! is by nat"re !ore a"thoritati(e and prior< The a-io!s are !ost "ni(ersal and are principles o% all thin&s. And i% it is not the b"siness o% the philosopher* to $ho! else $ill it belon& to in7"ire $hat is tr"e and $hat is "ntr"e abo"t the!< "+;, In &eneral* do all s"bstances %all "nder one science or "nder !ore than one< I% the latter* to $hat sort o% s"bstance is the present science to be assi&ned<-On the other hand* it is not reasonable that one science sho"ld deal $ith all. )or then there $o"ld be one de!onstrati(e science dealin& $ith all attrib"tes. )or e(er de!onstrati(e science in(esti&ates $ith re&ard to so!e s"b0ect its essential attrib"tes* startin& %ro! the co!!on belie%s. There%ore to in(esti&ate the essential attrib"tes o% one class o% thin&s* startin& %ro! one set o% belie%s* is the b"siness o% one science. )or the s"b0ect belon&s to one science* and the pre!isses belon& to one* $hether to the sa!e or to another' so that the attrib"tes do so too* $hether they are in(esti&ated by these sciences or by one co!po"nded o"t o% the!. "+?, )"rther* does o"r in(esti&ation deal $ith s"bstances alone or

also $ith their attrib"tes< I !ean %or instance* i% the solid is a s"bstance and so are lines and planes* is it the b"siness o% the sa!e science to #no$ these and to #no$ the attrib"tes o% each o% these classes +the attrib"tes abo"t $hich the !athe!atical sciences o%%er proo%s,* or o% a di%%erent science< I% o% the sa!e* the science o% s"bstance also !"st be a de!onstrati(e science* b"t it is tho"&ht that there is no de!onstration o% the essence o% thin&s. And i% o% another* $hat $ill be the science that in(esti&ates the attrib"tes o% s"bstance< This is a (ery di%%ic"lt 7"estion. "+=, )"rther* !"st $e say that sensible s"bstances alone e-ist* or that there are others besides these< And are s"bstances o% one #ind or are there in %act se(eral #inds o% s"bstances* as those say $ho assert the e-istence both o% the )or!s and o% the inter!ediates* $ith $hich they say the !athe!atical sciences deal<-The sense in $hich $e say the )or!s are both ca"ses and sel%-dependent s"bstances has been e-plained in o"r %irst re!ar#s abo"t the!' $hile the theory presents di%%ic"lties in !any $ays* the !ost parado-ical thin& o% all is the state!ent that there are certain thin&s besides those in the !aterial "ni(erse* and that these are the sa!e as sensible thin&s e-cept that they are eternal $hile the latter are perishable. )or they say there is a !an-hi!sel% and a horse-itsel% and health-itsel%* $ith no %"rther 7"ali%ication*-a proced"re li#e that o% the people $ho said there are &ods* b"t in h"!an %or!. )or they $ere positin& nothin& b"t eternal !en* nor are the Platonists !a#in& the )or!s anythin& other than eternal sensible thin&s. ")"rther* i% $e are to posit besides the )or!s and the sensibles the inter!ediates bet$een the!* $e shall ha(e !any di%%ic"lties. )or clearly on the sa!e principle there $ill be lines besides the lines-the!sel(es and the sensible lines* and so $ith each o% the other classes o% thin&s' so that since astrono!y is one o% these !athe!atical sciences there $ill also be a hea(en besides the sensible hea(en* and a s"n and a !oon +and so $ith the other hea(enly bodies, besides the sensible. :et ho$ are $e to belie(e in these thin&s< It is not reasonable e(en to s"ppose s"ch a body i!!o(able* b"t to s"ppose it !o(in& is 7"ite i!possible.-And si!ilarly $ith the thin&s o% $hich optics and !athe!atical har!onics treat' %or these also cannot e-ist apart %ro! the sensible thin&s* %or the sa!e reasons. )or i% there are sensible thin&s and sensations inter!ediate bet$een )or! and indi(id"al* e(idently there $ill also be ani!als inter!ediate bet$een ani!als-the!sel(es and the perishable ani!als.-We !i&ht also raise the 7"estion* $ith re%erence to $hich #ind o% e-istin& thin&s $e !"st loo# %or these sciences o% inter!ediates. I% &eo!etry is to di%%er %ro! !ens"ration only in this* that the latter deals $ith thin&s that $e percei(e* and the %or!er $ith thin&s that are not perceptible* e(idently there $ill also be a science other than !edicine* inter!ediate bet$een !edical-scienceitsel% and this indi(id"al !edical science* and so $ith each o% the other sciences. :et ho$ is this possible< There $o"ld ha(e to be also healthy thin&s besides the perceptible healthy thin&s and the healthy-itsel%.-And at the sa!e ti!e not e(en this is tr"e* that !ens"ration deals $ith perceptible and perishable !a&nit"des' %or then it $o"ld ha(e perished $hen they perished.

"B"t on the other hand astrono!y cannot be dealin& $ith perceptible !a&nit"des nor $ith this hea(en abo(e "s. )or neither are perceptible lines s"ch lines as the &eo!eter spea#s o% +%or no perceptible thin& is strai&ht or ro"nd in the $ay in $hich he de%ines /strai&ht/ and /ro"nd/' %or a hoop to"ches a strai&ht ed&e not at a point* b"t as Prota&oras "sed to say it did* in his re%"tation o% the &eo!eters,* nor are the !o(e!ents and spiral orbits in the hea(ens li#e those o% $hich astrono!y treats* nor ha(e &eo!etrical points the sa!e nat"re as the act"al stars.-.o$ there are so!e $ho say that these so-called inter!ediates bet$een the )or!s and the perceptible thin&s e-ist* not apart %ro! the perceptible thin&s* ho$e(er* b"t in these' the i!possible res"lts o% this (ie$ $o"ld ta#e too lon& to en"!erate* b"t it is eno"&h to consider e(en s"ch points as the %ollo$in&>-It is not reasonable that this sho"ld be so only in the case o% these inter!ediates* b"t clearly the )or!s also !i&ht be in the perceptible thin&s' %or both state!ents are parts o% the sa!e theory. )"rther* it %ollo$s %ro! this theory that there are t$o solids in the sa!e place* and that the inter!ediates are not i!!o(able* since they are in the !o(in& perceptible thin&s. And in &eneral to $hat p"rpose $o"ld one s"ppose the! to e-ist indeed* b"t to e-ist in perceptible thin&s< )or the sa!e parado-ical res"lts $ill %ollo$ $hich $e ha(e already !entioned' there $ill be a hea(en besides the hea(en* only it $ill be not apart b"t in the sa!e place' $hich is still !ore i!possible. Part ; " "+B, Apart %ro! the &reat di%%ic"lty o% statin& the case tr"ly $ith re&ard to these !atters* it is (ery hard to say* $ith re&ard to the %irst principles* $hether it is the &enera that sho"ld be ta#en as ele!ents and principles* or rather the pri!ary constit"ents o% a thin&' e.&. it is the pri!ary parts o% $hich artic"late so"nds consist that are tho"&ht to be ele!ents and principles o% artic"late so"nd* not the co!!on &en"s-artic"late so"nd' and $e &i(e the na!e o% /ele!ents/ to those &eo!etrical propositions* the proo%s o% $hich are i!plied in the proo%s o% the others* either o% all or o% !ost. )"rther* both those $ho say there are se(eral ele!ents o% corporeal thin&s and those $ho say there is one* say the parts o% $hich bodies are co!po"nded and consist are principles' e.&. 5!pedocles says %ire and $ater and the rest are the constit"ent ele!ents o% thin&s* b"t does not describe these as &enera o% e-istin& thin&s. Besides this* i% $e $ant to e-a!ine the nat"re o% anythin& else* $e e-a!ine the parts o% $hich* e.&. a bed consists and ho$ they are p"t to&ether* and then $e #no$ its nat"re. "To 0"d&e %ro! these ar&"!ents* then* the principles o% thin&s $o"ld not be the &enera' b"t i% $e #no$ each thin& by its de%inition* and the &enera are the principles or startin&-points o% de%initions* the &enera !"st also be the principles o% de%inable thin&s. And i% to &et the #no$led&e o% the species accordin& to $hich thin&s are na!ed is to &et the #no$led&e o% thin&s* the &enera are at least startin&points o% the species. And so!e also o% those $ho say "nity or bein&* or the &reat and the s!all* are ele!ents o% thin&s* see! to treat the! as &enera. "B"t* a&ain* it is not possible to describe the principles in both $ays. )or the %or!"la o% the essence is one' b"t de%inition by &enera

$ill be di%%erent %ro! that $hich states the constit"ent parts o% a thin&. "+C, Besides this* e(en i% the &enera are in the hi&hest de&ree principles* sho"ld one re&ard the %irst o% the &enera as principles* or those $hich are predicated directly o% the indi(id"als< This also ad!its o% disp"te. )or i% the "ni(ersals are al$ays !ore o% the nat"re o% principles* e(idently the "pper!ost o% the &enera are the principles' %or these are predicated o% all thin&s. There $ill* then* be as !any principles o% thin&s as there are pri!ary &enera* so that both bein& and "nity $ill be principles and s"bstances' %or these are !ost o% all predicated o% all e-istin& thin&s. B"t it is not possible that either "nity or bein& sho"ld be a sin&le &en"s o% thin&s' %or the di%%erentiae o% any &en"s !"st each o% the! both ha(e bein& and be one* b"t it is not possible %or the &en"s ta#en apart %ro! its species +any !ore than %or the species o% the &en"s, to be predicated o% its proper di%%erentiae' so that i% "nity or bein& is a &en"s* no di%%erentia $ill either ha(e bein& or be one. B"t i% "nity and bein& are not &enera* neither $ill they be principles* i% the &enera are the principles. A&ain* the inter!ediate #inds* in $hose nat"re the di%%erentiae are incl"ded* $ill on this theory be &enera* do$n to the indi(isible species' b"t as it is* so!e are tho"&ht to be &enera and others are not tho"&ht to be so. Besides this* the di%%erentiae are principles e(en !ore than the &enera' and i% these also are principles* there co!es to be practically an in%inite n"!ber o% principles* especially i% $e s"ppose the hi&hest &en"s to be a principle.-B"t a&ain* i% "nity is !ore o% the nat"re o% a principle* and the indi(isible is one* and e(erythin& indi(isible is so either in 7"antity or in species* and that $hich is so in species is the prior* and &enera are di(isible into species %or !an is not the &en"s o% indi(id"al !en,* that $hich is predicated directly o% the indi(id"als $ill ha(e !ore "nity.-)"rther* in the case o% thin&s in $hich the distinction o% prior and posterior is present* that $hich is predicable o% these thin&s cannot be so!ethin& apart %ro! the! +e.&. i% t$o is the %irst o% n"!bers* there $ill not be a ."!ber apart %ro! the #inds o% n"!bers' and si!ilarly there $ill not be a )i&"re apart %ro! the #inds o% %i&"res' and i% the &enera o% these thin&s do not e-ist apart %ro! the species* the &enera o% other thin&s $ill scarcely do so' %or &enera o% these thin&s are tho"&ht to e-ist i% any do,. B"t a!on& the indi(id"als one is not prior and another posterior. )"rther* $here one thin& is better and another $orse* the better is al$ays prior' so that o% these also no &en"s can e-ist. )ro! these considerations* then* the species predicated o% indi(id"als see! to be principles rather than the &enera. B"t a&ain* it is not easy to say in $hat sense these are to be ta#en as principles. )or the principle or ca"se !"st e-ist alon&side o% the thin&s o% $hich it is the principle* and !"st be capable o% e-istin& in separation %ro! the!' b"t %or $hat reason sho"ld $e s"ppose any s"ch thin& to e-ist alon&side o% the indi(id"al* e-cept that it is predicated "ni(ersally and o% all< B"t i% this is the reason* the thin&s that are !ore "ni(ersal !"st be s"pposed to be !ore o% the nat"re o% principles' so that the hi&hest &enera $o"ld be the principles.

Part = " "+D, There is a di%%ic"lty connected $ith these* the hardest o% all and the !ost necessary to e-a!ine* and o% this the disc"ssion no$ a$aits "s. I%* on the one hand* there is nothin& apart %ro! indi(id"al thin&s* and the indi(id"als are in%inite in n"!ber* ho$ then is it possible to &et #no$led&e o% the in%inite indi(id"als< )or all thin&s that $e co!e to #no$* $e co!e to #no$ in so %ar as they ha(e so!e "nity and identity* and in so %ar as so!e attrib"te belon&s to the! "ni(ersally. "B"t i% this is necessary* and there !"st be so!ethin& apart %ro! the indi(id"als* it $ill be necessary that the &enera e-ist apart %ro! the indi(id"als* either the lo$est or the hi&hest &enera' b"t $e %o"nd by disc"ssion 0"st no$ that this is i!possible. ")"rther* i% $e ad!it in the %"llest sense that so!ethin& e-ists apart %ro! the concrete thin&* $hene(er so!ethin& is predicated o% the !atter* !"st there* i% there is so!ethin& apart* be so!ethin& apart %ro! each set o% indi(id"als* or %ro! so!e and not %ro! others* or %ro! none< +A, I% there is nothin& apart %ro! indi(id"als* there $ill be no ob0ect o% tho"&ht* b"t all thin&s $ill be ob0ects o% sense* and there $ill not be #no$led&e o% anythin&* "nless $e say that sensation is #no$led&e. )"rther* nothin& $ill be eternal or "n!o(able' %or all perceptible thin&s perish and are in !o(e!ent. B"t i% there is nothin& eternal* neither can there be a process o% co!in& to be' %or there !"st be so!ethin& that co!es to be* i.e. %ro! $hich so!ethin& co!es to be* and the "lti!ate ter! in this series cannot ha(e co!e to be* since the series has a li!it and since nothin& can co!e to be o"t o% that $hich is not. )"rther* i% &eneration and !o(e!ent e-ist there !"st also be a li!it' %or no !o(e!ent is in%inite* b"t e(ery !o(e!ent has an end* and that $hich is incapable o% co!pletin& its co!in& to be cannot be in process o% co!in& to be' and that $hich has co!pleted its co!in& to be !"st he as soon as it has co!e to be. )"rther* since the !atter e-ists* beca"se it is "n&enerated* it is a %ortiori reasonable that the s"bstance or essence* that $hich the !atter is at any ti!e co!in& to be* sho"ld e-ist' %or i% neither essence nor !atter is to be* nothin& $ill be at all* and since this is i!possible there !"st be so!ethin& besides the concrete thin&* (i3. the shape or %or!. "B"t a&ain +B, i% $e are to s"ppose this* it is hard to say in $hich cases $e are to s"ppose it and in $hich not. )or e(idently it is not possible to s"ppose it in all cases' $e co"ld not s"ppose that there is a ho"se besides the partic"lar ho"ses.-Besides this* $ill the s"bstance o% all the indi(id"als* e.&. o% all !en* be one< This is parado-ical* %or all the thin&s $hose s"bstance is one are one. B"t are the s"bstances !any and di%%erent< This also is "nreasonable.-At the sa!e ti!e* ho$ does the !atter beco!e each o% the indi(id"als* and ho$ is the concrete thin& these t$o ele!ents< "+E, A&ain* one !i&ht as# the %ollo$in& 7"estion also abo"t the %irst principles. I% they are one in #ind only* nothin& $ill be n"!erically one* not e(en "nity-itsel% and bein&-itsel%' and ho$ $ill #no$in&

e-ist* i% there is not to be so!ethin& co!!on to a $hole set o% indi(id"als< "B"t i% there is a co!!on ele!ent $hich is n"!erically one* and each o% the principles is one* and the principles are not as in the case o% perceptible thin&s di%%erent %or di%%erent thin&s +e.&. since this partic"lar syllable is the sa!e in #ind $hene(er it occ"rs* the ele!ents it are also the sa!e in #ind' only in #ind* %or these also* li#e the syllable* are n"!erically di%%erent in di%%erent conte-ts,*-i% it is not li#e this b"t the principles o% thin&s are n"!erically one* there $ill be nothin& else besides the ele!ents +%or there is no di%%erence o% !eanin& bet$een /n"!erically one/ and /indi(id"al/' %or this is 0"st $hat $e !ean by the indi(id"al-the n"!erically one* and by the "ni(ersal $e !ean that $hich is predicable o% the indi(id"als,. There%ore it $ill be 0"st as i% the ele!ents o% artic"late so"nd $ere li!ited in n"!ber' all the lan&"a&e in the $orld $o"ld be con%ined to the AB1* since there co"ld not be t$o or !ore letters o% the sa!e #ind. "+1@, One di%%ic"lty $hich is as &reat as any has been ne&lected both by !odern philosophers and by their predecessors-$hether the principles o% perishable and those o% i!perishable thin&s are the sa!e or di%%erent. I% they are the sa!e* ho$ are so!e thin&s perishable and others i!perishable* and %or $hat reason< The school o% 4esiod and all the theolo&ians tho"&ht only o% $hat $as pla"sible to the!sel(es* and had no re&ard to "s. )or* assertin& the %irst principles to be &ods and born o% &ods* they say that the bein&s $hich did not taste o% nectar and a!brosia beca!e !ortal' and clearly they are "sin& $ords $hich are %a!iliar to the!sel(es* yet $hat they ha(e said abo"t the (ery application o% these ca"ses is abo(e o"r co!prehension. )or i% the &ods taste o% nectar and a!brosia %or their pleas"re* these are in no $ise the ca"ses o% their e-istence' and i% they taste the! to !aintain their e-istence* ho$ can &ods $ho need %ood be eternal<-B"t into the s"btleties o% the !ytholo&ists it is not $orth o"r $hile to in7"ire serio"sly' those* ho$e(er* $ho "se the lan&"a&e o% proo% $e !"st cross-e-a!ine and as# $hy* a%ter all* thin&s $hich consist o% the sa!e ele!ents are* so!e o% the!* eternal in nat"re* $hile others perish. 2ince these philosophers !ention no ca"se* and it is "nreasonable that thin&s sho"ld be as they say* e(idently the principles or ca"ses o% thin&s cannot be the sa!e. 5(en the !an $ho! one !i&ht s"ppose to spea# !ost consistently-5!pedocles* e(en he has !ade the sa!e !ista#e' %or he !aintains that stri%e is a principle that ca"ses destr"ction* b"t e(en stri%e $o"ld see! no less to prod"ce e(erythin&* e-cept the One' %or all thin&s e-ceptin& 9od proceed %ro! stri%e. At least he says>" ")ro! $hich all that $as and is and $ill be herea%ter"Trees* and !en and $o!en* too# their &ro$th* "And beasts and birds and $ater-no"rished %ish*

"And lon&-a&ed &ods. " "The i!plication is e(ident e(en apart %ro! these $ords' %or i% stri%e had not been present in thin&s* all thin&s $o"ld ha(e been one* accordin& to hi!' %or $hen they ha(e co!e to&ether* /then stri%e stood o"ter!ost./ 4ence it also %ollo$s on his theory that 9od !ost blessed is less $ise than all others' %or he does not #no$ all the ele!ents' %or he has in hi! no stri%e* and #no$led&e is o% the li#e by the li#e. /)or by earth*/ he says* " "$e see earth* by $ater $ater* "By ether &odli#e ether* by %ire $astin& %ire* " o(e by lo(e* and stri%e by &loo!y stri%e. " B"t-and this is the point $e started %ro! this at least is e(ident* that on his theory it %ollo$s that stri%e is as !"ch the ca"se o% e-istence as o% destr"ction. And si!ilarly lo(e is not specially the ca"se o% e-istence' %or in collectin& thin&s into the One it destroys all other thin&s. And at the sa!e ti!e 5!pedocles !entions no ca"se o% the chan&e itsel%* e-cept that thin&s are so by nat"re. "B"t $hen stri%e at last $a-ed &reat in the li!bs o% the "2phere* "And spran& to assert its ri&hts as the ti!e $as %"l%illed "Which is %i-ed %or the! in t"rn by a !i&hty oath. " "This i!plies that chan&e $as necessary' b"t he sho$s no ca"se o% the necessity. B"t yet so %ar at least he alone spea#s consistently' %or he does not !a#e so!e thin&s perishable and others i!perishable* b"t !a#es all perishable e-cept the ele!ents. The di%%ic"lty $e are spea#in& o% no$ is* $hy so!e thin&s are perishable and others are not* i% they consist o% the sa!e principles. " et this s"%%ice as proo% o% the %act that the principles cannot be the sa!e. B"t i% there are di%%erent principles* one di%%ic"lty is $hether these also $ill be i!perishable or perishable. )or i% they are perishable* e(idently these also !"st consist o% certain ele!ents +%or all thin&s that perish* perish by bein& resol(ed into the ele!ents o% $hich they consist,' so that it %ollo$s that prior to the principles there are other principles. B"t this is i!possible* $hether the process has a li!it or proceeds to in%inity. )"rther* ho$ $ill perishable thin&s e-ist* i% their principles are to be ann"lled< B"t i% the principles are i!perishable* $hy $ill thin&s co!posed o% so!e i!perishable principles be perishable* $hile those co!posed o% the others are i!perishable< This is not probable* b"t is either i!possible or needs !"ch proo%. )"rther* no one has e(en tried to !aintain di%%erent principles' they !aintain the sa!e principles %or all thin&s. B"t they s$allo$ the di%%ic"lty $e stated %irst as i% they too# it to be so!ethin& tri%lin&.

"+11, The in7"iry that is both the hardest o% all and the !ost necessary %or #no$led&e o% the tr"th is $hether bein& and "nity are the s"bstances o% thin&s* and $hether each o% the!* $itho"t bein& anythin& else* is bein& or "nity respecti(ely* or $e !"st in7"ire $hat bein& and "nity are* $ith the i!plication that they ha(e so!e other "nderlyin& nat"re. )or so!e people thin# they are o% the %or!er* others thin# they are o% the latter character. Plato and the Pytha&oreans tho"&ht bein& and "nity $ere nothin& else* b"t this $as their nat"re* their essence bein& 0"st "nity and bein&. B"t the nat"ral philosophers ta#e a di%%erent line' e.&. 5!pedocles-as tho"&h red"cin& to so!ethin& !ore intelli&ible-says $hat "nity is' %or he $o"ld see! to say it is lo(e> at least* this is %or all thin&s the ca"se o% their bein& one. Others say this "nity and bein&* o% $hich thin&s consist and ha(e been !ade* is %ire* and others say it is air. A si!ilar (ie$ is e-pressed by those $ho !a#e the ele!ents !ore than one' %or these also !"st say that "nity and bein& are precisely all the thin&s $hich they say are principles. "+A, I% $e do not s"ppose "nity and bein& to be s"bstances* it %ollo$s that none o% the other "ni(ersals is a s"bstance' %or these are !ost "ni(ersal o% all* and i% there is no "nity itsel% or bein&-itsel%* there $ill scarcely be in any other case anythin& apart %ro! $hat are called the indi(id"als. )"rther* i% "nity is not a s"bstance* e(idently n"!ber also $ill not e-ist as an entity separate %ro! the indi(id"al thin&s' %or n"!ber is "nits* and the "nit is precisely a certain #ind o% one. "B"t +B, i% there is a "nity-itsel% and a bein& itsel%* "nity and bein& !"st be their s"bstance' %or it is not so!ethin& else that is predicated "ni(ersally o% the thin&s that are and are one* b"t 0"st "nity and bein&. B"t i% there is to be a bein&-itsel% and a "nityitsel%* there is !"ch di%%ic"lty in seein& ho$ there $ill be anythin& else besides these*-I !ean* ho$ thin&s $ill be !ore than one in n"!ber. )or $hat is di%%erent %ro! bein& does not e-ist* so that it necessarily %ollo$s* accordin& to the ar&"!ent o% Par!enides* that all thin&s that are are one and this is bein&. "There are ob0ections to both (ie$s. )or $hether "nity is not a s"bstance or there is a "nity-itsel%* n"!ber cannot be a s"bstance. We ha(e already said $hy this res"lt %ollo$s i% "nity is not a s"bstance' and i% it is* the sa!e di%%ic"lty arises as arose $ith re&ard to bein&. )or $hence is there to be another one besides "nity-itsel%< It !"st be not-one' b"t all thin&s are either one or !any* and o% the !any each is one. ")"rther* i% "nity-itsel% is indi(isible* accordin& to Feno/s post"late it $ill be nothin&. )or that $hich neither $hen added !a#es a thin& &reater nor $hen s"btracted !a#es it less* he asserts to ha(e no bein&* e(idently ass"!in& that $hate(er has bein& is a spatial !a&nit"de. And i% it is a !a&nit"de* it is corporeal' %or the corporeal has bein& in e(ery di!ension* $hile the other ob0ects o% !athe!atics* e.&. a plane or a line* added in one $ay $ill increase $hat they are added to* b"t in another $ay $ill not do so* and a point or a "nit does so in no $ay. B"t* since his theory is o% a lo$ order* and an indi(isible

thin& can e-ist in s"ch a $ay as to ha(e a de%ence e(en a&ainst hi! +%or the indi(isible $hen added $ill !a#e the n"!ber* tho"&h not the si3e* &reater,*-yet ho$ can a !a&nit"de proceed %ro! one s"ch indi(isible or %ro! !any< It is li#e sayin& that the line is !ade o"t o% points. "B"t e(en i% ore s"pposes the case to be s"ch that* as so!e say* n"!ber proceeds %ro! "nity-itsel% and so!ethin& else $hich is not one* none the less $e !"st in7"ire $hy and ho$ the prod"ct $ill be so!eti!es a n"!ber and so!eti!es a !a&nit"de* i% the not-one $as ine7"ality and $as the sa!e principle in either case. )or it is not e(ident ho$ !a&nit"des co"ld proceed either %ro! the one and this principle* or %ro! so!e n"!ber and this principle. Part ? " "+1=, A 7"estion connected $ith these is $hether n"!bers and bodies and planes and points are s"bstances o% a #ind* or not. I% they are not* it ba%%les "s to say $hat bein& is and $hat the s"bstances o% thin&s are. )or !odi%ications and !o(e!ents and relations and dispositions and ratios do not see! to indicate the s"bstance o% anythin&' %or all are predicated o% a s"b0ect* and none is a /this/. And as to the thin&s $hich !i&ht see! !ost o% all to indicate s"bstance* $ater and earth and %ire and air* o% $hich co!posite bodies consist* heat and cold and the li#e are !odi%ications o% these* not s"bstances* and the body $hich is th"s !odi%ied alone persists as so!ethin& real and as a s"bstance. B"t* on the other hand* the body is s"rely less o% a s"bstance than the s"r%ace* and the s"r%ace than the line* and the line than the "nit and the point. )or the body is bo"nded by these' and they are tho"&ht to be capable o% e-istin& $itho"t body* b"t body incapable o% e-istin& $itho"t these. This is $hy* $hile !ost o% the philosophers and the earlier a!on& the! tho"&ht that s"bstance and bein& $ere identical $ith body* and that all other thin&s $ere !odi%ications o% this* so that the %irst principles o% the bodies $ere the %irst principles o% bein&* the !ore recent and those $ho $ere held to be $iser tho"&ht n"!bers $ere the %irst principles. As $e said* then* i% these are not s"bstance* there is no s"bstance and no bein& at all' %or the accidents o% these it cannot be ri&ht to call bein&s. "B"t i% this is ad!itted* that lines and points are s"bstance !ore than bodies* b"t $e do not see to $hat sort o% bodies these co"ld belon& +%or they cannot be in perceptible bodies,* there can be no s"bstance.-)"rther* these are all e(idently di(isions o% body*-one in breadth* another in depth* another in len&th. Besides this* no sort o% shape is present in the solid !ore than any other' so that i% the 4er!es is not in the stone* neither is the hal% o% the c"be in the c"be as so!ethin& deter!inate' there%ore the s"r%ace is not in it either' %or i% any sort o% s"r%ace $ere in it* the s"r%ace $hich !ar#s o%% the hal% o% the c"be $o"ld be in it too. And the sa!e acco"nt applies to the line and to the point and the "nit. There%ore* i% on the one hand body is in the hi&hest de&ree s"bstance* and on the other hand these thin&s are so !ore than body* b"t these are not e(en instances o% s"bstance* it ba%%les "s to say $hat bein& is and $hat the s"bstance

o% thin&s is.-)or besides $hat has been said* the 7"estions o% &eneration and instr"ction con%ront "s $ith %"rther parado-es. )or i% s"bstance* not ha(in& e-isted be%ore* no$ e-ists* or ha(in& e-isted be%ore* a%ter$ards does not e-ist* this chan&e is tho"&ht to be acco!panied by a process o% beco!in& or perishin&' b"t points and lines and s"r%aces cannot be in process either o% beco!in& or o% perishin&* $hen they at one ti!e e-ist and at another do not. )or $hen bodies co!e into contact or are di(ided* their bo"ndaries si!"ltaneo"sly beco!e one in the one case $hen they to"ch* and t$o in the other-$hen they are di(ided' so that $hen they ha(e been p"t to&ether one bo"ndary does not e-ist b"t has perished* and $hen they ha(e been di(ided the bo"ndaries e-ist $hich be%ore did not e-ist +%or it cannot be said that the point* $hich is indi(isible* $as di(ided into t$o,. And i% the bo"ndaries co!e into bein& and cease to be* %ro! $hat do they co!e into bein&< A si!ilar acco"nt !ay also be &i(en o% the /no$/ in ti!e' %or this also cannot be in process o% co!in& into bein& or o% ceasin& to be* b"t yet see!s to be al$ays di%%erent* $hich sho$s that it is not a s"bstance. And e(idently the sa!e is tr"e o% points and lines and planes' %or the sa!e ar&"!ent applies* since they are all ali#e either li!its or di(isions. Part B " "In &eneral one !i&ht raise the 7"estion $hy a%ter all* besides perceptible thin&s and the inter!ediates* $e ha(e to loo# %or another class o% thin&s* i.e. the )or!s $hich $e posit. I% it is %or this reason* beca"se the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* $hile they di%%er %ro! the thin&s in this $orld in so!e other respect* di%%er not at all in that there are !any o% the sa!e #ind* so that their %irst principles cannot be li!ited in n"!ber +0"st as the ele!ents o% all the lan&"a&e in this sensible $orld are not li!ited in n"!ber* b"t in #ind* "nless one ta#es the ele!ents o% this indi(id"al syllable or o% this indi(id"al artic"late so"nd-$hose ele!ents $ill be li!ited e(en in n"!ber' so is it also in the case o% the inter!ediates' %or there also the !e!bers o% the sa!e #ind are in%inite in n"!ber,* so that i% there are not-besides perceptible and !athe!atical ob0ects-others s"ch as so!e !aintain the )or!s to be* there $ill be no s"bstance $hich is one in n"!ber* b"t only in #ind* nor $ill the %irst principles o% thin&s be deter!inate in n"!ber* b"t only in #ind>-i% then this !"st be so* the )or!s also !"st there%ore be held to e-ist. 5(en i% those $ho s"pport this (ie$ do not e-press it artic"lately* still this is $hat they !ean* and they !"st be !aintainin& the )or!s 0"st beca"se each o% the )or!s is a s"bstance and none is by accident. "B"t i% $e are to s"ppose both that the )or!s e-ist and that the principles are one in n"!ber* not in #ind* $e ha(e !entioned the i!possible res"lts that necessarily %ollo$. "+1;, 1losely connected $ith this is the 7"estion $hether the ele!ents e-ist potentially or in so!e other !anner. I% in so!e other $ay* there $ill be so!ethin& else prior to the %irst principles' %or the potency is prior to the act"al ca"se* and it is not necessary %or e(erythin& potential to be act"al.-B"t i% the ele!ents e-ist potentially* it

is possible that e(erythin& that is sho"ld not be. )or e(en that $hich is not yet is capable o% bein&' %or that $hich is not co!es to be* b"t nothin& that is incapable o% bein& co!es to be. "+16, We !"st not only raise these 7"estions abo"t the %irst principles* b"t also as# $hether they are "ni(ersal or $hat $e call indi(id"als. I% they are "ni(ersal* they $ill not be s"bstances' %or e(erythin& that is co!!on indicates not a /this/ b"t a /s"ch/* b"t s"bstance is a /this/. And i% $e are to be allo$ed to lay it do$n that a co!!on predicate is a /this/ and a sin&le thin&* 2ocrates $ill be se(eral ani!als-hi!sel% and /!an/ and /ani!al/* i% each o% these indicates a /this/ and a sin&le thin&. "I%* then* the principles are "ni(ersals* these "ni(ersal. There%ore i% there is to be res"lts %ollo$' i% they are not "ni(ersals b"t o% #no$led&e o% the principles there !"st be the nat"re o% indi(id"als* they $ill not be other principles prior to the!* na!ely those #no$able' %or the #no$led&e o% anythin& is that are "ni(ersally predicated o% the!. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK IG Part 1 " "T45R5 is a science $hich in(esti&ates bein& as bein& and the attrib"tes $hich belon& to this in (irt"e o% its o$n nat"re. .o$ this is not the sa!e as any o% the so-called special sciences' %or none o% these others treats "ni(ersally o% bein& as bein&. They c"t o%% a part o% bein& and in(esti&ate the attrib"te o% this part' this is $hat the !athe!atical sciences %or instance do. .o$ since $e are see#in& the %irst principles and the hi&hest ca"ses* clearly there !"st be so!e thin& to $hich these belon& in (irt"e o% its o$n nat"re. I% then those $ho so"&ht the ele!ents o% e-istin& thin&s $ere see#in& these sa!e principles* it is necessary that the ele!ents !"st be ele!ents o% bein& not by accident b"t 0"st beca"se it is bein&. There%ore it is o% bein& as bein& that $e also !"st &rasp the %irst ca"ses. " Part 6 "There are !any senses in $hich a thin& !ay be said to /be/* b"t all that /is/ is related to one central point* one de%inite #ind o% thin&* and is not said to /be/ by a !ere a!bi&"ity. 5(erythin& $hich is healthy is related to health* one thin& in the sense that it preser(es health* another in the sense that it prod"ces it* another in the sense that it is a sy!pto! o% health* another beca"se it is capable o% it. And that $hich is !edical is relati(e to the !edical art* one thin& bein& called !edical beca"se it possesses it* another beca"se it is nat"rally adapted to it* another beca"se it is a %"nction o% the !edical art. And $e shall %ind other $ords "sed si!ilarly to these. 2o* too* there are !any senses in $hich a thin& is said to be* b"t all re%er to one startin&-point' so!e thin&s are said to be beca"se they are s"bstances* others beca"se they are a%%ections o% s"bstance* others beca"se they

are a process to$ards s"bstance* or destr"ctions or pri(ations or 7"alities o% s"bstance* or prod"cti(e or &enerati(e o% s"bstance* or o% thin&s $hich are relati(e to s"bstance* or ne&ations o% one o% these thin& o% s"bstance itsel%. It is %or this reason that $e say e(en o% non-bein& that it is nonbein&. As* then* there is one science $hich deals $ith all healthy thin&s* the sa!e applies in the other cases also. )or not only in the case o% thin&s $hich ha(e one co!!on notion does the in(esti&ation belon& to one science* b"t also in the case o% thin&s $hich are related to one co!!on nat"re' %or e(en these in a sense ha(e one co!!on notion. It is clear then that it is the $or# o% one science also to st"dy the thin&s that are* 7"a bein&.-B"t e(ery$here science deals chie%ly $ith that $hich is pri!ary* and on $hich the other thin&s depend* and in (irt"e o% $hich they &et their na!es. I%* then* this is s"bstance* it $ill be o% s"bstances that the philosopher !"st &rasp the principles and the ca"ses. ".o$ %or each one class o% thin&s* as there is one perception* so there is one science* as %or instance &ra!!ar* bein& one science* in(esti&ates all artic"late so"nds. 4ence to in(esti&ate all the species o% bein& 7"a bein& is the $or# o% a science $hich is &enerically one* and to in(esti&ate the se(eral species is the $or# o% the speci%ic parts o% the science. "I%* no$* bein& and "nity are the sa!e and are one thin& in the sense that they are i!plied in one another as principle and ca"se are* not in the sense that they are e-plained by the sa!e de%inition +tho"&h it !a#es no di%%erence e(en i% $e s"ppose the! to be li#e that-in %act this $o"ld e(en stren&then o"r case,' %or /one !an/ and /!an/ are the sa!e thin&* and so are /e-istent !an/ and /!an/* and the do"blin& o% the $ords in /one !an and one e-istent !an/ does not e-press anythin& di%%erent +it is clear that the t$o thin&s are not separated either in co!in& to be or in ceasin& to be,' and si!ilarly /one e-istent !an/ adds nothin& to /e-istent !an/* and that it is ob(io"s that the addition in these cases !eans the sa!e thin&* and "nity is nothin& apart %ro! bein&' and i%* %"rther* the s"bstance o% each thin& is one in no !erely accidental $ay* and si!ilarly is %ro! its (ery nat"re so!ethin& that is>-all this bein& so* there !"st be e-actly as !any species o% bein& as o% "nity. And to in(esti&ate the essence o% these is the $or# o% a science $hich is &enerically one-I !ean* %or instance* the disc"ssion o% the sa!e and the si!ilar and the other concepts o% this sort' and nearly all contraries !ay be re%erred to this ori&in' let "s ta#e the! as ha(in& been in(esti&ated in the /2election o% 1ontraries/. "And there are as !any parts o% philosophy as there are #inds o% s"bstance* so that there !"st necessarily be a!on& the! a %irst philosophy and one $hich %ollo$s this. )or bein& %alls i!!ediately into &enera' %or $hich reason the sciences too $ill correspond to these &enera. )or the philosopher is li#e the !athe!atician* as that $ord is "sed' %or !athe!atics also has parts* and there is a %irst and a second science and other s"ccessi(e ones $ithin the sphere o% !athe!atics. ".o$ since it is the $or# o% one science to in(esti&ate opposites* and pl"rality is opposed to "nity-and it belon&s to one science to in(esti&ate the ne&ation and the pri(ation beca"se in both cases $e

are really in(esti&atin& the one thin& o% $hich the ne&ation or the pri(ation is a ne&ation or pri(ation +%or $e either say si!ply that that thin& is not present* or that it is not present in so!e partic"lar class' in the latter case di%%erence is present o(er and abo(e $hat is i!plied in ne&ation' %or ne&ation !eans 0"st the absence o% the thin& in 7"estion* $hile in pri(ation there is also e!ployed an "nderlyin& nat"re o% $hich the pri(ation is asserted,>-in (ie$ o% all these %acts* the contraries o% the concepts $e na!ed abo(e* the other and the dissi!ilar and the "ne7"al* and e(erythin& else $hich is deri(ed either %ro! these or %ro! pl"rality and "nity* !"st %all $ithin the pro(ince o% the science abo(e na!ed. And contrariety is one o% these concepts' %or contrariety is a #ind o% di%%erence* and di%%erence is a #ind o% otherness. There%ore* since there are !any senses in $hich a thin& is said to be one* these ter!s also $ill ha(e !any senses* b"t yet it belon&s to one science to #no$ the! all' %or a ter! belon&s to di%%erent sciences not i% it has di%%erent senses* b"t i% it has not one !eanin& and its de%initions cannot be re%erred to one central !eanin&. And since all thin&s are re%erred to that $hich is pri!ary* as %or instance all thin&s $hich are called one are re%erred to the pri!ary one* $e !"st say that this holds &ood also o% the sa!e and the other and o% contraries in &eneral' so that a%ter distin&"ishin& the (ario"s senses o% each* $e !"st then e-plain by re%erence to $hat is pri!ary in the case o% each o% the predicates in 7"estion* sayin& ho$ they are related to it' %or so!e $ill be called $hat they are called beca"se they possess it* others beca"se they prod"ce it* and others in other s"ch $ays. "It is e(ident* then* that it belon&s to one science to be able to &i(e an acco"nt o% these concepts as $ell as o% s"bstance +this $as one o% the 7"estions in o"r boo# o% proble!s,* and that it is the %"nction o% the philosopher to be able to in(esti&ate all thin&s. )or i% it is not the %"nction o% the philosopher* $ho is it $ho $ill in7"ire $hether 2ocrates and 2ocrates seated are the sa!e thin&* or $hether one thin& has one contrary* or $hat contrariety is* or ho$ !any !eanin&s it has< And si!ilarly $ith all other s"ch 7"estions. 2ince* then* these are essential !odi%ications o% "nity 7"a "nity and o% bein& 7"a bein&* not 7"a n"!bers or lines or %ire* it is clear that it belon&s to this science to in(esti&ate both the essence o% these concepts and their properties. And those $ho st"dy these properties err not by lea(in& the sphere o% philosophy* b"t by %or&ettin& that s"bstance* o% $hich they ha(e no correct idea* is prior to these other thin&s. )or n"!ber 7"a n"!ber has pec"liar attrib"tes* s"ch as oddness and e(enness* co!!ens"rability and e7"ality* e-cess and de%ect* and these belon& to n"!bers either in the!sel(es or in relation to one another. And si!ilarly the solid and the !otionless and that $hich is in !otion and the $ei&htless and that $hich has $ei&ht ha(e other pec"liar properties. 2o too there are certain properties pec"liar to bein& as s"ch* and it is abo"t these that the philosopher has to in(esti&ate the tr"th.-An indication o% this !ay be !entioned> dialecticians and sophists ass"!e the sa!e &"ise as the philosopher* %or sophistic is Wisdo! $hich e-ists only in se!blance* and dialecticians e!brace all thin&s in their dialectic* and bein& is co!!on to all thin&s' b"t e(idently their dialectic e!braces these s"b0ects beca"se these

are proper to philosophy.-)or sophistic and dialectic t"rn on the sa!e class o% thin&s as philosophy* b"t this di%%ers %ro! dialectic in the nat"re o% the %ac"lty re7"ired and %ro! sophistic in respect o% the p"rpose o% the philosophic li%e. Dialectic is !erely critical $here philosophy clai!s to #no$* and sophistic is $hat appears to be philosophy b"t is not. "A&ain* in the list o% contraries one o% the t$o col"!ns is pri(ati(e* and all contraries are red"cible to bein& and non-bein&* and to "nity and pl"rality* as %or instance rest belon&s to "nity and !o(e!ent to pl"rality. And nearly all thin#ers a&ree that bein& and s"bstance are co!posed o% contraries' at least all na!e contraries as their %irst principles-so!e na!e odd and e(en* so!e hot and cold* so!e li!it and the "nli!ited* so!e lo(e and stri%e. And all the others as $ell are e(idently red"cible to "nity and pl"rality +this red"ction $e !"st ta#e %or &ranted,* and the principles stated by other thin#ers %all entirely "nder these as their &enera. It is ob(io"s then %ro! these considerations too that it belon&s to one science to e-a!ine bein& 7"a bein&. )or all thin&s are either contraries or co!posed o% contraries* and "nity and pl"rality are the startin&-points o% all contraries. And these belon& to one science* $hether they ha(e or ha(e not one sin&le !eanin&. Probably the tr"th is that they ha(e not' yet e(en i% /one/ has se(eral !eanin&s* the other !eanin&s $ill be related to the pri!ary !eanin& +and si!ilarly in the case o% the contraries,* e(en i% bein& or "nity is not a "ni(ersal and the sa!e in e(ery instance or is not separable %ro! the partic"lar instances +as in %act it probably is not' the "nity is in so!e cases that o% co!!on re%erence* in so!e cases that o% serial s"ccession,. And %or this reason it does not belon& to the &eo!eter to in7"ire $hat is contrariety or co!pleteness or "nity or bein& or the sa!e or the other* b"t only to pres"ppose these concepts and reason %ro! this startin&point.--Ob(io"sly then it is the $or# o% one science to e-a!ine bein& 7"a bein&* and the attrib"tes $hich belon& to it 7"a bein&* and the sa!e science $ill e-a!ine not only s"bstances b"t also their attrib"tes* both those abo(e na!ed and the concepts /prior/ and /posterior/* /&en"s/ and /species/* /$hole/ and /part/* and the others o% this sort. Part ; " "We !"st state $hether it belon&s to one or to di%%erent sciences to in7"ire into the tr"ths $hich are in !athe!atics called a-io!s* and into s"bstance. 5(idently* the in7"iry into these also belon&s to one science* and that the science o% the philosopher' %or these tr"ths hold &ood %or e(erythin& that is* and not %or so!e special &en"s apart %ro! others. And all !en "se the!* beca"se they are tr"e o% bein& 7"a bein& and each &en"s has bein&. B"t !en "se the! 0"st so %ar as to satis%y their p"rposes' that is* as %ar as the &en"s to $hich their de!onstrations re%er e-tends. There%ore since these tr"ths clearly hold &ood %or all thin&s 7"a bein& +%or this is $hat is co!!on to the!,* to hi! $ho st"dies bein& 7"a bein& belon&s the in7"iry into these as $ell. And %or this reason no one $ho is cond"ctin& a special in7"iry tries to say anythin& abo"t their tr"th or %alsity*neither the &eo!eter nor the arith!etician. 2o!e nat"ral philosophers indeed ha(e done so* and their proced"re $as intelli&ible eno"&h' %or they tho"&ht that they alone $ere in7"irin& abo"t the $hole o% nat"re and

abo"t bein&. B"t since there is one #ind o% thin#er $ho is abo(e e(en the nat"ral philosopher +%or nat"re is only one partic"lar &en"s o% bein&,* the disc"ssion o% these tr"ths also $ill belon& to hi! $hose in7"iry is "ni(ersal and deals $ith pri!ary s"bstance. Physics also is a #ind o% Wisdo!* b"t it is not the %irst #ind.-And the atte!pts o% so!e o% those $ho disc"ss the ter!s on $hich tr"th sho"ld be accepted* are d"e to a $ant o% trainin& in lo&ic' %or they sho"ld #no$ these thin&s already $hen they co!e to a special st"dy* and not be in7"irin& into the! $hile they are listenin& to lect"res on it. "5(idently then it belon&s to the philosopher* i.e. to hi! $ho is st"dyin& the nat"re o% all s"bstance* to in7"ire also into the principles o% syllo&is!. B"t he $ho #no$s best abo"t each &en"s !"st be able to state the !ost certain principles o% his s"b0ect* so that he $hose s"b0ect is e-istin& thin&s 7"a e-istin& !"st be able to state the !ost certain principles o% all thin&s. This is the philosopher* and the !ost certain principle o% all is that re&ardin& $hich it is i!possible to be !ista#en' %or s"ch a principle !"st be both the best #no$n +%or all !en !ay be !ista#en abo"t thin&s $hich they do not #no$,* and non-hypothetical. )or a principle $hich e(ery one !"st ha(e $ho "nderstands anythin& that is* is not a hypothesis' and that $hich e(ery one !"st #no$ $ho #no$s anythin&* he !"st already ha(e $hen he co!es to a special st"dy. 5(idently then s"ch a principle is the !ost certain o% all' $hich principle this is* let "s proceed to say. It is* that the sa!e attrib"te cannot at the sa!e ti!e belon& and not belon& to the sa!e s"b0ect and in the sa!e respect' $e !"st pres"ppose* to &"ard a&ainst dialectical ob0ections* any %"rther 7"ali%ications $hich !i&ht be added. This* then* is the !ost certain o% all principles* since it ans$ers to the de%inition &i(en abo(e. )or it is i!possible %or any one to belie(e the sa!e thin& to be and not to be* as so!e thin# 4eraclit"s says. )or $hat a !an says* he does not necessarily belie(e' and i% it is i!possible that contrary attrib"tes sho"ld belon& at the sa!e ti!e to the sa!e s"b0ect +the "s"al 7"ali%ications !"st be pres"pposed in this pre!iss too,* and i% an opinion $hich contradicts another is contrary to it* ob(io"sly it is i!possible %or the sa!e !an at the sa!e ti!e to belie(e the sa!e thin& to be and not to be' %or i% a !an $ere !ista#en on this point he $o"ld ha(e contrary opinions at the sa!e ti!e. It is %or this reason that all $ho are carryin& o"t a de!onstration red"ce it to this as an "lti!ate belie%' %or this is nat"rally the startin&-point e(en %or all the other a-io!s. Part = " "There are so!e $ho* as $e said* both the!sel(es assert that it is possible %or the sa!e thin& to be and not to be* and say that people can 0"d&e this to be the case. And a!on& others !any $riters abo"t nat"re "se this lan&"a&e. B"t $e ha(e no$ posited that it is i!possible %or anythin& at the sa!e ti!e to be and not to be* and by this !eans ha(e sho$n that this is the !ost indisp"table o% all principles.-2o!e indeed de!and that e(en this shall be de!onstrated* b"t this they do thro"&h $ant o% ed"cation* %or not to #no$ o% $hat thin&s one sho"ld

de!and de!onstration* and o% $hat one sho"ld not* ar&"es $ant o% ed"cation. )or it is i!possible that there sho"ld be de!onstration o% absol"tely e(erythin& +there $o"ld be an in%inite re&ress* so that there $o"ld still be no de!onstration,' b"t i% there are thin&s o% $hich one sho"ld not de!and de!onstration* these persons co"ld not say $hat principle they !aintain to be !ore sel%-e(ident than the present one. "We can* ho$e(er* de!onstrate ne&ati(ely e(en that this (ie$ is i!possible* i% o"r opponent $ill only say so!ethin&' and i% he says nothin&* it is abs"rd to see# to &i(e an acco"nt o% o"r (ie$s to one $ho cannot &i(e an acco"nt o% anythin&* in so %ar as he cannot do so. )or s"ch a !an* as s"ch* is %ro! the start no better than a (e&etable. .o$ ne&ati(e de!onstration I distin&"ish %ro! de!onstration proper* beca"se in a de!onstration one !i&ht be tho"&ht to be be&&in& the 7"estion* b"t i% another person is responsible %or the ass"!ption $e shall ha(e ne&ati(e proo%* not de!onstration. The startin&-point %or all s"ch ar&"!ents is not the de!and that o"r opponent shall say that so!ethin& either is or is not +%or this one !i&ht perhaps ta#e to be a be&&in& o% the 7"estion,* b"t that he shall say so!ethin& $hich is si&ni%icant both %or hi!sel% and %or another' %or this is necessary* i% he really is to say anythin&. )or* i% he !eans nothin&* s"ch a !an $ill not be capable o% reasonin&* either $ith hi!sel% or $ith another. B"t i% any one &rants this* de!onstration $ill be possible' %or $e shall already ha(e so!ethin& de%inite. The person responsible %or the proo%* ho$e(er* is not he $ho de!onstrates b"t he $ho listens' %or $hile diso$nin& reason he listens to reason. And a&ain he $ho ad!its this has ad!itted that so!ethin& is tr"e apart %ro! de!onstration +so that not e(erythin& $ill be /so and not so/,. ")irst then this at least is ob(io"sly tr"e* that the $ord /be/ or /not be/ has a de%inite !eanin&* so that not e(erythin& $ill be /so and not so/. A&ain* i% /!an/ has one !eanin&* let this be /t$o-%ooted ani!al/' by ha(in& one !eanin& I "nderstand this>-i% /!an/ !eans /A/* then i% A is a !an /A/ $ill be $hat /bein& a !an/ !eans %or hi!. +It !a#es no di%%erence e(en i% one $ere to say a $ord has se(eral !eanin&s* i% only they are li!ited in n"!ber' %or to each de%inition there !i&ht be assi&ned a di%%erent $ord. )or instance* $e !i&ht say that /!an/ has not one !eanin& b"t se(eral* one o% $hich $o"ld ha(e one de%inition* (i3. /t$o-%ooted ani!al/* $hile there !i&ht be also se(eral other de%initions i% only they $ere li!ited in n"!ber' %or a pec"liar na!e !i&ht be assi&ned to each o% the de%initions. I%* ho$e(er* they $ere not li!ited b"t one $ere to say that the $ord has an in%inite n"!ber o% !eanin&s* ob(io"sly reasonin& $o"ld be i!possible' %or not to ha(e one !eanin& is to ha(e no !eanin&* and i% $ords ha(e no !eanin& o"r reasonin& $ith one another* and indeed $ith o"rsel(es* has been annihilated' %or it is i!possible to thin# o% anythin& i% $e do not thin# o% one thin&' b"t i% this is possible* one na!e !i&ht be assi&ned to this thin&., " et it be ass"!ed then* as $as said at the be&innin&* that the na!e has a !eanin& and has one !eanin&' it is i!possible* then* that /bein& a !an/ sho"ld !ean precisely /not bein& a !an/* i% /!an/ not only si&ni%ies so!ethin& abo"t one s"b0ect b"t also has one si&ni%icance +%or $e do not identi%y /ha(in& one si&ni%icance/ $ith /si&ni%yin&

so!ethin& abo"t one s"b0ect/* since on that ass"!ption e(en /!"sical/ and /$hite/ and /!an/ $o"ld ha(e had one si&ni%icance* so that all thin&s $o"ld ha(e been one' %or they $o"ld all ha(e had the sa!e si&ni%icance,. "And it $ill not be possible to be and not to be the sa!e thin&* e-cept in (irt"e o% an a!bi&"ity* 0"st as i% one $ho! $e call /!an/* others $ere to call /not-!an/' b"t the point in 7"estion is not this* $hether the sa!e thin& can at the sa!e ti!e be and not be a !an in na!e* b"t $hether it can in %act. .o$ i% /!an/ and /not-!an/ !ean nothin& di%%erent* ob(io"sly /not bein& a !an/ $ill !ean nothin& di%%erent %ro! /bein& a !an/' so that /bein& a !an/ $ill be /not bein& a !an/' %or they $ill be one. )or bein& one !eans this-bein& related as /rai!ent/ and /dress/ are* i% their de%inition is one. And i% /bein& a !an/ and /bein& a not-!an/ are to be one* they !"st !ean one thin&. B"t it $as sho$n earlier/ that they !ean di%%erent thin&s.-There%ore* i% it is tr"e to say o% anythin& that it is a !an* it !"st be a t$o-%ooted ani!al +%or this $as $hat /!an/ !eant,' and i% this is necessary* it is i!possible that the sa!e thin& sho"ld not at that ti!e be a t$o-%ooted ani!al' %or this is $hat /bein& necessary/ !eans-that it is i!possible %or the thin& not to be. It is* then* i!possible that it sho"ld be at the sa!e ti!e tr"e to say the sa!e thin& is a !an and is not a !an. "The sa!e acco"nt holds &ood $ith re&ard to /not bein& a !an/* %or /bein& a !an/ and /bein& a not-!an/ !ean di%%erent thin&s* since e(en /bein& $hite/ and /bein& a !an/ are di%%erent' %or the %or!er ter!s are !"ch !ore di%%erent so that they !"st a %ortiori !ean di%%erent thin&s. And i% any one says that /$hite/ !eans one and the sa!e thin& as /!an/* a&ain $e shall say the sa!e as $hat $as said be%ore* that it $o"ld %ollo$ that all thin&s are one* and not only opposites. B"t i% this is i!possible* then $hat $e ha(e !aintained $ill %ollo$* i% o"r opponent $ill only ans$er o"r 7"estion. "And i%* $hen one as#s the 7"estion si!ply* he adds the contradictories* he is not ans$erin& the 7"estion. )or there is nothin& to pre(ent the sa!e thin& %ro! bein& both a !an and $hite and co"ntless other thin&s> b"t still* i% one as#s $hether it is or is not tr"e to say that this is a !an* o"r opponent !"st &i(e an ans$er $hich !eans one thin&* and not add that /it is also $hite and lar&e/. )or* besides other reasons* it is i!possible to en"!erate its accidental attrib"tes* $hich are in%inite in n"!ber' let hi!* then* en"!erate either all or none. 2i!ilarly* there%ore* e(en i% the sa!e thin& is a tho"sand ti!es a !an and a not-!an* he !"st not* in ans$erin& the 7"estion $hether this is a !an* add that it is also at the sa!e ti!e a not-!an* "nless he is bo"nd to add also all the other accidents* all that the s"b0ect is or is not' and i% he does this* he is not obser(in& the r"les o% ar&"!ent. "And in &eneral those $ho say this do a$ay $ith s"bstance and )or they !"st say that all attrib"tes are accidents* and that is no s"ch thin& as /bein& essentially a !an/ or /an ani!al/. i% there is to be any s"ch thin& as /bein& essentially a !an/ $ill not be /bein& a not-!an/ or /not bein& a !an/ +yet these ne&ations o% it,' %or there $as one thin& $hich it !eant* and $as the s"bstance o% so!ethin&. And denotin& the s"bstance o% essence. there )or this are this a thin&

!eans that the essence o% the thin& is nothin& else. B"t i% its bein& essentially a !an is to be the sa!e as either bein& essentially a not-!an or essentially not bein& a !an* then its essence $ill be so!ethin& else. There%ore o"r opponents !"st say that there cannot be s"ch a de%inition o% anythin&* b"t that all attrib"tes are accidental' %or this is the distinction bet$een s"bstance and accident-/$hite/ is accidental to !an* beca"se tho"&h he is $hite* $hiteness is not his essence. B"t i% all state!ents are accidental* there $ill be nothin& pri!ary abo"t $hich they are !ade* i% the accidental al$ays i!plies predication abo"t a s"b0ect. The predication* then* !"st &o on ad in%init"!. B"t this is i!possible' %or not e(en !ore than t$o ter!s can be co!bined in accidental predication. )or +1, an accident is not an accident o% an accident* "nless it be beca"se both are accidents o% the sa!e s"b0ect. I !ean* %or instance* that the $hite is !"sical and the latter is $hite* only beca"se both are accidental to !an. B"t +6, 2ocrates is !"sical* not in this sense* that both ter!s are accidental to so!ethin& else. 2ince then so!e predicates are accidental in this and so!e in that sense* +a, those $hich are accidental in the latter sense* in $hich $hite is accidental to 2ocrates* cannot %or! an in%inite series in the "p$ard direction' e.&. 2ocrates the $hite has not yet another accident' %or no "nity can be &ot o"t o% s"ch a s"!. .or a&ain +b, $ill /$hite/ ha(e another ter! accidental to it* e.&. /!"sical/. )or this is no !ore accidental to that than that is to this' and at the sa!e ti!e $e ha(e dra$n the distinction* that $hile so!e predicates are accidental in this sense* others are so in the sense in $hich /!"sical/ is accidental to 2ocrates' and the accident is an accident o% an accident not in cases o% the latter #ind* b"t only in cases o% the other #ind* so that not all ter!s $ill be accidental. There !"st* then* e(en so be so!ethin& $hich denotes s"bstance. And i% this is so* it has been sho$n that contradictories cannot be predicated at the sa!e ti!e. "A&ain* i% all contradictory state!ents are tr"e o% the sa!e s"b0ect at the sa!e ti!e* e(idently all thin&s $ill be one. )or the sa!e thin& $ill be a trire!e* a $all* and a !an* i% o% e(erythin& it is possible either to a%%ir! or to deny anythin& +and this pre!iss !"st be accepted by those $ho share the (ie$s o% Prota&oras,. )or i% any one thin#s that the !an is not a trire!e* e(idently he is not a trire!e' so that he also is a trire!e* i%* as they say* contradictory state!ents are both tr"e. And $e th"s &et the doctrine o% Ana-a&oras* that all thin&s are !i-ed to&ether' so that nothin& really e-ists. They see!* then* to be spea#in& o% the indeter!inate* and* $hile %ancyin& the!sel(es to be spea#in& o% bein&* they are spea#in& abo"t non-bein&' %or it is that $hich e-ists potentially and not in co!plete reality that is indeter!inate. B"t they !"st predicate o% e(ery s"b0ect the a%%ir!ation or the ne&ation o% e(ery attrib"te. )or it is abs"rd i% o% each s"b0ect its o$n ne&ation is to be predicable* $hile the ne&ation o% so!ethin& else $hich cannot be predicated o% it is not to be predicable o% it' %or instance* i% it is tr"e to say o% a !an that he is not a !an* e(idently it is also tr"e to say that he is either a trire!e or not a trire!e. I%* then* the a%%ir!ati(e can be predicated* the ne&ati(e !"st be predicable too' and i% the a%%ir!ati(e is not predicable* the ne&ati(e* at least* $ill be !ore predicable than the ne&ati(e o% the s"b0ect itsel%. I%* then* e(en the latter ne&ati(e is predicable* the ne&ati(e o% /trire!e/ $ill be also predicable' and* i% this is

predicable* the a%%ir!ati(e $ill be so too. "Those* then* $ho !aintain this (ie$ are dri(en to this concl"sion* and to the %"rther concl"sion that it is not necessary either to assert or to deny. )or i% it is tr"e that a thin& is a !an and a not-!an* e(idently also it $ill be neither a !an nor a not-!an. )or to the t$o assertions there ans$er t$o ne&ations* and i% the %or!er is treated as a sin&le proposition co!po"nded o"t o% t$o* the latter also is a sin&le proposition opposite to the %or!er. "A&ain* either the theory is tr"e in all cases* and a thin& is both $hite and not-$hite* and e-istent and non-e-istent* and all other assertions and ne&ations are si!ilarly co!patible or the theory is tr"e o% so!e state!ents and not o% others. And i% not o% all* the e-ceptions $ill be contradictories o% $hich ad!ittedly only one is tr"e' b"t i% o% all* a&ain either the ne&ation $ill be tr"e $here(er the assertion is* and the assertion tr"e $here(er the ne&ation is* or the ne&ation $ill be tr"e $here the assertion is* b"t the assertion not al$ays tr"e $here the ne&ation is. And +a, in the latter case there $ill be so!ethin& $hich %i-edly is not* and this $ill be an indisp"table belie%' and i% non-bein& is so!ethin& indisp"table and #no$able* the opposite assertion $ill be !ore #no$able. B"t +b, i% it is e7"ally possible also to assert all that it is possible to deny* one !"st either be sayin& $hat is tr"e $hen one separates the predicates +and says* %or instance* that a thin& is $hite* and a&ain that it is not-$hite,* or not. And i% +i, it is not tr"e to apply the predicates separately* o"r opponent is not sayin& $hat he pro%esses to say* and also nothin& at all e-ists' b"t ho$ co"ld non-e-istent thin&s spea# or $al#* as he does< Also all thin&s $o"ld on this (ie$ be one* as has been already said* and !an and 9od and trire!e and their contradictories $ill be the sa!e. )or i% contradictories can be predicated ali#e o% each s"b0ect* one thin& $ill in no $ise di%%er %ro! another' %or i% it di%%er* this di%%erence $ill be so!ethin& tr"e and pec"liar to it. And +ii, i% one !ay $ith tr"th apply the predicates separately* the abo(e-!entioned res"lt %ollo$s none the less* and* %"rther* it %ollo$s that all $o"ld then be ri&ht and all $o"ld be in error* and o"r opponent hi!sel% con%esses hi!sel% to be in error.-And at the sa!e ti!e o"r disc"ssion $ith hi! is e(idently abo"t nothin& at all' %or he says nothin&. )or he says neither /yes/ nor /no/* b"t /yes and no/' and a&ain he denies both o% these and says /neither yes nor no/' %or other$ise there $o"ld already be so!ethin& de%inite. "A&ain i% $hen the assertion is tr"e* the ne&ation is %alse* and $hen this is tr"e* the a%%ir!ation is %alse* it $ill not be possible to assert and deny the sa!e thin& tr"ly at the sa!e ti!e. B"t perhaps they !i&ht say this $as the (ery 7"estion at iss"e. "A&ain* is he in error $ho 0"d&es either that the thin& is so or that it is not so* and is he ri&ht $ho 0"d&es both< I% he is ri&ht* $hat can they !ean by sayin& that the nat"re o% e-istin& thin&s is o% this #ind< And i% he is not ri&ht* b"t !ore ri&ht than he $ho 0"d&es in the other $ay* bein& $ill already be o% a de%inite nat"re* and this $ill be tr"e* and not at the sa!e ti!e also not tr"e. B"t i% all are ali#e both $ron& and ri&ht* one $ho is in this condition $ill not be able either to spea# or to say anythin& intelli&ible' %or he says at the sa!e ti!e both /yes/ and /no./ And i% he !a#es no 0"d&e!ent

b"t /thin#s/ and /does not thin#/* indi%%erently* $hat di%%erence $ill there be bet$een hi! and a (e&etable<-Th"s* then* it is in the hi&hest de&ree e(ident that neither any one o% those $ho !aintain this (ie$ nor any one else is really in this position. )or $hy does a !an $al# to Me&ara and not stay at ho!e* $hen he thin#s he o"&ht to be $al#in& there< Why does he not $al# early so!e !ornin& into a $ell or o(er a precipice* i% one happens to be in his $ay< Why do $e obser(e hi! &"ardin& a&ainst this* e(idently beca"se he does not thin# that %allin& in is ali#e &ood and not &ood< 5(idently* then* he 0"d&es one thin& to be better and another $orse. And i% this is so* he !"st also 0"d&e one thin& to be a !an and another to be not-a!an* one thin& to be s$eet and another to be not-s$eet. )or he does not ai! at and 0"d&e all thin&s ali#e* $hen* thin#in& it desirable to drin# $ater or to see a !an* he proceeds to ai! at these thin&s' yet he o"&ht* i% the sa!e thin& $ere ali#e a !an and not-a-!an. B"t* as $as said* there is no one $ho does not ob(io"sly a(oid so!e thin&s and not others. There%ore* as it see!s* all !en !a#e "n7"ali%ied 0"d&e!ents* i% not abo"t all thin&s* still abo"t $hat is better and $orse. And i% this is not #no$led&e b"t opinion* they sho"ld be all the !ore an-io"s abo"t the tr"th* as a sic# !an sho"ld be !ore an-io"s abo"t his health than one $ho is healthy' %or he $ho has opinions is* in co!parison $ith the !an $ho #no$s* not in a healthy state as %ar as the tr"th is concerned. "A&ain* ho$e(er !"ch all thin&s !ay be /so and not so/* still there is a !ore and a less in the nat"re o% thin&s' %or $e sho"ld not say that t$o and three are e7"ally e(en* nor is he $ho thin#s %o"r thin&s are %i(e e7"ally $ron& $ith hi! $ho thin#s they are a tho"sand. I% then they are not e7"ally $ron&* ob(io"sly one is less $ron& and there%ore !ore ri&ht. I% then that $hich has !ore o% any 7"ality is nearer the nor!* there !"st be so!e tr"th to $hich the !ore tr"e is nearer. And e(en i% there is not* still there is already so!ethin& better %o"nded and li#er the tr"th* and $e shall ha(e &ot rid o% the "n7"ali%ied doctrine $hich $o"ld pre(ent "s %ro! deter!inin& anythin& in o"r tho"&ht. Part ? " ")ro! the sa!e opinion proceeds the doctrine o% Prota&oras* and both doctrines !"st be ali#e tr"e or ali#e "ntr"e. )or on the one hand* i% all opinions and appearances are tr"e* all state!ents !"st be at the sa!e ti!e tr"e and %alse. )or !any !en hold belie%s in $hich they con%lict $ith one another* and thin# those !ista#en $ho ha(e not the sa!e opinions as the!sel(es' so that the sa!e thin& !"st both be and not be. And on the other hand* i% this is so* all opinions !"st be tr"e' %or those $ho are !ista#en and those $ho are ri&ht are opposed to one another in their opinions' i%* then* reality is s"ch as the (ie$ in 7"estion s"pposes* all $ill be ri&ht in their belie%s. "5(idently* then* both doctrines proceed %ro! the sa!e $ay o% thin#in&. B"t the sa!e !ethod o% disc"ssion !"st not be "sed $ith all opponents' %or so!e need pers"asion* and others co!p"lsion. Those $ho ha(e been dri(en to this position by di%%ic"lties in their thin#in& can easily be c"red o% their i&norance' %or it is not their e-pressed ar&"!ent

b"t their tho"&ht that one has to !eet. B"t those $ho ar&"e %or the sa#e o% ar&"!ent can be c"red only by re%"tin& the ar&"!ent as e-pressed in speech and in $ords. "Those $ho really %eel the di%%ic"lties ha(e been led to this opinion by obser(ation o% the sensible $orld. +1, They thin# that contradictories or contraries are tr"e at the sa!e ti!e* beca"se they see contraries co!in& into e-istence o"t o% the sa!e thin&. I%* then* that $hich is not cannot co!e to be* the thin& !"st ha(e e-isted be%ore as both contraries ali#e* as Ana-a&oras says all is !i-ed in all* and De!ocrit"s too' %or he says the (oid and the %"ll e-ist ali#e in e(ery part* and yet one o% these is bein&* and the other non-bein&. To those* then* $hose belie% rests on these &ro"nds* $e shall say that in a sense they spea# ri&htly and in a sense they err. )or /that $hich is/ has t$o !eanin&s* so that in so!e sense a thin& can co!e to be o"t o% that $hich is not* $hile in so!e sense it cannot* and the sa!e thin& can at the sa!e ti!e be in bein& and not in bein&-b"t not in the sa!e respect. )or the sa!e thin& can be potentially at the sa!e ti!e t$o contraries* b"t it cannot act"ally. And a&ain $e shall as# the! to belie(e that a!on& e-istin& thin&s there is also another #ind o% s"bstance to $hich neither !o(e!ent nor destr"ction nor &eneration at all belon&s. "And +6, si!ilarly so!e ha(e in%erred %ro! obser(ation o% the sensible $orld the tr"th o% appearances. )or they thin# that the tr"th sho"ld not be deter!ined by the lar&e or s!all n"!ber o% those $ho hold a belie%* and that the sa!e thin& is tho"&ht s$eet by so!e $hen they taste it* and bitter by others* so that i% all $ere ill or all $ere !ad* and only t$o or three $ere $ell or sane* these $o"ld be tho"&ht ill and !ad* and not the others. "And a&ain* they say that !any o% the other ani!als recei(e i!pressions contrary to o"rs' and that e(en to the senses o% each indi(id"al* thin&s do not al$ays see! the sa!e. Which* then* o% these i!pressions are tr"e and $hich are %alse is not ob(io"s' %or the one set is no !ore tr"e than the other* b"t both are ali#e. And this is $hy De!ocrit"s* at any rate* says that either there is no tr"th or to "s at least it is not e(ident. "And in &eneral it is beca"se these thin#ers s"ppose #no$led&e to be sensation* and this to be a physical alteration* that they say that $hat appears to o"r senses !"st be tr"e' %or it is %or these reasons that both 5!pedocles and De!ocrit"s and* one !ay al!ost say* all the others ha(e %allen (icti!s to opinions o% this sort. )or 5!pedocles says that $hen !en chan&e their condition they chan&e their #no$led&e' " ")or $isdo! increases in !en accordin& to $hat is be%ore the!. " "And else$here he says that>- " "2o %ar as their nat"re chan&ed* so %ar to the! al$ays

"1a!e chan&ed tho"&hts into !ind. " "And Par!enides also e-presses hi!sel% in the sa!e $ay> " ")or as at each ti!e the !"ch-bent li!bs are co!posed* "2o is the !ind o% !en' %or in each and all !en "/Tis one thin& thin#s-the s"bstance o% their li!bs> ")or that o% $hich there is !ore is tho"&ht. " "A sayin& o% Ana-a&oras to so!e o% his %riends is also related*-that thin&s $o"ld be %or the! s"ch as they s"pposed the! to be. And they say that 4o!er also e(idently had this opinion* beca"se he !ade 4ector* $hen he $as "nconscio"s %ro! the blo$* lie /thin#in& other tho"&hts/*$hich i!plies that e(en those $ho are bere%t o% tho"&ht ha(e tho"&hts* tho"&h not the sa!e tho"&hts. 5(idently* then* i% both are %or!s o% #no$led&e* the real thin&s also are at the sa!e ti!e /both so and not so/. And it is in this direction that the conse7"ences are !ost di%%ic"lt. )or i% those $ho ha(e seen !ost o% s"ch tr"th as is possible %or "s +and these are those $ho see# and lo(e it !ost,-i% these ha(e s"ch opinions and e-press these (ie$s abo"t the tr"th* is it not nat"ral that be&inners in philosophy sho"ld lose heart< )or to see# the tr"th $o"ld be to %ollo$ %lyin& &a!e. "B"t the reason $hy these thin#ers held this opinion is that $hile they $ere in7"irin& into the tr"th o% that $hich is* they tho"&ht* /that $hich is/ $as identical $ith the sensible $orld' in this* ho$e(er* there is lar&ely present the nat"re o% the indeter!inate-o% that $hich e-ists in the pec"liar sense $hich $e ha(e e-plained' and there%ore* $hile they spea# pla"sibly* they do not say $hat is tr"e +%or it is %ittin& to p"t the !atter so rather than as 5pichar!"s p"t it a&ainst Aenophanes,. And a&ain* beca"se they sa$ that all this $orld o% nat"re is in !o(e!ent and that abo"t that $hich chan&es no tr"e state!ent can be !ade* they said that o% co"rse* re&ardin& that $hich e(ery$here in e(ery respect is chan&in&* nothin& co"ld tr"ly be a%%ir!ed. It $as this belie% that blosso!ed into the !ost e-tre!e o% the (ie$s abo(e !entioned* that o% the pro%essed 4eracliteans* s"ch as $as held by 1ratyl"s* $ho %inally did not thin# it ri&ht to say anythin& b"t only !o(ed his %in&er* and critici3ed 4eraclit"s %or sayin& that it is i!possible to step t$ice into the sa!e ri(er' %or he tho"&ht one co"ld not do it e(en once. "B"t $e shall say in ans$er to this ar&"!ent also that $hile there is so!e 0"sti%ication %or their thin#in& that the chan&in&* $hen it is chan&in&* does not e-ist* yet it is a%ter all disp"table' %or that $hich is losin& a 7"ality has so!ethin& o% that $hich is bein& lost* and o% that $hich is co!in& to be* so!ethin& !"st already be. And in &eneral i% a thin& is perishin&* $ill be present so!ethin& that e-ists' and i% a thin& is co!in& to be* there !"st be so!ethin& %ro! $hich it co!es to be and so!ethin& by $hich it is &enerated* and this process cannot &o on ad in%init"!.-B"t* lea(in& these ar&"!ents* let "s insist on this* that it is not the sa!e thin& to chan&e in 7"antity and in 7"ality. 9rant that in 7"antity a thin& is not constant' still it is in respect o% its %or! that $e #no$ each thin&.-And a&ain* it

$o"ld be %air to critici3e those $ho hold this (ie$ %or assertin& abo"t the $hole !aterial "ni(erse $hat they sa$ only in a !inority e(en o% sensible thin&s. )or only that re&ion o% the sensible $orld $hich i!!ediately s"rro"nds "s is al$ays in process o% destr"ction and &eneration' b"t this is-so to spea#-not e(en a %raction o% the $hole* so that it $o"ld ha(e been 0"ster to ac7"it this part o% the $orld beca"se o% the other part* than to conde!n the other beca"se o% this.-And a&ain* ob(io"sly $e shall !a#e to the! also the sa!e reply that $e !ade lon& a&o' $e !"st sho$ the! and pers"ade the! that there is so!ethin& $hose nat"re is chan&eless. Indeed* those $ho say that thin&s at the sa!e ti!e are and are not* sho"ld in conse7"ence say that all thin&s are at rest rather than that they are in !o(e!ent' %or there is nothin& into $hich they can chan&e* since all attrib"tes belon& already to all s"b0ects. "Re&ardin& the nat"re o% tr"th* $e !"st !aintain that not e(erythin& $hich appears is tr"e' %irstly* beca"se e(en i% sensation-at least o% the ob0ect pec"liar to the sense in 7"estion-is not %alse* still appearance is not the sa!e as sensation.-A&ain* it is %air to e-press s"rprise at o"r opponents/ raisin& the 7"estion $hether !a&nit"des are as &reat* and colo"rs are o% s"ch a nat"re* as they appear to people at a distance* or as they appear to those close at hand* and $hether they are s"ch as they appear to the healthy or to the sic#* and $hether those thin&s are hea(y $hich appear so to the $ea# or those $hich appear so to the stron&* and those thin&s tr"e $hich appear to the slee in& or to the $a#in&. )or ob(io"sly they do not thin# these to be open 7"estions' no one* at least* i% $hen he is in ibya he has %ancied one ni&ht that he is in Athens* starts %or the concert hall.-And a&ain $ith re&ard to the %"t"re* as Plato says* s"rely the opinion o% the physician and that o% the i&norant !an are not e7"ally $ei&hty* %or instance* on the 7"estion $hether a !an $ill &et $ell or not.-And a&ain* a!on& sensations the!sel(es the sensation o% a %orei&n ob0ect and that o% the appropriate ob0ect* or that o% a #indred ob0ect and that o% the ob0ect o% the sense in 7"estion* are not e7"ally a"thoritati(e* b"t in the case o% colo"r si&ht* not taste* has the a"thority* and in the case o% %la(o"r taste* not si&ht' each o% $hich senses ne(er says at the sa!e ti!e o% the sa!e ob0ect that it si!"ltaneo"sly is /so and not so/.-B"t not e(en at di%%erent ti!es does one sense disa&ree abo"t the 7"ality* b"t only abo"t that to $hich the 7"ality belon&s. I !ean* %or instance* that the sa!e $ine !i&ht see!* i% either it or one/s body chan&ed* at one ti!e s$eet and at another ti!e not s$eet' b"t at least the s$eet* s"ch as it is $hen it e-ists* has ne(er yet chan&ed* b"t one is al$ays ri&ht abo"t it* and that $hich is to be s$eet is o% necessity o% s"ch and s"ch a nat"re. :et all these (ie$s destroy this necessity* lea(in& nothin& to be o% necessity* as they lea(e no essence o% anythin&' %or the necessary cannot be in this $ay and also in that* so that i% anythin& is o% necessity* it $ill not be /both so and not so/. "And* in &eneral* i% only the sensible e-ists* there $o"ld be nothin& i% ani!ate thin&s $ere not' %or there $o"ld be no %ac"lty o% sense. .o$ the (ie$ that neither the sensible 7"alities nor the sensations $o"ld e-ist is do"btless tr"e +%or they are a%%ections o% the percei(er,* b"t that the s"bstrata $hich ca"se the sensation sho"ld not e-ist e(en apart %ro! sensation is i!possible. )or sensation is s"rely not

the sensation o% itsel%* b"t there is so!ethin& beyond the sensation* $hich !"st be prior to the sensation' %or that $hich !o(es is prior in nat"re to that $hich is !o(ed* and i% they are correlati(e ter!s* this is no less the case. Part B " "There are* both a!on& those $ho ha(e these con(ictions and a!on& those $ho !erely pro%ess these (ie$s* so!e $ho raise a di%%ic"lty by as#in&* $ho is to be the 0"d&e o% the healthy !an* and in &eneral $ho is li#ely to 0"d&e ri&htly on each class o% 7"estions. B"t s"ch in7"iries are li#e p"33lin& o(er the 7"estion $hether $e are no$ asleep or a$a#e. And all s"ch 7"estions ha(e the sa!e !eanin&. These people de!and that a reason shall be &i(en %or e(erythin&' %or they see# a startin&-point* and they see# to &et this by de!onstration* $hile it is ob(io"s %ro! their actions that they ha(e no con(iction. B"t their !ista#e is $hat $e ha(e stated it to be' they see# a reason %or thin&s %or $hich no reason can be &i(en' %or the startin&-point o% de!onstration is not de!onstration. "These* then* !i&ht be easily pers"aded o% this tr"th* %or it is not di%%ic"lt to &rasp' b"t those $ho see# !erely co!p"lsion in ar&"!ent see# $hat is i!possible' %or they de!and to be allo$ed to contradict the!sel(es-a clai! $hich contradicts itsel% %ro! the (ery %irst.-B"t i% not all thin&s are relati(e* b"t so!e are sel%-e-istent* not e(erythin& that appears $ill be tr"e' %or that $hich appears is apparent to so!e one' so that he $ho says all thin&s that appear are tr"e* !a#es all thin&s relati(e. And* there%ore* those $ho as# %or an irresistible ar&"!ent* and at the sa!e ti!e de!and to be called to acco"nt %or their (ie$s* !"st &"ard the!sel(es by sayin& that the tr"th is not that $hat appears e-ists* b"t that $hat appears e-ists %or hi! to $ho! it appears* and $hen* and to the sense to $hich* and "nder the conditions "nder $hich it appears. And i% they &i(e an acco"nt o% their (ie$* b"t do not &i(e it in this $ay* they $ill soon %ind the!sel(es contradictin& the!sel(es. )or it is possible that the sa!e thin& !ay appear to be honey to the si&ht* b"t not to the taste* and that* since $e ha(e t$o eyes* thin&s !ay not appear the sa!e to each* i% their si&ht is "nli#e. )or to those $ho %or the reasons na!ed so!e ti!e a&o say that $hat appears is tr"e* and there%ore that all thin&s are ali#e %alse and tr"e* %or thin&s do not appear either the sa!e to all !en or al$ays the sa!e to the sa!e !an* b"t o%ten ha(e contrary appearances at the sa!e ti!e +%or to"ch says there are t$o ob0ects $hen $e cross o"r %in&ers* $hile si&ht says there is one,-to these $e shall say /yes* b"t not to the sa!e sense and in the sa!e part o% it and "nder the sa!e conditions and at the sa!e ti!e/* so that $hat appears $ill be $ith these 7"ali%ications tr"e. B"t perhaps %or this reason those $ho ar&"e th"s not beca"se they %eel a di%%ic"lty b"t %or the sa#e o% ar&"!ent* sho"ld say that this is not tr"e* b"t tr"e %or this !an. And as has been said be%ore* they !"st !a#e e(erythin& relati(e-relati(e to opinion and perception* so that nothin& either has co!e to be or $ill be $itho"t so!e one/s %irst thin#in& so. B"t i% thin&s ha(e co!e to be or $ill be* e(idently not all thin&s $ill be relati(e to opinion.-A&ain* i% a thin& is one* it is in relation to one thin& or to a de%inite n"!ber o% thin&s' and i% the sa!e thin&

is both hal% and e7"al* it is not to the do"ble that the e7"al is correlati(e. I%* then* in relation to that $hich thin#s* !an and that $hich is tho"&ht are the sa!e* !an $ill not be that $hich thin#s* b"t only that $hich is tho"&ht. And i% each thin& is to be relati(e to that $hich thin#s* that $hich thin#s $ill be relati(e to an in%inity o% speci%ically di%%erent thin&s. " et this* then* s"%%ice to sho$ +1, that the !ost indisp"table o% all belie%s is that contradictory state!ents are not at the sa!e ti!e tr"e* and +6, $hat conse7"ences %ollo$ %ro! the assertion that they are* and +;, $hy people do assert this. .o$ since it is i!possible that contradictories sho"ld be at the sa!e ti!e tr"e o% the sa!e thin&* ob(io"sly contraries also cannot belon& at the sa!e ti!e to the sa!e thin&. )or o% contraries* one is a pri(ation no less than it is a contrary-and a pri(ation o% the essential nat"re' and pri(ation is the denial o% a predicate to a deter!inate &en"s. I%* then* it is i!possible to a%%ir! and deny tr"ly at the sa!e ti!e* it is also i!possible that contraries sho"ld belon& to a s"b0ect at the sa!e ti!e* "nless both belon& to it in partic"lar relations* or one in a partic"lar relation and one $itho"t 7"ali%ication. Part C " "B"t on the other hand there cannot be an inter!ediate bet$een contradictories* b"t o% one s"b0ect $e !"st either a%%ir! or deny any one predicate. This is clear* in the %irst place* i% $e de%ine $hat the tr"e and the %alse are. To say o% $hat is that it is not* or o% $hat is not that it is* is %alse* $hile to say o% $hat is that it is* and o% $hat is not that it is not* is tr"e' so that he $ho says o% anythin& that it is* or that it is not* $ill say either $hat is tr"e or $hat is %alse' b"t neither $hat is nor $hat is not is said to be or not to be.-A&ain* the inter!ediate bet$een the contradictories $ill be so either in the $ay in $hich &rey is bet$een blac# and $hite* or as that $hich is neither !an nor horse is bet$een !an and horse. +a, I% it $ere o% the latter #ind* it co"ld not chan&e into the e-tre!es +%or chan&e is %ro! not-&ood to &ood* or %ro! &ood to not-&ood,* b"t as a !atter o% %act $hen there is an inter!ediate it is al$ays obser(ed to chan&e into the e-tre!es. )or there is no chan&e e-cept to opposites and to their inter!ediates. +b, B"t i% it is really inter!ediate* in this $ay too there $o"ld ha(e to be a chan&e to $hite* $hich $as not %ro! not-$hite' b"t as it is* this is ne(er seen.-A&ain* e(ery ob0ect o% "nderstandin& or reason the "nderstandin& either a%%ir!s or denies-this is ob(io"s %ro! the de%inition-$hene(er it says $hat is tr"e or %alse. When it connects in one $ay by assertion or ne&ation* it says $hat is tr"e* and $hen it does so in another $ay* $hat is %alse.-A&ain* there !"st be an inter!ediate bet$een all contradictories* i% one is not ar&"in& !erely %or the sa#e o% ar&"!ent' so that it $ill be possible %or a !an to say $hat is neither tr"e nor "ntr"e* and there $ill be a !iddle bet$een that $hich is and that $hich is not* so that there $ill also be a #ind o% chan&e inter!ediate bet$een &eneration and destr"ction.-A&ain* in all classes in $hich the ne&ation o% an attrib"te in(ol(es the assertion o% its contrary* e(en in these there $ill be an inter!ediate' %or instance* in the sphere o% n"!bers there $ill be n"!ber $hich is neither odd nor not-odd. B"t this is i!possible* as is ob(io"s %ro! the de%inition.-A&ain* the process

$ill &o on ad in%init"!* and the n"!ber o% realities $ill be not only hal% as &reat a&ain* b"t e(en &reater. )or a&ain it $ill be possible to deny this inter!ediate $ith re%erence both to its assertion and to its ne&ation* and this ne$ ter! $ill be so!e de%inite thin&' %or its essence is so!ethin& di%%erent.-A&ain* $hen a !an* on bein& as#ed $hether a thin& is $hite* says /no/* he has denied nothin& e-cept that it is' and its not bein& is a ne&ation. "2o!e people ha(e ac7"ired this opinion as other parado-ical opinions ha(e been ac7"ired' $hen !en cannot re%"te eristical ar&"!ents* they &i(e in to the ar&"!ent and a&ree that the concl"sion is tr"e. This* then* is $hy so!e e-press this (ie$' others do so beca"se they de!and a reason %or e(erythin&. And the startin&-point in dealin& $ith all s"ch people is de%inition. .o$ the de%inition rests on the necessity o% their !eanin& so!ethin&' %or the %or! o% $ords o% $hich the $ord is a si&n $ill be its de%inition.-While the doctrine o% 4eraclit"s* that all thin&s are and are not* see!s to !a#e e(erythin& tr"e* that o% Ana-a&oras* that there is an inter!ediate bet$een the ter!s o% a contradiction* see!s to !a#e e(erythin& %alse' %or $hen thin&s are !i-ed* the !i-t"re is neither &ood nor not-&ood* so that one cannot say anythin& that is tr"e. Part D " "In (ie$ o% these distinctions it is ob(io"s that the one-sided theories $hich so!e people e-press abo"t all thin&s cannot be (alid-on the one hand the theory that nothin& is tr"e +%or* say they* there is nothin& to pre(ent e(ery state!ent %ro! bein& li#e the state!ent /the dia&onal o% a s7"are is co!!ens"rate $ith the side/,* on the other hand the theory that e(erythin& is tr"e. These (ie$s are practically the sa!e as that o% 4eraclit"s' %or he $ho says that all thin&s are tr"e and all are %alse also !a#es each o% these state!ents separately* so that since they are i!possible* the do"ble state!ent !"st be i!possible too.-A&ain* there are ob(io"sly contradictories $hich cannot be at the sa!e ti!e tr"e-nor on the other hand can all state!ents be %alse' yet this $o"ld see! !ore possible in the li&ht o% $hat has been said.B"t a&ainst all s"ch (ie$s $e !"st post"late* as $e said abo(e*/ not that so!ethin& is or is not* b"t that so!ethin& has a !eanin&* so that $e !"st ar&"e %ro! a de%inition* (i3. by ass"!in& $hat %alsity or tr"th !eans. I% that $hich it is tr"e to a%%ir! is nothin& other than that $hich it is %alse to deny* it is i!possible that all state!ents sho"ld be %alse' %or one side o% the contradiction !"st be tr"e. A&ain* i% it is necessary $ith re&ard to e(erythin& either to assert or to deny it* it is i!possible that both sho"ld be %alse' %or it is one side o% the contradiction that is %alse.-There%ore all s"ch (ie$s are also e-posed to the o%ten e-pressed ob0ection* that they destroy the!sel(es. )or he $ho says that e(erythin& is tr"e !a#es e(en the state!ent contrary to his o$n tr"e* and there%ore his o$n not tr"e +%or the contrary state!ent denies that it is tr"e,* $hile he $ho says e(erythin& is %alse !a#es hi!sel% also %alse.-And i% the %or!er person e-cepts the contrary state!ent* sayin& it alone is not tr"e* $hile the latter e-cepts his o$n as bein& not %alse* none the less they are dri(en to post"late the tr"th or %alsity o% an in%inite n"!ber o% state!ents' %or that $hich says the tr"e state!ent is tr"e is tr"e* and this process $ill &o on to in%inity.

"5(idently* a&ain* those $ho say all thin&s are at rest are not ri&ht* nor are those $ho say all thin&s are in !o(e!ent. )or i% all thin&s are at rest* the sa!e state!ents $ill al$ays be tr"e and the sa!e al$ays %alse*-b"t this ob(io"sly chan&es' %or he $ho !a#es a state!ent* hi!sel% at one ti!e $as not and a&ain $ill not be. And i% all thin&s are in !otion* nothin& $ill be tr"e' e(erythin& there%ore $ill be %alse. B"t it has been sho$n that this is i!possible. A&ain* it !"st be that $hich is that chan&es' %or chan&e is %ro! so!ethin& to so!ethin&. B"t a&ain it is not the case that all thin&s are at rest or in !otion so!eti!es* and nothin& %or e(er' %or there is so!ethin& $hich al$ays !o(es the thin&s that are in !otion* and the %irst !o(er is itsel% "n!o(ed. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK G Part 1 " "/B59I..I.9/ !eans +1, that part o% a thin& %ro! $hich one $o"ld start %irst* e.& a line or a road has a be&innin& in either o% the contrary directions. +6, That %ro! $hich each thin& $o"ld best be ori&inated* e.&. e(en in learnin& $e !"st so!eti!es be&in not %ro! the %irst point and the be&innin& o% the s"b0ect* b"t %ro! the point %ro! $hich $e sho"ld learn !ost easily. +=, That %ro! $hich* as an i!!anent part* a thin& %irst co!es to be* e*&* as the #eel o% a ship and the %o"ndation o% a ho"se* $hile in ani!als so!e s"ppose the heart* others the brain* others so!e other part* to be o% this nat"re. +=, That %ro! $hich* not as an i!!anent part* a thin& %irst co!es to be* and %ro! $hich the !o(e!ent or the chan&e nat"rally %irst be&ins* as a child co!es %ro! its %ather and its !other* and a %i&ht %ro! ab"si(e lan&"a&e. +?, That at $hose $ill that $hich is !o(ed is !o(ed and that $hich chan&es chan&es* e.&. the !a&istracies in cities* and oli&archies and !onarchies and tyrannies* are called arhchai* and so are the arts* and o% these especially the architectonic arts. +B, That %ro! $hich a thin& can %irst be #no$n*-this also is called the be&innin& o% the thin&* e.&. the hypotheses are the be&innin&s o% de!onstrations. +1a"ses are spo#en o% in an e7"al n"!ber o% senses' %or all ca"ses are be&innin&s., It is co!!on* then* to all be&innin&s to be the %irst point %ro! $hich a thin& either is or co!es to be or is #no$n' b"t o% these so!e are i!!anent in the thin& and others are o"tside. 4ence the nat"re o% a thin& is a be&innin&* and so is the ele!ent o% a thin&* and tho"&ht and $ill* and essence* and the %inal ca"se-%or the &ood and the bea"ti%"l are the be&innin& both o% the #no$led&e and o% the !o(e!ent o% !any thin&s. Part 6 " "/1a"se/ !eans +1, that %ro! $hich* as i!!anent !aterial* a thin& co!es into bein&* e.&. the bron3e is the ca"se o% the stat"e and the sil(er o% the sa"cer* and so are the classes $hich incl"de these.

+6, The %or! or pattern* i.e. the de%inition o% the essence* and the classes $hich incl"de this +e.&. the ratio 6>1 and n"!ber in &eneral are ca"ses o% the octa(e,* and the parts incl"ded in the de%inition. +;, That %ro! $hich the chan&e or the restin& %ro! chan&e %irst be&ins' e.&. the ad(iser is a ca"se o% the action* and the %ather a ca"se o% the child* and in &eneral the !a#er a ca"se o% the thin& !ade and the chan&e-prod"cin& o% the chan&in&. +=, The end* i.e. that %or the sa#e o% $hich a thin& is' e.&. health is the ca"se o% $al#in&. )or /Why does one $al#</ $e say' /that one !ay be healthy/' and in spea#in& th"s $e thin# $e ha(e &i(en the ca"se. The sa!e is tr"e o% all the !eans that inter(ene be%ore the end* $hen so!ethin& else has p"t the process in !otion* as e.&. thinnin& or p"r&in& or dr"&s or instr"!ents inter(ene be%ore health is reached' %or all these are %or the sa#e o% the end* tho"&h they di%%er %ro! one another in that so!e are instr"!ents and others are actions. "These* then* are practically all the senses in $hich ca"ses are spo#en o%* and as they are spo#en o% in se(eral senses it %ollo$s both that there are se(eral ca"ses o% the sa!e thin&* and in no accidental sense +e.&. both the art o% sc"lpt"re and the bron3e are ca"ses o% the stat"e not in respect o% anythin& else b"t 7"a stat"e' not* ho$e(er* in the sa!e $ay* b"t the one as !atter and the other as so"rce o% the !o(e!ent,* and that thin&s can be ca"ses o% one another +e.&. e-ercise o% &ood condition* and the latter o% e-ercise' not* ho$e(er* in the sa!e $ay* b"t the one as end and the other as so"rce o% !o(e!ent,.-A&ain* the sa!e thin& is the ca"se o% contraries' %or that $hich $hen present ca"ses a partic"lar thin&* $e so!eti!es char&e* $hen absent* $ith the contrary* e.&. $e i!p"te the ship$rec# to the absence o% the steers!an* $hose presence $as the ca"se o% sa%ety' and both-the presence and the pri(ation-are ca"ses as so"rces o% !o(e!ent. "All the ca"ses no$ !entioned %all "nder %o"r senses $hich are the !ost ob(io"s. )or the letters are the ca"se o% syllables* and the !aterial is the ca"se o% !an"%act"red thin&s* and %ire and earth and all s"ch thin&s are the ca"ses o% bodies* and the parts are ca"ses o% the $hole* and the hypotheses are ca"ses o% the concl"sion* in the sense that they are that o"t o% $hich these respecti(ely are !ade' b"t o% these so!e are ca"se as the s"bstrat"! +e.&. the parts,* others as the essence +the $hole* the synthesis* and the %or!,. The se!en* the physician* the ad(iser* and in &eneral the a&ent* are all so"rces o% chan&e or o% rest. The re!ainder are ca"ses as the end and the &ood o% the other thin&s' %or that %or the sa#e o% $hich other thin&s are tends to be the best and the end o% the other thin&s' let "s ta#e it as !a#in& no di%%erence $hether $e call it &ood or apparent &ood. "These* then* are the ca"ses* and this is the n"!ber o% their #inds* b"t the (arieties o% ca"ses are !any in n"!ber* tho"&h $hen s"!!ari3ed these also are co!parati(ely %e$. 1a"ses are spo#en o% in !any senses* and e(en o% those $hich are o% the sa!e #ind so!e are ca"ses in a prior and others in a posterior sense* e.&. both /the physician/ and /the pro%essional !an/ are ca"ses o% health* and both /the ratio 6>1/ and /n"!ber/ are ca"ses o% the octa(e* and the classes that incl"de any partic"lar ca"se are al$ays ca"ses o% the partic"lar e%%ect. A&ain* there are accidental ca"ses and the classes $hich incl"de these' e.&.

$hile in one sense /the sc"lptor/ ca"ses the stat"e* in another sense /Polyclit"s/ ca"ses it* beca"se the sc"lptor happens to be Polyclit"s' and the classes that incl"de the accidental ca"se are also ca"ses* e.&. /!an/-or in &eneral /ani!al/-is the ca"se o% the stat"e* beca"se Polyclit"s is a !an* and !an is an ani!al. O% accidental ca"ses also so!e are !ore re!ote or nearer than others* as* %or instance* i% /the $hite/ and /the !"sical/ $ere called ca"ses o% the stat"e* and not only /Polyclit"s/ or /!an/. B"t besides all these (arieties o% ca"ses* $hether proper or accidental* so!e are called ca"ses as bein& able to act* others as actin&' e.&. the ca"se o% the ho"se/s bein& b"ilt is a b"ilder* or a b"ilder $ho is b"ildin&.-The sa!e (ariety o% lan&"a&e $ill be %o"nd $ith re&ard to the e%%ects o% ca"ses' e.&. a thin& !ay be called the ca"se o% this stat"e or o% a stat"e or in &eneral o% an i!a&e* and o% this bron3e or o% bron3e or o% !atter in &eneral' and si!ilarly in the case o% accidental e%%ects. A&ain* both accidental and proper ca"ses !ay be spo#en o% in co!bination' e.&. $e !ay say not /Polyclit"s/ nor /the sc"lptor/ b"t /Polyclit"s the sc"lptor/. :et all these are b"t si- in n"!ber* $hile each is spo#en o% in t$o $ays' %or +A, they are ca"ses either as the indi(id"al* or as the &en"s* or as the accidental* or as the &en"s that incl"des the accidental* and these either as co!bined* or as ta#en si!ply' and +B, all !ay be ta#en as actin& or as ha(in& a capacity. B"t they di%%er inas!"ch as the actin& ca"ses* i.e. the indi(id"als* e-ist* or do not e-ist* si!"ltaneo"sly $ith the thin&s o% $hich they are ca"ses* e.&. this partic"lar !an $ho is healin&* $ith this partic"lar !an $ho is reco(erin& health* and this partic"lar b"ilder $ith this partic"lar thin& that is bein& b"ilt' b"t the potential ca"ses are not al$ays in this case' %or the ho"se does not perish at the sa!e ti!e as the b"ilder. Part ; " "/5le!ent/ !eans +1, the pri!ary co!ponent i!!anent in a thin&* and indi(isible in #ind into other #inds' e.&. the ele!ents o% speech are the parts o% $hich speech consists and into $hich it is "lti!ately di(ided* $hile they are no lon&er di(ided into other %or!s o% speech di%%erent in #ind %ro! the!. I% they are di(ided* their parts are o% the sa!e #ind* as a part o% $ater is $ater +$hile a part o% the syllable is not a syllable,. 2i!ilarly those $ho spea# o% the ele!ents o% bodies !ean the thin&s into $hich bodies are "lti!ately di(ided* $hile they are no lon&er di(ided into other thin&s di%%erin& in #ind' and $hether the thin&s o% this sort are one or !ore* they call these ele!ents. The so-called ele!ents o% &eo!etrical proo%s* and in &eneral the ele!ents o% de!onstrations* ha(e a si!ilar character' %or the pri!ary de!onstrations* each o% $hich is i!plied in !any de!onstrations* are called ele!ents o% de!onstrations' and the pri!ary syllo&is!s* $hich ha(e three ter!s and proceed by !eans o% one !iddle* are o% this nat"re. "+6, People also trans%er the $ord /ele!ent/ %ro! this !eanin& and apply it to that $hich* bein& one and s!all* is "se%"l %or !any p"rposes' %or $hich reason $hat is s!all and si!ple and indi(isible is called an ele!ent. 4ence co!e the %acts that the !ost "ni(ersal thin&s are ele!ents +beca"se each o% the! bein& one and si!ple is present in a pl"rality o% thin&s* either in all or in as !any as possible,* and

that "nity and the point are tho"&ht by so!e to be %irst principles. .o$* since the so-called &enera are "ni(ersal and indi(isible +%or there is no de%inition o% the!,* so!e say the &enera are ele!ents* and !ore so than the di%%erentia* beca"se the &en"s is !ore "ni(ersal' %or $here the di%%erentia is present* the &en"s acco!panies it* b"t $here the &en"s is present* the di%%erentia is not al$ays so. It is co!!on to all the !eanin&s that the ele!ent o% each thin& is the %irst co!ponent i!!anent in each. Part = " "/.at"re/ !eans +1, the &enesis o% &ro$in& thin&s-the !eanin& $hich $o"ld be s"&&ested i% one $ere to prono"nce the /"/ in ph"sis lon&. +6, That i!!anent part o% a &ro$in& thin&* %ro! $hich its &ro$th %irst proceeds. +;, The so"rce %ro! $hich the pri!ary !o(e!ent in each nat"ral ob0ect is present in it in (irt"e o% its o$n essence. Those thin&s are said to &ro$ $hich deri(e increase %ro! so!ethin& else by contact and either by or&anic "nity* or by or&anic adhesion as in the case o% e!bryos. Or&anic "nity di%%ers %ro! contact' %or in the latter case there need not be anythin& besides the contact* b"t in or&anic "nities there is so!ethin& identical in both parts* $hich !a#es the! &ro$ to&ether instead o% !erely to"chin&* and be one in respect o% contin"ity and 7"antity* tho"&h not o% 7"ality.-+=, /.at"re/ !eans the pri!ary !aterial o% $hich any nat"ral ob0ect consists or o"t o% $hich it is !ade* $hich is relati(ely "nshaped and cannot be chan&ed %ro! its o$n potency* as e.&. bron3e is said to be the nat"re o% a stat"e and o% bron3e "tensils* and $ood the nat"re o% $ooden thin&s' and so in all other cases' %or $hen a prod"ct is !ade o"t o% these !aterials* the %irst !atter is preser(ed thro"&ho"t. )or it is in this $ay that people call the ele!ents o% nat"ral ob0ects also their nat"re* so!e na!in& %ire* others earth* others air* others $ater* others so!ethin& else o% the sort* and so!e na!in& !ore than one o% these* and others all o% the!.-+?, /.at"re/ !eans the essence o% nat"ral ob0ects* as $ith those $ho say the nat"re is the pri!ary !ode o% co!position* or as 5!pedocles says>- " ".othin& that is has a nat"re* "B"t only !i-in& and partin& o% the !i-ed* "And nat"re is b"t a na!e &i(en the! by !en. " 4ence as re&ards the thin&s that are or co!e to be by nat"re* tho"&h that %ro! $hich they nat"rally co!e to be or are is already present* $e say they ha(e not their nat"re yet* "nless they ha(e their %or! or shape. That $hich co!prises both o% these e-ists by nat"re* e.&. the ani!als and their parts' and not only is the %irst !atter nat"re +and this in t$o senses* either the %irst* co"ntin& %ro! the thin&* or the %irst in &eneral' e.&. in the case o% $or#s in bron3e* bron3e is %irst $ith re%erence to the!* b"t in &eneral perhaps $ater is %irst* i% all thin&s that can be !elted are $ater,* b"t also the %or! or essence* $hich is the end o% the process o% beco!in&.-+B, By an e-tension o% !eanin& %ro! this sense o% /nat"re/ e(ery essence in &eneral has co!e to be called a /nat"re/* beca"se the nat"re o% a thin& is one #ind o% essence.

")ro! $hat has been said* then* it is plain that nat"re in the pri!ary and strict sense is the essence o% thin&s $hich ha(e in the!sel(es* as s"ch* a so"rce o% !o(e!ent' %or the !atter is called the nat"re beca"se it is 7"ali%ied to recei(e this* and processes o% beco!in& and &ro$in& are called nat"re beca"se they are !o(e!ents proceedin& %ro! this. And nat"re in this sense is the so"rce o% the !o(e!ent o% nat"ral ob0ects* bein& present in the! so!eho$* either potentially or in co!plete reality. Part ? " "We call /necessary/ +1* a, that $itho"t $hich* as a condition* a thin& cannot li(e' e.&. breathin& and %ood are necessary %or an ani!al' %or it is incapable o% e-istin& $itho"t these' +b, the conditions $itho"t $hich &ood cannot be or co!e to be* or $itho"t $hich $e cannot &et rid or be %reed o% e(il' e.&. drin#in& the !edicine is necessary in order that $e !ay be c"red o% disease* and a !an/s sailin& to Ae&ina is necessary in order that he !ay &et his !oney.-+6, The co!p"lsory and co!p"lsion* i.e. that $hich i!pedes and tends to hinder* contrary to i!p"lse and p"rpose. )or the co!p"lsory is called necessary +$hence the necessary is pain%"l* as 5(en"s says> /)or e(ery necessary thin& is e(er ir#so!e/,* and co!p"lsion is a %or! o% necessity* as 2ophocles says> /B"t %orce necessitates !e to this act/. And necessity is held to be so!ethin& that cannot be pers"aded-and ri&htly* %or it is contrary to the !o(e!ent $hich accords $ith p"rpose and $ith reasonin&.-+;, We say that that $hich cannot be other$ise is necessarily as it is. And %ro! this sense o% /necessary/ all the others are so!eho$ deri(ed' %or a thin& is said to do or s"%%er $hat is necessary in the sense o% co!p"lsory* only $hen it cannot act accordin& to its i!p"lse beca"se o% the co!pellin& %orces-$hich i!plies that necessity is that beca"se o% $hich a thin& cannot be other$ise' and si!ilarly as re&ards the conditions o% li%e and o% &ood' %or $hen in the one case &ood* in the other li%e and bein&* are not possible $itho"t certain conditions* these are necessary* and this #ind o% ca"se is a sort o% necessity. A&ain* de!onstration is a necessary thin& beca"se the concl"sion cannot be other$ise* i% there has been de!onstration in the "n7"ali%ied sense' and the ca"ses o% this necessity are the %irst pre!isses* i.e. the %act that the propositions %ro! $hich the syllo&is! proceeds cannot be other$ise. ".o$ so!e thin&s o$e their necessity to so!ethin& other than the!sel(es' others do not* b"t are the!sel(es the so"rce o% necessity in other thin&s. There%ore the necessary in the pri!ary and strict sense is the si!ple' %or this does not ad!it o% !ore states than one* so that it cannot e(en be in one state and also in another' %or i% it did it $o"ld already be in !ore than one. I%* then* there are any thin&s that are eternal and "n!o(able* nothin& co!p"lsory or a&ainst their nat"re attaches to the!. Part B " "/One/ !eans +1, that $hich is one by accident* +6, that $hich is one by its o$n nat"re. +1, Instances o% the accidentally one are /1orisc"s and $hat is !"sical/* and /!"sical 1orisc"s/ +%or it is the sa!e thin& to say /1orisc"s and $hat is !"sical/* and /!"sical 1orisc"s/,* and

/$hat is !"sical and $hat is 0"st/* and /!"sical 1orisc"s and 0"st 1orisc"s/. )or all o% these are called one by (irt"e o% an accident* /$hat is 0"st and $hat is !"sical/ beca"se they are accidents o% one s"bstance* /$hat is !"sical and 1orisc"s/ beca"se the one is an accident o% the other' and si!ilarly in a sense /!"sical 1orisc"s/ is one $ith /1orisc"s/ beca"se one o% the parts o% the phrase is an accident o% the other* i.e. /!"sical/ is an accident o% 1orisc"s' and /!"sical 1orisc"s/ is one $ith /0"st 1orisc"s/ beca"se one part o% each is an accident o% one and the sa!e s"b0ect. The case is si!ilar i% the accident is predicated o% a &en"s or o% any "ni(ersal na!e* e.&. i% one says that !an is the sa!e as /!"sical !an/' %or this is either beca"se /!"sical/ is an accident o% !an* $hich is one s"bstance* or beca"se both are accidents o% so!e indi(id"al* e.&. 1orisc"s. Both* ho$e(er* do not belon& to hi! in the sa!e $ay* b"t one pres"!ably as &en"s and incl"ded in his s"bstance* the other as a state or a%%ection o% the s"bstance. "The thin&s* then* that are called one in (irt"e o% an accident* are called so in this $ay. +6, O% thin&s that are called one in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re so!e +a, are so called beca"se they are contin"o"s* e.&. a b"ndle is !ade one by a band* and pieces o% $ood are !ade one by &l"e' and a line* e(en i% it is bent* is called one i% it is contin"o"s* as each part o% the body is* e.&. the le& or the ar!. O% these the!sel(es* the contin"o"s by nat"re are !ore one than the contin"o"s by art. A thin& is called contin"o"s $hich has by its o$n nat"re one !o(e!ent and cannot ha(e any other' and the !o(e!ent is one $hen it is indi(isible* and it is indi(isible in respect o% ti!e. Those thin&s are contin"o"s by their o$n nat"re $hich are one not !erely by contact' %or i% yo" p"t pieces o% $ood to"chin& one another* yo" $ill not say these are one piece o% $ood or one body or one contin""! o% any other sort. Thin&s* then* that are contin"o"s in any $ay called one* e(en i% they ad!it o% bein& bent* and still !ore those $hich cannot be bent' e.&. the shin or the thi&h is !ore one than the le&* beca"se the !o(e!ent o% the le& need not be one. And the strai&ht line is !ore one than the bent' b"t that $hich is bent and has an an&le $e call both one and not one* beca"se its !o(e!ent !ay be either si!"ltaneo"s or not si!"ltaneo"s' b"t that o% the strai&ht line is al$ays si!"ltaneo"s* and no part o% it $hich has !a&nit"de rests $hile another !o(es* as in the bent line. "+b* i, Thin&s are called one in another sense beca"se their s"bstrat"! does not di%%er in #ind' it does not di%%er in the case o% thin&s $hose #ind is indi(isible to sense. The s"bstrat"! !eant is either the nearest to* or the %arthest %ro!* the %inal state. )or* one the one hand* $ine is said to be one and $ater is said to be one* 7"a indi(isible in #ind' and* on the other hand* all 0"ices* e.&. oil and $ine* are said to be one* and so are all thin&s that can be !elted* beca"se the "lti!ate s"bstrat"! o% all is the sa!e' %or all o% these are $ater or air. "+ii, Those thin&s also are called one $hose &en"s is one tho"&h distin&"ished by opposite di%%erentiae-these too are all called one beca"se the

&en"s $hich "nderlies the di%%erentiae is one +e.&. horse* !an* and do& %or! a "nity* beca"se all are ani!als,* and indeed in a $ay si!ilar to that in $hich the !atter is one. These are so!eti!es called one in this $ay* b"t so!eti!es it is the hi&her &en"s that is said to be the sa!e +i% they are in%i!ae species o% their &en"s,-the &en"s abo(e the pro-i!ate &enera' e.&. the isosceles and the e7"ilateral are one and the sa!e %i&"re beca"se both are trian&les' b"t they are not the sa!e trian&les. "+c, T$o thin&s are called one* $hen the de%inition $hich states the essence o% one is indi(isible %ro! another de%inition $hich sho$s "s the other +tho"&h in itsel% e(ery de%inition is di(isible,. Th"s e(en that $hich has increased or is di!inishin& is one* beca"se its de%inition is one* as* in the case o% plane %i&"res* is the de%inition o% their %or!. In &eneral those thin&s the tho"&ht o% $hose essence is indi(isible* and cannot separate the! either in ti!e or in place or in de%inition* are !ost o% all one* and o% these especially those $hich are s"bstances. )or in &eneral those thin&s that do not ad!it o% di(ision are called one in so %ar as they do not ad!it o% it' e.&. i% t$o thin&s are indistin&"ishable 7"a !an* they are one #ind o% !an' i% 7"a ani!al* one #ind o% ani!al' i% 7"a !a&nit"de* one #ind o% !a&nit"de.-.o$ !ost thin&s are called one beca"se they either do or ha(e or s"%%er or are related to so!ethin& else that is one* b"t the thin&s that are pri!arily called one are those $hose s"bstance is one*-and one either in contin"ity or in %or! or in de%inition' %or $e co"nt as !ore than one either thin&s that are not contin"o"s* or those $hose %or! is not one* or those $hose de%inition is not one. "While in a sense $e call anythin& one i% it is a 7"antity and contin"o"s* in a sense $e do not "nless it is a $hole* i.e. "nless it has "nity o% %or!' e.&. i% $e sa$ the parts o% a shoe p"t to&ether anyho$ $e sho"ld not call the! one all the sa!e +"nless beca"se o% their contin"ity,' $e do this only i% they are p"t to&ether so as to be a shoe and to ha(e already a certain sin&le %or!. This is $hy the circle is o% all lines !ost tr"ly one* beca"se it is $hole and co!plete. "+;, The essence o% $hat is one is to be so!e #ind o% be&innin& o% n"!ber' %or the %irst !eas"re is the be&innin&* since that by $hich $e %irst #no$ each class is the %irst !eas"re o% the class' the one* then* is the be&innin& o% the #no$able re&ardin& each class. B"t the one is not the sa!e in all classes. )or here it is a 7"arter-tone* and there it is the (o$el or the consonant' and there is another "nit o% $ei&ht and another o% !o(e!ent. B"t e(ery$here the one is indi(isible either in 7"antity or in #ind. .o$ that $hich is indi(isible in 7"antity is called a "nit i% it is not di(isible in any di!ension and is $itho"t position* a point i% it is not di(isible in any di!ension and has position* a line i% it is di(isible in one di!ension* a plane i% in t$o* a body i% di(isible in 7"antity in all--i.e. in three--di!ensions. And* re(ersin& the order* that $hich is di(isible in t$o di!ensions is a plane* that $hich is di(isible in one a line* that $hich is in no $ay di(isible in 7"antity is a point or a "nit*-that $hich has not position a "nit* that $hich has position a point. "A&ain* so!e thin&s are one in n"!ber* others in species* others in &en"s* others by analo&y' in n"!ber those $hose !atter is one* in

species those $hose de%inition is one* in &en"s those to $hich the sa!e %i&"re o% predication applies* by analo&y those $hich are related as a third thin& is to a %o"rth. The latter #inds o% "nity are al$ays %o"nd $hen the %or!er are' e.&. thin&s that are one in n"!ber are also one in species* $hile thin&s that are one in species are not all one in n"!ber' b"t thin&s that are one in species are all one in &en"s* $hile thin&s that are so in &en"s are not all one in species b"t are all one by analo&y' $hile thin&s that are one by analo&y are not all one in &en"s. "5(idently /!any/ $ill ha(e !eanin&s opposite to those o% /one/' so!e thin&s are !any beca"se they are not contin"o"s* others beca"se their !atter-either the pro-i!ate !atter or the "lti!ate-is di(isible in #ind* others beca"se the de%initions $hich state their essence are !ore than one. Part C " "Thin&s are said to /be/ +1, in an accidental sense* +6, by their o$n nat"re. "+1, In an accidental sense* e.&. $e say /the ri&hteo"s doer is !"sical/* and /the !an is !"sical/* and /the !"sician is a !an/* 0"st as $e say /the !"sician b"ilds/* beca"se the b"ilder happens to be !"sical or the !"sician to be a b"ilder' %or here /one thin& is another/ !eans /one is an accident o% another/. 2o in the cases $e ha(e !entioned' %or $hen $e say /the !an is !"sical/ and /the !"sician is a !an/* or /he $ho is pale is !"sical/ or /the !"sician is pale/* the last t$o !ean that both attrib"tes are accidents o% the sa!e thin&' the %irst that the attrib"te is an accident o% that $hich is* $hile /the !"sical is a !an/ !eans that /!"sical/ is an accident o% a !an. +In this sense* too* the not-pale is said to be* beca"se that o% $hich it is an accident is., Th"s $hen one thin& is said in an accidental sense to be another* this is either beca"se both belon& to the sa!e thin&* and this is* or beca"se that to $hich the attrib"te belon&s is* or beca"se the s"b0ect $hich has as an attrib"te that o% $hich it is itsel% predicated* itsel% is. "+6, The #inds o% essential bein& are precisely those that are indicated by the %i&"res o% predication' %or the senses o% /bein&/ are 0"st as !any as these %i&"res. 2ince* then* so!e predicates indicate $hat the s"b0ect is* others its 7"ality* others 7"antity* others relation* others acti(ity or passi(ity* others its /$here/* others its /$hen/* /bein&/ has a !eanin& ans$erin& to each o% these. )or there is no di%%erence bet$een /the !an is reco(erin&/ and /the !an reco(ers/* nor bet$een /the !an is $al#in& or c"ttin&/ and /the !an $al#s/ or /c"ts/' and si!ilarly in all other cases. "+;, A&ain* /bein&/ and /is/ !ean that a state!ent is tr"e* /not bein&/ that it is not tr"e b"t %alses-and this ali#e in the case o% a%%ir!ation and o% ne&ation' e.&. /2ocrates is !"sical/ !eans that this is tr"e* or /2ocrates is not-pale/ !eans that this is tr"e' b"t /the dia&onal o% the s7"are is not co!!ens"rate $ith the side/ !eans that it is %alse to say it is. "+=, A&ain* /bein&/ and /that $hich is/ !ean that so!e o% the thin&s

$e ha(e !entioned /are/ potentially* others in co!plete reality. )or $e say both o% that $hich sees potentially and o% that $hich sees act"ally* that it is /seein&/* and both o% that $hich can act"ali3e its #no$led&e and o% that $hich is act"ali3in& it* that it #no$s* and both o% that to $hich rest is already present and o% that $hich can rest* that it rests. And si!ilarly in the case o% s"bstances' $e say the 4er!es is in the stone* and the hal% o% the line is in the line* and $e say o% that $hich is not yet ripe that it is corn. When a thin& is potential and $hen it is not yet potential !"st be e-plained else$here. Part D " "We call /s"bstance/ +1, the si!ple bodies* i.e. earth and %ire and $ater and e(erythin& o% the sort* and in &eneral bodies and the thin&s co!posed o% the!* both ani!als and di(ine bein&s* and the parts o% these. All these are called s"bstance beca"se they are not predicated o% a s"b0ect b"t e(erythin& else is predicated o% the!.-+6, That $hich* bein& present in s"ch thin&s as are not predicated o% a s"b0ect* is the ca"se o% their bein&* as the so"l is o% the bein& o% an ani!al.-+;, The parts $hich are present in s"ch thin&s* li!itin& the! and !ar#in& the! as indi(id"als* and by $hose destr"ction the $hole is destroyed* as the body is by the destr"ction o% the plane* as so!e say* and the plane by the destr"ction o% the line' and in &eneral n"!ber is tho"&ht by so!e to be o% this nat"re' %or i% it is destroyed* they say* nothin& e-ists* and it li!its all thin&s.-+=, The essence* the %or!"la o% $hich is a de%inition* is also called the s"bstance o% each thin&. "It %ollo$s* then* that /s"bstance/ has t$o senses* +A, "lti!ate s"bstrat"!* $hich is no lon&er predicated o% anythin& else* and +B, that $hich* bein& a /this/* is also separable and o% this nat"re is the shape or %or! o% each thin&. Part E " "/The sa!e/ !eans +1, that $hich is the sa!e in an accidental sense* e.&. /the pale/ and /the !"sical/ are the sa!e beca"se they are accidents o% the sa!e thin&* and /a !an/ and /!"sical/ beca"se the one is an accident o% the other' and /the !"sical/ is /a !an/ beca"se it is an accident o% the !an. +The co!ple- entity is the sa!e as either o% the si!ple ones and each o% these is the sa!e as it' %or both /the !an/ and /the !"sical/ are said to be the sa!e as /the !"sical !an/* and this the sa!e as they., This is $hy all o% these state!ents are !ade not "ni(ersally' %or it is not tr"e to say that e(ery !an is the sa!e as /the !"sical/ +%or "ni(ersal attrib"tes belon& to thin&s in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re* b"t accidents do not belon& to the! in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re,' b"t o% the indi(id"als the state!ents are !ade $itho"t 7"ali%ication. )or /2ocrates/ and /!"sical 2ocrates/ are tho"&ht to be the sa!e' b"t /2ocrates/ is not predicable o% !ore than one s"b0ect* and there%ore $e do not say /e(ery 2ocrates/ as $e say /e(ery !an/. "2o!e thin&s are said to be the sa!e in this sense* others +6, are the sa!e by their o$n nat"re* in as !any senses as that $hich is one by its o$n nat"re is so' %or both the thin&s $hose !atter is one either

in #ind or in n"!ber* and those $hose essence is one* are said to be the sa!e. 1learly* there%ore* sa!eness is a "nity o% the bein& either o% !ore than one thin& or o% one thin& $hen it is treated as !ore than one* ie. $hen $e say a thin& is the sa!e as itsel%' %or $e treat it as t$o. "Thin&s are called /other/ i% either their #inds or their !atters or the de%initions o% their essence are !ore than one' and in &eneral /other/ has !eanin&s opposite to those o% /the sa!e/. "/Di%%erent/ is applied +1, to those thin&s $hich tho"&h other are the sa!e in so!e respect* only not in n"!ber b"t either in species or in &en"s or by analo&y' +6, to those $hose &en"s is other* and to contraries* and to an thin&s that ha(e their otherness in their essence. "Those thin&s are called /li#e/ $hich ha(e the sa!e attrib"tes in e(ery respect* and those $hich ha(e !ore attrib"tes the sa!e than di%%erent* and those $hose 7"ality is one' and that $hich shares $ith another thin& the &reater n"!ber or the !ore i!portant o% the attrib"tes +each o% the! one o% t$o contraries, in respect o% $hich thin&s are capable o% alterin&* is li#e that other thin&. The senses o% /"nli#e/ are opposite to those o% /li#e/. Part 1@ " "The ter! /opposite/ is applied to contradictories* and to contraries* and to relati(e ter!s* and to pri(ation and possession* and to the e-tre!es %ro! $hich and into $hich &eneration and dissol"tion ta#e place' and the attrib"tes that cannot be present at the sa!e ti!e in that $hich is recepti(e o% both* are said to be opposed*-either the!sel(es o% their constit"ents. 9rey and $hite colo"r do not belon& at the sa!e ti!e to the sa!e thin&' hence their constit"ents are opposed. "The ter! /contrary/ is applied +1, to those attrib"tes di%%erin& in &en"s $hich cannot belon& at the sa!e ti!e to the sa!e s"b0ect* +6, to the !ost di%%erent o% the thin&s in the sa!e &en"s* +;, to the !ost di%%erent o% the attrib"tes in the sa!e recipient s"b0ect* +=, to the !ost di%%erent o% the thin&s that %all "nder the sa!e %ac"lty* +?, to the thin&s $hose di%%erence is &reatest either absol"tely or in &en"s or in species. The other thin&s that are called contrary are so called* so!e beca"se they possess contraries o% the abo(e #ind* so!e beca"se they are recepti(e o% s"ch* so!e beca"se they are prod"cti(e o% or s"sceptible to s"ch* or are prod"cin& or s"%%erin& the!* or are losses or ac7"isitions* or possessions or pri(ations* o% s"ch. 2ince /one/ and /bein&/ ha(e !any senses* the other ter!s $hich are deri(ed %ro! these* and there%ore /sa!e/* /other/* and /contrary/* !"st correspond* so that they !"st be di%%erent %or each cate&ory. "The ter! /other in species/ is applied to thin&s $hich bein& o% the sa!e &en"s are not s"bordinate the one to the other* or $hich bein& in the sa!e &en"s ha(e a di%%erence* or $hich ha(e a contrariety in their s"bstance' and contraries are other than one another in species +either all contraries or those $hich are so called in the pri!ary

sense,* and so are those thin&s $hose de%initions di%%er in species o% the &en"s +e.&. !an and horse are indi(isible in b"t their de%initions are di%%erent,* and those $hich bein& sa!e s"bstance ha(e a di%%erence. /The sa!e in species/ has !eanin&s opposite to these. Part 11 "

the in%i!a &en"s* in the the (ario"s

"The $ords /prior/ and /posterior/ are applied +1, to so!e thin&s +on the ass"!ption that there is a %irst* i.e. a be&innin&* in each class, beca"se they are nearer so!e be&innin& deter!ined either absol"tely and by nat"re* or by re%erence to so!ethin& or in so!e place or by certain people' e.&. thin&s are prior in place beca"se they are nearer either to so!e place deter!ined by nat"re +e.&. the !iddle or the last place,* or to so!e chance ob0ect' and that $hich is %arther is posterior.-Other thin&s are prior in ti!e' so!e by bein& %arther %ro! the present* i.e. in the case o% past e(ents +%or the Tro0an $ar is prior to the Persian* beca"se it is %arther %ro! the present,* others by bein& nearer the present* i.e. in the case o% %"t"re e(ents +%or the .e!ean &a!es are prior to the Pythian* i% $e treat the present as be&innin& and %irst point* beca"se they are nearer the present,.Other thin&s are prior in !o(e!ent' %or that $hich is nearer the %irst !o(er is prior +e.&. the boy is prior to the !an,' and the pri!e !o(er also is a be&innin& absol"tely.-Others are prior in po$er' %or that $hich e-ceeds in po$er* i.e. the !ore po$er%"l* is prior' and s"ch is that accordin& to $hose $ill the other-i.e. the posterior-!"st %ollo$* so that i% the prior does not set it in !otion the other does not !o(e* and i% it sets it in !otion it does !o(e' and here $ill is a be&innin&.-Others are prior in arran&e!ent' these are the thin&s that are placed at inter(als in re%erence to so!e one de%inite thin& accordin& to so!e r"le* e.&. in the chor"s the second !an is prior to the third* and in the lyre the second lo$est strin& is prior to the lo$est' %or in the one case the leader and in the other the !iddle strin& is the be&innin&. "These* then* are called prior in this sense* b"t +6, in another sense that $hich is prior %or #no$led&e is treated as also absol"tely prior' o% these* the thin&s that are prior in de%inition do not coincide $ith those that are prior in relation to perception. )or in de%inition "ni(ersals are prior* in relation to perception indi(id"als. And in de%inition also the accident is prior to the $hole* e.&. /!"sical/ to /!"sical !an/* %or the de%inition cannot e-ist as a $hole $itho"t the part' yet !"sicalness cannot e-ist "nless there is so!e one $ho is !"sical. "+;, The attrib"tes o% prior thin&s are called prior* e.&. strai&htness is prior to s!oothness' %or one is an attrib"te o% a line as s"ch* and the other o% a s"r%ace. "2o!e thin&s then are called prior and posterior in this sense* others +=, in respect o% nat"re and s"bstance* i.e. those $hich can be $itho"t other thin&s* $hile the others cannot be $itho"t the!*-a distinction $hich Plato "sed. +I% $e consider the (ario"s senses o% /bein&/* %irstly the s"b0ect is prior* so that s"bstance is prior' secondly* accordin&

as potency or co!plete reality is ta#en into acco"nt* di%%erent thin&s are prior* %or so!e thin&s are prior in respect o% potency* others in respect o% co!plete reality* e.&. in potency the hal% line is prior to the $hole line* and the part to the $hole* and the !atter to the concrete s"bstance* b"t in co!plete reality these are posterior' %or it is only $hen the $hole has been dissol(ed that they $ill e-ist in co!plete reality., In a sense* there%ore* all thin&s that are called prior and posterior are so called $ith re%erence to this %o"rth sense' %or so!e thin&s can e-ist $itho"t others in respect o% &eneration* e.&. the $hole $itho"t the parts* and others in respect o% dissol"tion* e.&. the part $itho"t the $hole. And the sa!e is tr"e in all other cases. Part 16 " "/Potency/ !eans +1, a so"rce o% !o(e!ent or chan&e* $hich is in another thin& than the thin& !o(ed or in the sa!e thin& 7"a other' e.&. the art o% b"ildin& is a potency $hich is not in the thin& b"ilt* $hile the art o% healin&* $hich is a potency* !ay be in the !an healed* b"t not in hi! 7"a healed. /Potency/ then !eans the so"rce* in &eneral* o% chan&e or !o(e!ent in another thin& or in the sa!e thin& 7"a other* and also +6, the so"rce o% a thin&/s bein& !o(ed by another thin& or by itsel% 7"a other. )or in (irt"e o% that principle* in (irt"e o% $hich a patient s"%%ers anythin&* $e call it /capable/ o% s"%%erin&' and this $e do so!eti!es i% it s"%%ers anythin& at all* so!eti!es not in respect o% e(erythin& it s"%%ers* b"t only i% it s"%%ers a chan&e %or the better--+;, The capacity o% per%or!in& this $ell or accordin& to intention' %or so!eti!es $e say o% those $ho !erely can $al# or spea# b"t not $ell or not as they intend* that they cannot spea# or $al#. 2o too +=, in the case o% passi(ity--+?, The states in (irt"e o% $hich thin&s are absol"tely i!passi(e or "nchan&eable* or not easily chan&ed %or the $orse* are called potencies' %or thin&s are bro#en and cr"shed and bent and in &eneral destroyed not by ha(in& a potency b"t by not ha(in& one and by lac#in& so!ethin&* and thin&s are i!passi(e $ith respect to s"ch processes i% they are scarcely and sli&htly a%%ected by the!* beca"se o% a /potency/ and beca"se they /can/ do so!ethin& and are in so!e positi(e state. "/Potency/ ha(in& this (ariety o% !eanin&s* so too the /potent/ or /capable/ in one sense $ill !ean that $hich can be&in a !o(e!ent +or a chan&e in &eneral* %or e(en that $hich can brin& thin&s to rest is a /potent/ thin&, in another thin& or in itsel% 7"a other' and in one sense that o(er $hich so!ethin& else has s"ch a potency' and in one sense that $hich has a potency o% chan&in& into so!ethin&* $hether %or the $orse or %or the better +%or e(en that $hich perishes is tho"&ht to be /capable/ o% perishin&* %or it $o"ld not ha(e perished i% it had not been capable o% it' b"t* as a !atter o% %act* it has a certain disposition and ca"se and principle $hich %its it to s"%%er this' so!eti!es it is tho"&ht to be o% this sort beca"se it has so!ethin&* so!eti!es beca"se it is depri(ed o% so!ethin&' b"t i% pri(ation is in a sense /ha(in&/ or /habit/* e(erythin& $ill be capable by ha(in& so!ethin&* so that thin&s are capable both by ha(in& a positi(e habit and principle* and by ha(in& the pri(ation o% this* i% it is possible to ha(e a pri(ation' and i% pri(ation is not in a sense /habit/* /capable/ is "sed in t$o distinct senses,' and a thin& is capable in another

sense beca"se neither any other thin&* nor itsel% 7"a other* has a potency or principle $hich can destroy it. A&ain* all o% these are capable either !erely beca"se the thin& !i&ht chance to happen or not to happen* or beca"se it !i&ht do so $ell. This sort o% potency is %o"nd e(en in li%eless thin&s* e.&. in instr"!ents' %or $e say one lyre can spea#* and another cannot spea# at all* i% it has not a &ood tone. "Incapacity is pri(ation o% capacity-i.e. o% s"ch a principle as has been described either in &eneral or in the case o% so!ethin& that $o"ld nat"rally ha(e the capacity* or e(en at the ti!e $hen it $o"ld nat"rally already ha(e it' %or the senses in $hich $e sho"ld call a boy and a !an and a e"n"ch /incapable o% be&ettin&/ are distinct.A&ain* to either #ind o% capacity there is an opposite incapacity-both to that $hich only can prod"ce !o(e!ent and to that $hich can prod"ce it $ell. "2o!e thin&s* then* are called ad"nata in (irt"e o% this #ind o% incapacity* $hile others are so in another sense' i.e. both d"naton and ad"naton are "sed as %ollo$s. The i!possible is that o% $hich the contrary is o% necessity tr"e* e.&. that the dia&onal o% a s7"are is co!!ens"rate $ith the side is i!possible* beca"se s"ch a state!ent is a %alsity o% $hich the contrary is not only tr"e b"t also necessary' that it is co!!ens"rate* then* is not only %alse b"t also o% necessity %alse. The contrary o% this* the possible* is %o"nd $hen it is not necessary that the contrary is %alse* e.&. that a !an sho"ld be seated is possible' %or that he is not seated is not o% necessity %alse. The possible* then* in one sense* as has been said* !eans that $hich is not o% necessity %alse' in one* that $hich is tr"e' in one* that $hich !ay be tr"e.-A /potency/ or /po$er/ in &eo!etry is so called by a chan&e o% !eanin&.These senses o% /capable/ or /possible/ in(ol(e no re%erence to potency. B"t the senses $hich in(ol(e a re%erence to potency all re%er to the pri!ary #ind o% potency' and this is a so"rce o% chan&e in another thin& or in the sa!e thin& 7"a other. )or other thin&s are called /capable/* so!e beca"se so!ethin& else has s"ch a potency o(er the!* so!e beca"se it has not* so!e beca"se it has it in a partic"lar $ay. The sa!e is tr"e o% the thin&s that are incapable. There%ore the proper de%inition o% the pri!ary #ind o% potency $ill be /a so"rce o% chan&e in another thin& or in the sa!e thin& 7"a other/. Part 1; " "/H"ant"!/ !eans that $hich is di(isible into t$o or !ore constit"ent parts o% $hich each is by nat"re a /one/ and a /this/. A 7"ant"! is a pl"rality i% it is n"!erable* a !a&nit"de i% it is a !eas"rable. /Pl"rality/ !eans that $hich is di(isible potentially into noncontin"o"s parts* /!a&nit"de/ that $hich is di(isible into contin"o"s parts' o% !a&nit"de* that $hich is contin"o"s in one di!ension is len&th' in t$o breadth* in three depth. O% these* li!ited pl"rality is n"!ber* li!ited len&th is a line* breadth a s"r%ace* depth a solid.

"A&ain* so!e thin&s are called 7"anta in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re* others incidentally' e.&. the line is a 7"ant"! by its o$n nat"re* the !"sical is one incidentally. O% the thin&s that are 7"anta by their o$n nat"re so!e are so as s"bstances* e.&. the line is a 7"ant"! +%or /a certain #ind o% 7"ant"!/ is present in the de%inition $hich states $hat it is,* and others are !odi%ications and states o% this #ind o% s"bstance* e.&. !"ch and little* lon& and short* broad and narro$* deep and shallo$* hea(y and li&ht* and all other s"ch attrib"tes. And also &reat and s!all* and &reater and s!aller* both in the!sel(es and $hen ta#en relati(ely to each other* are by their o$n nat"re attrib"tes o% $hat is 7"antitati(e' b"t these na!es are trans%erred to other thin&s also. O% thin&s that are 7"anta incidentally* so!e are so called in the sense in $hich it $as said that the !"sical and the $hite $ere 7"anta* (i3. beca"se that to $hich !"sicalness and $hiteness belon& is a 7"ant"!* and so!e are 7"anta in the $ay in $hich !o(e!ent and ti!e are so' %or these also are called 7"anta o% a sort and contin"o"s beca"se the thin&s o% $hich these are attrib"tes are di(isible. I !ean not that $hich is !o(ed* b"t the space thro"&h $hich it is !o(ed' %or beca"se that is a 7"ant"! !o(e!ent also is a 7"ant"!* and beca"se this is a 7"ant"! ti!e is one. Part 1= " "/H"ality/ !eans +1, the di%%erentia o% the essence* e.&. !an is an ani!al o% a certain 7"ality beca"se he is t$o-%ooted* and the horse is so beca"se it is %o"r-%ooted' and a circle is a %i&"re o% partic"lar 7"ality beca"se it is $itho"t an&les*-$hich sho$s that the essential di%%erentia is a 7"ality.-This* then* is one !eanin& o% 7"ality-the di%%erentia o% the essence* b"t +6, there is another sense in $hich it applies to the "n!o(able ob0ects o% !athe!atics* the sense in $hich the n"!bers ha(e a certain 7"ality* e.&. the co!posite n"!bers $hich are not in one di!ension only* b"t o% $hich the plane and the solid are copies +these are those $hich ha(e t$o or three %actors,' and in &eneral that $hich e-ists in the essence o% n"!bers besides 7"antity is 7"ality' %or the essence o% each is $hat it is once* e.&. that o% is not $hat it is t$ice or thrice* b"t $hat it is once' %or B is once B. "+;, All the !odi%ications o% s"bstances that !o(e +e.&. heat and cold* $hiteness and blac#ness* hea(iness and li&htness* and the others o% the sort, in (irt"e o% $hich* $hen they chan&e* bodies are said to alter. +=, H"ality in respect o% (irt"e and (ice* and in &eneral* o% e(il and &ood. "H"ality* then* see!s to ha(e practically t$o !eanin&s* and one o% these is the !ore proper. The pri!ary 7"ality is the di%%erentia o% the essence* and o% this the 7"ality in n"!bers is a part' %or it is a di%%erentia o% essences* b"t either not o% thin&s that !o(e or not o% the! 7"a !o(in&. 2econdly* there are the !odi%ications o% thin&s that !o(e* 7"a !o(in&* and the di%%erentiae o% !o(e!ents. Girt"e and (ice %all a!on& these !odi%ications' %or they indicate di%%erentiae o% the !o(e!ent or acti(ity* accordin& to $hich the thin&s in !otion act or are acted on $ell or badly' %or that $hich can be !o(ed or act in one $ay is &ood* and that $hich can do so in another--the contrary--$ay

is (icio"s. 9ood and e(il indicate 7"ality especially in li(in& thin&s* and a!on& these especially in those $hich ha(e p"rpose. Part 1? "Thin&s are /relati(e/ +1, as do"ble to hal%* and treble to a third* and in &eneral that $hich contains so!ethin& else !any ti!es to that $hich is contained !any ti!es in so!ethin& else* and that $hich e-ceeds to that $hich is e-ceeded' +6, as that $hich can heat to that $hich can be heated* and that $hich can c"t to that $hich can be c"t* and in &eneral the acti(e to the passi(e' +;, as the !eas"rable to the !eas"re* and the #no$able to #no$led&e* and the perceptible to perception. "+1, Relati(e ter!s o% the %irst #ind are n"!erically related either inde%initely or de%initely* to n"!bers the!sel(es or to 1. 5.&. the do"ble is in a de%inite n"!erical relation to 1* and that $hich is /!any ti!es as &reat/ is in a n"!erical* b"t not a de%inite* relation to 1* i.e. not in this or in that n"!erical relation to it' the relation o% that $hich is hal% as bi& a&ain as so!ethin& else to that so!ethin& is a de%inite n"!erical relation to a n"!ber' that $hich is nIIJn ti!es so!ethin& else is in an inde%inite relation to that so!ethin&* as that $hich is /!any ti!es as &reat/ is in an inde%inite relation to 1' the relation o% that $hich e-ceeds to that $hich is e-ceeded is n"!erically 7"ite inde%inite' %or n"!ber is al$ays co!!ens"rate* and /n"!ber/ is not predicated o% that $hich is not co!!ens"rate* b"t that $hich e-ceeds is* in relation to that $hich is e-ceeded* so !"ch and so!ethin& !ore' and this so!ethin& is inde%inite' %or it can* indi%%erently* be either e7"al or not e7"al to that $hich is e-ceeded.-All these relations* then* are n"!erically e-pressed and are deter!inations o% n"!ber* and so in another $ay are the e7"al and the li#e and the sa!e. )or all re%er to "nity. Those thin&s are the sa!e $hose s"bstance is one' those are li#e $hose 7"ality is one' those are e7"al $hose 7"antity is one' and 1 is the be&innin& and !eas"re o% n"!ber* so that all these relations i!ply n"!ber* tho"&h not in the sa!e $ay. "+6, Thin&s that are acti(e or passi(e i!ply an acti(e or a passi(e potency and the act"ali3ations o% the potencies' e.&. that $hich is capable o% heatin& is related to that $hich is capable o% bein& heated* beca"se it can heat it* and* a&ain* that $hich heats is related to that $hich is heated and that $hich c"ts to that $hich is c"t* in the sense that they act"ally do these thin&s. B"t n"!erical relations are not act"ali3ed e-cept in the sense $hich has been else$here stated' act"ali3ations in the sense o% !o(e!ent they ha(e not. O% relations $hich i!ply potency so!e %"rther i!ply partic"lar periods o% ti!e* e.&. that $hich has !ade is relati(e to that $hich has been !ade* and that $hich $ill !a#e to that $hich $ill be !ade. )or it is in this $ay that a %ather is called the %ather o% his son' %or the one has acted and the other has been acted on in a certain $ay. )"rther* so!e relati(e ter!s i!ply pri(ation o% potency* i.e. /incapable/ and ter!s o% this sort* e.&. /in(isible/. "Relati(e ter!s $hich i!ply n"!ber or potency* there%ore* are all relati(e beca"se their (ery essence incl"des in its nat"re a re%erence to so!ethin& else* not beca"se so!ethin& else in(ol(es a re%erence to it' b"t +;, that $hich is !eas"rable or #no$able or thin#able is

called relati(e beca"se so!ethin& else in(ol(es a re%erence to it. )or /that $hich is thin#able/ i!plies that the tho"&ht o% it is possible* b"t the tho"&ht is not relati(e to /that o% $hich it is the tho"&ht/' %or $e sho"ld then ha(e said the sa!e thin& t$ice. 2i!ilarly si&ht is the si&ht o% so!ethin&* not /o% that o% $hich it is the si&ht/ +tho"&h o% co"rse it is tr"e to say this,' in %act it is relati(e to colo"r or to so!ethin& else o% the sort. B"t accordin& to the other $ay o% spea#in& the sa!e thin& $o"ld be said t$ice*-/the si&ht is o% that o% $hich it is./ "Thin&s that are by their o$n nat"re called relati(e are called so so!eti!es in these senses* so!eti!es i% the classes that incl"de the! are o% this sort' e.&. !edicine is a relati(e ter! beca"se its &en"s* science* is tho"&ht to be a relati(e ter!. )"rther* there are the properties in (irt"e o% $hich the thin&s that ha(e the! are called relati(e* e.&. e7"ality is relati(e beca"se the e7"al is* and li#eness beca"se the li#e is. Other thin&s are relati(e by accident' e.&. a !an is relati(e beca"se he happens to be do"ble o% so!ethin& and do"ble is a relati(e ter!' or the $hite is relati(e* i% the sa!e thin& happens to be do"ble and $hite. Part 1B " "What is called /co!plete/ is +1, that o"tside $hich it is not possible to %ind any* e(en one* o% its parts' e.&. the co!plete ti!e o% each thin& is that o"tside $hich it is not possible to %ind any ti!e $hich is a part proper to it.-+6, That $hich in respect o% e-cellence and &oodness cannot be e-celled in its #ind' e.&. $e ha(e a co!plete doctor or a co!plete %l"te-player* $hen they lac# nothin& in respect o% the %or! o% their proper e-cellence. And th"s* trans%errin& the $ord to bad thin&s* $e spea# o% a co!plete scandal-!on&er and a co!plete thie%' indeed $e e(en call the! &ood* i.e. a &ood thie% and a &ood scandal!on&er. And e-cellence is a co!pletion' %or each thin& is co!plete and e(ery s"bstance is co!plete* $hen in respect o% the %or! o% its proper e-cellence it lac#s no part o% its nat"ral !a&nit"de.-+;, The thin&s $hich ha(e attained their end* this bein& &ood* are called co!plete' %or thin&s are co!plete in (irt"e o% ha(in& attained their end. There%ore* since the end is so!ethin& "lti!ate* $e trans%er the $ord to bad thin&s and say a thin& has been co!pletely spoilt* and co!pletely destroyed* $hen it in no $ise %alls short o% destr"ction and badness* b"t is at its last point. This is $hy death* too* is by a %i&"re o% speech called the end* beca"se both are last thin&s. B"t the "lti!ate p"rpose is also an end.-Thin&s* then* that are called co!plete in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re are so called in all these senses* so!e beca"se in respect o% &oodness they lac# nothin& and cannot be e-celled and no part proper to the! can be %o"nd o"tside the!* others in &eneral beca"se they cannot be e-ceeded in their se(eral classes and no part proper to the! is o"tside the!' the others pres"ppose these %irst t$o #inds* and are called co!plete beca"se they either !a#e or ha(e so!ethin& o% the sort or are adapted to it or in so!e $ay or other in(ol(e a re%erence to the thin&s that are called co!plete in the pri!ary sense. Part 1C "

"/ i!it/ !eans +1, the last point o% each thin&* i.e. the %irst point beyond $hich it is not possible to %ind any part* and the %irst point $ithin $hich e(ery part is' +6, the %or!* $hate(er it !ay be* o% a spatial !a&nit"de or o% a thin& that has !a&nit"de' +;, the end o% each thin& +and o% this nat"re is that to$ards $hich the !o(e!ent and the action are* not that %ro! $hich they are-tho"&h so!eti!es it is both* that %ro! $hich and that to $hich the !o(e!ent is* i.e. the %inal ca"se,' +=, the s"bstance o% each thin&* and the essence o% each' %or this is the li!it o% #no$led&e' and i% o% #no$led&e* o% the ob0ect also. 5(idently* there%ore* /li!it/ has as !any senses as /be&innin&/* and yet !ore' %or the be&innin& is a li!it* b"t not e(ery li!it is a be&innin&. Part 1D " "/That in (irt"e o% $hich/ has se(eral !eanin&s>-+1, the %or! or s"bstance o% each thin&* e.&. that in (irt"e o% $hich a !an is &ood is the &ood itsel%* +6, the pro-i!ate s"b0ect in $hich it is the nat"re o% an attrib"te to be %o"nd* e.&. colo"r in a s"r%ace. /That in (irt"e o% $hich/* then* in the pri!ary sense is the %or!* and in a secondary sense the !atter o% each thin& and the pro-i!ate s"bstrat"! o% each.-In &eneral /that in (irt"e o% $hich/ $ill %o"nd in the sa!e n"!ber o% senses as /ca"se/' %or $e say indi%%erently +;, in (irt"e o% $hat has he co!e</ or /%or $hat end has he co!e</' and +=, in (irt"e o% $hat has he in%erred $ron&ly* or in%erred</ or /$hat is the ca"se o% the in%erence* or o% the $ron& in%erence</-)"rther +?, Kath/ d is "sed in re%erence to position* e.&. /at $hich he stands/ or /alon& $hich he $al#s' %or all s"ch phrases indicate place and position. "There%ore /in (irt"e o% itsel%/ !"st li#e$ise ha(e se(eral !eanin&s. The %ollo$in& belon& to a thin& in (irt"e o% itsel%>-+1, the essence o% each thin&* e.&. 1allias is in (irt"e o% hi!sel% 1allias and $hat it $as to be 1allias'-+6, $hate(er is present in the /$hat/* e.&. 1allias is in (irt"e o% hi!sel% an ani!al. )or /ani!al/ is present in his de%inition' 1allias is a partic"lar ani!al.-+;, Whate(er attrib"te a thin& recei(es in itsel% directly or in one o% its parts' e.&. a s"r%ace is $hite in (irt"e o% itsel%* and a !an is ali(e in (irt"e o% hi!sel%' %or the so"l* in $hich li%e directly resides* is a part o% the !an.-+=, That $hich has no ca"se other than itsel%' !an has !ore than one ca"se--ani!al* t$o-%ooted--b"t yet !an is !an in (irt"e o% hi!sel%.-+?, Whate(er attrib"tes belon& to a thin& alone* and in so %ar as they belon& to it !erely by (irt"e o% itsel% considered apart by itsel%. Part 1E " "/Disposition/ !eans the arran&e!ent o% that $hich has parts* in respect either o% place or o% potency or o% #ind' %or there !"st be a certain position* as e(en the $ord /disposition/ sho$s. Part 6@ " "/4a(in&/ !eans +1, a #ind o% acti(ity o% the ha(er and o% $hat he has-so!ethin& li#e an action or !o(e!ent. )or $hen one thin& !a#es and one is !ade* bet$een the! there is a !a#in&' so too bet$een hi!

$ho has a &ar!ent and the &ar!ent $hich he has there is a ha(in&. This sort o% ha(in&* then* e(idently $e cannot ha(e' %or the process $ill &o on to in%inity* i% it is to be possible to ha(e the ha(in& o% $hat $e ha(e.-+6, /4a(in&/ or /habit/ !eans a disposition accordin& to $hich that $hich is disposed is either $ell or ill disposed* and either in itsel% or $ith re%erence to so!ethin& else' e.&. health is a /habit/' %or it is s"ch a disposition.-+;, We spea# o% a /habit/ i% there is a portion o% s"ch a disposition' and so e(en the e-cellence o% the parts is a /habit/ o% the $hole thin&. Part 61 " "/A%%ection/ !eans +1, a 7"ality in respect o% $hich a thin& can be altered* e.&. $hite and blac#* s$eet and bitter* hea(iness and li&htness* and all others o% the #ind.-+6, The act"ali3ation o% these-the already acco!plished alterations.-+;, 5specially* in0"rio"s alterations and !o(e!ents* and* abo(e all pain%"l in0"ries.-+=, Mis%ort"nes and pain%"l e-periences $hen on a lar&e scale are called a%%ections. Part 66 " "We spea# o% /pri(ation/ +1, i% so!ethin& has not one o% the attrib"tes $hich a thin& !i&ht nat"rally ha(e* e(en i% this thin& itsel% $o"ld not nat"rally ha(e it' e.&. a plant is said to be /depri(ed/ o% eyes.+6, I%* tho"&h either the thin& itsel% or its &en"s $o"ld nat"rally ha(e an attrib"te* it has it not' e.&. a blind !an and a !ole are in di%%erent senses /depri(ed/ o% si&ht' the latter in contrast $ith its &en"s* the %or!er in contrast $ith his o$n nor!al nat"re.-+;, I%* tho"&h it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e the attrib"te* and $hen it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it* it has it not' %or blindness is a pri(ation* b"t one is not /blind/ at any and e(ery a&e* b"t only i% one has not si&ht at the a&e at $hich one $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it. 2i!ilarly a thin& is called blind i% it has not si&ht in the !edi"! in $hich* and in respect o% the or&an in respect o% $hich* and $ith re%erence to the ob0ect $ith re%erence to $hich* and in the circ"!stances in $hich* it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it.-+=, The (iolent ta#in& a$ay o% anythin& is called pri(ation. "Indeed there are 0"st as !any #inds o% pri(ations as there are o% $ords $ith ne&ati(e pre%i-es' %or a thin& is called "ne7"al beca"se it has not e7"ality tho"&h it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it* and in(isible either beca"se it has no colo"r at all or beca"se it has a poor colo"r* and apodo"s either beca"se it has no %eet at all or beca"se it has i!per%ect %eet. A&ain* a pri(ati(e ter! !ay be "sed beca"se the thin& has little o% the attrib"te +and this !eans ha(in& it in a sense i!per%ectly,* e.&. /#ernel-less/' or beca"se it has it not easily or not $ell +e.&. $e call a thin& "nc"ttable not only i% it cannot be c"t b"t also i% it cannot be c"t easily or $ell,' or beca"se it has not the attrib"te at all' %or it is not the one-eyed !an b"t he $ho is si&htless in both eyes that is called blind. This is $hy not e(ery !an is /&ood/ or /bad/* /0"st/ or /"n0"st/* b"t there is also an inter!ediate state. Part 6; "

"To /ha(e/ or /hold/ !eans !any thin&s>-+1, to treat a thin& accordin& to one/s o$n nat"re or accordin& to one/s o$n i!p"lse' so that %e(er is said to ha(e a !an* and tyrants to ha(e their cities* and people to ha(e the clothes they $ear.-+6, That in $hich a thin& is present as in so!ethin& recepti(e o% it is said to ha(e the thin&' e.&. the bron3e has the %or! o% the stat"e* and the body has the disease.-+;, As that $hich contains holds the thin&s contained' %or a thin& is said to be held by that in $hich it is as in a container' e.&. $e say that the (essel holds the li7"id and the city holds !en and the ship sailors' and so too that the $hole holds the parts.-+=, That $hich hinders a thin& %ro! !o(in& or actin& accordin& to its o$n i!p"lse is said to hold it* as pillars hold the inc"!bent $ei&hts* and as the poets !a#e Atlas hold the hea(ens* i!plyin& that other$ise they $o"ld collapse on the earth* as so!e o% the nat"ral philosophers also say. In this $ay also that $hich holds thin&s to&ether is said to hold the thin&s it holds to&ether* since they $o"ld other$ise separate* each accordin& to its o$n i!p"lse. "/Bein& in so!ethin&/ has si!ilar and correspondin& !eanin&s to /holdin&/ or /ha(in&/. Part 6= " "/To co!e %ro! so!ethin&/ !eans +1, to co!e %ro! so!ethin& as %ro! !atter* and this in t$o senses* either in respect o% the hi&hest &en"s or in respect o% the lo$est species' e.&. in a sense all thin&s that can be !elted co!e %ro! $ater* b"t in a sense the stat"e co!es %ro! bron3e.-+6, As %ro! the %irst !o(in& principle' e.&. /$hat did the %i&ht co!e %ro!</ )ro! ab"si(e lan&"a&e* beca"se this $as the ori&in o% the %i&ht.-+;, )ro! the co!po"nd o% !atter and shape* as the parts co!e %ro! the $hole* and the (erse %ro! the Iliad* and the stones %ro! the ho"se' +in e(ery s"ch case the $hole is a co!po"nd o% !atter and shape*, %or the shape is the end* and only that $hich attains an end is co!plete.-+=, As the %or! %ro! its part* e.&. !an %ro! /t$o%ooted/and syllable %ro! /letter/' %or this is a di%%erent sense %ro! that in $hich the stat"e co!es %ro! bron3e' %or the co!posite s"bstance co!es %ro! the sensible !atter* b"t the %or! also co!es %ro! the !atter o% the %or!.-2o!e thin&s* then* are said to co!e %ro! so!ethin& else in these senses' b"t +?, others are so described i% one o% these senses is applicable to a part o% that other thin&' e.&. the child co!es %ro! its %ather and !other* and plants co!e %ro! the earth* beca"se they co!e %ro! a part o% those thin&s.-+B, It !eans co!in& a%ter a thin& in ti!e* e.&. ni&ht co!es %ro! day and stor! %ro! %ine $eather* beca"se the one co!es a%ter the other. O% these thin&s so!e are so described beca"se they ad!it o% chan&e into one another* as in the cases no$ !entioned' so!e !erely beca"se they are s"ccessi(e in ti!e* e.&. the (oya&e too# place /%ro!/ the e7"ino-* beca"se it too# place a%ter the e7"ino-* and the %esti(al o% the Thar&elia co!es /%ro!/ the Dionysia* beca"se a%ter the Dionysia. Part 6? " "/Part/ !eans +1* a, that into $hich a 7"ant"! can in any $ay be di(ided' %or that $hich is ta#en %ro! a 7"ant"! 7"a 7"ant"! is al$ays

called a part o% it* e.&. t$o is called in a sense a part o% three. It !eans +b,* o% the parts in the %irst sense* only those $hich !eas"re the $hole' this is $hy t$o* tho"&h in one sense it is* in another is not* called a part o% three.-+6, The ele!ents into $hich a #ind !i&ht be di(ided apart %ro! the 7"antity are also called parts o% it' %or $hich reason $e say the species are parts o% the &en"s.-+;, The ele!ents into $hich a $hole is di(ided* or o% $hich it consists-the /$hole/ !eanin& either the %or! or that $hich has the %or!' e.&. o% the bron3e sphere or o% the bron3e c"be both the bron3e-i.e. the !atter in $hich the %or! is-and the characteristic an&le are parts.-+=, The ele!ents in the de%inition $hich e-plains a thin& are also parts o% the $hole' this is $hy the &en"s is called a part o% the species* tho"&h in another sense the species is part o% the &en"s. Part 6B " "/A $hole/ !eans +1, that %ro! $hich is absent none o% the parts o% $hich it is said to be nat"rally a $hole* and +6, that $hich so contains the thin&s it contains that they %or! a "nity' and this in t$o senseseither as bein& each se(erally one sin&le thin&* or as !a#in& "p the "nity bet$een the!. )or +a, that $hich is tr"e o% a $hole class and is said to hold &ood as a $hole +$hich i!plies that it is a #ind $hole, is tr"e o% a $hole in the sense that it contains !any thin&s by bein& predicated o% each* and by all o% the!* e.&. !an* horse* &od* bein& se(erally one sin&le thin&* beca"se all are li(in& thin&s. B"t +b, the contin"o"s and li!ited is a $hole* $hen it is a "nity consistin& o% se(eral parts* especially i% they are present only potentially* b"t* %ailin& this* e(en i% they are present act"ally. O% these thin&s the!sel(es* those $hich are so by nat"re are $holes in a hi&her de&ree than those $hich are so by art* as $e said in the case o% "nity also* $holeness bein& in %act a sort o% oneness. "A&ain +;, o% 7"anta that ha(e a be&innin& and a !iddle and an end* those to $hich the position does not !a#e a di%%erence are called totals* and those to $hich it does* $holes. Those $hich ad!it o% both descriptions are both $holes and totals. These are the thin&s $hose nat"re re!ains the sa!e a%ter transposition* b"t $hose %or! does not* e.&. $a- or a coat' they are called both $holes and totals' %or they ha(e both characteristics. Water and all li7"ids and n"!ber are called totals* b"t /the $hole n"!ber/ or /the $hole $ater/ one does not spea# o%* e-cept by an e-tension o% !eanin&. To thin&s* to $hich 7"a one the ter! /total/ is applied* the ter! /all/ is applied $hen they are treated as separate' /this total n"!ber*/ /all these "nits./ Part 6C " "It is not any chance 7"antitati(e thin& that can be said to be /!"tilated/' it !"st be a $hole as $ell as di(isible. )or not only is t$o not /!"tilated/ i% one o% the t$o ones is ta#en a$ay +%or the part re!o(ed by !"tilation is ne(er e7"al to the re!ainder,* b"t in &eneral no n"!ber is th"s !"tilated' %or it is also necessary that the essence re!ain' i% a c"p is !"tilated* it !"st still be a c"p' b"t the n"!ber is no lon&er the sa!e. )"rther* e(en i% thin&s consist o% "nli#e parts* not e(en these thin&s can all be said to be !"tilated* %or in a sense a n"!ber

has "nli#e parts +e.&. t$o and three, as $ell as li#e' b"t in &eneral o% the thin&s to $hich their position !a#es no di%%erence* e.&. $ater or %ire* none can be !"tilated' to be !"tilated* thin&s !"st be s"ch as in (irt"e o% their essence ha(e a certain position. A&ain* they !"st be contin"o"s' %or a !"sical scale consists o% "nli#e parts and has position* b"t cannot beco!e !"tilated. Besides* not e(en the thin&s that are $holes are !"tilated by the pri(ation o% any part. )or the parts re!o(ed !"st be neither those $hich deter!ine the essence nor any chance parts* irrespecti(e o% their position' e.&. a c"p is not !"tilated i% it is bored thro"&h* b"t only i% the handle or a pro0ectin& part is re!o(ed* and a !an is !"tilated not i% the %lesh or the spleen is re!o(ed* b"t i% an e-tre!ity is* and that not e(ery e-tre!ity b"t one $hich $hen co!pletely re!o(ed cannot &ro$ a&ain. There%ore baldness is not a !"tilation. Part 6D " "The ter! /race/ or /&en"s/ is "sed +1, i% &eneration o% thin&s $hich ha(e the sa!e %or! is contin"o"s* e.&. /$hile the race o% !en lasts/ !eans /$hile the &eneration o% the! &oes on contin"o"sly/.-+6, It is "sed $ith re%erence to that $hich %irst bro"&ht thin&s into e-istence' %or it is th"s that so!e are called 4ellenes by race and others Ionians* beca"se the %or!er proceed %ro! 4ellen and the latter %ro! Ion as their %irst be&etter. And the $ord is "sed in re%erence to the be&etter !ore than to the !atter* tho"&h people also &et a race-na!e %ro! the %e!ale* e.&. /the descendants o% Pyrrha/.-+;, There is &en"s in the sense in $hich /plane/ is the &en"s o% plane %i&"res and solid/ o% solids' %or each o% the %i&"res is in the one case a plane o% s"ch and s"ch a #ind* and in the other a solid o% s"ch and s"ch a #ind' and this is $hat "nderlies the di%%erentiae. A&ain +=, in de%initions the %irst constit"ent ele!ent* $hich is incl"ded in the /$hat/* is the &en"s* $hose di%%erentiae the 7"alities are said to be /9en"s/ then is "sed in all these $ays* +1, in re%erence to contin"o"s &eneration o% the sa!e #ind* +6, in re%erence to the %irst !o(er $hich is o% the sa!e #ind as the thin&s it !o(es* +;, as !atter' %or that to $hich the di%%erentia or 7"ality belon&s is the s"bstrat"!* $hich $e call !atter. "Those thin&s are said to be /other in &en"s/ $hose pro-i!ate s"bstrat"! is di%%erent* and $hich are not analysed the one into the other nor both into the sa!e thin& +e.&. %or! and !atter are di%%erent in &en"s,' and thin&s $hich belon& to di%%erent cate&ories o% bein& +%or so!e o% the thin&s that are said to /be/ si&ni%y essence* others a 7"ality* others the other cate&ories $e ha(e be%ore distin&"ished,' these also are not analysed either into one another or into so!e one thin&. Part 6E " "/The %alse/ !eans +1, that $hich is %alse as a thin&* and that +a, beca"se it is not p"t to&ether or cannot be p"t to&ether* e.&. /that the dia&onal o% a s7"are is co!!ens"rate $ith the side/ or /that yo" are sittin&/' %or one o% these is %alse al$ays* and the other so!eti!es' it is in these t$o senses that they are non-e-istent. +b, There are thin&s $hich e-ist* b"t $hose nat"re it is to appear either not to be s"ch as they are or to be thin&s that do not e-ist* e.&. a s#etch

or a drea!' %or these are so!ethin&* b"t are not the appearance o% $hich they prod"ce in "s. We call thin&s %alse in either beca"se they the!sel(es do not e-ist* or beca"se the res"lts %ro! the! is that o% so!ethin& that does not

thin&s the this $ay* then*appearance $hich e-ist.

"+6, A %alse acco"nt is the acco"nt o% non-e-istent ob0ects* in so %ar as it is %alse. 4ence e(ery acco"nt is %alse $hen applied to so!ethin& other than that o% $hich it is tr"e' e.&. the acco"nt o% a circle is %alse $hen applied to a trian&le. In a sense there is one acco"nt o% each thin&* i.e. the acco"nt o% its essence* b"t in a sense there are !any* since the thin& itsel% and the thin& itsel% $ith an attrib"te are in a sense the sa!e* e.&. 2ocrates and !"sical 2ocrates +a %alse acco"nt is not the acco"nt o% anythin&* e-cept in a 7"ali%ied sense,. 4ence Antisthenes $as too si!ple-!inded $hen he clai!ed that nothin& co"ld be described e-cept by the acco"nt proper to it*-one predicate to one s"b0ect' %ro! $hich the concl"sion "sed to be dra$n that there co"ld be no contradiction* and al!ost that there co"ld be no error. B"t it is possible to describe each thin& not only by the acco"nt o% itsel%* b"t also by that o% so!ethin& else. This !ay be done alto&ether %alsely indeed* b"t there is also a $ay in $hich it !ay be done tr"ly' e.&. ei&ht !ay be described as a do"ble n"!ber by the "se o% the de%inition o% t$o. " "These thin&s* then* are called %alse in these senses* b"t +;, a %alse !an is one $ho is ready at and %ond o% s"ch acco"nts* not %or any other reason b"t %or their o$n sa#e* and one $ho is &ood at i!pressin& s"ch acco"nts on other people* 0"st as $e say thin&s are $hich prod"ce a %alse appearance. This is $hy the proo% in the 4ippias that the sa!e !an is %alse and tr"e is !isleadin&. )or it ass"!es that he is %alse $ho can decei(e +i.e. the !an $ho #no$s and is $ise,' and %"rther that he $ho is $illin&ly bad is better. This is a %alse res"lt o% ind"ction-%or a !an $ho li!ps $illin&ly is better than one $ho does so "n$illin&ly-by /li!pin&/ Plato !eans /!i!ic#in& a li!p/* %or i% the !an $ere la!e $illin&ly* he $o"ld pres"!ably be $orse in this case as in the correspondin& case o% !oral character. Part ;@ " "/Accident/ !eans +1, that $hich attaches to so!ethin& and can be tr"ly asserted* b"t neither o% necessity nor "s"ally* e.&. i% so!e one in di&&in& a hole %or a plant has %o"nd treas"re. This-the %indin& o% treas"re-is %or the !an $ho d"& the hole an accident' %or neither does the one co!e o% necessity %ro! the other or a%ter the other* nor* i% a !an plants* does he "s"ally %ind treas"re. And a !"sical !an !i&ht be pale' b"t since this does not happen o% necessity nor "s"ally* $e call it an accident. There%ore since there are attrib"tes and they attach to s"b0ects* and so!e o% the! attach to these only in a partic"lar place and at a partic"lar ti!e* $hate(er attaches to a s"b0ect* b"t not beca"se it $as this s"b0ect* or the ti!e this ti!e* or the place this place* $ill be an accident. There%ore* too* there is no de%inite ca"se %or an accident* b"t a chance ca"se* i.e. an inde%inite one. 9oin& to Ae&ina $as an accident %or a !an* i% he

$ent not in order to &et there* b"t beca"se he $as carried o"t o% his $ay by a stor! or capt"red by pirates. The accident has happened or e-ists*-not in (irt"e o% the s"b0ect/s nat"re* ho$e(er* b"t o% so!ethin& else' %or the stor! $as the ca"se o% his co!in& to a place %or $hich he $as not sailin&* and this $as Ae&ina. "/Accident/ has also +6, another !eanin&* i.e. all that attaches to each thin& in (irt"e o% itsel% b"t is not in its essence* as ha(in& its an&les e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les attaches to the trian&le. And accidents o% this sort !ay be eternal* b"t no accident o% the other sort is. This is e-plained else$here. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK GI Part 1 " "W5 are see#in& the principles and the ca"ses o% the thin&s that are* and ob(io"sly o% the! 7"a bein&. )or* $hile there is a ca"se o% health and o% &ood condition* and the ob0ects o% !athe!atics ha(e %irst principles and ele!ents and ca"ses* and in &eneral e(ery science $hich is ratiocinati(e or at all in(ol(es reasonin& deals $ith ca"ses and principles* !ore or less precise* all these sciences !ar# o%% so!e partic"lar bein&-so!e &en"s* and in7"ire into this* b"t not into bein& si!ply nor 7"a bein&* nor do they o%%er any disc"ssion o% the essence o% the thin&s o% $hich they treat' b"t startin& %ro! the essence-so!e !a#in& it plain to the senses* others ass"!in& it as a hypothesis-they then de!onstrate* !ore or less co&ently* the essential attrib"tes o% the &en"s $ith $hich they deal. It is ob(io"s* there%ore* that s"ch an ind"ction yields no de!onstration o% s"bstance or o% the essence* b"t so!e other $ay o% e-hibitin& it. And si!ilarly the sciences o!it the 7"estion $hether the &en"s $ith $hich they deal e-ists or does not e-ist* beca"se it belon&s to the sa!e #ind o% thin#in& to sho$ $hat it is and that it is. "And since nat"ral science* li#e other sciences* is in %act abo"t one class o% bein&* i.e. to that sort o% s"bstance $hich has the principle o% its !o(e!ent and rest present in itsel%* e(idently it is neither practical nor prod"cti(e. )or in the case o% thin&s !ade the principle is in the !a#er-it is either reason or art or so!e %ac"lty* $hile in the case o% thin&s done it is in the doer-(i3. $ill* %or that $hich is done and that $hich is $illed are the sa!e. There%ore* i% all tho"&ht is either practical or prod"cti(e or theoretical* physics !"st be a theoretical science* b"t it $ill theori3e abo"t s"ch bein& as ad!its o% bein& !o(ed* and abo"t s"bstance-as-de%ined %or the !ost part only as not separable %ro! !atter. .o$* $e !"st not %ail to notice the !ode o% bein& o% the essence and o% its de%inition* %or* $itho"t this* in7"iry is b"t idle. O% thin&s de%ined* i.e. o% /$hats/* so!e are li#e /sn"b/* and so!e li#e /conca(e/. And these di%%er beca"se /sn"b/ is bo"nd "p $ith !atter +%or $hat is sn"b is a conca(e nose,* $hile conca(ity is independent o% perceptible !atter. I% then all nat"ral

thin&s are a analo&o"s to the sn"b in their nat"re' e.&. nose* eye* %ace* %lesh* bone* and* in &eneral* ani!al' lea%* root* bar#* and* in &eneral* plant +%or none o% these can be de%ined $itho"t re%erence to !o(e!ent-they al$ays ha(e !atter,* it is clear ho$ $e !"st see# and de%ine the /$hat/ in the case o% nat"ral ob0ects* and also that it belon&s to the st"dent o% nat"re to st"dy e(en so"l in a certain sense* i.e. so !"ch o% it as is not independent o% !atter. "That physics* then* is a theoretical science* is plain %ro! these considerations. Mathe!atics also* ho$e(er* is theoretical' b"t $hether its ob0ects are i!!o(able and separable %ro! !atter* is not at present clear' still* it is clear that so!e !athe!atical theore!s consider the! 7"a i!!o(able and 7"a separable %ro! !atter. B"t i% there is so!ethin& $hich is eternal and i!!o(able and separable* clearly the #no$led&e o% it belon&s to a theoretical science*-not* ho$e(er* to physics +%or physics deals $ith certain !o(able thin&s, nor to !athe!atics* b"t to a science prior to both. )or physics deals $ith thin&s $hich e-ist separately b"t are not i!!o(able* and so!e parts o% !athe!atics deal $ith thin&s $hich are i!!o(able b"t pres"!ably do not e-ist separately* b"t as e!bodied in !atter' $hile the %irst science deals $ith thin&s $hich both e-ist separately and are i!!o(able. .o$ all ca"ses !"st be eternal* b"t especially these' %or they are the ca"ses that operate on so !"ch o% the di(ine as appears to "s. There !"st* then* be three theoretical philosophies* !athe!atics* physics* and $hat $e !ay call theolo&y* since it is ob(io"s that i% the di(ine is present any$here* it is present in thin&s o% this sort. And the hi&hest science !"st deal $ith the hi&hest &en"s. Th"s* $hile the theoretical sciences are !ore to be desired than the other sciences* this is !ore to be desired than the other theoretical sciences. )or one !i&ht raise the 7"estion $hether %irst philosophy is "ni(ersal* or deals $ith one &en"s* i.e. so!e one #ind o% bein&' %or not e(en the !athe!atical sciences are all ali#e in this respect*-&eo!etry and astrono!y deal $ith a certain partic"lar #ind o% thin&* $hile "ni(ersal !athe!atics applies ali#e to all. We ans$er that i% there is no s"bstance other than those $hich are %or!ed by nat"re* nat"ral science $ill be the %irst science' b"t i% there is an i!!o(able s"bstance* the science o% this !"st be prior and !"st be %irst philosophy* and "ni(ersal in this $ay* beca"se it is %irst. And it $ill belon& to this to consider bein& 7"a bein&-both $hat it is and the attrib"tes $hich belon& to it 7"a bein&. Part 6 " "B"t since the "n7"ali%ied ter! /bein&/ has se(eral !eanin&s* o% $hich one $as seen/ to be the accidental* and another the tr"e +/non-bein&/ bein& the %alse,* $hile besides these there are the %i&"res o% predication +e.&. the /$hat/* 7"ality* 7"antity* place* ti!e* and any si!ilar !eanin&s $hich /bein&/ !ay ha(e,* and a&ain besides all these there is that $hich /is/ potentially or act"ally>-since /bein&/ has !any !eanin&s* $e !"st say re&ardin& the accidental* that there can be no scienti%ic treat!ent o% it. This is con%ir!ed by the %act that no science practical* prod"cti(e* or theoretical tro"bles itsel% abo"t it. )or on the one hand he $ho prod"ces a ho"se does not prod"ce all the attrib"tes that co!e into bein& alon& $ith the ho"se' %or these

are inn"!erable' the ho"se that has been !ade !ay 7"ite $ell be pleasant %or so!e people* h"rt%"l %or so!e* and "se%"l to others* and di%%erentto p"t it shortly %ro! all thin&s that are' and the science o% b"ildin& does not ai! at prod"cin& any o% these attrib"tes. And in the sa!e $ay the &eo!eter does not consider the attrib"tes $hich attach th"s to %i&"res* nor $hether /trian&le/ is di%%erent %ro! /trian&le $hose an&les are e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les/.-And this happens nat"rally eno"&h' %or the accidental is practically a !ere na!e. And so Plato $as in a sense not $ron& in ran#in& sophistic as dealin& $ith that $hich is not. )or the ar&"!ents o% the sophists deal* $e !ay say* abo(e all $ith the accidental' e.&. the 7"estion $hether /!"sical/ and /lettered/ are di%%erent or the sa!e* and $hether /!"sical 1orisc"s/ and /1orisc"s/ are the sa!e* and $hether /e(erythin& $hich is* b"t is not eternal* has co!e to be/* $ith the parado-ical concl"sion that i% one $ho $as !"sical has co!e to be lettered* he !"st also ha(e been lettered and ha(e co!e to be !"sical* and all the other ar&"!ents o% this sort' the accidental is ob(io"sly a#in to non-bein&. And this is clear also %ro! ar&"!ents s"ch as the %ollo$in&> thin&s $hich are in another sense co!e into bein& and pass o"t o% bein& by a process* b"t thin&s $hich are accidentally do not. B"t still $e !"st* as %ar as $e can* say %"rther* re&ardin& the accidental* $hat its nat"re is and %ro! $hat ca"se it proceeds' %or it $ill perhaps at the sa!e ti!e beco!e clear $hy there is no science o% it. "2ince* a!on& thin&s $hich are* so!e are al$ays in the sa!e state and are o% necessity +not necessity in the sense o% co!p"lsion b"t that $hich $e assert o% thin&s beca"se they cannot be other$ise,* and so!e are not o% necessity nor al$ays* b"t %or the !ost part* this is the principle and this the ca"se o% the e-istence o% the accidental' %or that $hich is neither al$ays nor %or the !ost part* $e call accidental. )or instance* i% in the do&-days there is $intry and cold $eather* $e say this is an accident* b"t not i% there is s"ltry heat* beca"se the latter is al$ays or %or the !ost part so* b"t not the %or!er. And it is an accident that a !an is pale +%or this is neither al$ays nor %or the !ost part so,* b"t it is not by accident that he is an ani!al. And that the b"ilder prod"ces health is an accident* beca"se it is the nat"re not o% the b"ilder b"t o% the doctor to do this*-b"t the b"ilder happened to be a doctor. A&ain* a con%ectioner* ai!in& at &i(in& pleas"re* !ay !a#e so!ethin& $holeso!e* b"t not in (irt"e o% the con%ectioner/s art' and there%ore $e say /it $as an accident/* and $hile there is a sense in $hich he !a#es it* in the "n7"ali%ied sense he does not. )or to other thin&s ans$er %ac"lties prod"cti(e o% the!* b"t to accidental res"lts there corresponds no deter!inate art nor %ac"lty' %or o% thin&s $hich are or co!e to be by accident* the ca"se also is accidental. There%ore* since not all thin&s either are or co!e to be o% necessity and al$ays* b"t* the !a0ority o% thin&s are %or the !ost part* the accidental !"st e-ist' %or instance a pale !an is not al$ays nor %or the !ost part !"sical* b"t since this so!eti!es happens* it !"st be accidental +i% not* e(erythin& $ill be o% necessity,. The !atter* there%ore* $hich is capable o% bein& other$ise than as it "s"ally is* !"st be the ca"se o% the accidental. And $e !"st ta#e as o"r startin&-point the 7"estion $hether there is nothin& that is neither al$ays nor %or the !ost part. 2"rely this is i!possible. There

is* then* besides these so!ethin& $hich is %ort"ito"s and accidental. B"t $hile the "s"al e-ists* can nothin& be said to be al$ays* or are there eternal thin&s< This !"st be considered later*/ b"t that there is no science o% the accidental is ob(io"s' %or all science is either o% that $hich is al$ays or o% that $hich is %or the !ost part. +)or ho$ else is one to learn or to teach another< The thin& !"st be deter!ined as occ"rrin& either al$ays or %or the !ost part* e.&. that honey-$ater is "se%"l %or a patient in a %e(er is tr"e %or the !ost part., B"t that $hich is contrary to the "s"al la$ science $ill be "nable to state* i.e. $hen the thin& does not happen* e.&./on the day o% ne$ !oon/' %or e(en that $hich happens on the day o% ne$ !oon happens then either al$ays or %or the !ost part' b"t the accidental is contrary to s"ch la$s. We ha(e stated* then* $hat the accidental is* and %ro! $hat ca"se it arises* and that there is no science $hich deals $ith it. Part ; " "That there are principles and ca"ses $hich are &enerable and destr"ctible $itho"t e(er bein& in co"rse o% bein& &enerated or destroyed* is ob(io"s. )or other$ise all thin&s $ill be o% necessity* since that $hich is bein& &enerated or destroyed !"st ha(e a ca"se $hich is not accidentally its ca"se. Will A e-ist or not< It $ill i% B happens' and i% not* not. And B $ill e-ist i% 1 happens. And th"s i% ti!e is constantly s"btracted %ro! a li!ited e-tent o% ti!e* one $ill ob(io"sly co!e to the present. This !an* then* $ill die by (iolence* i% he &oes o"t' and he $ill do this i% he &ets thirsty' and he $ill &et thirsty i% so!ethin& else happens' and th"s $e shall co!e to that $hich is no$ present* or to so!e past e(ent. )or instance* he $ill &o o"t i% he &ets thirsty' and he $ill &et thirsty i% he is eatin& p"n&ent %ood' and this is either the case or not' so that he $ill o% necessity die* or o% necessity not die. And si!ilarly i% one 0"!ps o(er to past e(ents* the sa!e acco"nt $ill hold &ood' %or this-I !ean the past condition-is already present in so!ethin&. 5(erythin&* there%ore* that $ill be* $ill be o% necessity' e.&. it is necessary that he $ho li(es shall one day die' %or already so!e condition has co!e into e-istence* e.&. the presence o% contraries in the sa!e body. B"t $hether he is to die by disease or by (iolence is not yet deter!ined* b"t depends on the happenin& o% so!ethin& else. 1learly then the process &oes bac# to a certain startin&-point* b"t this no lon&er points to so!ethin& %"rther. This then $ill be the startin&-point %or the %ort"ito"s* and $ill ha(e nothin& else as ca"se o% its co!in& to be. B"t to $hat sort o% startin&-point and $hat sort o% ca"se $e th"s re%er the %ort"ito"s-$hether to !atter or to the p"rpose or to the !oti(e po$er* !"st be care%"lly considered. Part = " " et "s dis!iss accidental bein&' %or $e ha(e s"%%iciently deter!ined its nat"re. B"t since that $hich is in the sense o% bein& tr"e* or is not in the sense o% bein& %alse* depends on co!bination and separation* and tr"th and %alsity to&ether depend on the allocation o% a pair

o% contradictory 0"d&e!ents +%or the tr"e 0"d&e!ent a%%ir!s $here the s"b0ect and predicate really are co!bined* and denies $here they are separated* $hile the %alse 0"d&e!ent has the opposite o% this allocation' it is another 7"estion* ho$ it happens that $e thin# thin&s to&ether or apart' by /to&ether/ and /apart/ I !ean thin#in& the! so that there is no s"ccession in the tho"&hts b"t they beco!e a "nity,' %or %alsity and tr"th are not in thin&s-it is not as i% the &ood $ere tr"e* and the bad $ere in itsel% %alse-b"t in tho"&ht' $hile $ith re&ard to si!ple concepts and /$hats/ %alsity and tr"th do not e-ist e(en in tho"&ht--this bein& so* $e !"st consider later $hat has to be disc"ssed $ith re&ard to that $hich is or is not in this sense. B"t since the co!bination and the separation are in tho"&ht and not in the thin&s* and that $hich is in this sense is a di%%erent sort o% /bein&/ %ro! the thin&s that are in the %"ll sense +%or the tho"&ht attaches or re!o(es either the s"b0ect/s /$hat/ or its ha(in& a certain 7"ality or 7"antity or so!ethin& else,* that $hich is accidentally and that $hich is in the sense o% bein& tr"e !"st be dis!issed. )or the ca"se o% the %or!er is indeter!inate* and that o% the latter is so!e a%%ection o% the tho"&ht* and both are related to the re!ainin& &en"s o% bein&* and do not indicate the e-istence o% any separate class o% bein&. There%ore let these be dis!issed* and let "s consider the ca"ses and the principles o% bein& itsel%* 7"a bein&. +It $as clear in o"r disc"ssion o% the (ario"s !eanin&s o% ter!s* that /bein&/ has se(eral !eanin&s., ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK GII Part 1 " "T45R5 are se(eral senses in $hich a thin& !ay be said to /be/* as $e pointed o"t pre(io"sly in o"r boo# on the (ario"s senses o% $ords'/ %or in one sense the /bein&/ !eant is /$hat a thin& is/ or a /this/* and in another sense it !eans a 7"ality or 7"antity or one o% the other thin&s that are predicated as these are. While /bein&/ has all these senses* ob(io"sly that $hich /is/ pri!arily is the /$hat/* $hich indicates the s"bstance o% the thin&. )or $hen $e say o% $hat 7"ality a thin& is* $e say that it is &ood or bad* not that it is three c"bits lon& or that it is a !an' b"t $hen $e say $hat it is* $e do not say /$hite/ or /hot/ or /three c"bits lon&/* b"t /a !an/ or /a /&od/. And all other thin&s are said to be beca"se they are* so!e o% the!* 7"antities o% that $hich is in this pri!ary sense* others 7"alities o% it* others a%%ections o% it* and others so!e other deter!ination o% it. And so one !i&ht e(en raise the 7"estion $hether the $ords /to $al#/* /to be healthy/* /to sit/ i!ply that each o% these thin&s is e-istent* and si!ilarly in any other case o% this sort' %or none o% the! is either sel%-s"bsistent or capable o% bein& separated %ro! s"bstance* b"t rather* i% anythin&* it is that $hich $al#s or sits or is healthy that is an e-istent thin&. .o$ these are seen to be !ore real beca"se there is so!ethin& de%inite $hich "nderlies the! +i.e. the s"bstance or indi(id"al,* $hich is i!plied in s"ch a predicate' %or $e ne(er "se the $ord /&ood/ or /sittin&/ $itho"t i!plyin& this. 1learly then it is in (irt"e o% this cate&ory that each o% the others

also is. There%ore that $hich is pri!arily* i.e. not in a 7"ali%ied sense b"t $itho"t 7"ali%ication* !"st be s"bstance. ".o$ there are se(eral senses in $hich a thin& is said to be %irst' yet s"bstance is %irst in e(ery sense-+1, in de%inition* +6, in order o% #no$led&e* +;, in ti!e. )or +;, o% the other cate&ories none can e-ist independently* b"t only s"bstance. And +1, in de%inition also this is %irst' %or in the de%inition o% each ter! the de%inition o% its s"bstance !"st be present. And +6, $e thin# $e #no$ each thin& !ost %"lly* $hen $e #no$ $hat it is* e.&. $hat !an is or $hat %ire is* rather than $hen $e #no$ its 7"ality* its 7"antity* or its place' since $e #no$ each o% these predicates also* only $hen $e #no$ $hat the 7"antity or the 7"ality is. "And indeed the 7"estion $hich $as raised o% old and is raised no$ and al$ays* and is al$ays the s"b0ect o% do"bt* (i3. $hat bein& is* is 0"st the 7"estion* $hat is s"bstance< )or it is this that so!e assert to be one* others !ore than one* and that so!e assert to be li!ited in n"!ber* others "nli!ited. And so $e also !"st consider chie%ly and pri!arily and al!ost e-cl"si(ely $hat that is $hich is in this sense. Part 6 " "2"bstance is tho"&ht to belon& !ost ob(io"sly to bodies' and so $e say that not only ani!als and plants and their parts are s"bstances* b"t also nat"ral bodies s"ch as %ire and $ater and earth and e(erythin& o% the sort* and all thin&s that are either parts o% these or co!posed o% these +either o% parts or o% the $hole bodies,* e.&. the physical "ni(erse and its parts* stars and !oon and s"n. B"t $hether these alone are s"bstances* or there are also others* or only so!e o% these* or others as $ell* or none o% these b"t only so!e other thin&s* are s"bstances* !"st be considered. 2o!e thin# the li!its o% body* i.e. s"r%ace* line* point* and "nit* are s"bstances* and !ore so than body or the solid. ")"rther* so!e do not thin# there is anythin& s"bstantial besides sensible thin&s* b"t others thin# there are eternal s"bstances $hich are !ore in n"!ber and !ore real' e.&. Plato posited t$o #inds o% s"bstance-the )or!s and ob0ects o% !athe!atics-as $ell as a third #ind* (i3. the s"bstance o% sensible bodies. And 2pe"sipp"s !ade still !ore #inds o% s"bstance* be&innin& $ith the One* and ass"!in& principles %or each #ind o% s"bstance* one %or n"!bers* another %or spatial !a&nit"des* and then another %or the so"l' and by &oin& on in this $ay he !"ltiplies the #inds o% s"bstance. And so!e say )or!s and n"!bers ha(e the sa!e nat"re* and the other thin&s co!e a%ter the!-lines and planes-"ntil $e co!e to the s"bstance o% the !aterial "ni(erse and to sensible bodies. "Re&ardin& these !atters* then* $e !"st in7"ire $hich o% the co!!on state!ents are ri&ht and $hich are not ri&ht* and $hat s"bstances there are* and $hether there are or are not any besides sensible s"bstances* and ho$ sensible s"bstances e-ist* and $hether there is a s"bstance capable o% separate e-istence +and i% so $hy and ho$, or no s"ch s"bstance*

apart %ro! sensible s"bstances' and $e !"st %irst s#etch the nat"re o% s"bstance. Part ; " "The $ord /s"bstance/ is applied* i% not in !ore senses* still at least to %o"r !ain ob0ects' %or both the essence and the "ni(ersal and the &en"s* are tho"&ht to be the s"bstance o% each thin&* and %o"rthly the s"bstrat"!. .o$ the s"bstrat"! is that o% $hich e(erythin& else is predicated* $hile it is itsel% not predicated o% anythin& else. And so $e !"st %irst deter!ine the nat"re o% this' %or that $hich "nderlies a thin& pri!arily is tho"&ht to be in the tr"est sense its s"bstance. And in one sense !atter is said to be o% the nat"re o% s"bstrat"!* in another* shape* and in a third* the co!po"nd o% these. +By the !atter I !ean* %or instance* the bron3e* by the shape the pattern o% its %or!* and by the co!po"nd o% these the stat"e* the concrete $hole., There%ore i% the %or! is prior to the !atter and !ore real* it $ill be prior also to the co!po"nd o% both* %or the sa!e reason. "We ha(e no$ o"tlined the nat"re o% s"bstance* sho$in& that it is that $hich is not predicated o% a strat"!* b"t o% $hich all else is predicated. B"t $e !"st not !erely state the !atter th"s' %or this is not eno"&h. The state!ent itsel% is obsc"re* and %"rther* on this (ie$* !atter beco!es s"bstance. )or i% this is not s"bstance* it ba%%les "s to say $hat else is. When all else is stripped o%% e(idently nothin& b"t !atter re!ains. )or $hile the rest are a%%ections* prod"cts* and potencies o% bodies* len&th* breadth* and depth are 7"antities and not s"bstances +%or a 7"antity is not a s"bstance,* b"t the s"bstance is rather that to $hich these belon& pri!arily. B"t $hen len&th and breadth and depth are ta#en a$ay $e see nothin& le%t "nless there is so!ethin& that is bo"nded by these' so that to those $ho consider the 7"estion th"s !atter alone !"st see! to be s"bstance. By !atter I !ean that $hich in itsel% is neither a partic"lar thin& nor o% a certain 7"antity nor assi&ned to any other o% the cate&ories by $hich bein& is deter!ined. )or there is so!ethin& o% $hich each o% these is predicated* $hose bein& is di%%erent %ro! that o% each o% the predicates +%or the predicates other than s"bstance are predicated o% s"bstance* $hile s"bstance is predicated o% !atter,. There%ore the "lti!ate s"bstrat"! is o% itsel% neither a partic"lar thin& nor o% a partic"lar 7"antity nor other$ise positi(ely characteri3ed' nor yet is it the ne&ations o% these* %or ne&ations also $ill belon& to it only by accident. "I% $e adopt this point o% (ie$* then* it %ollo$s that !atter is s"bstance. B"t this is i!possible' %or both separability and /thisness/ are tho"&ht to belon& chie%ly to s"bstance. And so %or! and the co!po"nd o% %or! and !atter $o"ld be tho"&ht to be s"bstance* rather than !atter. The s"bstance co!po"nded o% both* i.e. o% !atter and shape* !ay be dis!issed' %or it is posterior and its nat"re is ob(io"s. And !atter also is in a sense !ani%est. B"t $e !"st in7"ire into the third #ind o% s"bstance' %or this is the !ost perple-in&.

"2o!e o% the sensible s"bstances are &enerally ad!itted to be s"bstances* so that $e !"st loo# %irst a!on& these. )or it is an ad(anta&e to ad(ance to that $hich is !ore #no$able. )or learnin& proceeds %or all in this $ay-thro"&h that $hich is less #no$able by nat"re to that $hich is !ore #no$able' and 0"st as in cond"ct o"r tas# is to start %ro! $hat is &ood %or each and !a#e $hat is $itho"t 7"ali%ication &ood &ood %or each* so it is o"r tas# to start %ro! $hat is !ore #no$able to onesel% and !a#e $hat is #no$able by nat"re #no$able to onesel%. .o$ $hat is #no$able and pri!ary %or partic"lar sets o% people is o%ten #no$able to a (ery s!all e-tent* and has little or nothin& o% reality. B"t yet one !"st start %ro! that $hich is barely #no$able b"t #no$able to onesel%* and try to #no$ $hat is #no$able $itho"t 7"ali%ication* passin&* as has been said* by $ay o% those (ery thin&s $hich one does #no$. Part = " "2ince at the start $e distin&"ished the (ario"s !ar#s by $hich $e deter!ine s"bstance* and one o% these $as tho"&ht to be the essence* $e !"st in(esti&ate this. And %irst let "s !a#e so!e lin&"istic re!ar#s abo"t it. The essence o% each thin& is $hat it is said to be propter se. )or bein& yo" is not bein& !"sical* since yo" are not by yo"r (ery nat"re !"sical. What* then* yo" are by yo"r (ery nat"re is yo"r essence. ".or yet is the $hole o% this the essence o% a thin&' not that $hich is propter se as $hite is to a s"r%ace* beca"se bein& a s"r%ace is not identical $ith bein& $hite. B"t a&ain the co!bination o% both-/bein& a $hite s"r%ace/-is not the essence o% s"r%ace* beca"se /s"r%ace/ itsel% is added. The %or!"la* there%ore* in $hich the ter! itsel% is not present b"t its !eanin& is e-pressed* this is the %or!"la o% the essence o% each thin&. There%ore i% to be a $hite s"r%ace is to be a s!ooth s"r%ace* to be $hite and to be s!ooth are one and the sa!e. "B"t since there are also co!po"nds ans$erin& to the other cate&ories +%or there is a s"bstrat"! %or each cate&ory* e.&. %or 7"ality* 7"antity* ti!e* place* and !otion,* $e !"st in7"ire $hether there is a %or!"la o% the essence o% each o% the!* i.e. $hether to these co!po"nds also there belon&s an essence* e.&. /$hite !an/. et the co!po"nd be denoted by /cloa#/. What is the essence o% cloa#< B"t* it !ay be said* this also is not a propter se e-pression. We reply that there are 0"st t$o $ays in $hich a predicate !ay %ail to be tr"e o% a s"b0ect propter se* and one o% these res"lts %ro! the addition* and the other %ro! the o!ission* o% a deter!inant. One #ind o% predicate is not propter se beca"se the ter! that is bein& de%ined is co!bined $ith another deter!inant* e.&. i% in de%inin& the essence o% $hite one $ere to state the %or!"la o% $hite !an' the other beca"se in the s"b0ect another deter!inant is co!bined $ith that $hich is e-pressed in the %or!"la* e.&. i% /cloa#/ !eant /$hite !an/* and one $ere to de%ine cloa# as $hite' $hite !an is $hite indeed* b"t its essence is not to be $hite. "B"t is bein&-a-cloa# an essence at all< Probably not. )or the essence is precisely $hat so!ethin& is' b"t $hen an attrib"te is asserted

o% a s"b0ect other than itsel%* the co!ple- is not precisely $hat so!e /this/ is* e.&. $hite !an is not precisely $hat so!e /this/ is* since thisness belon&s only to s"bstances. There%ore there is an essence only o% those thin&s $hose %or!"la is a de%inition. B"t $e ha(e a de%inition not $here $e ha(e a $ord and a %or!"la identical in !eanin& +%or in that case all %or!"lae or sets o% $ords $o"ld be de%initions' %or there $ill be so!e na!e %or any set o% $ords $hate(er* so that e(en the Iliad $ill be a de%inition,* b"t $here there is a %or!"la o% so!ethin& pri!ary' and pri!ary thin&s are those $hich do not i!ply the predication o% one ele!ent in the! o% another ele!ent. .othin&* then* $hich is not a species o% a &en"s $ill ha(e an essence-only species $ill ha(e it* %or these are tho"&ht to i!ply not !erely that the s"b0ect participates in the attrib"te and has it as an a%%ection* or has it by accident' b"t %or e(er thin& else as $ell* i% it has a na!e* there be a %or!"la o% its !eanin&-(i3. that this attrib"te belon&s to this s"b0ect' or instead o% a si!ple %or!"la $e shall be able to &i(e a !ore acc"rate one' b"t there $ill be no de%inition nor essence. "Or has /de%inition/* li#e /$hat a thin& is/* se(eral !eanin&s< /What a thin& is/ in one sense !eans s"bstance and the /this/* in another one or other o% the predicates* 7"antity* 7"ality* and the li#e. )or as /is/ belon&s to all thin&s* not ho$e(er in the sa!e sense* b"t to one sort o% thin& pri!arily and to others in a secondary $ay* so too /$hat a thin& is/ belon&s in the si!ple sense to s"bstance* b"t in a li!ited sense to the other cate&ories. )or e(en o% a 7"ality $e !i&ht as# $hat it is* so that 7"ality also is a /$hat a thin& is/*not in the si!ple sense* ho$e(er* b"t 0"st as* in the case o% that $hich is not* so!e say* e!phasi3in& the lin&"istic %or!* that that is $hich is not is-not is si!ply* b"t is non-e-istent' so too $ith 7"ality. "We !"st no do"bt in7"ire ho$ $e sho"ld e-press o"rsel(es on each point* b"t certainly not !ore than ho$ the %acts act"ally stand. And so no$ also* since it is e(ident $hat lan&"a&e $e "se* essence $ill belon&* 0"st as /$hat a thin& is/ does* pri!arily and in the si!ple sense to s"bstance* and in a secondary $ay to the other cate&ories also*-not essence in the si!ple sense* b"t the essence o% a 7"ality or o% a 7"antity. )or it !"st be either by an e7"i(ocation that $e say these are* or by addin& to and ta#in& %ro! the !eanin& o% /are/ +in the $ay in $hich that $hich is not #no$n !ay be said to be #no$n,*the tr"th bein& that $e "se the $ord neither a!bi&"o"sly nor in the sa!e sense* b"t 0"st as $e apply the $ord /!edical/ by (irt"e o% a re%erence to one and the sa!e thin&* not !eanin& one and the sa!e thin&* nor yet spea#in& a!bi&"o"sly' %or a patient and an operation and an instr"!ent are called !edical neither by an a!bi&"ity nor $ith a sin&le !eanin&* b"t $ith re%erence to a co!!on end. B"t it does not !atter at all in $hich o% the t$o $ays one li#es to describe the %acts' this is e(ident* that de%inition and essence in the pri!ary and si!ple sense belon& to s"bstances. 2till they belon& to other thin&s as $ell* only not in the pri!ary sense. )or i% $e s"ppose this it does not %ollo$ that there is a de%inition o% e(ery $ord $hich !eans the sa!e as any %or!"la' it !"st !ean the sa!e as a partic"lar #ind o% %or!"la' and this condition is satis%ied i% it is a %or!"la o% so!ethin& $hich is one* not by contin"ity li#e the Iliad or the thin&s that are one

by bein& bo"nd to&ether* b"t in one o% the !ain senses o% /one/* $hich ans$er to the senses o% /is/' no$ /that $hich is/ in one sense denotes a /this/* in another a 7"antity* in another a 7"ality. And so there can be a %or!"la or de%inition e(en o% $hite !an* b"t not in the sense in $hich there is a de%inition either o% $hite or o% a s"bstance. Part ? " "It is a di%%ic"lt 7"estion* i% one denies that a %or!"la $ith an added deter!inant is a de%inition* $hether any o% the ter!s that are not si!ple b"t co"pled $ill be de%inable. )or $e !"st e-plain the! by addin& a deter!inant. 5.&. there is the nose* and conca(ity* and sn"bness* $hich is co!po"nded o"t o% the t$o by the presence o% the one in the other* and it is not by accident that the nose has the attrib"te either o% conca(ity or o% sn"bness* b"t in (irt"e o% its nat"re' nor do they attach to it as $hiteness does to 1allias* or to !an +beca"se 1allias* $ho happens to be a !an* is $hite,* b"t as /!ale/ attaches to ani!al and /e7"al/ to 7"antity* and as all so-called /attrib"tes propter se/ attach to their s"b0ects. And s"ch attrib"tes are those in $hich is in(ol(ed either the %or!"la or the na!e o% the s"b0ect o% the partic"lar attrib"te* and $hich cannot be e-plained $itho"t this' e.&. $hite can be e-plained apart %ro! !an* b"t not %e!ale apart %ro! ani!al. There%ore there is either no essence and de%inition o% any o% these thin&s* or i% there is* it is in another sense* as $e ha(e said. "B"t there is also a second di%%ic"lty abo"t the!. )or i% sn"b nose and conca(e nose are the sa!e thin&* sn"b and conca(e $ill be the thin&' b"t i% sn"b and conca(e are not the sa!e +beca"se it is i!possible to spea# o% sn"bness apart %ro! the thin& o% $hich it is an attrib"te propter se* %or sn"bness is conca(ity-in-a-nose,* either it is i!possible to say /sn"b nose/ or the sa!e thin& $ill ha(e been said t$ice* conca(e-nose nose' %or sn"b nose $ill be conca(e-nose nose. And so it is abs"rd that s"ch thin&s sho"ld ha(e an essence' i% they ha(e* there $ill be an in%inite re&ress' %or in sn"b-nose nose yet another /nose/ $ill be in(ol(ed. "1learly* then* only s"bstance is de%inable. )or i% the other cate&ories also are de%inable* it !"st be by addition o% a deter!inant* e.&. the 7"alitati(e is de%ined th"s* and so is the odd* %or it cannot be de%ined apart %ro! n"!ber' nor can %e!ale be de%ined apart %ro! ani!al. +When I say /by addition/ I !ean the e-pressions in $hich it t"rns o"t that $e are sayin& the sa!e thin& t$ice* as in these instances., And i% this is tr"e* co"pled ter!s also* li#e /odd n"!ber/* $ill not be de%inable +b"t this escapes o"r notice beca"se o"r %or!"lae are not acc"rate.,. B"t i% these also are de%inable* either it is in so!e other $ay or* as $e de%inition and essence !"st be said to ha(e !ore than one sense. There%ore in one sense nothin& $ill ha(e a de%inition and nothin& $ill ha(e an essence* e-cept s"bstances* b"t in another sense other thin&s $ill ha(e the!. 1learly* then* de%inition is the %or!"la o% the essence* and essence belon&s to s"bstances either alone or chie%ly and pri!arily and in the "n7"ali%ied sense.

Part B " "We !"st in7"ire $hether each thin& and its essence are the sa!e or di%%erent. This is o% so!e "se %or the in7"iry concernin& s"bstance' %or each thin& is tho"&ht to be not di%%erent %ro! its s"bstance* and the essence is said to be the s"bstance o% each thin&. ".o$ in the case o% accidental "nities the t$o $o"ld be &enerally tho"&ht to be di%%erent* e.&. $hite !an $o"ld be tho"&ht to be di%%erent %ro! the essence o% $hite !an. )or i% they are the sa!e* the essence o% !an and that o% $hite !an are also the sa!e' %or a !an and a $hite !an are the sa!e thin&* as people say* so that the essence o% $hite !an and that o% !an $o"ld be also the sa!e. B"t perhaps it does not %ollo$ that the essence o% accidental "nities sho"ld be the sa!e as that o% the si!ple ter!s. )or the e-tre!e ter!s are not in the sa!e $ay identical $ith the !iddle ter!. B"t perhaps this !i&ht be tho"&ht to %ollo$* that the e-tre!e ter!s* the accidents* sho"ld t"rn o"t to be the sa!e* e.&. the essence o% $hite and that o% !"sical' b"t this is not act"ally tho"&ht to be the case. "B"t in the case o% so-called sel%-s"bsistent thin&s* is a thin& necessarily the sa!e as its essence< 5.&. i% there are so!e s"bstances $hich ha(e no other s"bstances nor entities prior to the!-s"bstances s"ch as so!e assert the Ideas to be<-I% the essence o% &ood is to be di%%erent %ro! &ood-itsel%* and the essence o% ani!al %ro! ani!al-itsel%* and the essence o% bein& %ro! bein&-itsel%* there $ill* %irstly* be other s"bstances and entities and Ideas besides those $hich are asserted* and* secondly* these others $ill be prior s"bstances* i% essence is s"bstance. And i% the posterior s"bstances and the prior are se(ered %ro! each other* +a, there $ill be no #no$led&e o% the %or!er* and +b, the latter $ill ha(e no bein&. +By /se(ered/ I !ean* i% the &ooditsel% has not the essence o% &ood* and the latter has not the property o% bein& &ood., )or +a, there is #no$led&e o% each thin& only $hen $e #no$ its essence. And +b, the case is the sa!e %or other thin&s as %or the &ood' so that i% the essence o% &ood is not &ood* neither is the essence o% reality real* nor the essence o% "nity one. And all essences ali#e e-ist or none o% the! does' so that i% the essence o% reality is not real* neither is any o% the others. A&ain* that to $hich the essence o% &ood does not belon& is not &ood.-The &ood* then* !"st be one $ith the essence o% &ood* and the bea"ti%"l $ith the essence o% bea"ty* and so $ith all thin&s $hich do not depend on so!ethin& else b"t are sel%-s"bsistent and pri!ary. )or it is eno"&h i% they are this* e(en i% they are not )or!s' or rather* perhaps* e(en i% they are )or!s. +At the sa!e ti!e it is clear that i% there are Ideas s"ch as so!e people say there are* it $ill not be s"bstrat"! that is s"bstance' %or these !"st be s"bstances* b"t not predicable o% a s"bstrat"!' %or i% they $ere they $o"ld e-ist only by bein& participated in., "5ach thin& itsel%* then* and its essence are one and the sa!e in no !erely accidental $ay* as is e(ident both %ro! the precedin& ar&"!ents and beca"se to #no$ each thin&* at least* is 0"st to #no$ its essence* so that e(en by the e-hibition o% instances it beco!es clear that

both !"st be one. "+B"t o% an accidental ter!* e.&./the !"sical/ or /the $hite/* since it has t$o !eanin&s* it is not tr"e to say that it itsel% is identical $ith its essence' %or both that to $hich the accidental 7"ality belon&s* and the accidental 7"ality* are $hite* so that in a sense the accident and its essence are the sa!e* and in a sense they are not' %or the essence o% $hite is not the sa!e as the !an or the $hite !an* b"t it is the sa!e as the attrib"te $hite., "The abs"rdity o% the separation $o"ld appear also i% one $ere to assi&n a na!e to each o% the essences' %or there $o"ld be yet another essence besides the ori&inal one* e.&. to the essence o% horse there $ill belon& a second essence. :et $hy sho"ld not so!e thin&s be their essences %ro! the start* since essence is s"bstance< B"t indeed not only are a thin& and its essence one* b"t the %or!"la o% the! is also the sa!e* as is clear e(en %ro! $hat has been said' %or it is not by accident that the essence o% one* and the one* are one. )"rther* i% they are to be di%%erent* the process $ill &o on to in%inity' %or $e shall ha(e +1, the essence o% one* and +6, the one* so that to ter!s o% the %or!er #ind the sa!e ar&"!ent $ill be applicable. "1learly* then* each pri!ary and sel%-s"bsistent thin& is one and the sa!e as its essence. The sophistical ob0ections to this position* and the 7"estion $hether 2ocrates and to be 2ocrates are the sa!e thin&* are ob(io"sly ans$ered by the sa!e sol"tion' %or there is no di%%erence either in the standpoint %ro! $hich the 7"estion $o"ld be as#ed* or in that %ro! $hich one co"ld ans$er it s"ccess%"lly. We ha(e e-plained* then* in $hat sense each thin& is the sa!e as its essence and in $hat sense it is not. Part C " "O% thin&s that co!e to be* so!e co!e to be by nat"re* so!e by art* so!e spontaneo"sly. .o$ e(erythin& that co!es to be co!es to be by the a&ency o% so!ethin& and %ro! so!ethin& and co!es to be so!ethin&. And the so!ethin& $hich I say it co!es to be !ay be %o"nd in any cate&ory' it !ay co!e to be either a /this/ or o% so!e si3e or o% so!e 7"ality or so!e$here. ".o$ nat"ral co!in&s to be are the co!in&s to be o% those thin&s $hich co!e to be by nat"re' and that o"t o% $hich they co!e to be is $hat $e call !atter' and that by $hich they co!e to be is so!ethin& $hich e-ists nat"rally' and the so!ethin& $hich they co!e to be is a !an or a plant or one o% the thin&s o% this #ind* $hich $e say are s"bstances i% anythin& is-all thin&s prod"ced either by nat"re or by art ha(e !atter' %or each o% the! is capable both o% bein& and o% not bein&* and this capacity is the !atter in each-and* in &eneral* both that %ro! $hich they are prod"ced is nat"re* and the type accordin& to $hich they are prod"ced is nat"re +%or that $hich is prod"ced* e.&. a plant or an ani!al* has a nat"re,* and so is that by $hich they are prod"ced--the so-called /%or!al/ nat"re* $hich is speci%ically the sa!e +tho"&h this is in another indi(id"al,' %or !an be&ets !an. "Th"s* then* are nat"ral prod"cts prod"ced' all other prod"ctions

are called /!a#in&s/. And all !a#in&s proceed either %ro! art or %ro! a %ac"lty or %ro! tho"&ht. 2o!e o% the! happen also spontaneo"sly or by l"c# 0"st as nat"ral prod"cts so!eti!es do' %or there also the sa!e thin&s so!eti!es are prod"ced $itho"t seed as $ell as %ro! seed. 1oncernin& these cases* then* $e !"st in7"ire later* b"t %ro! art proceed the thin&s o% $hich the %or! is in the so"l o% the artist. +By %or! I !ean the essence o% each thin& and its pri!ary s"bstance., )or e(en contraries ha(e in a sense the sa!e %or!' %or the s"bstance o% a pri(ation is the opposite s"bstance* e.&. health is the s"bstance o% disease +%or disease is the absence o% health,' and health is the %or!"la in the so"l or the #no$led&e o% it. The healthy s"b0ect is prod"ced as the res"lt o% the %ollo$in& train o% tho"&ht>-since this is health* i% the s"b0ect is to be healthy this !"st %irst be present* e.&. a "ni%or! state o% body* and i% this is to be present* there !"st be heat' and the physician &oes on thin#in& th"s "ntil he red"ces the !atter to a %inal so!ethin& $hich he hi!sel% can prod"ce. Then the process %ro! this point on$ard* i.e. the process to$ards health* is called a /!a#in&/. There%ore it %ollo$s that in a sense health co!es %ro! health and ho"se %ro! ho"se* that $ith !atter %ro! that $itho"t !atter' %or the !edical art and the b"ildin& art are the %or! o% health and o% the ho"se* and $hen I spea# o% s"bstance $itho"t !atter I !ean the essence. "O% the prod"ctions or processes one part is called thin#in& and the other !a#in&*-that $hich proceeds %ro! the startin&-point and the %or! is thin#in&* and that $hich proceeds %ro! the %inal step o% the thin#in& is !a#in&. And each o% the other* inter!ediate* thin&s is prod"ced in the sa!e $ay. I !ean* %or instance* i% the s"b0ect is to be healthy his bodily state !"st be !ade "ni%or!. What then does bein& !ade "ni%or! i!ply< This or that. And this depends on his bein& !ade $ar!. What does this i!ply< 2o!ethin& else. And this so!ethin& is present potentially' and $hat is present potentially is already in the physician/s po$er. "The acti(e principle then and the startin& point %or the process o% beco!in& healthy is* i% it happens by art* the %or! in the so"l* and i% spontaneo"sly* it is that* $hate(er it is* $hich starts the !a#in&* %or the !an $ho !a#es by art* as in healin& the startin&-point is perhaps the prod"ction o% $ar!th +and this the physician prod"ces by r"bbin&,. War!th in the body* then* is either a part o% health or is %ollo$ed +either directly or thro"&h se(eral inter!ediate steps, by so!ethin& si!ilar $hich is a part o% health' and this* (i3. that $hich prod"ces the part o% health* is the li!itin&-point--and so too $ith a ho"se +the stones are the li!itin&-point here, and in all other cases. There%ore* as the sayin& &oes* it is i!possible that anythin& sho"ld be prod"ced i% there $ere nothin& e-istin& be%ore. Ob(io"sly then so!e part o% the res"lt $ill pre-e-ist o% necessity' %or the !atter is a part' %or this is present in the process and it is this that beco!es so!ethin&. B"t is the !atter an ele!ent e(en in the %or!"la< We certainly describe in both $ays $hat bra3en circles are' $e describe both the !atter by sayin& it is brass* and the %or! by sayin& that it is s"ch and s"ch a %i&"re' and %i&"re is the pro-i!ate &en"s in $hich it is placed. The bra3en circle* then* has its !atter in its %or!"la. "As %or that o"t o% $hich as !atter they are prod"ced* so!e thin&s

are said* $hen they ha(e been prod"ced* to be not that b"t /thaten/' e.&. the stat"e is not &old b"t &olden. And a healthy !an is not said to be that %ro! $hich he has co!e. The reason is that tho"&h a thin& co!es both %ro! its pri(ation and %ro! its s"bstrat"!* $hich $e call its !atter +e.&. $hat beco!es healthy is both a !an and an in(alid,* it is said to co!e rather %ro! its pri(ation +e.&. it is %ro! an in(alid rather than %ro! a !an that a healthy s"b0ect is prod"ced,. And so the healthy s"b0ect is not said to he an in(alid* b"t to be a !an* and the !an is said to be healthy. B"t as %or the thin&s $hose pri(ation is obsc"re and na!eless* e.&. in brass the pri(ation o% a partic"lar shape or in bric#s and ti!ber the pri(ation o% arran&e!ent as a ho"se* the thin& is tho"&ht to be prod"ced %ro! these !aterials* as in the %or!er case the healthy !an is prod"ced %ro! an in(alid. And so* as there also a thin& is not said to be that %ro! $hich it co!es* here the stat"e is not said to be $ood b"t is said by a (erbal chan&e to be $ooden* not brass b"t bra3en* not &old b"t &olden* and the ho"se is said to be not bric#s b"t bric#en +tho"&h $e sho"ld not say $itho"t 7"ali%ication* i% $e loo#ed at the !atter care%"lly* e(en that a stat"e is prod"ced %ro! $ood or a ho"se %ro! bric#s* beca"se co!in& to be i!plies chan&e in that %ro! $hich a thin& co!es to be* and not per!anence,. It is %or this reason* then* that $e "se this $ay o% spea#in&. Part D " "2ince anythin& $hich is prod"ced is prod"ced by so!ethin& +and this I call the startin&-point o% the prod"ction,* and %ro! so!ethin& +and let this be ta#en to be not the pri(ation b"t the !atter' %or the !eanin& $e attach to this has already been e-plained,* and since so!ethin& is prod"ced +and this is either a sphere or a circle or $hate(er else it !ay chance to be,* 0"st as $e do not !a#e the s"bstrat"! +the brass,* so $e do not !a#e the sphere* e-cept incidentally* beca"se the bra3en sphere is a sphere and $e !a#e the %or!e. )or to !a#e a /this/ is to !a#e a /this/ o"t o% the s"bstrat"! in the %"ll sense o% the $ord. +I !ean that to !a#e the brass ro"nd is not to !a#e the ro"nd or the sphere* b"t so!ethin& else* i.e. to prod"ce this %or! in so!ethin& di%%erent %ro! itsel%. )or i% $e !a#e the %or!* $e !"st !a#e it o"t o% so!ethin& else' %or this $as ass"!ed. 5.&. $e !a#e a bra3en sphere' and that in the sense that o"t o% this* $hich is brass* $e !a#e this other* $hich is a sphere., I%* then* $e also !a#e the s"bstrat"! itsel%* clearly $e shall !a#e it in the sa!e $ay* and the processes o% !a#in& $ill re&ress to in%inity. Ob(io"sly then the %or! also* or $hate(er $e o"&ht to call the shape present in the sensible thin&* is not prod"ced* nor is there any prod"ction o% it* nor is the essence prod"ced' %or this is that $hich is !ade to be in so!ethin& else either by art or by nat"re or by so!e %ac"lty. B"t that there is a bra3en sphere* this $e !a#e. )or $e !a#e it o"t o% brass and the sphere' $e brin& the %or! into this partic"lar !atter* and the res"lt is a bra3en sphere. B"t i% the essence o% sphere in &eneral is to be prod"ced* so!ethin& !"st be prod"ced o"t o% so!ethin&. )or the prod"ct $ill al$ays ha(e to be di(isible* and one part !"st be this and another that' I !ean the one !"st be !atter and the other %or!. I%* then* a sphere is /the %i&"re $hose circ"!%erence is at all points e7"idistant %ro! the centre/* part o% this $ill be the !edi"! in $hich the thin& !ade $ill be* and

part $ill be in that !edi"!* and the $hole $ill be the thin& prod"ced* $hich corresponds to the bra3en sphere. It is ob(io"s* then* %ro! $hat has been said* that that $hich is spo#en o% as %or! or s"bstance is not prod"ced* b"t the concrete thin& $hich &ets its na!e %ro! this is prod"ced* and that in e(erythin& $hich is &enerated !atter is present* and one part o% the thin& is !atter and the other %or!. "Is there* then* a sphere apart %ro! the indi(id"al spheres or a ho"se apart %ro! the bric#s< Rather $e !ay say that no /this/ $o"ld e(er ha(e been co!in& to be* i% this had been so* b"t that the /%or!/ !eans the /s"ch/* and is not a /this/-a de%inite thin&' b"t the artist !a#es* or the %ather be&ets* a /s"ch/ o"t o% a /this/' and $hen it has been be&otten* it is a /this s"ch/. And the $hole /this/* 1allias or 2ocrates* is analo&o"s to /this bra3en sphere/* b"t !an and ani!al to /bra3en sphere/ in &eneral. Ob(io"sly* then* the ca"se $hich consists o% the )or!s +ta#en in the sense in $hich so!e !aintain the e-istence o% the )or!s* i.e. i% they are so!ethin& apart %ro! the indi(id"als, is "seless* at least $ith re&ard to co!in&s-to-be and to s"bstances' and the )or!s need not* %or this reason at least* be sel%-s"bsistent s"bstances. In so!e cases indeed it is e(en ob(io"s that the be&etter is o% the sa!e #ind as the be&otten +not* ho$e(er* the sa!e nor one in n"!ber* b"t in %or!,* i.e. in the case o% nat"ral prod"cts +%or !an be&ets !an,* "nless so!ethin& happens contrary to nat"re* e.&. the prod"ction o% a !"le by a horse. +And e(en these cases are si!ilar' %or that $hich $o"ld be %o"nd to be co!!on to horse and ass* the &en"s ne-t abo(e the!* has not recei(ed a na!e* b"t it $o"ld do"btless be both in %act so!ethin& li#e a !"le., Ob(io"sly* there%ore* it is 7"ite "nnecessary to set "p a )or! as a pattern +%or $e sho"ld ha(e loo#ed %or )or!s in these cases i% in any' %or these are s"bstances i% anythin& is so,' the be&etter is ade7"ate to the !a#in& o% the prod"ct and to the ca"sin& o% the %or! in the !atter. And $hen $e ha(e the $hole* s"ch and s"ch a %or! in this %lesh and in these bones* this is 1allias or 2ocrates' and they are di%%erent in (irt"e o% their !atter +%or that is di%%erent,* b"t the sa!e in %or!' %or their %or! is indi(isible. Part E " "The 7"estion !i&ht be raised* $hy so!e thin&s are prod"ced spontaneo"sly as $ell as by art* e.&. health* $hile others are not* e.&. a ho"se. The reason is that in so!e cases the !atter $hich &o(erns the prod"ction in the !a#in& and prod"cin& o% any $or# o% art* and in $hich a part o% the prod"ct is present*-so!e !atter is s"ch as to be set in !otion by itsel% and so!e is not o% this nat"re* and o% the %or!er #ind so!e can !o(e itsel% in the partic"lar $ay re7"ired* $hile other !atter is incapable o% this' %or !any thin&s can be set in !otion by the!sel(es b"t not in so!e partic"lar $ay* e.&. that o% dancin&. The thin&s* then* $hose !atter is o% this sort* e.&. stones* cannot be !o(ed in the partic"lar $ay re7"ired* e-cept by so!ethin& else* b"t in another $ay they can !o(e the!sel(es-and so it is $ith %ire. There%ore so!e thin&s $ill not e-ist apart %ro! so!e one $ho has the art o% !a#in& the!* $hile others $ill' %or !otion $ill be started by these thin&s $hich ha(e not the art b"t can the!sel(es be !o(ed by other thin&s $hich ha(e not the art or $ith a !otion startin& %ro! a part o% the prod"ct.

"And it is clear also %ro! $hat has been said that in a sense e(ery prod"ct o% art is prod"ced %ro! a thin& $hich shares its na!e +as nat"ral prod"cts are prod"ced,* or %ro! a part o% itsel% $hich shares its na!e +e.&. the ho"se is prod"ced %ro! a ho"se* 7"a prod"ced by reason' %or the art o% b"ildin& is the %or! o% the ho"se,* or %ro! so!ethin& $hich contains a art o% it*-i% $e e-cl"de thin&s prod"ced by accident' %or the ca"se o% the thin&/s prod"cin& the prod"ct directly per se is a part o% the prod"ct. The heat in the !o(e!ent ca"sed heat in the body* and this is either health* or a part o% health* or is %ollo$ed by a part o% health or by health itsel%. And so it is said to ca"se health* beca"se it ca"ses that to $hich health attaches as a conse7"ence. "There%ore* as in syllo&is!s* s"bstance is the startin&-point o% e(erythin&. It is %ro! /$hat a thin& is/ that syllo&is!s start' and %ro! it also $e no$ %ind processes o% prod"ction to start. "Thin&s $hich are %or!ed by nat"re are in the sa!e case as these prod"cts o% art. )or the seed is prod"cti(e in the sa!e $ay as the thin&s that $or# by art' %or it has the %or! potentially* and that %ro! $hich the seed co!es has in a sense the sa!e na!e as the o%%sprin& only in a sense* %or $e !"st not e-pect parent and o%%sprin& al$ays to ha(e e-actly the sa!e na!e* as in the prod"ction o% /h"!an bein&/ %ro! /h"!an/ %or a /$o!an/ also can be prod"ced by a /!an/-"nless the o%%sprin& be an i!per%ect %or!' $hich is the reason $hy the parent o% a !"le is not a !"le. The nat"ral thin&s $hich +li#e the arti%icial ob0ects pre(io"sly considered, can be prod"ced spontaneo"sly are those $hose !atter can be !o(ed e(en by itsel% in the $ay in $hich the seed "s"ally !o(es it' those thin&s $hich ha(e not s"ch !atter cannot be prod"ced e-cept %ro! the parent ani!als the!sel(es. "B"t not only re&ardin& s"bstance does o"r ar&"!ent pro(e that its %or! does not co!e to be* b"t the ar&"!ent applies to all the pri!ary classes ali#e* i.e. 7"antity* 7"ality* and the other cate&ories. )or as the bra3en sphere co!es to be* b"t not the sphere nor the brass* and so too in the case o% brass itsel%* i% it co!es to be* it is its concrete "nity that co!es to be +%or the !atter and the %or! !"st al$ays e-ist be%ore,* so is it both in the case o% s"bstance and in that o% 7"ality and 7"antity and the other cate&ories li#e$ise' %or the 7"ality does not co!e to be* b"t the $ood o% that 7"ality* and the 7"antity does not co!e to be* b"t the $ood or the ani!al o% that si3e. B"t $e !ay learn %ro! these instances a pec"liarity o% s"bstance* that there !"st e-ist be%orehand in co!plete reality another s"bstance $hich prod"ces it* e.&. an ani!al i% an ani!al is prod"ced' b"t it is not necessary that a 7"ality or 7"antity sho"ld pre-e-ist other$ise than potentially. Part 1@ " "2ince a de%inition is a %or!"la* and e(ery %or!"la has parts* and as the %or!"la is to the thin&* so is the part o% the %or!"la to the part o% the thin&* the 7"estion is already bein& as#ed $hether the %or!"la o% the parts !"st be present in the %or!"la o% the $hole or not. )or in so!e cases the %or!"lae o% the parts are seen to be present*

and in so!e not. The %or!"la o% the circle does not incl"de that o% the se&!ents* b"t that o% the syllable incl"des that o% the letters' yet the circle is di(ided into se&!ents as the syllable is into letters.-And %"rther i% the parts are prior to the $hole* and the ac"te an&le is a part o% the ri&ht an&le and the %in&er a part o% the ani!al* the ac"te an&le $ill be prior to the ri&ht an&le and %in&er to the !an. B"t the latter are tho"&ht to be prior' %or in %or!"la the parts are e-plained by re%erence to the!* and in respect also o% the po$er o% e-istin& apart %ro! each other the $holes are prior to the parts. "Perhaps $e sho"ld rather say that /part/ is "sed in se(eral senses. One o% these is /that $hich !eas"res another thin& in respect o% 7"antity/. B"t let this sense be set aside' let "s in7"ire abo"t the parts o% $hich s"bstance consists. I% then !atter is one thin&* %or! another* the co!po"nd o% these a third* and both the !atter and the %or! and the co!po"nd are s"bstance e(en the !atter is in a sense called part o% a thin&* $hile in a sense it is not* b"t only the ele!ents o% $hich the %or!"la o% the %or! consists. 5.&. o% conca(ity %lesh +%or this is the !atter in $hich it is prod"ced, is not a part* b"t o% sn"bness it is a part' and the bron3e is a part o% the concrete stat"e* b"t not o% the stat"e $hen this is spo#en o% in the sense o% the %or!. +)or the %or!* or the thin& as ha(in& %or!* sho"ld be said to be the thin&* b"t the !aterial ele!ent by itsel% !"st ne(er be said to be so., And so the %or!"la o% the circle does not incl"de that o% the se&!ents* b"t the %or!"la o% the syllable incl"des that o% the letters' %or the letters are parts o% the %or!"la o% the %or!* and not !atter* b"t the se&!ents are parts in the sense o% !atter on $hich the %or! s"per(enes' yet they are nearer the %or! than the bron3e is $hen ro"ndness is prod"ced in bron3e. B"t in a sense not e(en e(ery #ind o% letter $ill be present in the %or!"la o% the syllable* e.&. partic"lar $a-en letters or the letters as !o(e!ents in the air' %or in these also $e ha(e already so!ethin& that is part o% the syllable only in the sense that it is its perceptible !atter. )or e(en i% the line $hen di(ided passes a$ay into its hal(es* or the !an into bones and !"scles and %lesh* it does not %ollo$ that they are co!posed o% these as parts o% their essence* b"t rather as !atter' and these are parts o% the concrete thin&* b"t not also o% the %or!* i.e. o% that to $hich the %or!"la re%ers' $here%ore also they are not present in the %or!"lae. In one #ind o% %or!"la* then* the %or!"la o% s"ch parts $ill be present* b"t in another it !"st not be present* $here the %or!"la does not re%er to the concrete ob0ect. )or it is %or this reason that so!e thin&s ha(e as their constit"ent principles parts into $hich they pass a$ay* $hile so!e ha(e not. Those thin&s $hich are the %or! and the !atter ta#en to&ether* e.&. the sn"b* or the bron3e circle* pass a$ay into these !aterials* and the !atter is a part o% the!' b"t those thin&s $hich do not in(ol(e !atter b"t are $itho"t !atter* and $hose %or!"lae are %or!"lae o% the %or! only* do not pass a$ay*-either not at all or at any rate not in this $ay. There%ore these !aterials are principles and parts o% the concrete thin&s* $hile o% the %or! they are neither parts nor principles. And there%ore the clay stat"e is resol(ed into clay and the ball into bron3e and 1allias into %lesh and bones* and a&ain the circle into its se&!ents' %or there is a sense o% /circle/ in $hich in(ol(es !atter. )or /circle/ is "sed a!bi&"o"sly*

!eanin& both the circle* "n7"ali%ied* and the indi(id"al circle* beca"se there is no na!e pec"liar to the indi(id"als. "The tr"th has indeed no$ been stated* b"t still let "s state it yet !ore clearly* ta#in& "p the 7"estion a&ain. The parts o% the %or!"la* into $hich the %or!"la is di(ided* are prior to it* either all or so!e o% the!. The %or!"la o% the ri&ht an&le* ho$e(er* does not incl"de the %or!"la o% the ac"te* b"t the %or!"la o% the ac"te incl"des that o% the ri&ht an&le' %or he $ho de%ines the ac"te "ses the ri&ht an&le' %or the ac"te is /less than a ri&ht an&le/. The circle and the se!icircle also are in a li#e relation' %or the se!icircle is de%ined by the circle' and so is the %in&er by the $hole body* %or a %in&er is /s"ch and s"ch a part o% a !an/. There%ore the parts $hich are o% the nat"re o% !atter* and into $hich as its !atter a thin& is di(ided* are posterior' b"t those $hich are o% the nat"re o% parts o% the %or!"la* and o% the s"bstance accordin& to its %or!"la* are prior* either all or so!e o% the!. And since the so"l o% ani!als +%or this is the s"bstance o% a li(in& bein&, is their s"bstance accordin& to the %or!"la* i.e. the %or! and the essence o% a body o% a certain #ind +at least $e shall de%ine each part* i% $e de%ine it $ell* not $itho"t re%erence to its %"nction* and this cannot belon& to it $itho"t perception,* so that the parts o% so"l are prior* either all or so!e o% the!* to the concrete /ani!al/* and so too $ith each indi(id"al ani!al' and the body and parts are posterior to this* the essential s"bstance* and it is not the s"bstance b"t the concrete thin& that is di(ided into these parts as its !atter>-this bein& so* to the concrete thin& these are in a sense prior* b"t in a sense they are not. )or they cannot e(en e-ist i% se(ered %ro! the $hole' %or it is not a %in&er in any and e(ery state that is the %in&er o% a li(in& thin&* b"t a dead %in&er is a %in&er only in na!e. 2o!e parts are neither prior nor posterior to the $hole* i.e. those $hich are do!inant and in $hich the %or!"la* i.e. the essential s"bstance* is i!!ediately present* e.&. perhaps the heart or the brain' %or it does not !atter in the least $hich o% the t$o has this 7"ality. B"t !an and horse and ter!s $hich are th"s applied to indi(id"als* b"t "ni(ersally* are not s"bstance b"t so!ethin& co!posed o% this partic"lar %or!"la and this partic"lar !atter treated as "ni(ersal' and as re&ards the indi(id"al* 2ocrates already incl"des in hi! "lti!ate indi(id"al !atter' and si!ilarly in all other cases. /A part/ !ay be a part either o% the %or! +i.e. o% the essence,* or o% the co!po"nd o% the %or! and the !atter* or o% the !atter itsel%. B"t only the parts o% the %or! are parts o% the %or!"la* and the %or!"la is o% the "ni(ersal' %or /bein& a circle/ is the sa!e as the circle* and /bein& a so"l/ the sa!e as the so"l. B"t $hen $e co!e to the concrete thin&* e.&. this circle* i.e. one o% the indi(id"al circles* $hether perceptible or intelli&ible +I !ean by intelli&ible circles the !athe!atical* and by perceptible circles those o% bron3e and o% $ood,*-o% these there is no de%inition* b"t they are #no$n by the aid o% int"iti(e thin#in& or o% perception' and $hen they pass o"t o% this co!plete reali3ation it is not clear $hether they e-ist or not' b"t they are al$ays stated and reco&ni3ed by !eans o% the "ni(ersal %or!"la. B"t !atter is "n#no$able in itsel%. And so!e !atter is perceptible and so!e intelli&ible* perceptible !atter bein& %or instance bron3e and $ood and all !atter that is chan&eable*

and intelli&ible !atter bein& that $hich is present in perceptible thin&s not 7"a perceptible* i.e. the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. "We ha(e stated* then* ho$ !atters stand $ith re&ard to $hole and part* and their priority and posteriority. B"t $hen any one as#s $hether the ri&ht an&le and the circle and the ani!al are prior* or the thin&s into $hich they are di(ided and o% $hich they consist* i.e. the parts* $e !"st !eet the in7"iry by sayin& that the 7"estion cannot be ans$ered si!ply. )or i% e(en bare so"l is the ani!al or the li(in& thin&* or the so"l o% each indi(id"al is the indi(id"al itsel%* and /bein& a circle/ is the circle* and /bein& a ri&ht an&le/ and the essence o% the ri&ht an&le is the ri&ht an&le* then the $hole in one sense !"st be called posterior to the art in one sense* i.e. to the parts incl"ded in the %or!"la and to the parts o% the indi(id"al ri&ht an&le +%or both the !aterial ri&ht an&le $hich is !ade o% bron3e* and that $hich is %or!ed by indi(id"al lines* are posterior to their parts,' $hile the i!!aterial ri&ht an&le is posterior to the parts incl"ded in the %or!"la* b"t prior to those incl"ded in the partic"lar instance* and the 7"estion !"st not be ans$ered si!ply. I%* ho$e(er* the so"l is so!ethin& di%%erent and is not identical $ith the ani!al* e(en so so!e parts !"st* as $e ha(e !aintained* be called prior and others !"st not. Part 11 " "Another 7"estion is nat"rally raised* (i3. $hat sort o% parts belon& to the %or! and $hat sort not to the %or!* b"t to the concrete thin&. :et i% this is not plain it is not possible to de%ine any thin&' %or de%inition is o% the "ni(ersal and o% the %or!. I% then it is not e(ident $hat sort o% parts are o% the nat"re o% !atter and $hat sort are not* neither $ill the %or!"la o% the thin& be e(ident. In the case o% thin&s $hich are %o"nd to occ"r in speci%ically di%%erent !aterials* as a circle !ay e-ist in bron3e or stone or $ood* it see!s plain that these* the bron3e or the stone* are no part o% the essence o% the circle* since it is %o"nd apart %ro! the!. O% thin&s $hich are not seen to e-ist apart* there is no reason $hy the sa!e !ay not be tr"e* 0"st as i% all circles that had e(er been seen $ere o% bron3e' %or none the less the bron3e $o"ld be no part o% the %or!' b"t it is hard to eli!inate it in tho"&ht. 5.&. the %or! o% !an is al$ays %o"nd in %lesh and bones and parts o% this #ind' are these then also parts o% the %or! and the %or!"la< .o* they are !atter' b"t beca"se !an is not %o"nd also in other !atters $e are "nable to per%or! the abstraction. "2ince this is tho"&ht to be possible* b"t it is not clear $hen it is the case* so!e people already raise the 7"estion e(en in the case o% the circle and the trian&le* thin#in& that it is not ri&ht to de%ine these by re%erence to lines and to the contin"o"s* b"t that all these are to the circle or the trian&le as %lesh and bones are to !an* and bron3e or stone to the stat"e' and they red"ce all thin&s to n"!bers* and they say the %or!"la o% /line/ is that o% /t$o/. And o% those $ho assert the Ideas so!e !a#e /t$o/ the line-itsel%* and others !a#e it the )or! o% the line' %or in so!e cases they say the )or! and that o% $hich it is the )or! are the sa!e* e.&. /t$o/ and the )or! o% t$o' b"t in the case o% /line/ they say this is no lon&er so. "It %ollo$s then that there is one )or! %or !any thin&s $hose %or!

is e(idently di%%erent +a concl"sion $hich con%ronted the Pytha&oreans also,' and it is possible to !a#e one thin& the )or!-itsel% o% all* and to hold that the others are not )or!s' b"t th"s all thin&s $ill be one. "We ha(e pointed o"t* then* that the 7"estion o% de%initions contains so!e di%%ic"lty* and $hy this is so. And so to red"ce all thin&s th"s to )or!s and to eli!inate the !atter is "seless labo"r' %or so!e thin&s s"rely are a partic"lar %or! in a partic"lar !atter* or partic"lar thin&s in a partic"lar state. And the co!parison $hich 2ocrates the yo"n&er "sed to !a#e in the case o% /ani!al/ is not so"nd' %or it leads a$ay %ro! the tr"th* and !a#es one s"ppose that !an can possibly e-ist $itho"t his parts* as the circle can $itho"t the bron3e. B"t the case is not si!ilar' %or an ani!al is so!ethin& perceptible* and it is not possible to de%ine it $itho"t re%erence to !o(e!ent-nor* there%ore* $itho"t re%erence to the parts/ bein& in a certain state. )or it is not a hand in any and e(ery state that is a part o% !an* b"t only $hen it can %"l%il its $or#* and there%ore only $hen it is ali(e' i% it is not ali(e it is not a part. "Re&ardin& the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* $hy are the %or!"lae o% the parts not parts o% the %or!"lae o% the $holes' e.&. $hy are not the se!icircles incl"ded in the %or!"la o% the circle< It cannot be said* /beca"se these parts are perceptible thin&s/' %or they are not. B"t perhaps this !a#es no di%%erence' %or e(en so!e thin&s $hich are not perceptible !"st ha(e !atter' indeed there is so!e !atter in e(erythin& $hich is not an essence and a bare %or! b"t a /this/. The se!icircles* then* $ill not be parts o% the "ni(ersal circle* b"t $ill be parts o% the indi(id"al circles* as has been said be%ore' %or $hile one #ind o% !atter is perceptible* there is another $hich is intelli&ible. "It is clear also that the so"l is the pri!ary s"bstance and the body is !atter* and !an or ani!al is the co!po"nd o% both ta#en "ni(ersally' and /2ocrates/ or /1orisc"s/* i% e(en the so"l o% 2ocrates !ay be called 2ocrates* has t$o !eanin&s +%or so!e !ean by s"ch a ter! the so"l* and others !ean the concrete thin&,* b"t i% /2ocrates/ or /1orisc"s/ !eans si!ply this partic"lar so"l and this partic"lar body* the indi(id"al is analo&o"s to the "ni(ersal in its co!position. "Whether there is* apart %ro! the !atter o% s"ch s"bstances* another #ind o% !atter* and one sho"ld loo# %or so!e s"bstance other than these* e.&. n"!bers or so!ethin& o% the sort* !"st be considered later. )or it is %or the sa#e o% this that $e are tryin& to deter!ine the nat"re o% perceptible s"bstances as $ell* since in a sense the in7"iry abo"t perceptible s"bstances is the $or# o% physics* i.e. o% second philosophy' %or the physicist !"st co!e to #no$ not only abo"t the !atter* b"t also abo"t the s"bstance e-pressed in the %or!"la* and e(en !ore than abo"t the other. And in the case o% de%initions* ho$ the ele!ents in the %or!"la are parts o% the de%inition* and $hy the de%inition is one %or!"la +%or clearly the thin& is one* b"t in (irt"e o% $hat is the thin& one* altho"&h it has parts<,*-this !"st be considered later. "What the essence is and in $hat sense it is independent* has been

stated "ni(ersally in a $ay $hich is tr"e o% e(ery case* and also $hy the %or!"la o% the essence o% so!e thin&s contains the parts o% the thin& de%ined* $hile that o% others does not. And $e ha(e stated that in the %or!"la o% the s"bstance the !aterial parts $ill not be present +%or they are not e(en parts o% the s"bstance in that sense* b"t o% the concrete s"bstance' b"t o% this there is in a sense a %or!"la* and in a sense there is not' %or there is no %or!"la o% it $ith its !atter* %or this is inde%inite* b"t there is a %or!"la o% it $ith re%erence to its pri!ary s"bstance-e.&. in the case o% !an the %or!"la o% the so"l-* %or the s"bstance is the ind$ellin& %or!* %ro! $hich and the !atter the so-called concrete s"bstance is deri(ed' e.&. conca(ity is a %or! o% this sort* %or %ro! this and the nose arise /sn"b nose/ and /sn"bness/,' b"t in the concrete s"bstance* e.&. a sn"b nose or 1allias* the !atter also $ill be present. And $e ha(e stated that the essence and the thin& itsel% are in so!e cases the sa!e' ie. in the case o% pri!ary s"bstances* e.&. c"r(at"re and the essence o% c"r(at"re i% this is pri!ary. +By a /pri!ary/ s"bstance I !ean one $hich does not i!ply the presence o% so!ethin& in so!ethin& else* i.e. in so!ethin& that "nderlies it $hich acts as !atter., B"t thin&s $hich are o% the nat"re o% !atter* or o% $holes that incl"de !atter* are not the sa!e as their essences* nor are accidental "nities li#e that o% /2ocrates/ and /!"sical/' %or these are the sa!e only by accident. Part 16 " ".o$ let "s treat %irst o% de%inition* in so %ar as $e ha(e not treated o% it in the Analytics' %or the proble! stated in the! is "se%"l %or o"r in7"iries concernin& s"bstance. I !ean this proble!>-$herein can consist the "nity o% that* the %or!"la o% $hich $e call a de%inition* as %or instance* in the case o% !an* /t$o-%ooted ani!al/' %or let this be the %or!"la o% !an. Why* then* is this one* and not !any* (i3. /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/< )or in the case o% /!an/ and /pale/ there is a pl"rality $hen one ter! does not belon& to the other* b"t a "nity $hen it does belon& and the s"b0ect* !an* has a certain attrib"te' %or then a "nity is prod"ced and $e ha(e /the pale !an/. In the present case* on the other hand* one does not share in the other' the &en"s is not tho"&ht to share in its di%%erentiae +%or then the sa!e thin& $o"ld share in contraries' %or the di%%erentiae by $hich the &en"s is di(ided are contrary,. And e(en i% the &en"s does share in the!* the sa!e ar&"!ent applies* since the di%%erentiae present in !an are !any* e.&. endo$ed $ith %eet* t$o-%ooted* %eatherless. Why are these one and not !any< .ot beca"se they are present in one thin&' %or on this principle a "nity can be !ade o"t o% all the attrib"tes o% a thin&. B"t s"rely all the attrib"tes in the de%inition !"st be one' %or the de%inition is a sin&le %or!"la and a %or!"la o% s"bstance* so that it !"st be a %or!"la o% so!e one thin&' %or s"bstance !eans a /one/ and a /this/* as $e !aintain. "We !"st %irst in7"ire abo"t de%initions reached by the !ethod o% di(isions. There is nothin& in the de%inition e-cept the %irst-na!ed and the di%%erentiae. The other &enera are the %irst &en"s and alon& $ith this the di%%erentiae that are ta#en $ith it* e.&. the %irst !ay be /ani!al/* the ne-t /ani!al $hich is t$o-%ooted/* and a&ain

/ani!al $hich is t$o-%ooted and %eatherless/* and si!ilarly i% the de%inition incl"des !ore ter!s. And in &eneral it !a#es no di%%erence $hether it incl"des !any or %e$ ter!s*-nor* there%ore* $hether it incl"des %e$ or si!ply t$o' and o% the t$o the one is di%%erentia and the other &en"s' e.&. in /t$o-%ooted ani!al/ /ani!al/ is &en"s* and the other is di%%erentia. "I% then the &en"s absol"tely a-&en"s* or i% it e-ists b"t e-ists as b"t its di%%erentiae !a#e the clearly the de%inition is the does not e-ist apart %ro! the species-o%!atter +%or the (oice is &en"s and !atter* species* i.e. the letters* o"t o% it,* %or!"la $hich co!prises the di%%erentiae.

"B"t it is also necessary that the di(ision be by the di%%erentia o% the di%erentia' e.&. /endo$ed $ith %eet/ is a di%%erentia o% /ani!al/' a&ain the di%%erentia o% /ani!al endo$ed $ith %eet/ !"st be o% it 7"a endo$ed $ith %eet. There%ore $e !"st not say* i% $e are to spea# ri&htly* that o% that $hich is endo$ed $ith %eet one part has %eathers and one is %eatherless +i% $e do this $e do it thro"&h incapacity,' $e !"st di(ide it only into clo(en-%ooted and not clo(en' %or these are di%%erentiae in the %oot' clo(en-%ootedness is a %or! o% %ootedness. And the process $ants al$ays to &o on so till it reaches the species that contain no di%%erences. And then there $ill be as !any #inds o% %oot as there are di%%erentiae* and the #inds o% ani!als endo$ed $ith %eet $ill be e7"al in n"!ber to the di%%erentiae. I% then this is so* clearly the last di%%erentia $ill be the s"bstance o% the thin& and its de%inition* since it is not ri&ht to state the sa!e thin&s !ore than once in o"r de%initions' %or it is s"per%l"o"s. And this does happen' %or $hen $e say /ani!al endo$ed $ith %eet and t$o-%ooted/ $e ha(e said nothin& other than /ani!al ha(in& %eet* ha(in& t$o %eet/' and i% $e di(ide this by the proper di(ision* $e shall be sayin& the sa!e thin& !ore than once-as !any ti!es as there are di%%erentiae. "I% then a di%%erentia o% a di%%erentia be ta#en at each step* one di%%erentia-the last-$ill be the %or! and the s"bstance' b"t i% $e di(ide accordin& to accidental 7"alities* e.&. i% $e $ere to di(ide that $hich is endo$ed $ith %eet into the $hite and the blac#* there $ill be as !any di%%erentiae as there are c"ts. There%ore it is plain that the de%inition is the %or!"la $hich contains the di%%erentiae* or* accordin& to the ri&ht !ethod* the last o% these. This $o"ld be e(ident* i% $e $ere to chan&e the order o% s"ch de%initions* e.&. o% that o% !an* sayin& /ani!al $hich is t$o-%ooted and endo$ed $ith %eet/' %or /endo$ed $ith %eet/ is s"per%l"o"s $hen /t$o-%ooted/ has been said. B"t there is no order in the s"bstance' %or ho$ are $e to thin# the one ele!ent posterior and the other prior< Re&ardin& the de%initions* then* $hich are reached by the !ethod o% di(isions* let this s"%%ice as o"r %irst atte!pt at statin& their nat"re. Part 1; " " et "s ret"rn to the s"b0ect o% o"r in7"iry* $hich is s"bstance. As the s"bstrat"! and the essence and the co!po"nd o% these are called s"bstance* so also is the "ni(ersal. Abo"t t$o o% these $e ha(e spo#en' both abo"t the essence and abo"t the s"bstrat"!* o% $hich $e ha(e said that it "nderlies in t$o senses* either bein& a /this/-$hich is the $ay in $hich an ani!al "nderlies its attrib"tes-or as the !atter

"nderlies the co!plete reality. The "ni(ersal also is tho"&ht by so!e to be in the %"llest sense a ca"se* and a principle' there%ore let "s attac# the disc"ssion o% this point also. )or it see!s i!possible that any "ni(ersal ter! sho"ld be the na!e o% a s"bstance. )or %irstly the s"bstance o% each thin& is that $hich is pec"liar to it* $hich does not belon& to anythin& else' b"t the "ni(ersal is co!!on* since that is called "ni(ersal $hich is s"ch as to belon& to !ore than one thin&. O% $hich indi(id"al then $ill this be the s"bstance< 5ither o% all or o% none' b"t it cannot be the s"bstance o% all. And i% it is to be the s"bstance o% one* this one $ill be the others also' %or thin&s $hose s"bstance is one and $hose essence is one are the!sel(es also one. ")"rther* s"bstance !eans that $hich is not predicable o% a s"b0ect* b"t the "ni(ersal is predicable o% so!e s"b0ect al$ays. "B"t perhaps the "ni(ersal* $hile it cannot be s"bstance in the $ay in $hich the essence is so* can be present in this' e.&. /ani!al/ can be present in /!an/ and /horse/. Then clearly it is a %or!"la o% the essence. And it !a#es no di%%erence e(en i% it is not a %or!"la o% e(erythin& that is in the s"bstance' %or none the less the "ni(ersal $ill be the s"bstance o% so!ethin&* as /!an/ is the s"bstance o% the indi(id"al !an in $ho! it is present* so that the sa!e res"lt $ill %ollo$ once !ore' %or the "ni(ersal* e.&. /ani!al/* $ill be the s"bstance o% that in $hich it is present as so!ethin& pec"liar to it. And %"rther it is i!possible and abs"rd that the /this/* i.e. the s"bstance* i% it consists o% parts* sho"ld not consist o% s"bstances nor o% $hat is a /this/* b"t o% 7"ality' %or that $hich is not s"bstance* i.e. the 7"ality* $ill then be prior to s"bstance and to the /this/. Which is i!possible' %or neither in %or!"la nor in ti!e nor in co!in& to be can the !odi%ications be prior to the s"bstance' %or then they $ill also be separable %ro! it. )"rther* 2ocrates $ill contain a s"bstance present in a s"bstance* so that this $ill be the s"bstance o% t$o thin&s. And in &eneral it %ollo$s* i% !an and s"ch thin&s are s"bstance* that none o% the ele!ents in their %or!"lae is the s"bstance o% anythin&* nor does it e-ist apart %ro! the species or in anythin& else' I !ean* %or instance* that no /ani!al/ e-ists apart %ro! the partic"lar #inds o% ani!al* nor does any other o% the ele!ents present in %or!"lae e-ist apart. "I%* then* $e (ie$ the !atter %ro! these standpoints* it is plain that no "ni(ersal attrib"te is a s"bstance* and this is plain also %ro! the %act that no co!!on predicate indicates a /this/* b"t rather a /s"ch/. I% not* !any di%%ic"lties %ollo$ and especially the /third !an/. "The concl"sion is e(ident also %ro! the %ollo$in& consideration. A s"bstance cannot consist o% s"bstances present in it in co!plete reality' %or thin&s that are th"s in co!plete reality t$o are ne(er in co!plete reality one* tho"&h i% they are potentially t$o* they can be one +e.&. the do"ble line consists o% t$o hal(es-potentially' %or the co!plete reali3ation o% the hal(es di(ides the! %ro! one another,' there%ore i% the s"bstance is one* it $ill not consist o% s"bstances

present in it and present in this $ay* $hich De!ocrit"s describes ri&htly' he says one thin& cannot be !ade o"t o% t$o nor t$o o"t o% one' %or he identi%ies s"bstances $ith his indi(isible !a&nit"des. It is clear there%ore that the sa!e $ill hold &ood o% n"!ber* i% n"!ber is a synthesis o% "nits* as is said by so!e' %or t$o is either not one* or there is no "nit present in it in co!plete reality. B"t o"r res"lt in(ol(es a di%%ic"lty. I% no s"bstance can consist o% "ni(ersals beca"se a "ni(ersal indicates a /s"ch/* not a /this/* and i% no s"bstance can be co!posed o% s"bstances e-istin& in co!plete reality* e(ery s"bstance $o"ld be inco!posite* so that there $o"ld not e(en be a %or!"la o% any s"bstance. B"t it is tho"&ht by all and $as stated lon& a&o that it is either only* or pri!arily* s"bstance that can de%ined' yet no$ it see!s that not e(en s"bstance can. There cannot* then* be a de%inition o% anythin&' or in a sense there can be* and in a sense there cannot. And $hat $e are sayin& $ill be plainer %ro! $hat %ollo$s. Part 1= " "It is clear also %ro! these (ery %acts $hat conse7"ence con%ronts those $ho say the Ideas are s"bstances capable o% separate e-istence* and at the sa!e ti!e !a#e the )or! consist o% the &en"s and the di%%erentiae. )or i% the )or!s e-ist and /ani!al/ is present in /!an/ and /horse/* it is either one and the sa!e in n"!ber* or di%%erent. +In %or!"la it is clearly one' %or he $ho states the %or!"la $ill &o thro"&h the %or!"la in either case., I% then there is a /!an-in-hi!sel%/ $ho is a /this/ and e-ists apart* the parts also o% $hich he consists* e.&. /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/* !"st indicate /thises/* and be capable o% separate e-istence* and s"bstances' there%ore /ani!al/* as $ell as /!an/* !"st be o% this sort. ".o$ +1, i% the /ani!al/ in /the horse/ and in /!an/ is one and the sa!e* as yo" are $ith yo"rsel%* +a, ho$ $ill the one in thin&s that e-ist apart be one* and ho$ $ill this /ani!al/ escape bein& di(ided e(en %ro! itsel%< ")"rther* +b, i% it is to share in /t$o-%ooted/ and /!any-%ooted/* an i!possible concl"sion %ollo$s' %or contrary attrib"tes $ill belon& at the sa!e ti!e to it altho"&h it is one and a /this/. I% it is not to share in the!* $hat is the relation i!plied $hen one says the ani!al is t$o-%ooted or possessed o% %eet< B"t perhaps the t$o thin&s are /p"t to&ether/ and are /in contact/* or are /!i-ed/. :et all these e-pressions are abs"rd. "B"t +6, s"ppose the )or! to be di%%erent in each species. Then there $ill be practically an in%inite n"!ber o% thin&s $hose s"bstance is ani!al/' %or it is not by accident that /!an/ has /ani!al/ %or one o% its ele!ents. )"rther* !any thin&s $ill be /ani!al-itsel%/. )or +i, the /ani!al/ in each species $ill be the s"bstance o% the species' %or it is a%ter nothin& else that the species is called' i% it $ere* that other $o"ld be an ele!ent in /!an/* i.e. $o"ld be the &en"s o% !an. And %"rther* +ii, all the ele!ents o% $hich /!an/ is co!posed $ill be Ideas. .one o% the!* then* $ill be the Idea o% one thin& and the s"bstance o% another' this is i!possible. The /ani!al/* then* present in each species o% ani!als $ill be ani!al-itsel%. )"rther*

%ro! $hat is this /ani!al/ in each species deri(ed* and ho$ $ill it be deri(ed %ro! ani!al-itsel%< Or ho$ can this /ani!al/* $hose essence is si!ply ani!ality* e-ist apart %ro! ani!al-itsel%< ")"rther* +;,in the case o% sensible thin&s both these conse7"ences and others still !ore abs"rd %ollo$. I%* then* these conse7"ences are i!possible* clearly there are not )or!s o% sensible thin&s in the sense in $hich so!e !aintain their e-istence. Part 1? " "2ince s"bstance is o% t$o #inds* the concrete thin& and the %or!"la +I !ean that one #ind o% s"bstance is the %or!"la ta#en $ith the !atter* $hile another #ind is the %or!"la in its &enerality,* s"bstances in the %or!er sense are capable o% destr"ction +%or they are capable also o% &eneration,* b"t there is no destr"ction o% the %or!"la in the sense that it is e(er in co"rse o% bein& destroyed +%or there is no &eneration o% it either' the bein& o% ho"se is not &enerated* b"t only the bein& o% this ho"se,* b"t $itho"t &eneration and destr"ction %or!"lae are and are not' %or it has been sho$n that no one be&ets nor !a#es these. )or this reason* also* there is neither de%inition o% nor de!onstration abo"t sensible indi(id"al s"bstances* beca"se they ha(e !atter $hose nat"re is s"ch that they are capable both o% bein& and o% not bein&' %or $hich reason all the indi(id"al instances o% the! are destr"ctible. I% then de!onstration is o% necessary tr"ths and de%inition is a scienti%ic process* and i%* 0"st as #no$led&e cannot be so!eti!es #no$led&e and so!eti!es i&norance* b"t the state $hich (aries th"s is opinion* so too de!onstration and de%inition cannot (ary th"s* b"t it is opinion that deals $ith that $hich can be other$ise than as it is* clearly there can neither be de%inition o% nor de!onstration abo"t sensible indi(id"als. )or perishin& thin&s are obsc"re to those $ho ha(e the rele(ant #no$led&e* $hen they ha(e passed %ro! o"r perception' and tho"&h the %or!"lae re!ain in the so"l "nchan&ed* there $ill no lon&er be either de%inition or de!onstration. And so $hen one o% the de%inition-!on&ers de%ines any indi(id"al* he !"st reco&ni3e that his de%inition !ay al$ays be o(erthro$n' %or it is not possible to de%ine s"ch thin&s. ".or is it possible to de%ine any Idea. )or the Idea is* as its s"pporters say* an indi(id"al* and can e-ist apart' and the %or!"la !"st consist o% $ords' and he $ho de%ines !"st not in(ent a $ord +%or it $o"ld be "n#no$n,* b"t the established $ords are co!!on to all the !e!bers o% a class' these then !"st apply to so!ethin& besides the thin& de%ined' e.&. i% one $ere de%inin& yo"* he $o"ld say /an ani!al $hich is lean/ or /pale/* or so!ethin& else $hich $ill apply also to so!e one other than yo". I% any one $ere to say that perhaps all the attrib"tes ta#en apart !ay belon& to !any s"b0ects* b"t to&ether they belon& only to this one* $e !"st reply %irst that they belon& also to both the ele!ents' e.&. /t$o-%ooted ani!al/ belon&s to ani!al and to the t$o-%ooted. +And in the case o% eternal entities this is e(en necessary* since the ele!ents are prior to and parts o% the co!po"nd' nay !ore* they can also e-ist apart* i% /!an/ can e-ist apart. )or either neither

or both can. I%* then* neither can* the &en"s $ill not e-ist apart %ro! the (ario"s species' b"t i% it does* the di%%erentia $ill also., 2econdly* $e !"st reply that /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/ are prior in bein& to /t$o-%ooted ani!al/' and thin&s $hich are prior to others are not destroyed $hen the others are. "A&ain* i% the Ideas consist o% Ideas +as they !"st* since ele!ents are si!pler than the co!po"nd,* it $ill be %"rther necessary that the ele!ents also o% $hich the Idea consists* e.&. /ani!al/ and /t$o%ooted/* sho"ld be predicated o% !any s"b0ects. I% not* ho$ $ill they co!e to be #no$n< )or there $ill then be an Idea $hich cannot be predicated o% !ore s"b0ects than one. B"t this is not tho"&ht possible-e(ery Idea is tho"&ht to be capable o% bein& shared. "As has been said* then* the i!possibility o% de%inin& indi(id"als escapes notice in the case o% eternal thin&s* especially those $hich are "ni7"e* li#e the s"n or the !oon. )or people err not only by addin& attrib"tes $hose re!o(al the s"n $o"ld s"r(i(e* e.&. /&oin& ro"nd the earth/ or /ni&ht-hidden/ +%or %ro! their (ie$ it %ollo$s that i% it stands still or is (isible* it $ill no lon&er be the s"n' b"t it is stran&e i% this is so' %or /the s"n/ !eans a certain s"bstance,' b"t also by the !ention o% attrib"tes $hich can belon& to another s"b0ect' e.&. i% another thin& $ith the stated attrib"tes co!es into e-istence* clearly it $ill be a s"n' the %or!"la there%ore is &eneral. B"t the s"n $as s"pposed to be an indi(id"al* li#e 1leon or 2ocrates. A%ter all* $hy does not one o% the s"pporters o% the Ideas prod"ce a de%inition o% an Idea< It $o"ld beco!e clear* i% they tried* that $hat has no$ been said is tr"e. Part 1B " "5(idently e(en o% the thin&s that are tho"&ht to be s"bstances* !ost are only potencies*-both the parts o% ani!als +%or none o% the! e-ists separately' and $hen they are separated* then too they e-ist* all o% the!* !erely as !atter, and earth and %ire and air' %or none o% the! is a "nity* b"t as it $ere a !ere heap* till they are $or#ed "p and so!e "nity is !ade o"t o% the!. One !i&ht !ost readily s"ppose the parts o% li(in& thin&s and the parts o% the so"l nearly related to the! to t"rn o"t to be both* i.e. e-istent in co!plete reality as $ell as in potency* beca"se they ha(e so"rces o% !o(e!ent in so!ethin& in their 0oints' %or $hich reason so!e ani!als li(e $hen di(ided. :et all the parts !"st e-ist only potentially* $hen they are one and contin"o"s by nat"re*-not by %orce or by &ro$in& into one* %or s"ch a pheno!enon is an abnor!ality. "2ince the ter! /"nity/ is "sed li#e the ter! /bein&/* and the s"bstance o% that $hich is one is one* and thin&s $hose s"bstance is n"!erically one are n"!erically one* e(idently neither "nity nor bein& can be the s"bstance o% thin&s* 0"st as bein& an ele!ent or a principle cannot be the s"bstance* b"t $e as# $hat* then* the principle is* that $e !ay red"ce the thin& to so!ethin& !ore #no$able. .o$ o% these concepts /bein&/ and /"nity/ are !ore s"bstantial than /principle/ or /ele!ent/ or /ca"se/* b"t not e(en the %or!er are s"bstance* since in &eneral nothin& that is co!!on is s"bstance' %or s"bstance does not belon& to anythin& b"t to itsel% and to that $hich has it* o% $hich it is

the s"bstance. )"rther* that $hich is one cannot be in !any places at the sa!e ti!e* b"t that $hich is co!!on is present in !any places at the sa!e ti!e' so that clearly no "ni(ersal e-ists apart %ro! its indi(id"als. "B"t those $ho say the )or!s e-ist* in one respect are ri&ht* in &i(in& the )or!s separate e-istence* i% they are s"bstances' b"t in another respect they are not ri&ht* beca"se they say the one o(er !any is a )or!. The reason %or their doin& this is that they cannot declare $hat are the s"bstances o% this sort* the i!perishable s"bstances $hich e-ist apart %ro! the indi(id"al and sensible s"bstances. They !a#e the!* then* the sa!e in #ind as the perishable thin&s +%or this #ind o% s"bstance $e #no$,--/!an-hi!sel%/ and /horse-itsel%/* addin& to the sensible thin&s the $ord /itsel%/. :et e(en i% $e had not seen the stars* none the less* I s"ppose* $o"ld they ha(e been eternal s"bstances apart %ro! those $hich $e #ne$' so that no$ also i% $e do not #no$ $hat non-sensible s"bstances there are* yet it is do"btless necessary that there sho"ld he so!e.-1learly* then* no "ni(ersal ter! is the na!e o% a s"bstance* and no s"bstance is co!posed o% s"bstances. Part 1C " " et "s state $hat* i.e. $hat #ind o% thin&* s"bstance sho"ld be said to be* ta#in& once !ore another startin&-point' %or perhaps %ro! this $e shall &et a clear (ie$ also o% that s"bstance $hich e-ists apart %ro! sensible s"bstances. 2ince* then* s"bstance is a principle and a ca"se* let "s p"rs"e it %ro! this startin&-point. The /$hy/ is al$ays so"&ht in this %or!--/$hy does one thin& attach to so!e other</ )or to in7"ire $hy the !"sical !an is a !"sical !an* is either to in7"ire-as $e ha(e said $hy the !an is !"sical* or it is so!ethin& else. .o$ /$hy a thin& is itsel%/ is a !eanin&less in7"iry +%or +to &i(e !eanin& to the 7"estion /$hy/, the %act or the e-istence o% the thin& !"st already be e(ident-e.&. that the !oon is eclipsed-b"t the %act that a thin& is itsel% is the sin&le reason and the sin&le ca"se to be &i(en in ans$er to all s"ch 7"estions as $hy the !an is !an* or the !"sician !"sical/* "nless one $ere to ans$er /beca"se each thin& is inseparable %ro! itsel%* and its bein& one 0"st !eant this/' this* ho$e(er* is co!!on to all thin&s and is a short and easy $ay $ith the 7"estion,. B"t $e can in7"ire $hy !an is an ani!al o% s"ch and s"ch a nat"re. This* then* is plain* that $e are not in7"irin& $hy he $ho is a !an is a !an. We are in7"irin&* then* $hy so!ethin& is predicable o% so!ethin& +that it is predicable !"st be clear' %or i% not* the in7"iry is an in7"iry into nothin&,. 5.&. $hy does it th"nder< This is the sa!e as /$hy is so"nd prod"ced in the clo"ds</ Th"s the in7"iry is abo"t the predication o% one thin& o% another. And $hy are these thin&s* i.e. bric#s and stones* a ho"se< Plainly $e are see#in& the ca"se. And this is the essence +to spea# abstractly,* $hich in so!e cases is the end* e.&. perhaps in the case o% a ho"se or a bed* and in so!e cases is the %irst !o(er' %or this also is a ca"se. B"t $hile the e%%icient ca"se is so"&ht in the case o% &enesis and destr"ction* the %inal ca"se is so"&ht in the case o% bein& also. "The ob0ect o% the in7"iry is !ost easily o(erloo#ed $here one ter! is not e-pressly predicated o% another +e.&. $hen $e in7"ire /$hat !an is/,* beca"se $e do not distin&"ish and do not say de%initely that certain ele!ents !a#e "p a certain $hole. B"t $e !"st artic"late

o"r !eanin& be%ore $e be&in to in7"ire' i% not* the in7"iry is on the border-line bet$een bein& a search %or so!ethin& and a search %or nothin&. 2ince $e !"st ha(e the e-istence o% the thin& as so!ethin& &i(en* clearly the 7"estion is $hy the !atter is so!e de%inite thin&' e.&. $hy are these !aterials a ho"se< Beca"se that $hich $as the essence o% a ho"se is present. And $hy is this indi(id"al thin&* or this body ha(in& this %or!* a !an< There%ore $hat $e see# is the ca"se* i.e. the %or!* by reason o% $hich the !atter is so!e de%inite thin&' and this is the s"bstance o% the thin&. 5(idently* then* in the case o% si!ple ter!s no in7"iry nor teachin& is possible' o"r attit"de to$ards s"ch thin&s is other than that o% in7"iry. "2ince that $hich is co!po"nded o"t o% so!ethin& so that the $hole is one* not li#e a heap b"t li#e a syllable-no$ the syllable is not its ele!ents* ba is not the sa!e as b and a* nor is %lesh %ire and earth +%or $hen these are separated the $holes* i.e. the %lesh and the syllable* no lon&er e-ist* b"t the ele!ents o% the syllable e-ist* and so do %ire and earth,' the syllable* then* is so!ethin&-not only its ele!ents +the (o$el and the consonant, b"t also so!ethin& else* and the %lesh is not only %ire and earth or the hot and the cold* b"t also so!ethin& else>-i%* then* that so!ethin& !"st itsel% be either an ele!ent or co!posed o% ele!ents* +1, i% it is an ele!ent the sa!e ar&"!ent $ill a&ain apply' %or %lesh $ill consist o% this and %ire and earth and so!ethin& still %"rther* so that the process $ill &o on to in%inity. B"t +6, i% it is a co!po"nd* clearly it $ill be a co!po"nd not o% one b"t o% !ore than one +or else that one $ill be the thin& itsel%,* so that a&ain in this case $e can "se the sa!e ar&"!ent as in the case o% %lesh or o% the syllable. B"t it $o"ld see! that this /other/ is so!ethin&* and not an ele!ent* and that it is the ca"se $hich !a#es this thin& %lesh and that a syllable. And si!ilarly in all other cases. And this is the s"bstance o% each thin& +%or this is the pri!ary ca"se o% its bein&,' and since* $hile so!e thin&s are not s"bstances* as !any as are s"bstances are %or!ed in accordance $ith a nat"re o% their o$n and by a process o% nat"re* their s"bstance $o"ld see! to be this #ind o% /nat"re/* $hich is not an ele!ent b"t a principle. An ele!ent* on the other hand* is that into $hich a thin& is di(ided and $hich is present in it as !atter' e.&. a and b are the ele!ents o% the syllable. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK GIII Part 1 " "W5 !"st rec#on "p the res"lts arisin& %ro! $hat has been said* and co!p"te the s"! o% the!* and p"t the %inishin& to"ch to o"r in7"iry. We ha(e said that the ca"ses* principles* and ele!ents o% s"bstances are the ob0ect o% o"r search. And so!e s"bstances are reco&ni3ed by e(ery one* b"t so!e ha(e been ad(ocated by partic"lar schools. Those &enerally reco&ni3ed are the nat"ral s"bstances* i.e. %ire* earth* $ater* air* Kc.* the si!ple bodies' second plants and their parts* and ani!als and the parts o% ani!als' and %inally the physical "ni(erse and its parts' $hile so!e partic"lar schools say that )or!s and the ob0ects o% !athe!atics are s"bstances. B"t there are ar&"!ents $hich

lead to the concl"sion that there are other s"bstances* the essence and the s"bstrat"!. A&ain* in another $ay the &en"s see!s !ore s"bstantial than the (ario"s spccies* and the "ni(ersal than the partic"lars. And $ith the "ni(ersal and the &en"s the Ideas are connected' it is in (irt"e o% the sa!e ar&"!ent that they are tho"&ht to be s"bstances. And since the essence is s"bstance* and the de%inition is a %or!"la o% the essence* %or this reason $e ha(e disc"ssed de%inition and essential predication. 2ince the de%inition is a %or!"la* and a %or!"la has parts* $e had to consider also $ith respect to the notion o% /part/* $hat are parts o% the s"bstance and $hat are not* and $hether the parts o% the s"bstance are also parts o% the de%inition. )"rther* too* neither the "ni(ersal nor the &en"s is a s"bstance' $e !"st in7"ire later into the Ideas and the ob0ects o% !athe!atics' %or so!e say these are s"bstances as $ell as the sensible s"bstances. "B"t no$ let "s res"!e the disc"ssion o% the &enerally reco&ni3ed s"bstances. These are the sensible s"bstances* and sensible s"bstances all ha(e !atter. The s"bstrat"! is s"bstance* and this is in one sense the !atter +and by !atter I !ean that $hich* not bein& a /this/ act"ally* is potentially a /this/,* and in another sense the %or!"la or shape +that $hich bein& a /this/ can be separately %or!"lated,* and thirdly the co!ple- o% these t$o* $hich alone is &enerated and destroyed* and is* $itho"t 7"ali%ication* capable o% separate e-istence' %or o% s"bstances co!pletely e-pressible in a %or!"la so!e are separable and so!e are separable and so!e are not. "B"t clearly !atter also is s"bstance' %or in all the opposite chan&es that occ"r there is so!ethin& $hich "nderlies the chan&es* e.&. in respect o% place that $hich is no$ here and a&ain else$here* and in respect o% increase that $hich is no$ o% one si3e and a&ain less or &reater* and in respect o% alteration that $hich is no$ healthy and a&ain diseased' and si!ilarly in respect o% s"bstance there is so!ethin& that is no$ bein& &enerated and a&ain bein& destroyed* and no$ "nderlies the process as a /this/ and a&ain "nderlies it in respect o% a pri(ation o% positi(e character. And in this chan&e the others are in(ol(ed. B"t in either one or t$o o% the others this is not in(ol(ed' %or it is not necessary i% a thin& has !atter %or chan&e o% place that it sho"ld also ha(e !atter %or &eneration and destr"ction. "The di%%erence bet$een beco!in& in the %"ll sense and beco!in& in a 7"ali%ied sense has been stated in o"r physical $or#s. Part 6 " "2ince the s"bstance $hich e-ists as "nderlyin& and as !atter is &enerally reco&ni3ed* and this that $hich e-ists potentially* it re!ains %or "s to say $hat is the s"bstance* in the sense o% act"ality* o% sensible thin&s. De!ocrit"s see!s to thin# there are three #inds o% di%%erence bet$een thin&s' the "nderlyin& body* the !atter* is one and the sa!e* b"t they di%%er either in rhyth!* i.e. shape* or in t"rnin&* i.e. position* or in inter-contact* i.e. order. B"t e(idently there are !any di%%erences' %or instance* so!e thin&s are characteri3ed by the !ode o% co!position o% their !atter* e.&. the thin&s %or!ed by blendin&*

s"ch as honey-$ater' and others by bein& bo"nd to&ether* e.&. b"ndle' and others by bein& &l"ed to&ether* e.&. a boo#' and others by bein& nailed to&ether* e.&. a cas#et' and others in !ore than one o% these $ays' and others by position* e.&. threshold and lintel +%or these di%%er by bein& placed in a certain $ay,' and others by ti!e* e.&. dinner and brea#%ast' and others by place* e.&. the $inds' and others by the a%%ections proper to sensible thin&s* e.&. hardness and so%tness* density and rarity* dryness and $etness' and so!e thin&s by so!e o% these 7"alities* others by the! all* and in &eneral so!e by e-cess and so!e by de%ect. 1learly* then* the $ord /is/ has 0"st as !any !eanin&s' a thin& is a threshold beca"se it lies in s"ch and s"ch a position* and its bein& !eans its lyin& in that position* $hile bein& ice !eans ha(in& been solidi%ied in s"ch and s"ch a $ay. And the bein& o% so!e thin&s $ill be de%ined by all these 7"alities* beca"se so!e parts o% the! are !i-ed* others are blended* others are bo"nd to&ether* others are solidi%ied* and others "se the other di%%erentiae' e.&. the hand or the %oot re7"ires s"ch co!ple- de%inition. We !"st &rasp* then* the #inds o% di%%erentiae +%or these $ill be the principles o% the bein& o% thin&s,* e.&. the thin&s characteri3ed by the !ore and the less* or by the dense and the rare* and by other s"ch 7"alities' %or all these are %or!s o% e-cess and de%ect. And anythin& that is characteri3ed by shape or by s!oothness and ro"&hness is characteri3ed by the strai&ht and the c"r(ed. And %or other thin&s their bein& $ill !ean their bein& !i-ed* and their not bein& $ill !ean the opposite. "It is clear* then* %ro! these %acts that* since its s"bstance is the ca"se o% each thin&/s bein&* $e !"st see# in these di%%erentiae $hat is the ca"se o% the bein& o% each o% these thin&s. .o$ none o% these di%%erentiae is s"bstance* e(en $hen co"pled $ith !atter* yet it is $hat is analo&o"s to s"bstance in each case' and as in s"bstances that $hich is predicated o% the !atter is the act"ality itsel%* in all other de%initions also it is $hat !ost rese!bles %"ll act"ality. 5.&. i% $e had to de%ine a threshold* $e sho"ld say /$ood or stone in s"ch and s"ch a position/* and a ho"se $e sho"ld de%ine as /bric#s and ti!bers in s"ch and s"ch a position/*+or a p"rpose !ay e-ist as $ell in so!e cases,* and i% $e had to de%ine ice $e sho"ld say /$ater %ro3en or solidi%ied in s"ch and s"ch a $ay/* and har!ony is /s"ch and s"ch a blendin& o% hi&h and lo$/' and si!ilarly in all other cases. "Ob(io"sly* then* the act"ality or the %or!"la is di%%erent $hen the !atter is di%%erent' %or in so!e cases it is the co!position* in others the !i-in&* and in others so!e other o% the attrib"tes $e ha(e na!ed. And so* o% the people $ho &o in %or de%inin&* those $ho de%ine a ho"se as stones* bric#s* and ti!bers are spea#in& o% the potential ho"se* %or these are the !atter' b"t those $ho propose /a receptacle to shelter chattels and li(in& bein&s/* or so!ethin& o% the sort* spea# o% the act"ality. Those $ho co!bine both o% these spea# o% the third #ind o% s"bstance* $hich is co!posed o% !atter and %or! +%or the %or!"la that &i(es the di%%erentiae see!s to be an acco"nt o% the %or! or act"ality* $hile that $hich &i(es the co!ponents is rather an acco"nt o% the !atter,' and the sa!e is tr"e o% the #ind o% de%initions $hich Archytas "sed to accept' they are acco"nts o% the co!bined %or! and !atter. 5.&. $hat is still $eather< Absence o% !otion in a lar&e e-panse o% air' air is the !atter* and absence o% !otion is the act"ality and s"bstance. What is a cal!< 2!oothness o% sea' the !aterial s"bstrat"! is the sea* and the act"ality or shape is s!oothness. It is ob(io"s

then* %ro! $hat has been said* $hat sensible s"bstance is and ho$ it e-ists-one #ind o% it as !atter* another as %or! or act"ality* $hile the third #ind is that $hich is co!posed o% these t$o. Part ; " "We !"st not %ail to notice that so!eti!es it is not clear $hether a na!e !eans the co!posite s"bstance* or the act"ality or %or!* e.&. $hether /ho"se/ is a si&n %or the co!posite thin&* /a co(erin& consistin& o% bric#s and stones laid th"s and th"s/* or %or the act"ality or %or!* /a co(erin&/* and $hether a line is /t$oness in len&th/ or /t$oness/* and $hether an ani!al is so"l in a body/ or /a so"l/' %or so"l is the s"bstance or act"ality o% so!e body. /Ani!al/ !i&ht e(en be applied to both* not as so!ethin& de%inable by one %or!"la* b"t as related to a sin&le thin&. B"t this 7"estion* $hile i!portant %or another p"rpose* is o% no i!portance %or the in7"iry into sensible s"bstance' %or the essence certainly attaches to the %or! and the act"ality. )or /so"l/ and /to be so"l/ are the sa!e* b"t /to be !an/ and /!an/ are not the sa!e* "nless e(en the bare so"l is to be called !an' and th"s on one interpretation the thin& is the sa!e as its essence* and on another it is not. "I% $e e-a!ine $e %ind that the syllable does not consist o% the letters I 0"-taposition* nor is the ho"se bric#s I 0"-taposition. And this is ri&ht' %or the 0"-taposition or !i-in& does not consist o% those thin&s o% $hich it is the 0"-taposition or !i-in&. And the sa!e is tr"e in all other cases' e.&. i% the threshold is characteri3ed by its position* the position is not constit"ted by the threshold* b"t rather the latter is constit"ted by the %or!er. .or is !an ani!al I biped* b"t there !"st be so!ethin& besides these* i% these are !atter*-so!ethin& $hich is neither an ele!ent in the $hole nor a co!po"nd* b"t is the s"bstance' b"t this people eli!inate* and state only the !atter. I%* then* this is the ca"se o% the thin&/s bein&* and i% the ca"se o% its bein& is its s"bstance* they $ill not be statin& the s"bstance itsel%. "+This* then* !"st either be eternal or it !"st be destr"ctible $itho"t bein& e(er in co"rse o% bein& destroyed* and !"st ha(e co!e to be $itho"t e(er bein& in co"rse o% co!in& to be. B"t it has been pro(ed and e-plained else$here that no one !a#es or be&ets the %or!* b"t it is the indi(id"al that is !ade* i.e. the co!ple- o% %or! and !atter that is &enerated. Whether the s"bstances o% destr"ctible thin&s can e-ist apart* is not yet at all clear' e-cept that ob(io"sly this is i!possible in so!e cases-in the case o% thin&s $hich cannot e-ist apart %ro! the indi(id"al instances* e.&. ho"se or "tensil. Perhaps* indeed* neither these thin&s the!sel(es* nor any o% the other thin&s $hich are not %or!ed by nat"re* are s"bstances at all' %or one !i&ht say that the nat"re in nat"ral ob0ects is the only s"bstance to be %o"nd in destr"ctible thin&s., "There%ore the di%%ic"lty $hich "sed to be raised by the school o% Antisthenes and other s"ch "ned"cated people has a certain ti!eliness. They said that the /$hat/ cannot be de%ined +%or the de%inition so called is a /lon& ri&!arole/, b"t o% $hat sort a thin&* e.&. sil(er*

is* they tho"&ht it possible act"ally to e-plain* not sayin& $hat it is* b"t that it is li#e tin. There%ore one #ind o% s"bstance can be de%ined and %or!"lated* i.e. the co!posite #ind* $hether it be perceptible or intelli&ible' b"t the pri!ary parts o% $hich this consists cannot be de%ined* since a de%initory %or!"la predicates so!ethin& o% so!ethin&* and one part o% the de%inition !"st play the part o% !atter and the other that o% %or!. "It is also ob(io"s that* i% s"bstances are in a sense n"!bers* they are so in this sense and not* as so!e say* as n"!bers o% "nits. )or a de%inition is a sort o% n"!ber' %or +1, it is di(isible* and into indi(isible parts +%or de%initory %or!"lae are not in%inite,* and n"!ber also is o% this nat"re. And +6, as* $hen one o% the parts o% $hich a n"!ber consists has been ta#en %ro! or added to the n"!ber* it is no lon&er the sa!e n"!ber* b"t a di%%erent one* e(en i% it is the (ery s!allest part that has been ta#en a$ay or added* so the de%inition and the essence $ill no lon&er re!ain $hen anythin& has been ta#en a$ay or added. And +;, the n"!ber !"st be so!ethin& in (irt"e o% $hich it is one* and this these thin#ers cannot state* $hat !a#es it one* i% it is one +%or either it is not one b"t a sort o% heap* or i% it is* $e o"&ht to say $hat it is that !a#es one o"t o% !any,' and the de%inition is one* b"t si!ilarly they cannot say $hat !a#es it one. And this is a nat"ral res"lt' %or the sa!e reason is applicable* and s"bstance is one in the sense $hich $e ha(e e-plained* and not* as so!e say* by bein& a sort o% "nit or point' each is a co!plete reality and a de%inite nat"re. And +=, as n"!ber does not ad!it o% the !ore and the less* neither does s"bstance* in the sense o% %or!* b"t i% any s"bstance does* it is only the s"bstance $hich in(ol(es !atter. et this* then* s"%%ice %or an acco"nt o% the &eneration and destr"ction o% so-called s"bstances in $hat sense it is possible and in $hat sense i!possible--and o% the red"ction o% thin&s to n"!ber. Part = " "Re&ardin& !aterial s"bstance $e !"st not %or&et that e(en i% all thin&s co!e %ro! the sa!e %irst ca"se or ha(e the sa!e thin&s %or their %irst ca"ses* and i% the sa!e !atter ser(es as startin&-point %or their &eneration* yet there is a !atter proper to each* e.&. %or phle&! the s$eet or the %at* and %or bile the bitter* or so!ethin& else' tho"&h perhaps these co!e %ro! the sa!e ori&inal !atter. And there co!e to be se(eral !atters %or the sa!e thin&* $hen the one !atter is !atter %or the other' e.&. phle&! co!es %ro! the %at and %ro! the s$eet* i% the %at co!es %ro! the s$eet' and it co!es %ro! bile by analysis o% the bile into its "lti!ate !atter. )or one thin& co!es %ro! another in t$o senses* either beca"se it $ill be %o"nd at a later sta&e* or beca"se it is prod"ced i% the other is analysed into its ori&inal constit"ents. When the !atter is one* di%%erent thin&s !ay be prod"ced o$in& to di%%erence in the !o(in& ca"se' e.&. %ro! $ood !ay be !ade both a chest and a bed. B"t so!e di%%erent thin&s !"st ha(e their !atter di%%erent' e.&. a sa$ co"ld not be !ade o% $ood* nor is this in the po$er o% the !o(in& ca"se' %or it co"ld not !a#e a sa$ o% $ool or o% $ood. B"t i%* as a !atter o% %act* the sa!e thin& can be !ade o% di%%erent !aterial* clearly the art* i.e. the !o(in& principle* is the sa!e' %or i% both the !atter and the !o(in& ca"se $ere di%%erent* the prod"ct $o"ld be so too.

"When one in7"ires into the ca"se o% so!ethin&* one sho"ld* since /ca"ses/ are spo#en o% in se(eral senses* state all the possible ca"ses. $hat is the !aterial ca"se o% !an< 2hall $e say /the !enstr"al %l"id/< What is !o(in& ca"se< 2hall $e say /the seed/< The %or!al ca"se< 4is essence. The %inal ca"se< 4is end. B"t perhaps the latter t$o are the sa!e.-It is the pro-i!ate ca"ses $e !"st state. What is the !aterial ca"se< We !"st na!e not %ire or earth* b"t the !atter pec"liar to the thin&. "Re&ardin& the s"bstances that are nat"ral and &enerable* i% the ca"ses are really these and o% this n"!ber and $e ha(e to learn the ca"ses* $e !"st in7"ire th"s* i% $e are to in7"ire ri&htly. B"t in the case o% nat"ral b"t eternal s"bstances another acco"nt !"st be &i(en. )or perhaps so!e ha(e no !atter* or not !atter o% this sort b"t only s"ch as can be !o(ed in respect o% place. .or does !atter belon& to those thin&s $hich e-ist by nat"re b"t are not s"bstances' their s"bstrat"! is the s"bstance. 5.& $hat is the ca"se o% eclipse< What is its !atter< There is none' the !oon is that $hich s"%%ers eclipse. What is the !o(in& ca"se $hich e-tin&"ished the li&ht< The earth. The %inal ca"se perhaps does not e-ist. The %or!al principle is the de%initory %or!"la* b"t this is obsc"re i% it does not incl"de the ca"se. 5.&. $hat is eclipse< Depri(ation o% li&ht. B"t i% $e add /by the earth/s co!in& in bet$een/* this is the %or!"la $hich incl"des the ca"se. In the case o% sleep it is not clear $hat it is that pro-i!ately has this a%%ection. 2hall $e say that it is the ani!al< :es* b"t the ani!al in (irt"e o% $hat* i.e. $hat is the pro-i!ate s"b0ect< The heart or so!e other part. .e-t* by $hat is it prod"ced< .e-t* $hat is the a%%ection-that o% the pro-i!ate s"b0ect* not o% the $hole ani!al< 2hall $e say that it is i!!obility o% s"ch and s"ch a #ind< :es* b"t to $hat process in the pro-i!ate s"b0ect is this d"e< Part ? " "2ince so!e thin&s are and are not* $itho"t co!in& to be and ceasin& to be* e.&. points* i% they can be said to be* and in &eneral %or!s +%or it is not /$hite/ co!es to be* b"t the $ood co!es to be $hite* i% e(erythin& that co!es to be co!es %ro! so!ethin& and co!es to be so!ethin&,* not all contraries can co!e %ro! one another* b"t it is in di%%erent senses that a pale !an co!es %ro! a dar# !an* and pale co!es %ro! dar#. .or has e(erythin& !atter* b"t only those thin&s $hich co!e to be and chan&e into one another. Those thin&s $hich* $itho"t e(er bein& in co"rse o% chan&in&* are or are not* ha(e no !atter. "There is di%%ic"lty in the 7"estion ho$ the !atter o% each thin& is related to its contrary states. 5.&. i% the body is potentially healthy* and disease is contrary to health* is it potentially both healthy and diseased< And is $ater potentially $ine and (ine&ar< We ans$er that it is the !atter o% one in (irt"e o% its positi(e state and its %or!* and o% the other in (irt"e o% the pri(ation o% its positi(e state and the corr"ption o% it contrary to its nat"re. It is also hard to say $hy $ine is not said to be the !atter o% (ine&ar nor potentially (ine&ar +tho"&h (ine&ar is prod"ced %ro! it,* and $hy a li(in& !an

is not said to be potentially dead. In %act they are not* b"t the corr"ptions in 7"estion are accidental* and it is the !atter o% the ani!al that is itsel% in (irt"e o% its corr"ption the potency and !atter o% a corpse* and it is $ater that is the !atter o% (ine&ar. )or the corpse co!es %ro! the ani!al* and (ine&ar %ro! $ine* as ni&ht %ro! day. And all the thin&s $hich chan&e th"s into one another !"st &o bac# to their !atter' e.&. i% %ro! a corpse is prod"ced an ani!al* the corpse %irst &oes bac# to its !atter* and only then beco!es an ani!al' and (ine&ar %irst &oes bac# to $ater* and only then beco!es $ine. Part B " "To ret"rn to the di%%ic"lty $hich has been stated $ith respect both to de%initions and to n"!bers* $hat is the ca"se o% their "nity< In the case o% all thin&s $hich ha(e se(eral parts and in $hich the totality is not* as it $ere* a !ere heap* b"t the $hole is so!ethin& beside the parts* there is a ca"se' %or e(en in bodies contact is the ca"se o% "nity in so!e cases* and in others (iscosity or so!e other s"ch 7"ality. And a de%inition is a set o% $ords $hich is one not by bein& connected to&ether* li#e the Iliad* b"t by dealin& $ith one ob0ect.-What then* is it that !a#es !an one' $hy is he one and not !any* e.&. ani!al I biped* especially i% there are* as so!e say* an ani!al-itsel% and a biped-itsel%< Why are not those )or!s the!sel(es the !an* so that !en $o"ld e-ist by participation not in !an* nor in-one )or!* b"t in t$o* ani!al and biped* and in &eneral !an $o"ld be not one b"t !ore than one thin&* ani!al and biped< "1learly* then* i% people proceed th"s in their "s"al !anner o% de%inition and speech* they cannot e-plain and sol(e the di%%ic"lty. B"t i%* as $e say* one ele!ent is !atter and another is %or!* and one is potentially and the other act"ally* the 7"estion $ill no lon&er be tho"&ht a di%%ic"lty. )or this di%%ic"lty is the sa!e as $o"ld arise i% /ro"nd bron3e/ $ere the de%inition o% /cloa#/' %or this $ord $o"ld be a si&n o% the de%initory %or!"la* so that the 7"estion is* $hat is the ca"se o% the "nity o% /ro"nd/ and /bron3e/< The di%%ic"lty disappears* beca"se the one is !atter* the other %or!. What* then* ca"ses this-that $hich $as potentially to be act"ally-e-cept* in the case o% thin&s $hich are &enerated* the a&ent< )or there is no other ca"se o% the potential sphere/s beco!in& act"ally a sphere* b"t this $as the essence o% either. O% !atter so!e is intelli&ible* so!e perceptible* and in a %or!"la there is al$ays an ele!ent o% !atter as $ell as one o% act"ality' e.&. the circle is /a plane %i&"re/. B"t o% the thin&s $hich ha(e no !atter* either intelli&ible or perceptible* each is by its nat"re essentially a #ind o% "nity* as it is essentially a #ind o% bein&-indi(id"al s"bstance* 7"ality* or 7"antity +and so neither /e-istent/ nor /one/ is present in their de%initions,* and the essence o% each o% the! is by its (ery nat"re a #ind o% "nity as it is a #ind o% bein&-and so none o% these has any reason o"tside itsel%* %or bein& one* nor %or bein& a #ind o% bein&' %or each is by its nat"re a #ind o% bein& and a #ind o%

"nity* not as bein& in the &en"s /bein&/ or /one/ nor in the sense that bein& and "nity can e-ist apart %ro! partic"lars. "O$in& to the di%%ic"lty abo"t "nity so!e spea# o% /participation/* and raise the 7"estion* $hat is the ca"se o% participation and $hat is it to participate' and others spea# o% /co!!"nion/* as ycophron says #no$led&e is a co!!"nion o% #no$in& $ith the so"l' and others say li%e is a /co!position/ or /conne-ion/ o% so"l $ith body. :et the sa!e acco"nt applies to all cases' %or bein& healthy* too* $ill on this sho$in& be either a /co!!"nion/ or a /conne-ion/ or a /co!position/ o% so"l and health* and the %act that the bron3e is a trian&le $ill be a /co!position/ o% bron3e and trian&le* and the %act that a thin& is $hite $ill be a /co!position/ o% s"r%ace and $hiteness. The reason is that people loo# %or a "ni%yin& %or!"la* and a di%%erence* bet$een potency and co!plete reality. B"t* as has been said* the pro-i!ate !atter and the %or! are one and the sa!e thin&* the one potentially* and the other act"ally. There%ore it is li#e as#in& $hat in &eneral is the ca"se o% "nity and o% a thin&/s bein& one' %or each thin& is a "nity* and the potential and the act"al are so!eho$ one. There%ore there is no other ca"se here "nless there is so!ethin& $hich ca"sed the !o(e!ent %ro! potency into act"ality. And all thin&s $hich ha(e no !atter are $itho"t 7"ali%ication essentially "nities. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK IA Part 1 " "W5 ha(e treated o% that $hich is pri!arily and to $hich all the other cate&ories o% bein& are re%erred-i.e. o% s"bstance. )or it is in (irt"e o% the concept o% s"bstance that the others also are said to be-7"antity and 7"ality and the li#e' %or all $ill be %o"nd to in(ol(e the concept o% s"bstance* as $e said in the %irst part o% o"r $or#. And since /bein&/ is in one $ay di(ided into indi(id"al thin&* 7"ality* and 7"antity* and is in another $ay distin&"ished in respect o% potency and co!plete reality* and o% %"nction* let "s no$ add a disc"ssion o% potency and co!plete reality. And %irst let "s e-plain potency in the strictest sense* $hich is* ho$e(er* not the !ost "se%"l %or o"r present p"rpose. )or potency and act"ality e-tend beyond the cases that in(ol(e a re%erence to !otion. B"t $hen $e ha(e spo#en o% this %irst #ind* $e shall in o"r disc"ssions o% act"ality/ e-plain the other #inds o% potency as $ell. "We ha(e pointed o"t else$here that /potency/ and the $ord /can/ ha(e se(eral senses. O% these $e !ay ne&lect all the potencies that are so called by an e7"i(ocation. )or so!e are called so by analo&y* as in &eo!etry $e say one thin& is or is not a /po$er/ o% another by (irt"e o% the presence or absence o% so!e relation bet$een the!. B"t all potencies that con%or! to the sa!e type are ori&inati(e so"rces o% so!e #ind* and are called potencies in re%erence to one pri!ary #ind o% potency* $hich is an ori&inati(e so"rce o% chan&e in another thin& or in the thin& itsel% 7"a other. )or one #ind is a potency o% bein& acted on* i.e. the ori&inati(e so"rce* in the (ery thin&

acted on* o% its bein& passi(ely chan&ed by another thin& or by itsel% 7"a other' and another #ind is a state o% ins"sceptibility to chan&e %or the $orse and to destr"ction by another thin& or by the thin& itsel% 7"a other by (irt"e o% an ori&inati(e so"rce o% chan&e. In all these de%initions is i!plied the %or!"la i% potency in the pri!ary sense.-And a&ain these so-called potencies are potencies either o% !erely actin& or bein& acted on* or o% actin& or bein& acted on $ell* so that e(en in the %or!"lae o% the latter the %or!"lae o% the prior #inds o% potency are so!eho$ i!plied. "Ob(io"sly* then* in a sense the potency o% actin& and o% bein& acted on is one +%or a thin& !ay be /capable/ either beca"se it can itsel% be acted on or beca"se so!ethin& else can be acted on by it,* b"t in a sense the potencies are di%%erent. )or the one is in the thin& acted on' it is beca"se it contains a certain ori&inati(e so"rce* and beca"se e(en the !atter is an ori&inati(e so"rce* that the thin& acted on is acted on* and one thin& by one* another by another' %or that $hich is oily can be b"rnt* and that $hich yields in a partic"lar $ay can be cr"shed' and si!ilarly in all other cases. B"t the other potency is in the a&ent* e.&. heat and the art o% b"ildin& are present* one in that $hich can prod"ce heat and the other in the !an $ho can b"ild. And so* in so %ar as a thin& is an or&anic "nity* it cannot be acted on by itsel%' %or it is one and not t$o di%%erent thin&s. And /i!potence/and /i!potent/ stand %or the pri(ation $hich is contrary to potency o% this sort* so that e(ery potency belon&s to the sa!e s"b0ect and re%ers to the sa!e process as a correspondin& i!potence. Pri(ation has se(eral senses' %or it !eans +1, that $hich has not a certain 7"ality and +6, that $hich !i&ht nat"rally ha(e it b"t has not it* either +a, in &eneral or +b, $hen it !i&ht nat"rally ha(e it* and either +a, in so!e partic"lar $ay* e.&. $hen it has not it co!pletely* or +b, $hen it has not it at all. And in certain cases i% thin&s $hich nat"rally ha(e a 7"ality lose it by (iolence* $e say they ha(e s"%%ered pri(ation. Part 6 " "2ince so!e s"ch ori&inati(e so"rces are present in so"lless thin&s* and others in thin&s possessed o% so"l* and in so"l* and in the rational part o% the so"l* clearly so!e potencies $ill* be non-rational and so!e $ill be non-rational and so!e $ill be acco!panied by a rational %or!"la. This is $hy all arts* i.e. all prod"cti(e %or!s o% #no$led&e* are potencies' they are ori&inati(e so"rces o% chan&e in another thin& or in the artist hi!sel% considered as other. "And each o% those $hich are acco!panied by a rational %or!"la is ali#e capable o% contrary e%%ects* b"t one non-rational po$er prod"ces one e%%ect' e.&. the hot is capable only o% heatin&* b"t the !edical art can prod"ce both disease and health. The reason is that science is a rational %or!"la* and the sa!e rational %or!"la e-plains a thin& and its pri(ation* only not in the sa!e $ay' and in a sense it applies to both* b"t in a sense it applies rather to the positi(e %act. There%ore s"ch sciences !"st deal $ith contraries* b"t $ith one in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re and $ith the other not in (irt"e o% their nat"re' %or the rational %or!"la applies to one ob0ect in (irt"e o% that ob0ect/s nat"re* and to the other* in a sense* accidentally. )or it is by denial

and re!o(al that it e-hibits the contrary' %or the contrary is the pri!ary pri(ation* and this is the re!o(al o% the positi(e ter!. .o$ since contraries do not occ"r in the sa!e thin&* b"t science is a potency $hich depends on the possession o% a rational %or!"la* and the so"l possesses an ori&inati(e so"rce o% !o(e!ent' there%ore* $hile the $holeso!e prod"ces only health and the calori%ic only heat and the %ri&ori%ic only cold* the scienti%ic !an prod"ces both the contrary e%%ects. )or the rational %or!"la is one $hich applies to both* tho"&h not in the sa!e $ay* and it is in a so"l $hich possesses an ori&inati(e so"rce o% !o(e!ent' so that the so"l $ill start both processes %ro! the sa!e ori&inati(e so"rce* ha(in& lin#ed the! "p $ith the sa!e thin&. And so the thin&s $hose potency is accordin& to a rational %or!"la act contrari$ise to the thin&s $hose potency is non-rational' %or the prod"cts o% the %or!er are incl"ded "nder one ori&inati(e so"rce* the rational %or!"la. "It is ob(io"s also that the potency it done to one is i!plied in that o% b"t the latter is not al$ays i!plied a thin& $ell !"st also do it* b"t he do it $ell. Part ; " "There are so!e $ho say* as the Me&aric school does* that a thin& /can/ act only $hen it is actin&* and $hen it is not actin& it /cannot/ act* e.&. that he $ho is not b"ildin& cannot b"ild* b"t only he $ho is b"ildin&* $hen he is b"ildin&' and so in all other cases. It is not hard to see the abs"rdities that attend this (ie$. ")or it is clear that on this (ie$ a !an $ill not be a b"ilder "nless he is b"ildin& +%or to be a b"ilder is to be able to b"ild,* and so $ith the other arts. I%* then* it is i!possible to ha(e s"ch arts i% one has not at so!e ti!e learnt and ac7"ired the!* and it is then i!possible not to ha(e the! i% one has not so!eti!e lost the! +either by %or&et%"lness or by so!e accident or by ti!e' %or it cannot be by the destr"ction o% the ob0ect* %or that lasts %or e(er,* a !an $ill not ha(e the art $hen he has ceased to "se it* and yet he !ay i!!ediately b"ild a&ain' ho$ then $ill he ha(e &ot the art< And si!ilarly $ith re&ard to li%eless thin&s' nothin& $ill be either cold or hot or s$eet or perceptible at all i% people are not percei(in& it' so that the "pholders o% this (ie$ $ill ha(e to !aintain the doctrine o% Prota&oras. B"t* indeed* nothin& $ill e(en ha(e perception i% it is not percei(in&* i.e. e-ercisin& its perception. I%* then* that is blind $hich has not si&ht tho"&h it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it* $hen it $o"ld nat"rally ha(e it and $hen it still e-ists* the sa!e people $ill be blind !any ti!es in the day-and dea% too. "A&ain* i% that $hich is depri(ed o% potency is incapable* that $hich is not happenin& $ill be incapable o% happenin&' b"t he $ho says o% that $hich is incapable o% happenin& either that it is or that it $ill be $ill say $hat is "ntr"e' %or this is $hat incapacity !eant. There%ore these (ie$s do a$ay $ith both !o(e!ent and beco!in&. )or that $hich stands $ill al$ays stand* and that $hich sits $ill al$ays sit* since i% it is sittin& it $ill not &et "p' %or that $hich* as $e are told* cannot &et "p $ill be incapable o% &ettin& "p. B"t $e o% !erely doin& a thin& or ha(in& doin& it or ha(in& it done $ell* in the %or!er> %or he $ho does $ho does it !erely need not also

cannot say this* so that e(idently potency and act"ality are di%%erent +b"t these (ie$s !a#e potency and act"ality the sa!e* and so it is no s!all thin& they are see#in& to annihilate,* so that it is possible that a thin& !ay be capable o% bein& and not he* and capable o% not bein& and yet he* and si!ilarly $ith the other #inds o% predicate' it !ay be capable o% $al#in& and yet not $al#* or capable o% not $al#in& and yet $al#. And a thin& is capable o% doin& so!ethin& i% there $ill be nothin& i!possible in its ha(in& the act"ality o% that o% $hich it is said to ha(e the capacity. I !ean* %or instance* i% a thin& is capable o% sittin& and it is open to it to sit* there $ill be nothin& i!possible in its act"ally sittin&' and si!ilarly i% it is capable o% bein& !o(ed or !o(in&* or o% standin& or !a#in& to stand* or o% bein& or co!in& to be* or o% not bein& or not co!in& to be. "The $ord /act"ality/* $hich $e connect $ith /co!plete reality/* has* in the !ain* been e-tended %ro! !o(e!ents to other thin&s' %or act"ality in the strict sense is tho"&ht to be identical $ith !o(e!ent. And so people do not assi&n !o(e!ent to non-e-istent thin&s* tho"&h they do assi&n so!e other predicates. 5.&. they say that non-e-istent thin&s are ob0ects o% tho"&ht and desire* b"t not that they are !o(ed' and this beca"se* $hile e- hypothesi they do not act"ally e-ist* they $o"ld ha(e to e-ist act"ally i% they $ere !o(ed. )or o% non-e-istent thin&s so!e e-ist potentially' b"t they do not e-ist* beca"se they do not e-ist in co!plete reality. Part = " "I% $hat $e ha(e described is identical $ith the capable or con(ertible $ith it* e(idently it cannot be tr"e to say /this is capable o% bein& b"t $ill not be/* $hich $o"ld i!ply that the thin&s incapable o% bein& $o"ld on this sho$in& (anish. 2"ppose* %or instance* that a !an-one $ho did not ta#e acco"nt o% that $hich is incapable o% bein&-$ere to say that the dia&onal o% the s7"are is capable o% bein& !eas"red b"t $ill not be !eas"red* beca"se a thin& !ay $ell be capable o% bein& or co!in& to be* and yet not be or be abo"t to be. B"t %ro! the pre!isses this necessarily %ollo$s* that i% $e act"ally s"pposed that $hich is not* b"t is capable o% bein&* to be or to ha(e co!e to be* there $ill be nothin& i!possible in this' b"t the res"lt $ill be i!possible* %or the !eas"rin& o% the dia&onal is i!possible. )or the %alse and the i!possible are not the sa!e' that yo" are standin& no$ is %alse* b"t that yo" sho"ld be standin& is not i!possible. "At the sa!e ti!e it is clear that i%* $hen A is real* B !"st be real* then* $hen A is possible* B also !"st be possible. )or i% B need not be possible* there is nothin& to pre(ent its not bein& possible. .o$ let A be s"pposed possible. Then* $hen A $as possible* $e a&reed that nothin& i!possible %ollo$ed i% A $ere s"pposed to be real' and then B !"st o% co"rse be real. B"t $e s"pposed B to be i!possible. et it be i!possible then. I%* then* B is i!possible* A also !"st be so. B"t the %irst $as s"pposed i!possible' there%ore the second also is i!possible. I%* then* A is possible* B also $ill be possible* i% they $ere so related that i% A*is real* B !"st be real. I%* then* A and B bein& th"s related* B is not possible on this condition* and B $ill not be related as $as s"pposed. And i% $hen A is possible* B !"st be possible* then i% A is real* B also !"st be real. )or to say that B !"st be possible* i% A is possible* !eans this* that i% A is real

both at the ti!e $hen and in the $ay in $hich it $as s"pposed capable o% bein& real* B also !"st then and in that $ay be real. Part ? " "As all potencies are either innate* li#e the senses* or co!e by practice* li#e the po$er o% playin& the %l"te* or by learnin&* li#e artistic po$er* those $hich co!e by practice or by rational %or!"la $e !"st ac7"ire by pre(io"s e-ercise b"t this is not necessary $ith those $hich are not o% this nat"re and $hich i!ply passi(ity. "2ince that $hich is /capable/ is capable o% so!ethin& and at so!e ti!e in so!e $ay +$ith all the other 7"ali%ications $hich !"st be present in the de%inition,* and since so!e thin&s can prod"ce chan&e accordin& to a rational %or!"la and their potencies in(ol(e s"ch a %or!"la* $hile other thin&s are nonrational and their potencies are non-rational* and the %or!er potencies !"st be in a li(in& thin&* $hile the latter can be both in the li(in& and in the li%eless' as re&ards potencies o% the latter #ind* $hen the a&ent and the patient !eet in the $ay appropriate to the potency in 7"estion* the one !"st act and the other be acted on* b"t $ith the %or!er #ind o% potency this is not necessary. )or the nonrational potencies are all prod"cti(e o% one e%%ect each* b"t the rational prod"ce contrary e%%ects* so that i% they prod"ced their e%%ects necessarily they $o"ld prod"ce contrary e%%ects at the sa!e ti!e' b"t this is i!possible. There !"st* then* be so!ethin& else that decides' I !ean by this* desire or $ill. )or $hiche(er o% t$o thin&s the ani!al desires decisi(ely* it $ill do* $hen it is present* and !eets the passi(e ob0ect* in the $ay appropriate to the potency in 7"estion. There%ore e(erythin& $hich has a rational potency* $hen it desires that %or $hich it has a potency and in the circ"!stances in $hich it has the potency* !"st do this. And it has the potency in 7"estion $hen the passi(e ob0ect is present and is in a certain state' i% not it $ill not be able to act. +To add the 7"ali%ication /i% nothin& e-ternal pre(ents it/ is not %"rther necessary' %or it has the potency on the ter!s on $hich this is a potency o% actin&* and it is this not in all circ"!stances b"t on certain conditions* a!on& $hich $ill be the e-cl"sion o% e-ternal hindrances' %or these are barred by so!e o% the positi(e 7"ali%ications., And so e(en i% one has a rational $ish* or an appetite* to do t$o thin&s or contrary thin&s at the sa!e ti!e* one $ill not do the!' %or it is not on these ter!s that one has the potency %or the!* nor is it a potency o% doin& both at the sa!e ti!e* since one $ill do the thin&s $hich it is a potency o% doin&* on the ter!s on $hich one has the potency. Part B " "2ince $e ha(e treated o% the #ind o% potency $hich is related to !o(e!ent* let "s disc"ss act"ality-$hat* and $hat #ind o% thin&* act"ality is. )or in the co"rse o% o"r analysis it $ill also beco!e clear* $ith re&ard to the potential* that $e not only ascribe potency to that $hose nat"re it is to !o(e so!ethin& else* or to be !o(ed by so!ethin& else* either $itho"t 7"ali%ication or in so!e partic"lar $ay* b"t

also "se the $ord in another sense* $hich is the reason o% the in7"iry in the co"rse o% $hich $e ha(e disc"ssed these pre(io"s senses also. Act"ality* then* is the e-istence o% a thin& not in the $ay $hich $e e-press by /potentially/' $e say that potentially* %or instance* a stat"e o% 4er!es is in the bloc# o% $ood and the hal%-line is in the $hole* beca"se it !i&ht be separated o"t* and $e call e(en the !an $ho is not st"dyin& a !an o% science* i% he is capable o% st"dyin&' the thin& that stands in contrast to each o% these e-ists act"ally. O"r !eanin& can be seen in the partic"lar cases by ind"ction* and $e !"st not see# a de%inition o% e(erythin& b"t be content to &rasp the analo&y* that it is as that $hich is b"ildin& is to that $hich is capable o% b"ildin&* and the $a#in& to the sleepin&* and that $hich is seein& to that $hich has its eyes sh"t b"t has si&ht* and that $hich has been shaped o"t o% the !atter to the !atter* and that $hich has been $ro"&ht "p to the "n$ro"&ht. et act"ality be de%ined by one !e!ber o% this antithesis* and the potential by the other. B"t all thin&s are not said in the sa!e sense to e-ist act"ally* b"t only by analo&y-as A is in B or to B* 1 is in D or to D' %or so!e are as !o(e!ent to potency* and the others as s"bstance to so!e sort o% !atter. "B"t also the in%inite and the (oid and all si!ilar thin&s are said to e-ist potentially and act"ally in a di%%erent sense %ro! that $hich applies to !any other thin&s* e.&. to that $hich sees or $al#s or is seen. )or o% the latter class these predicates can at so!e ti!e be also tr"ly asserted $itho"t 7"ali%ication' %or the seen is so called so!eti!es beca"se it is bein& seen* so!eti!es beca"se it is capable o% bein& seen. B"t the in%inite does not e-ist potentially in the sense that it $ill e(er act"ally ha(e separate e-istence' it e-ists potentially only %or #no$led&e. )or the %act that the process o% di(idin& ne(er co!es to an end ens"res that this acti(ity e-ists potentially* b"t not that the in%inite e-ists separately. "2ince o% the actions $hich ha(e a li!it none is an end b"t all are relati(e to the end* e.&. the re!o(in& o% %at* or %at-re!o(al* and the bodily parts the!sel(es $hen one is !a#in& the! thin are in !o(e!ent in this $ay +i.e. $itho"t bein& already that at $hich the !o(e!ent ai!s,* this is not an action or at least not a co!plete one +%or it is not an end,' b"t that !o(e!ent in $hich the end is present is an action. 5.&. at the sa!e ti!e $e are seein& and ha(e seen* are "nderstandin& and ha(e "nderstood* are thin#in& and ha(e tho"&ht +$hile it is not tr"e that at the sa!e ti!e $e are learnin& and ha(e learnt* or are bein& c"red and ha(e been c"red,. At the sa!e ti!e $e are li(in& $ell and ha(e li(ed $ell* and are happy and ha(e been happy. I% not* the process $o"ld ha(e had so!eti!e to cease* as the process o% !a#in& thin ceases> b"t* as thin&s are* it does not cease' $e are li(in& and ha(e li(ed. O% these processes* then* $e !"st call the one set !o(e!ents* and the other act"alities. )or e(ery !o(e!ent is inco!plete!a#in& thin* learnin&* $al#in&* b"ildin&' these are !o(e!ents* and inco!plete at that. )or it is not tr"e that at the sa!e ti!e a thin& is $al#in& and has $al#ed* or is b"ildin& and has b"ilt* or is co!in& to be and has co!e to be* or is bein& !o(ed and has been !o(ed* b"t $hat is bein& !o(ed is di%%erent %ro! $hat has been !o(ed* and $hat is !o(in& %ro! $hat has !o(ed. B"t it is the sa!e thin& that at the sa!e ti!e has seen and is seein&* seein&* or is thin#in& and has tho"&ht. The

latter sort o% process* then* I call an act"ality* and the %or!er a !o(e!ent. Part C " "What* and $hat #ind o% thin&* the act"al is* !ay be ta#en as e-plained by these and si!ilar considerations. B"t $e !"st distin&"ish $hen a thin& e-ists potentially and $hen it does not' %or it is not at any and e(ery ti!e. 5.&. is earth potentially a !an< .o-b"t rather $hen it has already beco!e seed* and perhaps not e(en then. It is 0"st as it is $ith bein& healed' not e(erythin& can be healed by the !edical art or by l"c#* b"t there is a certain #ind o% thin& $hich is capable o% it* and only this is potentially healthy. And +1, the deli!itin& !ar# o% that $hich as a res"lt o% tho"&ht co!es to e-ist in co!plete reality %ro! ha(in& e-isted potentially is that i% the a&ent has $illed it it co!es to pass i% nothin& e-ternal hinders* $hile the condition on the other side-(i3. in that $hich is healed-is that nothin& in it hinders the res"lt. It is on si!ilar ter!s that $e ha(e $hat is potentially a ho"se' i% nothin& in the thin& acted on-i.e. in the !atter-pre(ents it %ro! beco!in& a ho"se* and i% there is nothin& $hich !"st be added or ta#en a$ay or chan&ed* this is potentially a ho"se' and the sa!e is tr"e o% all other thin&s the so"rce o% $hose beco!in& is e-ternal. And +6, in the cases in $hich the so"rce o% the beco!in& is in the (ery thin& $hich co!es to be* a thin& is potentially all those thin&s $hich it $ill be o% itsel% i% nothin& e-ternal hinders it. 5.&. the seed is not yet potentially a !an' %or it !"st be deposited in so!ethin& other than itsel% and "nder&o a chan&e. B"t $hen thro"&h its o$n !oti(e principle it has already &ot s"ch and s"ch attrib"tes* in this state it is already potentially a !an' $hile in the %or!er state it needs another !oti(e principle* 0"st as earth is not yet potentially a stat"e +%or it !"st %irst chan&e in order to beco!e brass., "It see!s that $hen $e call a thin& not so!ethin& else b"t /thaten/-e.&. a cas#et is not /$ood/ b"t /$ooden/* and $ood is not /earth/ b"t /earthen/* and a&ain earth $ill ill"strate o"r point i% it is si!ilarly not so!ethin& else b"t /thaten/-that other thin& is al$ays potentially +in the %"ll sense o% that $ord, the thin& $hich co!es a%ter it in this series. 5.&. a cas#et is not /earthen/ nor /earth/* b"t /$ooden/' %or this is potentially a cas#et and this is the !atter o% a cas#et* $ood in &eneral o% a cas#et in &eneral* and this partic"lar $ood o% this partic"lar cas#et. And i% there is a %irst thin&* $hich is no lon&er* in re%erence to so!ethin& else* called /thaten/* this is pri!e !atter' e.&. i% earth is /airy/ and air is not /%ire/ b"t /%iery/* %ire is pri!e !atter* $hich is not a /this/. )or the s"b0ect or s"bstrat"! is di%%erentiated by bein& a /this/ or not bein& one' i.e. the s"bstrat"! o% !odi%ications is* e.&. a !an* i.e. a body and a so"l* $hile the !odi%ication is /!"sical/ or /pale/. +The s"b0ect is called* $hen !"sic co!es to be present in it* not /!"sic/ b"t /!"sical/* and the !an is not /paleness/ b"t /pale/* and not /a!b"lation/ or /!o(e!ent/ b"t /$al#in&/ or /!o(in&/*-$hich is a#in to the /thaten/., Where(er this is so* then* the "lti!ate

s"b0ect is a s"bstance' b"t $hen this is not so b"t the predicate is a %or! and a /this/* the "lti!ate s"b0ect is !atter and !aterial s"bstance. And it is only ri&ht that /thaten/ sho"ld be "sed $ith re%erence both to the !atter and to the accidents' %or both are indeter!inates. "We ha(e stated* then* $hen a thin& is to be said to e-ist potentially and $hen it is not. Part D " ")ro! o"r disc"ssion o% the (ario"s senses o% /prior/* it is clear that act"ality is prior to potency. And I !ean by potency not only that de%inite #ind $hich is said to be a principle o% chan&e in another thin& or in the thin& itsel% re&arded as other* b"t in &eneral e(ery principle o% !o(e!ent or o% rest. )or nat"re also is in the sa!e &en"s as potency' %or it is a principle o% !o(e!ent-not* ho$e(er* in so!ethin& else b"t in the thin& itsel% 7"a itsel%. To all s"ch potency* then* act"ality is prior both in %or!"la and in s"bstantiality' and in ti!e it is prior in one sense* and in another not. "+1, 1learly it is prior in %or!"la' %or that $hich is in the pri!ary sense potential is potential beca"se it is possible %or it to beco!e acti(e' e.&. I !ean by /capable o% b"ildin&/ that $hich can b"ild* and by /capable o% seein&/ that $hich can see* and by /(isible/ that $hich can be seen. And the sa!e acco"nt applies to all other cases* so that the %or!"la and the #no$led&e o% the one !"st precede the #no$led&e o% the other. "+6, In ti!e it is prior in this sense> the act"al $hich is identical in species tho"&h not in n"!ber $ith a potentially e-istin& thin& is to it. I !ean that to this partic"lar !an $ho no$ e-ists act"ally and to the corn and to the seein& s"b0ect the !atter and the seed and that $hich is capable o% seein&* $hich are potentially a !an and corn and seein&* b"t not yet act"ally so* are prior in ti!e' b"t prior in ti!e to these are other act"ally e-istin& thin&s* %ro! $hich they $ere prod"ced. )or %ro! the potentially e-istin& the act"ally e-istin& is al$ays prod"ced by an act"ally e-istin& thin&* e.&. !an %ro! !an* !"sician by !"sician' there is al$ays a %irst !o(er* and the !o(er already e-ists act"ally. We ha(e said in o"r acco"nt o% s"bstance that e(erythin& that is prod"ced is so!ethin& prod"ced %ro! so!ethin& and by so!ethin&* and that the sa!e in species as it. "This is $hy it is tho"&ht i!possible to be a b"ilder i% one has b"ilt nothin& or a harper i% one has ne(er played the harp' %or he $ho learns to play the harp learns to play it by playin& it* and all other learners do si!ilarly. And thence arose the sophistical 7"ibble* that one $ho does not possess a science $ill be doin& that $hich is the ob0ect o% the science' %or he $ho is learnin& it does not possess it. B"t since* o% that $hich is co!in& to be* so!e part !"st ha(e co!e to be* and* o% that $hich* in &eneral* is chan&in&* so!e part !"st ha(e chan&ed +this is sho$n in the treatise on !o(e!ent,* he $ho is learnin& !"st* it $o"ld see!* possess so!e part o% the science. B"t here too* then* it is clear that act"ality is in this sense also* (i3. in order o% &eneration and o% ti!e* prior to potency. "B"t +;, it is also prior in s"bstantiality' %irstly* +a, beca"se

the thin&s that are posterior in beco!in& are prior in %or! and in s"bstantiality +e.&. !an is prior to boy and h"!an bein& to seed' %or the one already has its %or!* and the other has not,* and beca"se e(erythin& that co!es to be !o(es to$ards a principle* i.e. an end +%or that %or the sa#e o% $hich a thin& is* is its principle* and the beco!in& is %or the sa#e o% the end,* and the act"ality is the end* and it is %or the sa#e o% this that the potency is ac7"ired. )or ani!als do not see in order that they !ay ha(e si&ht* b"t they ha(e si&ht that they !ay see. And si!ilarly !en ha(e the art o% b"ildin& that they !ay b"ild* and theoretical science that they !ay theori3e' b"t they do not theori3e that they !ay ha(e theoretical science* e-cept those $ho are learnin& by practice' and these do not theori3e e-cept in a li!ited sense* or beca"se they ha(e no need to theori3e. )"rther* !atter e-ists in a potential state* 0"st beca"se it !ay co!e to its %or!' and $hen it e-ists act"ally* then it is in its %or!. And the sa!e holds &ood in all cases* e(en those in $hich the end is a !o(e!ent. And so* as teachers thin# they ha(e achie(ed their end $hen they ha(e e-hibited the p"pil at $or#* nat"re does li#e$ise. )or i% this is not the case* $e shall ha(e Pa"son/s 4er!es o(er a&ain* since it $ill be hard to say abo"t the #no$led&e* as abo"t the %i&"re in the pict"re* $hether it is $ithin or $itho"t. )or the action is the end* and the act"ality is the action. And so e(en the $ord /act"ality/ is deri(ed %ro! /action/* and points to the co!plete reality. "And $hile in so!e cases the e-ercise is the "lti!ate thin& +e.&. in si&ht the "lti!ate thin& is seein&* and no other prod"ct besides this res"lts %ro! si&ht,* b"t %ro! so!e thin&s a prod"ct %ollo$s +e.&. %ro! the art o% b"ildin& there res"lts a ho"se as $ell as the act o% b"ildin&,* yet none the less the act is in the %or!er case the end and in the latter !ore o% an end than the potency is. )or the act o% b"ildin& is reali3ed in the thin& that is bein& b"ilt* and co!es to be* and is* at the sa!e ti!e as the ho"se. "Where* then* the res"lt is so!ethin& apart %ro! the e-ercise* the act"ality is in the thin& that is bein& !ade* e.&. the act o% b"ildin& is in the thin& that is bein& b"ilt and that o% $ea(in& in the thin& that is bein& $o(en* and si!ilarly in all other cases* and in &eneral the !o(e!ent is in the thin& that is bein& !o(ed' b"t $here there is no prod"ct apart %ro! the act"ality* the act"ality is present in the a&ents* e.&. the act o% seein& is in the seein& s"b0ect and that o% theori3in& in the theori3in& s"b0ect and the li%e is in the so"l +and there%ore $ell-bein& also' %or it is a certain #ind o% li%e,. "Ob(io"sly* there%ore* the s"bstance or %or! is act"ality. Accordin& to this ar&"!ent* then* it is ob(io"s that act"ality is prior in s"bstantial bein& to potency' and as $e ha(e said* one act"ality al$ays precedes another in ti!e ri&ht bac# to the act"ality o% the eternal pri!e !o(er. "B"t +b, act"ality is prior in a stricter sense also' %or eternal thin&s are prior in s"bstance to perishable thin&s* and no eternal thin& e-ists potentially. The reason is this. 5(ery potency is at one and the sa!e ti!e a potency o% the opposite' %or* $hile that $hich is not capable o% bein& present in a s"b0ect cannot be present* e(erythin& that is capable o% bein& !ay possibly not be act"al. That* then* $hich is capable o% bein& !ay either be or not be' the sa!e thin&* then*

is capable both o% bein& and o% not bein&. And that $hich is capable o% not bein& !ay possibly not be' and that $hich !ay possibly not be is perishable* either in the %"ll sense* or in the precise sense in $hich it is said that it possibly !ay not be* i.e. in respect either o% place or o% 7"antity or 7"ality' /in the %"ll sense/ !eans /in respect o% s"bstance/. .othin&* then* $hich is in the %"ll sense i!perishable is in the %"ll sense potentially e-istent +tho"&h there is nothin& to pre(ent its bein& so in so!e respect* e.&. potentially o% a certain 7"ality or in a certain place,' all i!perishable thin&s* then* e-ist act"ally. .or can anythin& $hich is o% necessity e-ist potentially' yet these thin&s are pri!ary' %or i% these did not e-ist* nothin& $o"ld e-ist. .or does eternal !o(e!ent* i% there be s"ch* e-ist potentially' and* i% there is an eternal !obile* it is not in !otion in (irt"e o% a potentiality* e-cept in respect o% /$hence/ and /$hither/ +there is nothin& to pre(ent its ha(in& !atter $hich !a#es it capable o% !o(e!ent in (ario"s directions,. And so the s"n and the stars and the $hole hea(en are e(er acti(e* and there is no %ear that they !ay so!eti!e stand still* as the nat"ral philosophers %ear they !ay. .or do they tire in this acti(ity' %or !o(e!ent is not %or the!* as it is %or perishable thin&s* connected $ith the potentiality %or opposites* so that the contin"ity o% the !o(e!ent sho"ld be laborio"s' %or it is that #ind o% s"bstance $hich is !atter and potency* not act"ality* that ca"ses this. "I!perishable thin&s are i!itated by those that are in(ol(ed in chan&e* e.&. earth and %ire. )or these also are e(er acti(e' %or they ha(e their !o(e!ent o% the!sel(es and in the!sel(es. B"t the other potencies* accordin& to o"r pre(io"s disc"ssion* are all potencies %or opposites' %or that $hich can !o(e another in this $ay can also !o(e it not in this $ay* i.e. i% it acts accordin& to a rational %or!"la' and the sa!e non-rational potencies $ill prod"ce opposite res"lts by their presence or absence. "I%* then* there are any entities or s"bstances s"ch as the dialecticians say the Ideas are* there !"st be so!ethin& !"ch !ore scienti%ic than science-itsel% and so!ethin& !ore !obile than !o(e!ent-itsel%' %or these $ill be !ore o% the nat"re o% act"alities* $hile science-itsel% and !o(e!ent-itsel% are potencies %or these. "Ob(io"sly* then* act"ality is prior both to potency and to e(ery principle o% chan&e. Part E " "That the act"ality is also better and !ore (al"able than the &ood potency is e(ident %ro! the %ollo$in& ar&"!ent. 5(erythin& o% $hich $e say that it can do so!ethin&* is ali#e capable o% contraries* e.&. that o% $hich $e say that it can be $ell is the sa!e as that $hich can be ill* and has both potencies at once' %or the sa!e potency is a potency o% health and illness* o% rest and !otion* o% b"ildin& and thro$in& do$n* o% bein& b"ilt and bein& thro$n do$n. The capacity %or contraries* then* is present at the sa!e ti!e' b"t contraries cannot be present at the sa!e ti!e* and the act"alities also cannot be present at the sa!e ti!e* e.&. health and illness. There%ore* $hile

the &ood !"st be one o% the!* the capacity is both ali#e* or neither' the act"ality* then* is better. Also in the case o% bad thin&s the end or act"ality !"st be $orse than the potency' %or that $hich /can/ is both contraries ali#e. 1learly* then* the bad does not e-ist apart %ro! bad thin&s' %or the bad is in its nat"re posterior to the potency. And there%ore $e !ay also say that in the thin&s $hich are %ro! the be&innin&* i.e. in eternal thin&s* there is nothin& bad* nothin& de%ecti(e* nothin& per(erted +%or per(ersion is so!ethin& bad,. "It is an acti(ity also that &eo!etrical constr"ctions are disco(ered' %or $e %ind the! by di(idin&. I% the %i&"res had been already di(ided* the constr"ctions $o"ld ha(e been ob(io"s' b"t as it is they are present only potentially. Why are the an&les o% the trian&le e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les< Beca"se the an&les abo"t one point are e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les. I%* then* the line parallel to the side had been already dra$n "p$ards* the reason $o"ld ha(e been e(ident to any one as soon as he sa$ the %i&"re. Why is the an&le in a se!icircle in all cases a ri&ht an&le< I% three lines are e7"al the t$o $hich %or! the base* and the perpendic"lar %ro! the centre-the concl"sion is e(ident at a &lance to one $ho #no$s the %or!er proposition. Ob(io"sly* there%ore* the potentially e-istin& constr"ctions are disco(ered by bein& bro"&ht to act"ality' the reason is that the &eo!eter/s thin#in& is an act"ality' so that the potency proceeds %ro! an act"ality' and there%ore it is by !a#in& constr"ctions that people co!e to #no$ the! +tho"&h the sin&le act"ality is later in &eneration than the correspondin& potency,. +2ee dia&ra!., Part 1@ " "The ter!s /bein&/ and /non-bein&/ are e!ployed %irstly $ith re%erence to the cate&ories* and secondly $ith re%erence to the potency or act"ality o% these or their non-potency or nonact"ality* and thirdly in the sense o% tr"e and %alse. This depends* on the side o% the ob0ects* on their bein& co!bined or separated* so that he $ho thin#s the separated to be separated and the co!bined to be co!bined has the tr"th* $hile he $hose tho"&ht is in a state contrary to that o% the ob0ects is in error. This bein& so* $hen is $hat is called tr"th or %alsity present* and $hen is it not< We !"st consider $hat $e !ean by these ter!s. It is not beca"se $e thin# tr"ly that yo" are pale* that yo" are pale* b"t beca"se yo" are pale $e $ho say this ha(e the tr"th. I%* then* so!e thin&s are al$ays co!bined and cannot be separated* and others are al$ays separated and cannot be co!bined* $hile others are capable either o% co!bination or o% separation* /bein&/ is bein& co!bined and one* and /not bein&/ is bein& not co!bined b"t !ore than one. Re&ardin& contin&ent %acts* then* the sa!e opinion or the sa!e state!ent co!es to be %alse and tr"e* and it is possible %or it to be at one ti!e correct and at another erroneo"s' b"t re&ardin& thin&s that cannot be other$ise opinions are not at one ti!e tr"e and at another %alse* b"t the sa!e opinions are al$ays tr"e or al$ays %alse. "B"t $ith re&ard to inco!posites* $hat is bein& or not bein&* and tr"th or %alsity< A thin& o% this sort is not co!posite* so as to

/be/ $hen it is co!po"nded* and not to /be/ i% it is separated* li#e /that the $ood is $hite/ or /that the dia&onal is inco!!ens"rable/' nor $ill tr"th and %alsity be still present in the sa!e $ay as in the pre(io"s cases. In %act* as tr"th is not the sa!e in these cases* so also bein& is not the sa!e' b"t +a, tr"th or %alsity is as %ollo$s-contact and assertion are tr"th +assertion not bein& the sa!e as a%%ir!ation,* and i&norance is non-contact. )or it is not possible to be in error re&ardin& the 7"estion $hat a thin& is* sa(e in an accidental sense' and the sa!e holds &ood re&ardin& non-co!posite s"bstances +%or it is not possible to be in error abo"t the!,. And they all e-ist act"ally* not potentially' %or other$ise they $o"ld ha(e co!e to be and ceased to be' b"t* as it is* bein& itsel% does not co!e to be +nor cease to be,' %or i% it had done so it $o"ld ha(e had to co!e o"t o% so!ethin&. Abo"t the thin&s* then* $hich are essences and act"alities* it is not possible to be in error* b"t only to #no$ the! or not to #no$ the!. B"t $e do in7"ire $hat they are* (i3. $hether they are o% s"ch and s"ch a nat"re or not. "+b, As re&ards the /bein&/ that ans$ers to tr"th and the /non-bein&/ that ans$ers to %alsity* in one case there is tr"th i% the s"b0ect and the attrib"te are really co!bined* and %alsity i% they are not co!bined' in the other case* i% the ob0ect is e-istent it e-ists in a partic"lar $ay* and i% it does not e-ist in this $ay does not e-ist at all. And tr"th !eans #no$in& these ob0ects* and %alsity does not e-ist* nor error* b"t only i&norance-and not an i&norance $hich is li#e blindness' %or blindness is a#in to a total absence o% the %ac"lty o% thin#in&. "It is e(ident also that abo"t "nchan&eable thin&s there can be no error in respect o% ti!e* i% $e ass"!e the! to be "nchan&eable. 5.&. i% $e s"ppose that the trian&le does not chan&e* $e shall not s"ppose that at one ti!e its an&les are e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les $hile at another ti!e they are not +%or that $o"ld i!ply chan&e,. It is possible* ho$e(er* to s"ppose that one !e!ber o% s"ch a class has a certain attrib"te and another has not' e.&. $hile $e !ay s"ppose that no e(en n"!ber is pri!e* $e !ay s"ppose that so!e are and so!e are not. B"t re&ardin& a n"!erically sin&le n"!ber not e(en this %or! o% error is possible' %or $e cannot in this case s"ppose that one instance has an attrib"te and another has not* b"t $hether o"r 0"d&e!ent be tr"e or %alse* it is i!plied that the %act is eternal. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK A Part 1 " "W5 ha(e said pre(io"sly* in o"r distinction o% the (ario"s !eanin&s o% $ords* that /one/ has se(eral !eanin&s' the thin&s that are directly and o% their o$n nat"re and not accidentally called one !ay be s"!!ari3ed "nder %o"r heads* tho"&h the $ord is "sed in !ore senses. +1, There is the contin"o"s* either in &eneral* or especially that $hich is

contin"o"s by nat"re and not by contact nor by bein& to&ether' and o% these* that has !ore "nity and is prior* $hose !o(e!ent is !ore indi(isible and si!pler. +6, That $hich is a $hole and has a certain shape and %or! is one in a still hi&her de&ree' and especially i% a thin& is o% this sort by nat"re* and not by %orce li#e the thin&s $hich are "ni%ied by &l"e or nails or by bein& tied to&ether* i.e. i% it has in itsel% the ca"se o% its contin"ity. A thin& is o% this sort beca"se its !o(e!ent is one and indi(isible in place and ti!e' so that e(idently i% a thin& has by nat"re a principle o% !o(e!ent that is o% the %irst #ind +i.e. local !o(e!ent, and the %irst in that #ind +i.e. circ"lar !o(e!ent,* this is in the pri!ary sense one e-tended thin&. 2o!e thin&s* then* are one in this $ay* 7"a contin"o"s or $hole* and the other thin&s that are one are those $hose de%inition is one. O% this sort are the thin&s the tho"&ht o% $hich is one* i.e. those the tho"&ht o% $hich is indi(isible' and it is indi(isible i% the thin& is indi(isible in #ind or in n"!ber. +;, In n"!ber* then* the indi(id"al is indi(isible* and +=, in #ind* that $hich in intelli&ibility and in #no$led&e is indi(isible* so that that $hich ca"ses s"bstances to be one !"st be one in the pri!ary sense. /One/* then* has all these !eanin&s-the nat"rally contin"o"s and the $hole* and the indi(id"al and the "ni(ersal. And all these are one beca"se in so!e cases the !o(e!ent* in others the tho"&ht or the de%inition is indi(isible. "B"t it !"st be obser(ed that the 7"estions* $hat sort o% thin&s are said to be one* and $hat it is to be one and $hat is the de%inition o% it* sho"ld not be ass"!ed to be the sa!e. /One/ has all these !eanin&s* and each o% the thin&s to $hich one o% these #inds o% "nity belon&s $ill be one' b"t /to be one/ $ill so!eti!es !ean bein& one o% these thin&s* and so!eti!es bein& so!ethin& else $hich is e(en nearer to the !eanin& o% the $ord /one/ $hile these other thin&s appro-i!ate to its application. This is also tr"e o% /ele!ent/ or /ca"se/* i% one had both to speci%y the thin&s o% $hich it is predicable and to render the de%inition o% the $ord. )or in a sense %ire is an ele!ent +and do"btless also /the inde%inite/ or so!ethin& else o% the sort is by its o$n nat"re the ele!ent,* b"t in a sense it is not' %or it is not the sa!e thin& to be %ire and to be an ele!ent* b"t $hile as a partic"lar thin& $ith a nat"re o% its o$n %ire is an ele!ent* the na!e /ele!ent/ !eans that it has this attrib"te* that there is so!ethin& $hich is !ade o% it as a pri!ary constit"ent. And so $ith /ca"se/ and /one/ and all s"ch ter!s. )or this reason* too* /to be one/ !eans /to be indi(isible* bein& essentially one !eans a "this" and capable o% bein& isolated either in place* or in %or! or tho"&ht/' or perhaps /to be $hole and indi(isible/' b"t it !eans especially /to be the %irst !eas"re o% a #ind/* and !ost strictly o% 7"antity' %or it is %ro! this that it has been e-tended to the other cate&ories. )or !eas"re is that by $hich 7"antity is #no$n' and 7"antity 7"a 7"antity is #no$n either by a /one/ or by a n"!ber* and all n"!ber is #no$n by a /one/. There%ore all 7"antity 7"a 7"antity is #no$n by the one* and that by $hich 7"antities are pri!arily #no$n is the one itsel%' and so the one is the startin&-point o% n"!ber 7"a n"!ber. And hence in the other classes too /!eas"re/ !eans that by $hich each is %irst #no$n* and the !eas"re o% each is a "nit-in len&th* in breadth* in depth* in $ei&ht* in speed. +The $ords /$ei&ht/ and /speed/ are co!!on to both contraries' %or each o% the! has t$o !eanin&s-/$ei&ht/ !eans both that $hich has any a!o"nt o% &ra(ity and that $hich has an e-cess

o% &ra(ity* and /speed/ both that $hich has any a!o"nt o% !o(e!ent and that $hich has an e-cess o% !o(e!ent' %or e(en the slo$ has a certain speed and the co!parati(ely li&ht a certain $ei&ht., "In all these* then* the !eas"re and startin&-point is so!ethin& one and indi(isible* since e(en in lines $e treat as indi(isible the line a %oot lon&. )or e(ery$here $e see# as the !eas"re so!ethin& one and indi(isible' and this is that $hich is si!ple either in 7"ality or in 7"antity. .o$ $here it is tho"&ht i!possible to ta#e a$ay or to add* there the !eas"re is e-act +hence that o% n"!ber is !ost e-act' %or $e posit the "nit as indi(isible in e(ery respect,' b"t in all other cases $e i!itate this sort o% !eas"re. )or in the case o% a %"rlon& or a talent or o% anythin& co!parati(ely lar&e any addition or s"btraction !i&ht !ore easily escape o"r notice than in the case o% so!ethin& s!aller' so that the %irst thin& %ro! $hich* as %ar as o"r perception &oes* nothin& can be s"btracted* all !en !a#e the !eas"re* $hether o% li7"ids or o% solids* $hether o% $ei&ht or o% si3e' and they thin# they #no$ the 7"antity $hen they #no$ it by !eans o% this !eas"re. And indeed they #no$ !o(e!ent too by the si!ple !o(e!ent and the 7"ic#est' %or this occ"pies least ti!e. And so in astrono!y a /one/ o% this sort is the startin&-point and !eas"re +%or they ass"!e the !o(e!ent o% the hea(ens to be "ni%or! and the 7"ic#est* and 0"d&e the others by re%erence to it,* and in !"sic the 7"arter-tone +beca"se it is the least inter(al,* and in speech the letter. And all these are ones in this sense--not that /one/ is so!ethin& predicable in the sa!e sense o% all o% these* b"t in the sense $e ha(e !entioned. "B"t the !eas"re is not al$ays one in n"!ber--so!eti!es there are se(eral' e.&. the 7"arter-tones +not to the ear* b"t as deter!ined by the ratios, are t$o* and the artic"late so"nds by $hich $e !eas"re are !ore than one* and the dia&onal o% the s7"are and its side are !eas"red by t$o 7"antities* and all spatial !a&nit"des re(eal si!ilar (arieties o% "nit. Th"s* then* the one is the !eas"re o% all thin&s* beca"se $e co!e to #no$ the ele!ents in the s"bstance by di(idin& the thin&s either in respect o% 7"antity or in respect o% #ind. And the one is indi(isible 0"st beca"se the %irst o% each class o% thin&s is indi(isible. B"t it is not in the sa!e $ay that e(ery /one/ is indi(isible e.&. a %oot and a "nit' the latter is indi(isible in e(ery respect* $hile the %or!er !"st be placed a!on& thin&s $hich are "ndi(ided to perception* as has been said already-only to perception* %or do"btless e(ery contin"o"s thin& is di(isible. "The !eas"re is al$ays ho!o&eneo"s $ith the thin& !eas"red' the !eas"re o% spatial !a&nit"des is a spatial !a&nit"de* and in partic"lar that o% len&th is a len&th* that o% breadth a breadth* that o% artic"late so"nd an artic"late so"nd* that o% $ei&ht a $ei&ht* that o% "nits a "nit. +)or $e !"st state the !atter so* and not say that the !eas"re o% n"!bers is a n"!ber' $e o"&ht indeed to say this i% $e $ere to "se the correspondin& %or! o% $ords* b"t the clai! does not really correspond-it is as i% one clai!ed that the !eas"re o% "nits is "nits and not a "nit' n"!ber is a pl"rality o% "nits., "Kno$led&e* also* and perception* $e call the !eas"re o% thin&s %or the sa!e reason* beca"se $e co!e to #no$ so!ethin& by the!-$hile as

a !atter o% %act they are !eas"red rather than !eas"re other thin&s. B"t it is $ith "s as i% so!e one else !eas"red "s and $e ca!e to #no$ ho$ bi& $e are by seein& that he applied the c"bit-!eas"re to s"ch and s"ch a %raction o% "s. B"t Prota&oras says /!an is the !eas"re o% all thin&s/* as i% he had said /the !an $ho #no$s/ or /the !an $ho percei(es/' and these beca"se they ha(e respecti(ely #no$led&e and perception* $hich $e say are the !eas"res o% ob0ects. 2"ch thin#ers are sayin& nothin&* then* $hile they appear to be sayin& so!ethin& re!ar#able. "5(idently* then* "nity in the strictest sense* i% $e de%ine it accordin& to the !eanin& o% the $ord* is a !eas"re* and !ost properly o% 7"antity* and secondly o% 7"ality. And so!e thin&s $ill be one i% they are indi(isible in 7"antity* and others i% they are indi(isible in 7"ality' and so that $hich is one is indi(isible* either absol"tely or 7"a one. Part 6 " "With re&ard to the s"bstance and nat"re o% the one $e !"st as# in $hich o% t$o $ays it e-ists. This is the (ery 7"estion that $e re(ie$ed in o"r disc"ssion o% proble!s* (i3. $hat the one is and ho$ $e !"st concei(e o% it* $hether $e !"st ta#e the one itsel% as bein& a s"bstance +as both the Pytha&oreans say in earlier and Plato in later ti!es,* or there is* rather* an "nderlyin& nat"re and the one sho"ld be described !ore intelli&ibly and !ore in the !anner o% the physical philosophers* o% $ho! one says the one is lo(e* another says it is air* and another the inde%inite. "I%* then* no "ni(ersal can be a s"bstance* as has been said o"r disc"ssion o% s"bstance and bein&* and i% bein& itsel% cannot be a s"bstance in the sense o% a one apart %ro! the !any +%or it is co!!on to the !any,* b"t is only a predicate* clearly "nity also cannot be a s"bstance' %or bein& and "nity are the !ost "ni(ersal o% all predicates. There%ore* on the one hand* &enera are not certain entities and s"bstances separable %ro! other thin&s' and on the other hand the one cannot be a &en"s* %or the sa!e reasons %or $hich bein& and s"bstance cannot be &enera. ")"rther* the position !"st be si!ilar in all the #inds o% "nity. .o$ /"nity/ has 0"st as !any !eanin&s as /bein&/' so that since in the sphere o% 7"alities the one is so!ethin& de%inite-so!e partic"lar #ind o% thin&-and si!ilarly in the sphere o% 7"antities* clearly $e !"st in e(ery cate&ory as# $hat the one is* as $e !"st as# $hat the e-istent is* since it is not eno"&h to say that its nat"re is 0"st to be one or e-istent. B"t in colo"rs the one is a colo"r* e.&. $hite* and then the other colo"rs are obser(ed to be prod"ced o"t o% this and blac#* and blac# is the pri(ation o% $hite* as dar#ness o% li&ht. There%ore i% all e-istent thin&s $ere colo"rs* e-istent thin&s $o"ld ha(e been a n"!ber* indeed* b"t o% $hat< 1learly o% colo"rs' and the /one/ $o"ld ha(e been a partic"lar /one/* i.e. $hite. And si!ilarly i% all e-istin& thin&s $ere t"nes* they $o"ld ha(e been a n"!ber* b"t a n"!ber o% 7"arter-tones* and their essence $o"ld not ha(e been

n"!ber' and the one $o"ld ha(e been so!ethin& $hose s"bstance $as not to be one b"t to be the 7"arter-tone. And si!ilarly i% all e-istent thin&s had been artic"late so"nds* they $o"ld ha(e been a n"!ber o% letters* and the one $o"ld ha(e been a (o$el. And i% all e-istent thin&s $ere rectilinear %i&"res* they $o"ld ha(e been a n"!ber o% %i&"res* and the one $o"ld ha(e been the trian&le. And the sa!e ar&"!ent applies to all other classes. 2ince* there%ore* $hile there are n"!bers and a one both in a%%ections and in 7"alities and in 7"antities and in !o(e!ent* in all cases the n"!ber is a n"!ber o% partic"lar thin&s and the one is one so!ethin&* and its s"bstance is not 0"st to be one* the sa!e !"st be tr"e o% s"bstances also' %or it is tr"e o% all cases ali#e. "That the one* then* in e(ery class is a de%inite thin&* and in no case is its nat"re 0"st this* "nity* is e(ident' b"t as in colo"rs the one-itsel% $hich $e !"st see# is one colo"r* so too in s"bstance the one-itsel% is one s"bstance. That in a sense "nity !eans the sa!e as bein& is clear %ro! the %acts that its !eanin&s correspond to the cate&ories one to one* and it is not co!prised $ithin any cate&ory +e.&. it is co!prised neither in /$hat a thin& is/ nor in 7"ality* b"t is related to the! 0"st as bein& is,' that in /one !an/ nothin& !ore is predicated than in /!an/ +0"st as bein& is nothin& apart %ro! s"bstance or 7"ality or 7"antity,' and that to be one is 0"st to be a partic"lar thin&. Part ; " "The one and the !any are opposed in se(eral $ays* o% $hich one is the opposition o% the one and pl"rality as indi(isible and di(isible' %or that $hich is either di(ided or di(isible is called a pl"rality* and that $hich is indi(isible or not di(ided is called one. .o$ since opposition is o% %o"r #inds* and one o% these t$o ter!s is pri(ati(e in !eanin&* they !"st be contraries* and neither contradictory nor correlati(e in !eanin&. And the one deri(es its na!e and its e-planation %ro! its contrary* the indi(isible %ro! the di(isible* beca"se pl"rality and the di(isible is !ore perceptible than the indi(isible* so that in de%inition pl"rality is prior to the indi(isible* beca"se o% the conditions o% perception. "To the one belon&* as $e indicated &raphically in o"r distinction o% the contraries* the sa!e and the li#e and the e7"al* and to pl"rality belon& the other and the "nli#e and the "ne7"al. /The sa!e/ has se(eral !eanin&s' +1, $e so!eti!es !ean /the sa!e n"!erically/' a&ain* +6, $e call a thin& the sa!e i% it is one both in de%inition and in n"!ber* e.&. yo" are one $ith yo"rsel% both in %or! and in !atter' and a&ain* +;, i% the de%inition o% its pri!ary essence is one' e.&. e7"al strai&ht lines are the sa!e* and so are e7"al and e7"al-an&led 7"adrilaterals' there are !any s"ch* b"t in these e7"ality constit"tes "nity. "Thin&s are li#e i%* not bein& absol"tely the sa!e* nor $itho"t di%%erence in respect o% their concrete s"bstance* they are the sa!e in %or!' e.&. the lar&er s7"are is li#e the s!aller* and "ne7"al strai&ht lines are li#e' they are li#e* b"t not absol"tely the sa!e. Other thin&s are li#e* i%* ha(in& the sa!e %or!* and bein& thin&s in $hich di%%erence o% de&ree is possible* they ha(e no di%%erence o% de&ree. Other thin&s* i% they ha(e a 7"ality that is in %or! one and sa!e-e.&. $hiteness-in

a &reater or less de&ree* are called li#e beca"se their %or! is one. Other thin&s are called li#e i% the 7"alities they ha(e in co!!on are !ore n"!ero"s than those in $hich they di%%er-either the 7"alities in &eneral or the pro!inent 7"alities' e.&. tin is li#e sil(er* 7"a $hite* and &old is li#e %ire* 7"a yello$ and red. "5(idently* then* /other/ and /"nli#e/ also ha(e se(eral !eanin&s. And the other in one sense is the opposite o% the sa!e +so that e(erythin& is either the sa!e as or other than e(erythin& else,. In another sense thin&s are other "nless both their !atter and their de%inition are one +so that yo" are other than yo"r nei&hbo"r,. The other in the third sense is e-e!pli%ied in the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. /Other or the sa!e/ can there%ore be predicated o% e(erythin& $ith re&ard to e(erythin& else-b"t only i% the thin&s are one and e-istent* %or /other/ is not the contradictory o% /the sa!e/' $hich is $hy it is not predicated o% non-e-istent thin&s +$hile /not the sa!e/ is so predicated,. It is predicated o% all e-istin& thin&s' %or e(erythin& that is e-istent and one is by its (ery nat"re either one or not one $ith anythin& else. "The other* then* and the sa!e are th"s opposed. B"t di%%erence is not the sa!e as otherness. )or the other and that $hich it is other than need not be other in so!e de%inite respect +%or e(erythin& that is e-istent is either other or the sa!e,* b"t that $hich is di%%erent is di%%erent %ro! so!e partic"lar thin& in so!e partic"lar respect* so that there !"st be so!ethin& identical $hereby they di%%er. And this identical thin& is &en"s or species' %or e(erythin& that di%%ers di%%ers either in &en"s or in species* in &en"s i% the thin&s ha(e not their !atter in co!!on and are not &enerated o"t o% each other +i.e. i% they belon& to di%%erent %i&"res o% predication,* and in species i% they ha(e the sa!e &en"s +/&en"s/ !eanin& that identical thin& $hich is essentially predicated o% both the di%%erent thin&s,. "1ontraries are di%%erent* and contrariety is a #ind o% di%%erence. That $e are ri&ht in this s"pposition is sho$n by ind"ction. )or all o% these too are seen to be di%%erent' they are not !erely other* b"t so!e are other in &en"s* and others are in the sa!e line o% predication* and there%ore in the sa!e &en"s* and the sa!e in &en"s. We ha(e distin&"ished else$here $hat sort o% thin&s are the sa!e or other in &en"s. Part = " "2ince thin&s $hich di%%er !ay di%%er %ro! one another !ore or less* there is also a &reatest di%%erence* and this I call contrariety. That contrariety is the &reatest di%%erence is !ade clear by ind"ction. )or thin&s $hich di%%er in &en"s ha(e no $ay to one another* b"t are too %ar distant and are not co!parable' and %or thin&s that di%%er in species the e-tre!es %ro! $hich &eneration ta#es place are the contraries* and the distance bet$een e-tre!es-and there%ore that bet$een the contraries-is the &reatest. "B"t s"rely that $hich is &reatest in each class is co!plete. )or that is &reatest $hich cannot be e-ceeded* and that is co!plete beyond

$hich nothin& can be %o"nd. )or the co!plete di%%erence !ar#s the end o% a series +0"st as the other thin&s $hich are called co!plete are so called beca"se they ha(e attained an end,* and beyond the end there is nothin&' %or in e(erythin& it is the e-tre!e and incl"des all else* and there%ore there is nothin& beyond the end* and the co!plete needs nothin& %"rther. )ro! this* then* it is clear that contrariety is co!plete di%%erence' and as contraries are so called in se(eral senses* their !odes o% co!pleteness $ill ans$er to the (ario"s !odes o% contrariety $hich attach to the contraries. "This bein& so* it is clear that one thin& ha(e !ore than one contrary +%or neither can there be anythin& !ore e-tre!e than the e-tre!e* nor can there be !ore than t$o e-tre!es %or the one inter(al,* and* to p"t the !atter &enerally* this is clear i% contrariety is a di%%erence* and i% di%%erence* and there%ore also the co!plete di%%erence* !"st be bet$een t$o thin&s. "And the other co!!only accepted de%initions o% contraries are also necessarily tr"e. )or not only is +1, the co!plete di%%erence the &reatest di%%erence +%or $e can &et no di%%erence beyond it o% thin&s di%%erin& either in &en"s or in species' %or it has been sho$n that there is no /di%%erence/ bet$een anythin& and the thin&s o"tside its &en"s* and a!on& the thin&s $hich di%%er in species the co!plete di%%erence is the &reatest,' b"t also +6, the thin&s in the sa!e &en"s $hich di%%er !ost are contrary +%or the co!plete di%%erence is the &reatest di%%erence bet$een species o% the sa!e &en"s,' and +;, the thin&s in the sa!e recepti(e !aterial $hich di%%er !ost are contrary +%or the !atter is the sa!e %or contraries,' and +=, o% the thin&s $hich %all "nder the sa!e %ac"lty the !ost di%%erent are contrary +%or one science deals $ith one class o% thin&s* and in these the co!plete di%%erence is the &reatest,. "The pri!ary contrariety is that bet$een positi(e state and pri(ationnot e(ery pri(ation* ho$e(er +%or /pri(ation/ has se(eral !eanin&s,* b"t that $hich is co!plete. And the other contraries !"st be called so $ith re%erence to these* so!e beca"se they possess these* others beca"se they prod"ce or tend to prod"ce the!* others beca"se they are ac7"isitions or losses o% these or o% other contraries. .o$ i% the #inds o% opposition are contradiction and pri(ation and contrariety and relation* and o% these the %irst is contradiction* and contradiction ad!its o% no inter!ediate* $hile contraries ad!it o% one* clearly contradiction and contrariety are not the sa!e. B"t pri(ation is a #ind o% contradiction' %or $hat s"%%ers pri(ation* either in &eneral or in so!e deter!inate $ay* either that $hich is 7"ite incapable o% ha(in& so!e attrib"te or that $hich* bein& o% s"ch a nat"re as to ha(e it* has it not' here $e ha(e already a (ariety o% !eanin&s* $hich ha(e been distin&"ished else$here. Pri(ation* there%ore* is a contradiction or incapacity $hich is deter!inate or ta#en alon& $ith the recepti(e !aterial. This is the reason $hy* $hile contradiction does not ad!it o% an inter!ediate*

pri(ation so!eti!es does' %or e(erythin& is e7"al or not e7"al* b"t not e(erythin& is e7"al or "ne7"al* or i% it is* it is only $ithin the sphere o% that $hich is recepti(e o% e7"ality. I%* then* the co!in&s-to-be $hich happen to the !atter start %ro! the contraries* and proceed either %ro! the %or! and the possession o% the %or! or %ro! a pri(ation o% the %or! or shape* clearly all contrariety !"st be pri(ation* b"t pres"!ably not all pri(ation is contrariety +the reason bein& that that has s"%%ered pri(ation !ay ha(e s"%%ered it in se(eral $ays,' %or it is only the e-tre!es %ro! $hich chan&es proceed that are contraries. "And this is ob(io"s also by ind"ction. )or e(ery contrariety in(ol(es* as one o% its ter!s* a pri(ation* b"t not all cases are ali#e' ine7"ality is the pri(ation o% e7"ality and "nli#eness o% li#eness* and on the other hand (ice is the pri(ation o% (irt"e. B"t the cases di%%er in a $ay already described' in one case $e !ean si!ply that the thin& has s"%%ered pri(ation* in another case that it has done so either at a certain ti!e or in a certain part +e.&. at a certain a&e or in the do!inant part,* or thro"&ho"t. This is $hy in so!e cases there is a !ean +there are !en $ho are neither &ood nor bad,* and in others there is not +a n"!ber !"st be either odd or e(en,. )"rther* so!e contraries ha(e their s"b0ect de%ined* others ha(e not. There%ore it is e(ident that one o% the contraries is al$ays pri(ati(e' b"t it is eno"&h i% this is tr"e o% the %irst-i.e. the &eneric-contraries* e.&. the one and the !any' %or the others can be red"ced to these. Part ? " "2ince one thin& has one contrary* $e !i&ht raise the 7"estion ho$ the one is opposed to the !any* and the e7"al to the &reat and the s!all. )or i% $e "sed the $ord /$hether/ only in an antithesis s"ch as /$hether it is $hite or blac#/* or /$hether it is $hite or not $hite/ +$e do not as# /$hether it is a !an or $hite/,* "nless $e are proceedin& on a prior ass"!ption and as#in& so!ethin& s"ch as /$hether it $as 1leon or 2ocrates that ca!e/ as this is not a necessary dis0"nction in any class o% thin&s' yet e(en this is an e-tension %ro! the case o% opposites' %or opposites alone cannot be present to&ether' and $e ass"!e this inco!patibility here too in as#in& $hich o% the t$o ca!e' %or i% they !i&ht both ha(e co!e* the 7"estion $o"ld ha(e been abs"rd' b"t i% they !i&ht* e(en so this %alls 0"st as !"ch into an antithesis* that o% the /one or !any/* i.e. /$hether both ca!e or one o% the t$o/>-i%* then* the 7"estion /$hether/ is al$ays concerned $ith opposites* and $e can as# /$hether it is &reater or less or e7"al/* $hat is the opposition o% the e7"al to the other t$o< It is not contrary either to one alone or to both' %or $hy sho"ld it be contrary to the &reater rather than to the less< )"rther* the e7"al is contrary to the "ne7"al. There%ore i% it is contrary to the &reater and the less* it $ill be contrary to !ore thin&s than one. B"t i% the "ne7"al !eans the sa!e as both the &reater and the less to&ether* the e7"al $ill be opposite to both +and the di%%ic"lty s"pports those $ho say the "ne7"al is a /t$o/,* b"t it %ollo$s that one thin& is contrary to t$o others* $hich is i!possible. A&ain* the e7"al is e(idently inter!ediate bet$een the &reat and the s!all* b"t no contrariety is either obser(ed

to be inter!ediate* or* %ro! its de%inition* can be so' %or it $o"ld not be co!plete i% it $ere inter!ediate bet$een any t$o thin&s* b"t rather it al$ays has so!ethin& inter!ediate bet$een its o$n ter!s. "It re!ains* then* that it is opposed either as ne&ation or as pri(ation. It cannot be the ne&ation or pri(ation o% one o% the t$o' %or $hy o% the &reat rather than o% the s!all< It is* then* the pri(ati(e ne&ation o% both. This is $hy /$hether/ is said $ith re%erence to both* not to one o% the t$o +e.&. /$hether it is &reater or e7"al/ or /$hether it is e7"al or less/,' there are al$ays three cases. B"t it is not a necessary pri(ation' %or not e(erythin& $hich is not &reater or less is e7"al* b"t only the thin&s $hich are o% s"ch a nat"re as to ha(e these attrib"tes. "The e7"al* then* is that $hich is neither &reat nor s!all b"t is nat"rally %itted to be either &reat or s!all' and it is opposed to both as a pri(ati(e ne&ation +and there%ore is also inter!ediate,. And that $hich is neither &ood nor bad is opposed to both* b"t has no na!e' %or each o% these has se(eral !eanin&s and the recipient s"b0ect is not one' b"t that $hich is neither $hite nor blac# has !ore clai! to "nity. :et e(en this has not one na!e* tho"&h the colo"rs o% $hich this ne&ation is pri(ati(ely predicated are in a $ay li!ited' %or they !"st be either &rey or yello$ or so!ethin& else o% the #ind. There%ore it is an incorrect criticis! that is passed by those $ho thin# that all s"ch phrases are "sed in the sa!e $ay* so that that $hich is neither a shoe nor a hand $o"ld be inter!ediate bet$een a shoe and a hand* since that $hich is neither &ood nor bad is inter!ediate bet$een the &ood and the bad-as i% there !"st be an inter!ediate in all cases. B"t this does not necessarily %ollo$. )or the one phrase is a 0oint denial o% opposites bet$een $hich there is an inter!ediate and a certain nat"ral inter(al' b"t bet$een the other t$o there is no /di%%erence/' %or the thin&s* the denials o% $hich are co!bined* belon& to di%%erent classes* so that the s"bstrat"! is not one. Part B " "We !i&ht raise si!ilar 7"estions abo"t the one and the !any. )or i% the !any are absol"tely opposed to the one* certain i!possible res"lts %ollo$. One $ill then be %e$* $hether %e$ be treated here as sin&"lar or pl"ral' %or the !any are opposed also to the %e$. )"rther* t$o $ill be !any* since the do"ble is !"ltiple and /do"ble/ deri(es its !eanin& %ro! /t$o/' there%ore one $ill be %e$' %or $hat is that in co!parison $ith $hich t$o are !any* e-cept one* $hich !"st there%ore be %e$< )or there is nothin& %e$er. )"rther* i% the !"ch and the little are in pl"rality $hat the lon& and the short are in len&th* and $hate(er is !"ch is also !any* and the !any are !"ch +"nless* indeed* there is a di%%erence in the case o% an easily-bo"nded contin""!,* the little +or %e$, $ill be a pl"rality. There%ore one is a pl"rality i% it is %e$' and this it !"st be* i% t$o are !any. B"t perhaps* $hile the /!any/ are in a sense said to be also /!"ch/* it is $ith a di%%erence' e.&. $ater is !"ch b"t not !any. B"t /!any/ is applied to the thin&s that are di(isible' in the one sense it !eans a pl"rality $hich is e-cessi(e either absol"tely or relati(ely +$hile /%e$/ is si!ilarly a pl"rality $hich is de%icient,* and in another sense it !eans n"!ber*

in $hich sense alone it is opposed to the one. )or $e say /one or !any/* 0"st as i% one $ere to say /one and ones/ or /$hite thin& and $hite thin&s/* or to co!pare the thin&s that ha(e been !eas"red $ith the !eas"re. It is in this sense also that !"ltiples are so called. )or each n"!ber is said to be !any beca"se it consists o% ones and beca"se each n"!ber is !eas"rable by one' and it is /!any/ as that $hich is opposed to one* not to the %e$. In this sense* then* e(en t$o is !any-not* ho$e(er* in the sense o% a pl"rality $hich is e-cessi(e either relati(ely or absol"tely' it is the %irst pl"rality. B"t $itho"t 7"ali%ication t$o is %e$' %or it is %irst pl"rality $hich is de%icient +%or this reason Ana-a&oras $as not ri&ht in lea(in& the s"b0ect $ith the state!ent that /all thin&s $ere to&ether* bo"ndless both in pl"rality and in s!allness/-$here %or /and in s!allness/ he sho"ld ha(e said /and in %e$ness/' %or they co"ld not ha(e been bo"ndless in %e$ness,* since it is not one* as so!e say* b"t t$o* that !a#e a %e$. "The one is opposed then to the !any in n"!bers as !eas"re to thin& !eas"rable' and these are opposed as are the relati(es $hich are not %ro! their (ery nat"re relati(es. We ha(e distin&"ished else$here the t$o senses in $hich relati(es are so called>-+1, as contraries' +6, as #no$led&e to thin& #no$n* a ter! bein& called relati(e beca"se another is relati(e to it. There is nothin& to pre(ent one %ro! bein& %e$er than so!ethin&* e.&. than t$o' %or i% one is %e$er* it is not there%ore %e$. Pl"rality is as it $ere the class to $hich n"!ber belon&s' %or n"!ber is pl"rality !eas"rable by one* and one and n"!ber are in a sense opposed* not as contrary* b"t as $e ha(e said so!e relati(e ter!s are opposed' %or inas!"ch as one is !eas"re and the other !eas"rable* they are opposed. This is $hy not e(erythin& that is one is a n"!ber' i.e. i% the thin& is indi(isible it is not a n"!ber. B"t tho"&h #no$led&e is si!ilarly spo#en o% as relati(e to the #no$able* the relation does not $or# o"t si!ilarly' %or $hile #no$led&e !i&ht be tho"&ht to be the !eas"re* and the #no$able the thin& !eas"red* the %act that all #no$led&e is #no$able* b"t not all that is #no$able is #no$led&e* beca"se in a sense #no$led&e is !eas"red by the #no$able.-Pl"rality is contrary neither to the %e$ +the !any bein& contrary to this as e-cessi(e pl"rality to pl"rality e-ceeded,* nor to the one in e(ery sense' b"t in the one sense these are contrary* as has been said* beca"se the %or!er is di(isible and the latter indi(isible* $hile in another sense they are relati(e as #no$led&e is to #no$able* i% pl"rality is n"!ber and the one is a !eas"re. Part C " "2ince contraries ad!it o% an inter!ediate and in so!e cases ha(e it* inter!ediates !"st be co!posed o% the contraries. )or +1, all inter!ediates are in the sa!e &en"s as the thin&s bet$een $hich they stand. )or $e call those thin&s inter!ediates* into $hich that $hich chan&es !"st chan&e %irst' e.&. i% $e $ere to pass %ro! the hi&hest strin& to the lo$est by the s!allest inter(als* $e sho"ld co!e sooner to the inter!ediate notes* and in colo"rs i% $e $ere to pass %ro! $hite to blac#* $e sho"ld co!e sooner to cri!son and &rey than to blac#' and si!ilarly in all other cases. B"t to chan&e %ro! one &en"s to another &en"s is not possible e-cept in an incidental $ay* as %ro!

colo"r to %i&"re. Inter!ediates* then* !"st be in the sa!e &en"s both as one another and as the thin&s they stand bet$een. "B"t +6, all inter!ediates stand bet$een opposites o% so!e #ind' %or only bet$een these can chan&e ta#e place in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re +so that an inter!ediate is i!possible bet$een thin&s $hich are not opposite' %or then there $o"ld be chan&e $hich $as not %ro! one opposite to$ards the other,. O% opposites* contradictories ad!it o% no !iddle ter!' %or this is $hat contradiction is-an opposition* one or other side o% $hich !"st attach to anythin& $hate(er* i.e. $hich has no inter!ediate. O% other opposites* so!e are relati(e* others pri(ati(e* others contrary. O% relati(e ter!s* those $hich are not contrary ha(e no inter!ediate' the reason is that they are not in the sa!e &en"s. )or $hat inter!ediate co"ld there be bet$een #no$led&e and #no$able< B"t bet$een &reat and s!all there is one. "+;, I% inter!ediates are in the sa!e &en"s* as has been sho$n* and stand bet$een contraries* they !"st be co!posed o% these contraries. )or either there $ill be a &en"s incl"din& the contraries or there $ill be none. And i% +a, there is to be a &en"s in s"ch a $ay that it is so!ethin& prior to the contraries* the di%%erentiae $hich constit"ted the contrary species-o%-a-&en"s $ill be contraries prior to the species' %or species are co!posed o% the &en"s and the di%%erentiae. +5.&. i% $hite and blac# are contraries* and one is a piercin& colo"r and the other a co!pressin& colo"r* these di%%erentiae-/piercin&/ and /co!pressin&/-are prior' so that these are prior contraries o% one another., B"t* a&ain* the species $hich di%%er contrari$ise are the !ore tr"ly contrary species. And the other.species* i.e. the inter!ediates* !"st be co!posed o% their &en"s and their di%%erentiae. +5.&. all colo"rs $hich are bet$een $hite and blac# !"st be said to be co!posed o% the &en"s* i.e. colo"r* and certain di%%erentiae. B"t these di%%erentiae $ill not be the pri!ary contraries' other$ise e(ery colo"r $o"ld be either $hite or blac#. They are di%%erent* then* %ro! the pri!ary contraries' and there%ore they $ill be bet$een the pri!ary contraries' the pri!ary di%%erentiae are /piercin&/ and /co!pressin&/., "There%ore it is +b, $ith re&ard to these contraries $hich do not %all $ithin a &en"s that $e !"st %irst as# o% $hat their inter!ediates are co!posed. +)or thin&s $hich are in the sa!e &en"s !"st be co!posed o% ter!s in $hich the &en"s is not an ele!ent* or else be the!sel(es inco!posite., .o$ contraries do not in(ol(e one another in their co!position* and are there%ore %irst principles' b"t the inter!ediates are either all inco!posite* or none o% the!. B"t there is so!ethin& co!po"nded o"t o% the contraries* so that there can be a chan&e %ro! a contrary to it sooner than to the other contrary' %or it $ill ha(e less o% the 7"ality in 7"estion than the one contrary and !ore than the other. This also* then* $ill co!e bet$een the contraries. All the other inter!ediates also* there%ore* are co!posite' %or that $hich has !ore o% a 7"ality than one thin& and less than another is co!po"nded so!eho$ o"t o% the thin&s than $hich it is said to ha(e !ore and less respecti(ely o% the 7"ality. And since there are no other thin&s prior to the contraries

and ho!o&eneo"s $ith the inter!ediates* all inter!ediates !"st be co!po"nded o"t o% the contraries. There%ore also all the in%erior classes* both the contraries and their inter!ediates* $ill be co!po"nded o"t o% the pri!ary contraries. 1learly* then* inter!ediates are +1, all in the sa!e &en"s and +6, inter!ediate bet$een contraries* and +;, all co!po"nded o"t o% the contraries. Part D " "That $hich is other in species is other than so!ethin& in so!ethin&* and this !"st belon& to both' e.&. i% it is an ani!al other in species* both are ani!als. The thin&s* then* $hich are other in species !"st be in the sa!e &en"s. )or by &en"s I !ean that one identical thin& $hich is predicated o% both and is di%%erentiated in no !erely accidental $ay* $hether concei(ed as !atter or other$ise. )or not only !"st the co!!on nat"re attach to the di%%erent thin&s* e.&. not only !"st both be ani!als* b"t this (ery ani!ality !"st also be di%%erent %or each +e.&. in the one case e7"inity* in the other h"!anity,* and so this co!!on nat"re is speci%ically di%%erent %or each %ro! $hat it is %or the other. One* then* $ill be in (irt"e o% its o$n nat"re one sort o% ani!al* and the other another* e.&. one a horse and the other a !an. This di%%erence* then* !"st be an otherness o% the &en"s. )or I &i(e the na!e o% /di%%erence in the &en"s/ an otherness $hich !a#es the &en"s itsel% other. "This* then* $ill be a contrariety +as can be sho$n also by ind"ction,. )or all thin&s are di(ided by opposites* and it has been pro(ed that contraries are in the sa!e &en"s. )or contrariety $as seen to be co!plete di%%erence' and all di%%erence in species is a di%%erence %ro! so!ethin& in so!ethin&' so that this is the sa!e %or both and is their &en"s. +4ence also all contraries $hich are di%%erent in species and not in &en"s are in the sa!e line o% predication* and other than one another in the hi&hest de&ree-%or the di%%erence is co!plete-* and cannot be present alon& $ith one another., The di%%erence* then* is a contrariety. "This* then* is $hat it is to be /other in species/-to ha(e a contrariety* bein& in the sa!e &en"s and bein& indi(isible +and those thin&s are the sa!e in species $hich ha(e no contrariety* bein& indi(isible,' $e say /bein& indi(isible/* %or in the process o% di(ision contrarieties arise in the inter!ediate sta&es be%ore $e co!e to the indi(isibles. 5(idently* there%ore* $ith re%erence to that $hich is called the &en"s* none o% the species-o%-a-&en"s is either the sa!e as it or other than it in species +and this is %ittin&' %or the !atter is indicated by ne&ation* and the &en"s is the !atter o% that o% $hich it is called the &en"s* not in the sense in $hich $e spea# o% the &en"s or %a!ily o% the 4eraclidae* b"t in that in $hich the &en"s is an ele!ent in a thin&/s nat"re,* nor is it so $ith re%erence to thin&s $hich are not in the sa!e &en"s* b"t it $ill di%%er in &en"s %ro! the!* and in species %ro! thin&s in the sa!e &en"s. )or a thin&/s di%%erence %ro! that %ro! $hich it di%%ers in species !"st be a contrariety' and this belon&s only to thin&s in the sa!e &en"s. Part E "

"One !i&ht raise the 7"estion* $hy $o!an does not di%%er %ro! !an in species* $hen %e!ale and !ale are contrary and their di%%erence is a contrariety' and $hy a %e!ale and a !ale ani!al are not di%%erent in species* tho"&h this di%%erence belon&s to ani!al in (irt"e o% its o$n nat"re* and not as paleness or dar#ness does' both /%e!ale/ and /!ale/ belon& to it 7"a ani!al. This 7"estion is al!ost the sa!e as the other* $hy one contrariety !a#es thin&s di%%erent in species and another does not* e.&. /$ith %eet/ and /$ith $in&s/ do* b"t paleness and dar#ness do not. Perhaps it is beca"se the %or!er are !odi%ications pec"liar to the &en"s* and the latter are less so. And since one ele!ent is de%inition and one is !atter* contrarieties $hich are in the de%inition !a#e a di%%erence in species* b"t those $hich are in the thin& ta#en as incl"din& its !atter do not !a#e one. And so paleness in a !an* or dar#ness* does not !a#e one* nor is there a di%%erence in species bet$een the pale !an and the dar# !an* not e(en i% each o% the! be denoted by one $ord. )or !an is here bein& considered on his !aterial side* and !atter does not create a di%%erence' %or it does not !a#e indi(id"al !en species o% !an* tho"&h the %lesh and the bones o% $hich this !an and that !an consist are other. The concrete thin& is other* b"t not other in species* beca"se in the de%inition there is no contrariety. This is the "lti!ate indi(isible #ind. 1allias is de%inition I !atter* the pale !an* then* is so also* beca"se it is the indi(id"al 1allias that is pale' !an* then* is pale only incidentally. .either do a bra3en and a $ooden circle* then* di%%er in species' and i% a bra3en trian&le and a $ooden circle di%%er in species* it is not beca"se o% the !atter* b"t beca"se there is a contrariety in the de%inition. B"t does the !atter not !a#e thin&s other in species* $hen it is other in a certain $ay* or is there a sense in $hich it does< )or $hy is this horse other than this !an in species* altho"&h their !atter is incl"ded $ith their de%initions< Do"btless beca"se there is a contrariety in the de%inition. )or $hile there is a contrariety also bet$een pale !an and dar# horse* and it is a contrariety in species* it does not depend on the paleness o% the one and the dar#ness o% the other* since e(en i% both had been pale* yet they $o"ld ha(e been other in species. B"t !ale and %e!ale* $hile they are !odi%ications pec"liar to /ani!al/* are so not in (irt"e o% its essence b"t in the !atter* ie. the body. This is $hy the sa!e seed beco!es %e!ale or !ale by bein& acted on in a certain $ay. We ha(e stated* then* $hat it is to be other in species* and $hy so!e thin&s di%%er in species and others do not. Part 1@ " "2ince contraries are other in %or!* and the perishable and the i!perishable are contraries +%or pri(ation is a deter!inate incapacity,* the perishable and the i!perishable !"st be di%%erent in #ind. ".o$ so %ar $e ha(e spo#en o% the &eneral ter!s the!sel(es* so that it !i&ht be tho"&ht not to be necessary that e(ery i!perishable thin& sho"ld be di%%erent %ro! e(ery perishable thin& in %or!* 0"st as not e(ery pale thin& is di%%erent in %or! %ro! e(ery dar# thin&. )or the sa!e thin& can be both* and e(en at the sa!e ti!e i% it is a "ni(ersal +e.&. !an can be both pale and dar#,* and i% it is an indi(id"al it

can still be both' %or the sa!e !an can be* tho"&h not at the sa!e ti!e* pale and dar#. :et pale is contrary to dar#. "B"t $hile so!e contraries belon& to certain thin&s by accident +e.&. both those no$ !entioned and !any others,* others cannot* and a!on& these are /perishable/ and /i!perishable/. )or nothin& is by accident perishable. )or $hat is accidental is capable o% not bein& present* b"t perishableness is one o% the attrib"tes that belon& o% necessity to the thin&s to $hich they belon&' or else one and the sa!e thin& !ay be perishable and i!perishable* i% perishableness is capable o% not belon&in& to it. Perishableness then !"st either be the essence or be present in the essence o% each perishable thin&. The sa!e acco"nt holds &ood %or i!perishableness also' %or both are attrib"tes $hich are present o% necessity. The characteristics* then* in respect o% $hich and in direct conse7"ence o% $hich one thin& is perishable and another i!perishable* are opposite* so that the thin&s !"st be di%%erent in #ind. "5(idently* then* there cannot be )or!s s"ch as so!e !aintain* %or then one !an $o"ld be perishable and another i!perishable. :et the )or!s are said to be the sa!e in %or! $ith the indi(id"als and not !erely to ha(e the sa!e na!e' b"t thin&s $hich di%%er in #ind are %arther apart than those $hich di%%er in %or!. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK AI Part 1 " "T4AT Wisdo! is a science o% %irst principles is e(ident %ro! the introd"ctory chapters* in $hich $e ha(e raised ob0ections to the state!ents o% others abo"t the %irst principles' b"t one !i&ht as# the 7"estion $hether Wisdo! is to be concei(ed as one science or as se(eral. I% as one* it !ay be ob0ected that one science al$ays deals $ith contraries* b"t the %irst principles are not contrary. I% it is not one* $hat sort o% sciences are those $ith $hich it is to be identi%ied< ")"rther* is it the b"siness o% one science* or o% !ore than one* to e-a!ine the %irst principles o% de!onstration< I% o% one* $hy o% this rather than o% any other< I% o% !ore* $hat sort o% sciences !"st these be said to be< ")"rther* does Wisdo! in(esti&ate all s"bstances or not< I% not all* it is hard to say $hich' b"t i%* bein& one* it in(esti&ates the! all* it is do"bt%"l ho$ the sa!e science can e!brace se(eral s"b0ect-!atters. ")"rther* does it deal $ith s"bstances only or also $ith their attrib"tes< I% in the case o% attrib"tes de!onstration is possible* in that o% s"bstances it is not. B"t i% the t$o sciences are di%%erent* $hat is each o% the! and $hich is Wisdo!< I% $e thin# o% it as de!onstrati(e* the science o% the attrib"tes is Wisdo!* b"t i% as dealin& $ith $hat

is pri!ary* the science o% s"bstances clai!s the tide. "B"t a&ain the science $e are loo#in& %or !"st not be s"pposed to deal $ith the ca"ses $hich ha(e been !entioned in the Physics. )or +A, it does not deal $ith the %inal ca"se +%or that is the nat"re o% the &ood* and this is %o"nd in the %ield o% action and !o(e!ent' and it is the %irst !o(er-%or that is the nat"re o% the end-b"t in the case o% thin&s "n!o(able there is nothin& that !o(ed the! %irst,* and +B, in &eneral it is hard to say $hether perchance the science $e are no$ loo#in& %or deals $ith perceptible s"bstances or not $ith the!* b"t $ith certain others. I% $ith others* it !"st deal either $ith the )or!s or $ith the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. .o$ +a, e(idently the )or!s do not e-ist. +B"t it is hard to say* e(en i% one s"ppose the! to e-ist* $hy in the $orld the sa!e is not tr"e o% the other thin&s o% $hich there are )or!s* as o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. I !ean that these thin#ers place the ob0ects o% !athe!atics bet$een the )or!s and perceptible thin&s* as a #ind o% third set o% thin&s apart both %ro! the )or!s and %ro! the thin&s in this $orld' b"t there is not a third !an or horse besides the ideal and the indi(id"als. I% on the other hand it is not as they say* $ith $hat sort o% thin&s !"st the !athe!atician be s"pposed to deal< 1ertainly not $ith the thin&s in this $orld' %or none o% these is the sort o% thin& $hich the !athe!atical sciences de!and., .or +b, does the science $hich $e are no$ see#in& treat o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics' %or none o% the! can e-ist separately. B"t a&ain it does not deal $ith perceptible s"bstances' %or they are perishable. "In &eneral one !i&ht raise the 7"estion* to $hat #ind o% science it belon&s to disc"ss the di%%ic"lties abo"t the !atter o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. .either to physics +beca"se the $hole in7"iry o% the physicist is abo"t the thin&s that ha(e in the!sel(es a principle. o% !o(e!ent and rest,* nor yet to the science $hich in7"ires into de!onstration and science' %or this is 0"st the s"b0ect $hich it in(esti&ates. It re!ains then that it is the philosophy $hich $e ha(e set be%ore o"rsel(es that treats o% those s"b0ects. "One !i&ht disc"ss the 7"estion $hether the science $e are see#in& sho"ld be said to deal $ith the principles $hich are by so!e called ele!ents' all !en s"ppose these to be present in co!posite thin&s. B"t it !i&ht be tho"&ht that the science $e see# sho"ld treat rather o% "ni(ersals' %or e(ery de%inition and e(ery science is o% "ni(ersals and not o% in%i!ae species* so that as %ar as this &oes it $o"ld deal $ith the hi&hest &enera. These $o"ld t"rn o"t to be bein& and "nity' %or these !i&ht !ost o% all be s"pposed to contain all thin&s that are* and to be !ost li#e principles beca"se they are by nat"re' %or i% they perish all other thin&s are destroyed $ith the!' %or e(erythin& is and is one. B"t inas!"ch as* i% one is to s"ppose the! to be &enera* they !"st be predicable o% their di%%erentiae* and no &en"s is predicable o% any o% its di%%erentiae* in this $ay it $o"ld see! that $e sho"ld not !a#e the! &enera nor principles. )"rther* i% the si!pler is !ore o% a principle than the less si!ple* and the "lti!ate !e!bers o% the &en"s are si!pler than the &enera +%or they are indi(isible* b"t the &enera are di(ided into !any and di%%erin& species,* the species !i&ht see! to be the principles* rather than the &enera. B"t inas!"ch as the species are in(ol(ed in the destr"ction o% the &enera* the &enera

are !ore li#e principles' %or that $hich in(ol(es another in its destr"ction is a principle o% it. These and others o% the #ind are the s"b0ects that in(ol(e di%%ic"lties. Part 6 " ")"rther* !"st $e s"ppose so!ethin& apart %ro! indi(id"al thin&s* or is it these that the science $e are see#in& treats o%< B"t these are in%inite in n"!ber. :et the thin&s that are apart %ro! the indi(id"als are &enera or species' b"t the science $e no$ see# treats o% neither o% these. The reason $hy this is i!possible has been stated. Indeed* it is in &eneral hard to say $hether one !"st ass"!e that there is a separable s"bstance besides the sensible s"bstances +i.e. the s"bstances in this $orld,* or that these are the real thin&s and Wisdo! is concerned $ith the!. )or $e see! to see# another #ind o% s"bstance* and this is o"r proble!* i.e. to see i% there is so!ethin& $hich can e-ist apart by itsel% and belon&s to no sensible thin&.-)"rther* i% there is another s"bstance apart %ro! and correspondin& to sensible s"bstances* $hich #inds o% sensible s"bstance !"st be s"pposed to ha(e this correspondin& to the!< Why sho"ld one s"ppose !en or horses to ha(e it* !ore than either the other ani!als or e(en all li%eless thin&s< On the other hand to set "p other and eternal s"bstances e7"al in n"!ber to the sensible and perishable s"bstances $o"ld see! to %all beyond the bo"nds o% probability.-B"t i% the principle $e no$ see# is not separable %ro! corporeal thin&s* $hat has a better clai! to the na!e !atter< This* ho$e(er* does not e-ist in act"ality* b"t e-ists in potency. And it $o"ld see! rather that the %or! or shape is a !ore i!portant principle than this' b"t the %or! is perishable* so that there is no eternal s"bstance at all $hich can e-ist apart and independent. B"t this is parado-ical' %or s"ch a principle and s"bstance see!s to e-ist and is so"&ht by nearly all the !ost re%ined thin#ers as so!ethin& that e-ists' %or ho$ is there to be order "nless there is so!ethin& eternal and independent and per!anent< ")"rther* i% there is a s"bstance or principle o% s"ch a nat"re as that $hich $e are no$ see#in&* and i% this is one %or all thin&s* and the sa!e %or eternal and %or perishable thin&s* it is hard to say $hy in the $orld* i% there is the sa!e principle* so!e o% the thin&s that %all "nder the principle are eternal* and others are not eternal' this is parado-ical. B"t i% there is one principle o% perishable and another o% eternal thin&s* $e shall be in a li#e di%%ic"lty i% the principle o% perishable thin&s* as $ell as that o% eternal* is eternal' %or $hy* i% the principle is eternal* are not the thin&s that %all "nder the principle also eternal< B"t i% it is perishable another principle is in(ol(ed to acco"nt %or it* and another to acco"nt %or that* and this $ill &o on to in%inity. "I% on the other hand $e are to set "p $hat are tho"&ht to be the !ost "nchan&eable principles* bein& and "nity* %irstly* i% each o%

these does not indicate a /this/ or s"bstance* ho$ $ill they be separable and independent< :et $e e-pect the eternal and pri!ary principles to be so. B"t i% each o% the! does si&ni%y a /this/ or s"bstance* all thin&s that are are s"bstances' %or bein& is predicated o% all thin&s +and "nity also o% so!e,' b"t that all thin&s that are are s"bstance is %alse. )"rther* ho$ can they be ri&ht $ho say that the %irst principle is "nity and this is s"bstance* and &enerate n"!ber as the %irst prod"ct %ro! "nity and %ro! !atter* assert that n"!ber is s"bstance< 4o$ are $e to thin# o% /t$o/* and each o% the other n"!bers co!posed o% "nits* as one< On this point neither do they say anythin& nor is it easy to say anythin&. B"t i% $e are to s"ppose lines or $hat co!es a%ter these +I !ean the pri!ary s"r%aces, to be principles* these at least are not separable s"bstances* b"t sections and di(isions-the %or!er o% s"r%aces* the latter o% bodies +$hile points are sections and di(isions o% lines,' and %"rther they are li!its o% these sa!e thin&s' and all these are in other thin&s and none is separable. )"rther* ho$ are $e to s"ppose that there is a s"bstance o% "nity and the point< 5(ery s"bstance co!es into bein& by a &rad"al process* b"t a point does not' %or the point is a di(ision. "A %"rther di%%ic"lty is raised by the %act that all #no$led&e is o% "ni(ersals and o% the /s"ch/* b"t s"bstance is not a "ni(ersal* b"t is rather a /this/-a separable thin&* so that i% there is #no$led&e abo"t the %irst principles* the 7"estion arises* ho$ are $e to s"ppose the %irst principle to be s"bstance< ")"rther* is there anythin& apart %ro! the concrete thin& +by $hich I !ean the !atter and that $hich is 0oined $ith it,* or not< I% not* $e are !et by the ob0ection that all thin&s that are in !atter are perishable. B"t i% there is so!ethin&* it !"st be the %or! or shape. .o$ it is hard to deter!ine in $hich cases this e-ists apart and in $hich it does not' %or in so!e cases the %or! is e(idently not separable* e.&. in the case o% a ho"se. ")"rther* are the principles the sa!e in #ind or in n"!ber< I% they are one in n"!ber* all thin&s $ill be the sa!e. Part ; " "2ince the science o% the philosopher treats o% bein& 7"a bein& "ni(ersally and not in respect o% a part o% it* and /bein&/ has !any senses and is not "sed in one only* it %ollo$s that i% the $ord is "sed e7"i(ocally and in (irt"e o% nothin& co!!on to its (ario"s "ses* bein& does not %all "nder one science +%or the !eanin&s o% an e7"i(ocal ter! do not %or! one &en"s,' b"t i% the $ord is "sed in (irt"e o% so!ethin& co!!on* bein& $ill %all "nder one science. The ter! see!s to be "sed in the $ay $e ha(e !entioned* li#e /!edical/ and /healthy/. )or each o% these also $e "se in !any senses. Ter!s are "sed in this $ay by (irt"e o% so!e #ind o% re%erence* in the one case to !edical science* in the other to health* in others to so!ethin& else* b"t in each case to one identical concept. )or a disc"ssion and a #ni%e are called !edical beca"se the %or!er proceeds %ro! !edical science* and the latter is "se%"l to it. And a thin& is called healthy in a si!ilar $ay' one

thin& beca"se it is indicati(e o% health* another beca"se it is prod"cti(e o% it. And the sa!e is tr"e in the other cases. 5(erythin& that is* then* is said to /be/ in this sa!e $ay' each thin& that is is said to /be/ beca"se it is a !odi%ication o% bein& 7"a bein& or a per!anent or a transient state or a !o(e!ent o% it* or so!ethin& else o% the sort. And since e(erythin& that is !ay be re%erred to so!ethin& sin&le and co!!on* each o% the contrarieties also !ay be re%erred to the %irst di%%erences and contrarieties o% bein&* $hether the %irst di%%erences o% bein& are pl"rality and "nity* or li#eness and "nli#eness* or so!e other di%%erences' let these be ta#en as already disc"ssed. It !a#es no di%%erence $hether that $hich is be re%erred to bein& or to "nity. )or e(en i% they are not the sa!e b"t di%%erent* at least they are con(ertible' %or that $hich is one is also so!eho$ bein&* and that $hich is bein& is one. "B"t since e(ery pair o% contraries %alls to be e-a!ined by one and the sa!e science* and in each pair one ter! is the pri(ati(e o% the other tho"&h one !i&ht re&ardin& so!e contraries raise the 7"estion* ho$ they can be pri(ately related* (i3. those $hich ha(e an inter!ediate* e.&. "n0"st and 0"st-in all s"ch cases one !"st !aintain that the pri(ation is not o% the $hole de%inition* b"t o% the in%i!a species. i% the 0"st !an is /by (irt"e o% so!e per!anent disposition obedient to the la$s/* the "n0"st !an $ill not in e(ery case ha(e the $hole de%inition denied o% hi!* b"t !ay be !erely /in so!e respect de%icient in obedience to the la$s/* and in this respect the pri(ation $ill attach to hi!' and si!ilarly in all other cases. "As the !athe!atician in(esti&ates abstractions +%or be%ore be&innin& his in(esti&ation he strips o%% all the sensible 7"alities* e.&. $ei&ht and li&htness* hardness and its contrary* and also heat and cold and the other sensible contrarieties* and lea(es only the 7"antitati(e and contin"o"s* so!eti!es in one* so!eti!es in t$o* so!eti!es in three di!ensions* and the attrib"tes o% these 7"a 7"antitati(e and contin"o"s* and does not consider the! in any other respect* and e-a!ines the relati(e positions o% so!e and the attrib"tes o% these* and the co!!ens"rabilities and inco!!ens"rabilities o% others* and the ratios o% others' b"t yet $e posit one and the sa!e science o% all these thin&s--&eo!etry,-the sa!e is tr"e $ith re&ard to bein&. )or the attrib"tes o% this in so %ar as it is bein&* and the contrarieties in it 7"a bein&* it is the b"siness o% no other science than philosophy to in(esti&ate' %or to physics one $o"ld assi&n the st"dy o% thin&s not 7"a bein&* b"t rather 7"a sharin& in !o(e!ent' $hile dialectic and sophistic deal $ith the attrib"tes o% thin&s that are* b"t not o% thin&s 7"a bein&* and not $ith bein& itsel% in so %ar as it is bein&' there%ore it re!ains that it is the philosopher $ho st"dies the thin&s $e ha(e na!ed* in so %ar as they are bein&. 2ince all that is is to /be/ in (irt"e o% so!ethin& sin&le and co!!on* tho"&h the ter! has !any !eanin&s* and contraries are in the sa!e case +%or they are re%erred to the %irst contrarieties and di%%erences o% bein&,* and thin&s o% this sort can %all "nder one science* the di%%ic"lty $e stated at the be&innin& appears to be sol(ed*-I !ean the 7"estion ho$ there can be a sin&le science o%

thin&s $hich are !any and di%%erent in &en"s. Part = " "2ince e(en the !athe!atician "ses the co!!on a-io!s only in a special application* it !"st be the b"siness o% %irst philosophy to e-a!ine the principles o% !athe!atics also. That $hen e7"als are ta#en %ro! e7"als the re!ainders are e7"al* is co!!on to all 7"antities* b"t !athe!atics st"dies a part o% its proper !atter $hich it has detached* e.&. lines or an&les or n"!bers or so!e other #ind o% 7"antity-not* ho$e(er* 7"a bein& b"t in so %ar as each o% the! is contin"o"s in one or t$o or three di!ensions' b"t philosophy does not in7"ire abo"t partic"lar s"b0ects in so %ar as each o% the! has so!e attrib"te or other* b"t spec"lates abo"t bein&* in so %ar as each partic"lar thin& is.-Physics is in the sa!e position as !athe!atics' %or physics st"dies the attrib"tes and the principles o% the thin&s that are* 7"a !o(in& and not 7"a bein& +$hereas the pri!ary science* $e ha(e said* deals $ith these* only in so %ar as the "nderlyin& s"b0ects are e-istent* and not in (irt"e o% any other character,' and so both physics and !athe!atics !"st be classed as parts o% Wisdo!. Part ? " "There is a principle in thin&s* abo"t $hich $e cannot be decei(ed* b"t !"st al$ays* on the contrary reco&ni3e the tr"th*-(i3. that the sa!e thin& cannot at one and the sa!e ti!e be and not be* or ad!it any other si!ilar pair o% opposites. Abo"t s"ch !atters there is no proo% in the %"ll sense* tho"&h there is proo% ad ho!ine!. )or it is not possible to in%er this tr"th itsel% %ro! a !ore certain principle* yet this is necessary i% there is to be co!pleted proo% o% it in the %"ll sense. B"t he $ho $ants to pro(e to the asserter o% opposites that he is $ron& !"st &et %ro! hi! an ad!ission $hich shall be identical $ith the principle that the sa!e thin& cannot be and not be at one and the sa!e ti!e* b"t shall not see! to be identical' %or th"s alone can his thesis be de!onstrated to the !an $ho asserts that opposite state!ents can be tr"ly !ade abo"t the sa!e s"b0ect. Those* then* $ho are to 0oin in ar&"!ent $ith one another !"st to so!e e-tent "nderstand one another' %or i% this does not happen ho$ are they to 0oin in ar&"!ent $ith one another< There%ore e(ery $ord !"st be intelli&ible and indicate so!ethin&* and not !any thin&s b"t only one' and i% it si&ni%ies !ore than one thin&* it !"st be !ade plain to $hich o% these the $ord is bein& applied. 4e* then* $ho says /this is and is not/ denies $hat he a%%ir!s* so that $hat the $ord si&ni%ies* he says it does not si&ni%y' and this is i!possible. There%ore i% /this is/ si&ni%ies so!ethin&* one cannot tr"ly assert its contradictory. ")"rther* i% the $ord si&ni%ies so!ethin& and this is asserted tr"ly* this conne-ion !"st be necessary' and it is not possible that that $hich necessarily is sho"ld e(er not be' it is not possible there%ore to !a#e the opposed a%%ir!ations and ne&ations tr"ly o% the sa!e s"b0ect. )"rther* i% the a%%ir!ation is no !ore tr"e than the ne&ation* he $ho says /!an/ $ill be no !ore ri&ht than he $ho says /not-!an/. It

$o"ld see! also that in sayin& the !an is not a horse one $o"ld be either !ore or not less ri&ht than in sayin& he is not a !an* so that one $ill also be ri&ht in sayin& that the sa!e person is a horse' %or it $as ass"!ed to be possible to !a#e opposite state!ents e7"ally tr"ly. It %ollo$s then that the sa!e person is a !an and a horse* or any other ani!al. "While* then* there is no proo% o% these thin&s in the %"ll sense* there is a proo% $hich !ay s"%%ice a&ainst one $ho $ill !a#e these s"ppositions. And perhaps i% one had 7"estioned 4eraclit"s hi!sel% in this $ay one !i&ht ha(e %orced hi! to con%ess that opposite state!ents can ne(er be tr"e o% the sa!e s"b0ects. B"t* as it is* he adopted this opinion $itho"t "nderstandin& $hat his state!ent in(ol(es. B"t in any case i% $hat is said by hi! is tr"e* not e(en this itsel% $ill be tr"e-(i3. that the sa!e thin& can at one and the sa!e ti!e both be and not be. )or as* $hen the state!ents are separated* the a%%ir!ation is no !ore tr"e than the ne&ation* in the sa!e $ay-the co!bined and co!ple- state!ent bein& li#e a sin&le a%%ir!ation-the $hole ta#en as an a%%ir!ation $ill be no !ore tr"e than the ne&ation. )"rther* i% it is not possible to a%%ir! anythin& tr"ly* this itsel% $ill be %alse-the assertion that there is no tr"e a%%ir!ation. B"t i% a tr"e a%%ir!ation e-ists* this appears to re%"te $hat is said by those $ho raise s"ch ob0ections and "tterly destroy rational disco"rse. Part B " "The sayin& o% Prota&oras is li#e the (ie$s $e ha(e !entioned' he said that !an is the !eas"re o% all thin&s* !eanin& si!ply that that $hich see!s to each !an also ass"redly is. I% this is so* it %ollo$s that the sa!e thin& both is and is not* and is bad and &ood* and that the contents o% all other opposite state!ents are tr"e* beca"se o%ten a partic"lar thin& appears bea"ti%"l to so!e and the contrary o% bea"ti%"l to others* and that $hich appears to each !an is the !eas"re. This di%%ic"lty !ay be sol(ed by considerin& the so"rce o% this opinion. It see!s to ha(e arisen in so!e cases %ro! the doctrine o% the nat"ral philosophers* and in others %ro! the %act that all !en ha(e not the sa!e (ie$s abo"t the sa!e thin&s* b"t a partic"lar thin& appears pleasant to so!e and the contrary o% pleasant to others. "That nothin& co!es to be o"t o% that $hich is not* b"t e(erythin& o"t o% that $hich is* is a do&!a co!!on to nearly all the nat"ral philosophers. 2ince* then* $hite cannot co!e to be i% the per%ectly $hite and in no respect not-$hite e-isted be%ore* that $hich beco!es $hite !"st co!e %ro! that $hich is not $hite' so that it !"st co!e to be o"t o% that $hich is not +so they ar&"e,* "nless the sa!e thin& $as at the be&innin& $hite and not-$hite. B"t it is not hard to sol(e this di%%ic"lty' %or $e ha(e said in o"r $or#s on physics in $hat sense thin&s that co!e to be co!e to be %ro! that $hich is not* and in $hat sense %ro! that $hich is. "B"t to attend e7"ally to the opinions and the %ancies o% disp"tin& parties is childish' %or clearly one o% the! !"st be !ista#en. And this is e(ident %ro! $hat happens in respect o% sensation' %or the

sa!e thin& ne(er appears s$eet to so!e and the contrary o% s$eet to others* "nless in the one case the sense-or&an $hich discri!inates the a%oresaid %la(o"rs has been per(erted and in0"red. And i% this is so the one party !"st be ta#en to be the !eas"re* and the other !"st not. And say the sa!e o% &ood and bad* and bea"ti%"l and "&ly* and all other s"ch 7"alities. )or to !aintain the (ie$ $e are opposin& is 0"st li#e !aintainin& that the thin&s that appear to people $ho p"t their %in&er "nder their eye and !a#e the ob0ect appear t$o instead o% one !"st be t$o +beca"se they appear to be o% that n"!ber, and a&ain one +%or to those $ho do not inter%ere $ith their eye the one ob0ect appears one,. "In &eneral* it is abs"rd to !a#e the %act that the thin&s o% this earth are obser(ed to chan&e and ne(er to re!ain in the sa!e state* the basis o% o"r 0"d&e!ent abo"t the tr"th. )or in p"rs"in& the tr"th one !"st start %ro! the thin&s that are al$ays in the sa!e state and s"%%er no chan&e. 2"ch are the hea(enly bodies' %or these do not appear to be no$ o% one nat"re and a&ain o% another* b"t are !ani%estly al$ays the sa!e and share in no chan&e. ")"rther* i% there is !o(e!ent* there is also so!ethin& !o(ed* and e(erythin& is !o(ed o"t o% so!ethin& and into so!ethin&' it %ollo$s that that that $hich is !o(ed !"st %irst be in that o"t o% $hich it is to be !o(ed* and then not be in it* and !o(e into the other and co!e to be in it* and that the contradictory state!ents are not tr"e at the sa!e ti!e* as these thin#ers assert they are. "And i% the thin&s o% this earth contin"o"sly %lo$ and !o(e in respect o% 7"antity-i% one $ere to s"ppose this* altho"&h it is not tr"e-$hy sho"ld they not end"re in respect o% 7"ality< )or the assertion o% contradictory state!ents abo"t the sa!e thin& see!s to ha(e arisen lar&ely %ro! the belie% that the 7"antity o% bodies does not end"re* $hich* o"r opponents hold* 0"sti%ies the! in sayin& that the sa!e thin& both is and is not %o"r c"bits lon&. B"t essence depends on 7"ality* and this is o% deter!inate nat"re* tho"&h 7"antity is o% indeter!inate. ")"rther* $hen the doctor orders people to ta#e so!e partic"lar %ood* $hy do they ta#e it< In $hat respect is /this is bread/ tr"er than /this is not bread/< And so it $o"ld !a#e no di%%erence $hether one ate or not. B"t as a !atter o% %act they ta#e the %ood $hich is ordered* ass"!in& that they #no$ the tr"th abo"t it and that it is bread. :et they sho"ld not* i% there $ere no %i-ed constant nat"re in sensible thin&s* b"t all nat"res !o(ed and %lo$ed %or e(er. "A&ain* i% $e are al$ays chan&in& and ne(er re!ain the sa!e* $hat $onder is it i% to "s* as to the sic#* thin&s ne(er appear the sa!e< +)or to the! also* beca"se they are not in the sa!e condition as $hen they $ere $ell* sensible 7"alities do not appear ali#e' yet* %or all that* the sensible thin&s the!sel(es need not share in any chan&e* tho"&h they prod"ce di%%erent* and not identical* sensations in the sic#. And the sa!e !"st s"rely happen to the healthy i% the a%ore-said chan&e ta#es place., B"t i% $e do not chan&e b"t re!ain the sa!e* there $ill be so!ethin& that end"res. "As %or those to $ho! the di%%ic"lties !entioned are s"&&ested by

reasonin&* it is not easy to sol(e the di%%ic"lties to their satis%action* "nless they $ill posit so!ethin& and no lon&er de!and a reason %or it' %or it is only th"s that all reasonin& and all proo% is acco!plished' i% they posit nothin&* they destroy disc"ssion and all reasonin&. There%ore $ith s"ch !en there is no reasonin&. B"t as %or those $ho are perple-ed by the traditional di%%ic"lties* it is easy to !eet the! and to dissipate the ca"ses o% their perple-ity. This is e(ident %ro! $hat has been said. "It is !ani%est* there%ore* %ro! these ar&"!ents that contradictory state!ents cannot be tr"ly !ade abo"t the sa!e s"b0ect at one ti!e* nor can contrary state!ents* beca"se e(ery contrariety depends on pri(ation. This is e(ident i% $e red"ce the de%initions o% contraries to their principle. "2i!ilarly* no inter!ediate bet$een contraries can be predicated o% one and the sa!e s"b0ect* o% $hich one o% the contraries is predicated. I% the s"b0ect is $hite $e shall be $ron& in sayin& it is neither blac# nor $hite* %or then it %ollo$s that it is and is not $hite' %or the second o% the t$o ter!s $e ha(e p"t to&ether is tr"e o% it* and this is the contradictory o% $hite. "We co"ld not be ri&ht* then* in acceptin& the (ie$s either o% 4eraclit"s or o% Ana-a&oras. I% $e $ere* it $o"ld %ollo$ that contraries $o"ld be predicated o% the sa!e s"b0ect' %or $hen Ana-a&oras says that in e(erythin& there is a part o% e(erythin&* he says nothin& is s$eet any !ore than it is bitter* and so $ith any other pair o% contraries* since in e(erythin& e(erythin& is present not potentially only* b"t act"ally and separately. And si!ilarly all state!ents cannot be %alse nor all tr"e* both beca"se o% !any other di%%ic"lties $hich !i&ht be add"ced as arisin& %ro! this position* and beca"se i% all are %alse it $ill not be tr"e to say e(en this* and i% all are tr"e it $ill not be %alse to say all are %alse. Part C " "5(ery science see#s certain principles and ca"ses %or each o% its ob0ects-e.&. !edicine and &y!nastics and each o% the other sciences* $hether prod"cti(e or !athe!atical. )or each o% these !ar#s o%% a certain class o% thin&s %or itsel% and b"sies itsel% abo"t this as abo"t so!ethin& e-istin& and real*-not ho$e(er 7"a real' the science that does this is another distinct %ro! these. O% the sciences !entioned each &ets so!eho$ the /$hat/ in so!e class o% thin&s and tries to pro(e the other tr"ths* $ith !ore or less precision. 2o!e &et the /$hat/ thro"&h perception* others by hypothesis' so that it is clear %ro! an ind"ction o% this sort that there is no de!onstration. o% the s"bstance or /$hat/. "There is a science o% nat"re* and e(idently it !"st be di%%erent both %ro! practical and %ro! prod"cti(e science. )or in the case o% prod"cti(e science the principle o% !o(e!ent is in the prod"cer and not in the prod"ct* and is either an art or so!e other %ac"lty. And si!ilarly in practical science the !o(e!ent is not in the thin& done* b"t rather in the doers. B"t the science o% the nat"ral philosopher

deals $ith the thin&s that ha(e in the!sel(es a principle o% !o(e!ent. It is clear %ro! these %acts* then* that nat"ral science !"st be neither practical nor prod"cti(e* b"t theoretical +%or it !"st %all into so!e one o% these classes,. And since each o% the sciences !"st so!eho$ #no$ the /$hat/ and "se this as a principle* $e !"st not %all to obser(e ho$ the nat"ral philosopher sho"ld de%ine thin&s and ho$ he sho"ld state the de%inition o% the essence-$hether as a#in to /sn"b/ or rather to /conca(e/. )or o% these the de%inition o% /sn"b/ incl"des the !atter o% the thin&* b"t that o% /conca(e/ is independent o% the !atter' %or sn"bness is %o"nd in a nose* so that $e loo# %or its de%inition $itho"t eli!inatin& the nose* %or $hat is sn"b is a conca(e nose. 5(idently then the de%inition o% %lesh also and o% the eye and o% the other parts !"st al$ays be stated $itho"t eli!inatin& the !atter. "2ince there is a science o% bein& 7"a bein& and capable o% e-istin& apart* $e !"st consider $hether this is to be re&arded as the sa!e as physics or rather as di%%erent. Physics deals $ith the thin&s that ha(e a principle o% !o(e!ent in the!sel(es' !athe!atics is theoretical* and is a science that deals $ith thin&s that are at rest* b"t its s"b0ects cannot e-ist apart. There%ore abo"t that $hich can e-ist apart and is "n!o(able there is a science di%%erent %ro! both o% these* i% there is a s"bstance o% this nat"re +I !ean separable and "n!o(able,* as $e shall try to pro(e there is. And i% there is s"ch a #ind o% thin& in the $orld* here !"st s"rely be the di(ine* and this !"st be the %irst and !ost do!inant principle. 5(idently* then* there are three #inds o% theoretical sciences-physics* !athe!atics* theolo&y. The class o% theoretical sciences is the best* and o% these the!sel(es the last na!ed is best' %or it deals $ith the hi&hest o% e-istin& thin&s* and each science is called better or $orse in (irt"e o% its proper ob0ect. "One !i&ht raise the 7"estion $hether the science o% bein& 7"a bein& is to be re&arded as "ni(ersal or not. 5ach o% the !athe!atical sciences deals $ith so!e one deter!inate class o% thin&s* b"t "ni(ersal !athe!atics applies ali#e to all. .o$ i% nat"ral s"bstances are the %irst o% e-istin& thin&s* physics !"st be the %irst o% sciences' b"t i% there is another entity and s"bstance* separable and "n!o(able* the #no$led&e o% it !"st be di%%erent and prior to physics and "ni(ersal beca"se it is prior. Part D " "2ince /bein&/ in &eneral has se(eral senses* o% $hich one is /bein& by accident/* $e !"st consider %irst that $hich /is/ in this sense. 5(idently none o% the traditional sciences b"sies itsel% abo"t the accidental. )or neither does architect"re consider $hat $ill happen to those $ho are to "se the ho"se +e.&. $hether they ha(e a pain%"l li%e in it or not,* nor does $ea(in&* or shoe!a#in&* or the con%ectioner/s art* do the li#e' b"t each o% these sciences considers only $hat is pec"liar to it* i.e. its proper end. And as %or the ar&"!ent that /$hen he $ho is !"sical beco!es lettered he/ll be both at once* not ha(in& been both be%ore' and that $hich is* not al$ays ha(in& been* !"st ha(e co!e to be' there%ore he !"st ha(e at once beco!e !"sical and lettered/*-this none o% the reco&ni3ed sciences considers* b"t

only sophistic' %or this alone b"sies itsel% abo"t the accidental* so that Plato is not %ar $ron& $hen he says that the sophist spends his ti!e on non-bein&. "That a science o% the accidental is not e(en possible $ill be e(ident i% $e try to see $hat the accidental really is. We say that e(erythin& either is al$ays and o% necessity +necessity not in the sense o% (iolence* b"t that $hich $e appeal to in de!onstrations,* or is %or the !ost part* or is neither %or the !ost part* nor al$ays and o% necessity* b"t !erely as it chances' e.&. there !i&ht be cold in the do&days* b"t this occ"rs neither al$ays and o% necessity* nor %or the !ost part* tho"&h it !i&ht happen so!eti!es. The accidental* then* is $hat occ"rs* b"t not al$ays nor o% necessity* nor %or the !ost part. .o$ $e ha(e said $hat the accidental is* and it is ob(io"s $hy there is no science o% s"ch a thin&' %or all science is o% that $hich is al$ays or %or the !ost part* b"t the accidental is in neither o% these classes. "5(idently there are not ca"ses and principles o% the accidental* o% the sa!e #ind as there are o% the essential' %or i% there $ere* e(erythin& $o"ld be o% necessity. I% A is $hen B is* and B is $hen 1 is* and i% 1 e-ists not by chance b"t o% necessity* that also o% $hich 1 $as ca"se $ill e-ist o% necessity* do$n to the last ca"sat"! as it is called +b"t this $as s"pposed to be accidental,. There%ore all thin&s $ill be o% necessity* and chance and the possibility o% a thin&/s either occ"rrin& or not occ"rrin& are re!o(ed entirely %ro! the ran&e o% e(ents. And i% the ca"se be s"pposed not to e-ist b"t to be co!in& to be* the sa!e res"lts $ill %ollo$' e(erythin& $ill occ"r o% necessity. )or to-!orro$/s eclipse $ill occ"r i% A occ"rs* and A i% B occ"rs* and B i% 1 occ"rs' and in this $ay i% $e s"btract ti!e %ro! the li!ited ti!e bet$een no$ and to-!orro$ $e shall co!e so!eti!e to the already e-istin& condition. There%ore since this e-ists* e(erythin& a%ter this $ill occ"r o% necessity* so that all thin&s occ"r o% necessity. "As to that $hich /is/ in the sense o% bein& tr"e or o% bein& by accident* the %or!er depends on a co!bination in tho"&ht and is an a%%ection o% tho"&ht +$hich is the reason $hy it is the principles* not o% that $hich /is/ in this sense* b"t o% that $hich is o"tside and can e-ist apart* that are so"&ht,' and the latter is not necessary b"t indeter!inate +I !ean the accidental,' and o% s"ch a thin& the ca"ses are "nordered and inde%inite. "Adaptation to an end is %o"nd in e(ents that happen by nat"re or as the res"lt o% tho"&ht. It is /l"c#/ $hen one o% these e(ents happens by accident. )or as a thin& !ay e-ist* so it !ay be a ca"se* either by its o$n nat"re or by accident. "c# is an accidental ca"se at $or# in s"ch e(ents adapted to an end as are "s"ally e%%ected in accordance $ith p"rpose. And so l"c# and tho"&ht are concerned $ith the sa!e sphere' %or p"rpose cannot e-ist $itho"t tho"&ht. The ca"ses %ro! $hich l"c#y res"lts !i&ht happen are indeter!inate' and so l"c# is obsc"re to h"!an calc"lation and is a ca"se by accident* b"t in the "n7"ali%ied sense a ca"se o% nothin&. It is &ood or bad l"c# $hen the res"lt is &ood or e(il' and prosperity or !is%ort"ne $hen the scale o% the res"lts is lar&e.

"2ince nothin& accidental is prior to the essential* neither are accidental ca"ses prior. I%* then* l"c# or spontaneity is a ca"se o% the !aterial "ni(erse* reason and nat"re are ca"ses be%ore it. Part E " "2o!e thin&s are only act"ally* so!e potentially* so!e potentially and act"ally* $hat they are* (i3. in one case a partic"lar reality* in another* characteri3ed by a partic"lar 7"antity* or the li#e. There is no !o(e!ent apart %ro! thin&s' %or chan&e is al$ays accordin& to the cate&ories o% bein&* and there is nothin& co!!on to these and in no one cate&ory. B"t each o% the cate&ories belon&s to all its s"b0ects in either o% t$o $ays +e.&. /this-ness/-%or one #ind o% it is /positi(e %or!/* and the other is /pri(ation/' and as re&ards 7"ality one #ind is /$hite/ and the other /blac#/* and as re&ards 7"antity one #ind is /co!plete/ and the other /inco!plete/* and as re&ards spatial !o(e!ent one is /"p$ards/ and the other /do$n$ards/* or one thin& is /li&ht/ and another /hea(y/,' so that there are as !any #inds o% !o(e!ent and chan&e as o% bein&. There bein& a distinction in each class o% thin&s bet$een the potential and the co!pletely real* I call the act"ality o% the potential as s"ch* !o(e!ent. That $hat $e say is tr"e* is plain %ro! the %ollo$in& %acts. When the /b"ildable/* in so %ar as it is $hat $e !ean by /b"ildable/* e-ists act"ally* it is bein& b"ilt* and this is the process o% b"ildin&. 2i!ilarly $ith learnin&* healin&* $al#in&* leapin&* a&ein&* ripenin&. Mo(e!ent ta#es $hen the co!plete reality itsel% e-ists* and neither earlier nor later. The co!plete reality* then* o% that $hich e-ists potentially* $hen it is co!pletely real and act"al* not 7"a itsel%* b"t 7"a !o(able* is !o(e!ent. By 7"a I !ean this> bron3e is potentially a stat"e' b"t yet it is not the co!plete reality o% bron3e 7"a bron3e that is !o(e!ent. )or it is not the sa!e thin& to be bron3e and to be a certain potency. I% it $ere absol"tely the sa!e in its de%inition* the co!plete reality o% bron3e $o"ld ha(e been a !o(e!ent. B"t it is not the sa!e. +This is e(ident in the case o% contraries' %or to be capable o% bein& $ell and to be capable o% bein& ill are not the sa!e-%or i% they $ere* bein& $ell and bein& ill $o"ld ha(e been the sa!e-it is that $hich "nderlies and is healthy or diseased* $hether it is !oist"re or blood* that is one and the sa!e., And since it is not. the sa!e* as colo"r and the (isible are not the sa!e* it is the co!plete reality o% the potential* and as potential* that is !o(e!ent. That it is this* and that !o(e!ent ta#es place $hen the co!plete reality itsel% e-ists* and neither earlier nor later* is e(ident. )or each thin& is capable o% bein& so!eti!es act"al* so!eti!es not* e.&. the b"ildable 7"a b"ildable' and the act"ality o% the b"ildable 7"a b"ildable is b"ildin&. )or the act"ality is either this-the act o% b"ildin&-or the ho"se. B"t $hen the ho"se e-ists* it is no lon&er b"ildable' the b"ildable is $hat is bein& b"ilt. The act"ality* then* !"st be the act o% b"ildin&* and this is a !o(e!ent. And the sa!e acco"nt applies to all other !o(e!ents. "That $hat $e ha(e said is ri&ht is e(ident %ro! $hat all others say abo"t !o(e!ent* and %ro! the %act that it is not easy to de%ine it other$ise. )or %irstly one cannot p"t it in any class. This is e(ident

%ro! $hat people say. 2o!e call it otherness and ine7"ality and the "nreal' none o% these* ho$e(er* is necessarily !o(ed* and %"rther* chan&e is not either to these or %ro! these any !ore than %ro! their opposites. The reason $hy people p"t !o(e!ent in these classes is that it is tho"&ht to be so!ethin& inde%inite* and the principles in one o% the t$o /col"!ns o% contraries/ are inde%inite beca"se they are pri(ati(e* %or none o% the! is either a /this/ or a /s"ch/ or in any o% the other cate&ories. And the reason $hy !o(e!ent is tho"&ht to be inde%inite is that it cannot be classed either $ith the potency o% thin&s or $ith their act"ality' %or neither that $hich is capable o% bein& o% a certain 7"antity* nor that $hich is act"ally o% a certain 7"antity* is o% necessity !o(ed* and !o(e!ent is tho"&ht to be an act"ality* b"t inco!plete' the reason is that the potential* $hose act"ality it is* is inco!plete. And there%ore it is hard to &rasp $hat !o(e!ent is' %or it !"st be classed either "nder pri(ation or "nder potency or "nder absol"te act"ality* b"t e(idently none o% these is possible. There%ore $hat re!ains is that it !"st be $hat $e said-both act"ality and the act"ality $e ha(e described-$hich is hard to detect b"t capable o% e-istin&. "And e(idently !o(e!ent is in the !o(able' %or it is the co!plete reali3ation o% this by that $hich is capable o% ca"sin& !o(e!ent. And the act"ality o% that $hich is capable o% ca"sin& !o(e!ent is no other than that o% the !o(able. )or it !"st be the co!plete reality o% both. )or $hile a thin& is capable o% ca"sin& !o(e!ent beca"se it can do this* it is a !o(er beca"se it is acti(e' b"t it is on the !o(able that it is capable o% actin&* so that the act"ality o% both is one* 0"st as there is the sa!e inter(al %ro! one to t$o as %ro! t$o to one* and as the steep ascent and the steep descent are one* b"t the bein& o% the! is not one' the case o% the !o(er and the !o(ed is si!ilar. Part 1@ " "The in%inite is either that $hich is incapable o% bein& tra(ersed beca"se it is not its nat"re to be tra(ersed +this corresponds to the sense in $hich the (oice is /in(isible/,* or that $hich ad!its only o% inco!plete tra(erse or scarcely ad!its o% tra(erse* or that $hich* tho"&h it nat"rally ad!its o% tra(erse* is not tra(ersed or li!ited' %"rther* a thin& !ay be in%inite in respect o% addition or o% s"btraction* or both. The in%inite cannot be a separate* independent thin&. )or i% it is neither a spatial !a&nit"de nor a pl"rality* b"t in%inity itsel% is its s"bstance and not an accident o% it* it $ill be indi(isible' %or the di(isible is either !a&nit"de or pl"rality. B"t i% indi(isible* it is not in%inite* e-cept as the (oice is in(isible' b"t people do not !ean this* nor are $e e-a!inin& this sort o% in%inite* b"t the in%inite as "ntra(ersable. )"rther* ho$ can an in%inite e-ist by itsel%* "nless n"!ber and !a&nit"de also e-ist by the!sel(ess-since in%inity is an attrib"te o% these< )"rther* i% the in%inite is an accident o% so!ethin& else* it cannot be 7"a in%inite an ele!ent in thin&s* as the in(isible is not an ele!ent in speech* tho"&h the (oice is in(isible. And e(idently the in%inite cannot e-ist act"ally. )or then any part o% it that !i&ht be ta#en $o"ld be in%inite +%or /to be in%inite/ and /the in%inite/ are the sa!e* i% the in%inite is s"bstance and not predicated o% a s"b0ect,. There%ore it is either indi(isible*

or i% it is partible* it is di(isible into in%inites' b"t the sa!e thin& cannot be !any in%inites +as a part o% air is air* so a part o% the in%inite $o"ld be in%inite* i% the in%inite is s"bstance and a principle,. There%ore it !"st be i!partible and indi(isible. B"t the act"ally in%inite cannot be indi(isible' %or it !"st be o% a certain 7"antity. There%ore in%inity belon&s to its s"b0ect incidentally. B"t i% so* then +as $e ha(e said, it cannot be it that is a principle* b"t that o% $hich it is an accident-the air or the e(en n"!ber. "This in7"iry is "ni(ersal' b"t that the in%inite is not a!on& sensible thin&s* is e(ident %ro! the %ollo$in& ar&"!ent. I% the de%inition o% a body is /that $hich is bo"nded by planes/* there cannot be an in%inite body either sensible or intelli&ible' nor a separate and in%inite n"!ber* %or n"!ber or that $hich has a n"!ber is n"!erable. 1oncretely* the tr"th is e(ident %ro! the %ollo$in& ar&"!ent. The in%inite can neither be co!posite nor si!ple. )or +a, it cannot be a co!posite body* since the ele!ents are li!ited in !"ltit"de. )or the contraries !"st be e7"al and no one o% the! !"st be in%inite' %or i% one o% the t$o bodies %alls at all short o% the other in potency* the %inite $ill be destroyed by the in%inite. And that each sho"ld be in%inite is i!possible. )or body is that $hich has e-tension in all directions* and the in%inite is the bo"ndlessly e-tended* so that i% the in%inite is a body it $ill be in%inite in e(ery direction. .or +b, can the in%inite body be one and si!ple-neither* as so!e say* so!ethin& apart %ro! the ele!ents* %ro! $hich they &enerate these +%or there is no s"ch body apart %ro! the ele!ents' %or e(erythin& can be resol(ed into that o% $hich it consists* b"t no s"ch prod"ct o% analysis is obser(ed e-cept the si!ple bodies,* nor %ire nor any other o% the ele!ents. )or apart %ro! the 7"estion ho$ any o% the! co"ld be in%inite* the All* e(en i% it is %inite* cannot either be or beco!e any one o% the!* as 4eraclit"s says all thin&s so!eti!e beco!e %ire. The sa!e ar&"!ent applies to this as to the One $hich the nat"ral philosophers posit besides the ele!ents. )or e(erythin& chan&es %ro! contrary to contrary* e.&. %ro! hot to cold. ")"rther* a sensible body is so!e$here* and $hole and part ha(e the sa!e proper place* e.&. the $hole earth and part o% the earth. There%ore i% +a, the in%inite body is ho!o&eneo"s* it $ill be "n!o(able or it $ill be al$ays !o(in&. B"t this is i!possible' %or $hy sho"ld it rather rest* or !o(e* do$n* "p* or any$here* rather than any$here else< 5.&. i% there $ere a clod $hich $ere part o% an in%inite body* $here $ill this !o(e or rest< The proper place o% the body $hich is ho!o&eneo"s $ith it is in%inite. Will the clod occ"py the $hole place* then< And ho$< +This is i!possible., What then is its rest or its !o(e!ent< It $ill either rest e(ery$here* and then it cannot !o(e' or it $ill !o(e e(ery$here* and then it cannot be still. B"t +b, i% the All has "nli#e parts* the proper places o% the parts are "nli#e also* and* %irstly* the body o% the All is not one e-cept by contact* and* secondly* the parts $ill be either %inite or in%inite in (ariety o% #ind. )inite they cannot be' %or then those o% one #ind $ill be in%inite in 7"antity and those o% another $ill not +i% the All is in%inite,* e.&. %ire or $ater $o"ld be in%inite* b"t s"ch an in%inite ele!ent $o"ld be destr"ction to the contrary ele!ents. B"t i% the parts are in%inite and si!ple* their places also are in%inite and there $ill be an in%inite n"!ber o% ele!ents' and i% this is i!possible* and the places are %inite* the All also !"st be li!ited.

"In &eneral* there cannot be an in%inite body and also a proper place %or bodies* i% e(ery sensible body has either $ei&ht or li&htness. )or it !"st !o(e either to$ards the !iddle or "p$ards* and the in%inite either the $hole or the hal% o% it-cannot do either' %or ho$ $ill yo" di(ide it< Or ho$ $ill part o% the in%inite be do$n and part "p* or part e-tre!e and part !iddle< )"rther* e(ery sensible body is in a place* and there are si- #inds o% place* b"t these cannot e-ist in an in%inite body. In &eneral* i% there cannot be an in%inite place* there cannot be an in%inite body' +and there cannot be an in%inite place*, %or that $hich is in a place is so!e$here* and this !eans either "p or do$n or in one o% the other directions* and each o% these is a li!it. "The in%inite is not the sa!e in the sense that it is a sin&le thin& $hether e-hibited in distance or in !o(e!ent or in ti!e* b"t the posterior a!on& these is called in%inite in (irt"e o% its relation to the prior' i.e. a !o(e!ent is called in%inite in (irt"e o% the distance co(ered by the spatial !o(e!ent or alteration or &ro$th* and a ti!e is called in%inite beca"se o% the !o(e!ent $hich occ"pies it. Part 11 " "O% thin&s $hich chan&e* so!e chan&e in an accidental sense* li#e that in $hich /the !"sical/ !ay be said to $al#* and others are said* $itho"t 7"ali%ication* to chan&e* beca"se so!ethin& in the! chan&es* i.e. the thin&s that chan&e in parts' the body beco!es healthy* beca"se the eye does. B"t there is so!ethin& $hich is by its o$n nat"re !o(ed directly* and this is the essentially !o(able. The sa!e distinction is %o"nd in the case o% the !o(er' %or it ca"ses !o(e!ent either in an accidental sense or in respect o% a part o% itsel% or essentially. There is so!ethin& that directly ca"ses !o(e!ent' and there is so!ethin& that is !o(ed* also the ti!e in $hich it is !o(ed* and that %ro! $hich and that into $hich it is !o(ed. B"t the %or!s and the a%%ections and the place* $hich are the ter!inals o% the !o(e!ent o% !o(in& thin&s* are "n!o(able* e.&. #no$led&e or heat' it is not heat that is a !o(e!ent* b"t heatin&. 1han&e $hich is not accidental is %o"nd not in all thin&s* b"t bet$een contraries* and their inter!ediates* and bet$een contradictories. We !ay con(ince o"rsel(es o% this by ind"ction. "That $hich chan&es chan&es either %ro! positi(e into positi(e* or %ro! ne&ati(e into ne&ati(e* or %ro! positi(e into ne&ati(e* or %ro! ne&ati(e into positi(e. +By positi(e I !ean that $hich is e-pressed by an a%%ir!ati(e ter!., There%ore there !"st be three chan&es' that %ro! ne&ati(e into ne&ati(e is not chan&e* beca"se +since the ter!s are neither contraries nor contradictories, there is no opposition. The chan&e %ro! the ne&ati(e into the positi(e $hich is its contradictory is &eneration-absol"te chan&e absol"te &eneration* and partial chan&e partial &eneration' and the chan&e %ro! positi(e to ne&ati(e is destr"ction-absol"te chan&e absol"te destr"ction* and partial chan&e partial destr"ction. I%* then* /that $hich is not/ has se(eral senses* and !o(e!ent can attach neither to that $hich i!plies p"ttin& to&ether or separatin&*

nor to that $hich i!plies potency and is opposed to that $hich is in the %"ll sense +tr"e* the not-$hite or not-&ood can be !o(ed incidentally* %or the not-$hite !i&ht be a !an' b"t that $hich is not a partic"lar thin& at all can in no $ise be !o(ed,* that $hich is not cannot be !o(ed +and i% this is so* &eneration cannot be !o(e!ent' %or that $hich is not is &enerated' %or e(en i% $e ad!it to the %"ll that its &eneration is accidental* yet it is tr"e to say that /not-bein&/ is predicable o% that $hich is &enerated absol"tely,. 2i!ilarly rest cannot be lon& to that $hich is not. These conse7"ences* then* t"rn o"t to be a$#$ard* and also this* that e(erythin& that is !o(ed is in a place* b"t that $hich is not is not in a place' %or then it $o"ld be so!e$here. .or is destr"ction !o(e!ent' %or the contrary o% !o(e!ent is rest* b"t the contrary o% destr"ction is &eneration. 2ince e(ery !o(e!ent is a chan&e* and the #inds o% chan&e are the three na!ed abo(e* and o% these those in the $ay o% &eneration and destr"ction are not !o(e!ents* and these are the chan&es %ro! a thin& to its contradictory* it %ollo$s that only the chan&e %ro! positi(e into positi(e is !o(e!ent. And the positi(es are either contrary or inter!ediate +%or e(en pri(ation !"st be re&arded as contrary,* and are e-pressed by an a%%ir!ati(e ter!* e.&. /na#ed/ or /toothless/ or /blac#/. Part 16 " "I% the cate&ories are classi%ied as s"bstance* 7"ality* place* actin& or bein& acted on* relation* 7"antity* there !"st be three #inds o% !o(e!ent-o% 7"ality* o% 7"antity* o% place. There is no !o(e!ent in respect o% s"bstance +beca"se there is nothin& contrary to s"bstance,* nor o% relation +%or it is possible that i% one o% t$o thin&s in relation chan&es* the relati(e ter! $hich $as tr"e o% the other thin& ceases to be tr"e* tho"&h this other does not chan&e at all*-so that their !o(e!ent is accidental,* nor o% a&ent and patient* or !o(er and !o(ed* beca"se there is no !o(e!ent o% !o(e!ent nor &eneration o% &eneration* nor* in &eneral* chan&e o% chan&e. )or there !i&ht be !o(e!ent o% !o(e!ent in t$o senses' +1, !o(e!ent !i&ht be the s"b0ect !o(ed* as a !an is !o(ed beca"se he chan&es %ro! pale to dar#*-so that on this sho$in& !o(e!ent* too* !ay be either heated or cooled or chan&e its place or increase. B"t this is i!possible' %or chan&e is not a s"b0ect. Or +6, so!e other s"b0ect !i&ht chan&e %ro! chan&e into so!e other %or! o% e-istence +e.&. a !an %ro! disease into health,. B"t this also is not possible e-cept incidentally. )or e(ery !o(e!ent is chan&e %ro! so!ethin& into so!ethin&. +And so are &eneration and destr"ction' only* these are chan&es into thin&s opposed in certain $ays $hile the other* !o(e!ent* is into thin&s opposed in another $ay., A thin& chan&es* then* at the sa!e ti!e %ro! health into illness* and %ro! this chan&e itsel% into another. 1learly* then* i% it has beco!e ill* it $ill ha(e chan&ed into $hate(er !ay be the other chan&e concerned +tho"&h it !ay be at rest,* and* %"rther* into a deter!inate chan&e each ti!e' and that ne$ chan&e $ill be %ro! so!ethin& de%inite into so!e other de%inite thin&' there%ore it $ill be the opposite chan&e* that o% &ro$in& $ell. We ans$er that this happens only incidentally' e.&. there is a chan&e %ro! the process o% recollection to that o% %or&ettin&* only beca"se that to $hich the process attaches is chan&in&* no$ into a state o% #no$led&e* no$ into one o% i&norance.

")"rther* the process $ill &o on to in%inity* i% there is to be chan&e o% chan&e and co!in& to be o% co!in& to be. What is tr"e o% the later* then* !"st be tr"e o% the earlier' e.&. i% the si!ple co!in& to be $as once co!in& to be* that $hich co!es to be so!ethin& $as also once co!in& to be' there%ore that $hich si!ply co!es to be so!ethin& $as not yet in e-istence* b"t so!ethin& $hich $as co!in& to be co!in& to be so!ethin& $as already in e-istence. And this $as once co!in& to be* so that at that ti!e it $as not yet co!in& to be so!ethin& else. .o$ since o% an in%inite n"!ber o% ter!s there is not a %irst* the %irst in this series $ill not e-ist* and there%ore no %ollo$in& ter! e-ist. .othin&* then* can either co!e ter! $i to be or !o(e or chan&e. )"rther* that $hich is capable o% a !o(e!ent is also capable o% the contrary !o(e!ent and rest* and that $hich co!es to be also ceases to be. There%ore that $hich is co!in& to be is ceasin& to be $hen it has co!e to be co!in& to be' %or it cannot cease to be as soon as it is co!in& to be co!in& to be* nor a%ter it has co!e to be' %or that $hich is ceasin& to be !"st be. )"rther* there !"st be a !atter "nderlyin& that $hich co!es to be and chan&es. What $ill this be* then*-$hat is it that beco!es !o(e!ent or beco!in&* as body or so"l is that $hich s"%%ers alteration< And' a&ain* $hat is it that they !o(e into< )or it !"st be the !o(e!ent or beco!in& o% so!ethin& %ro! so!ethin& into so!ethin&. 4o$* then* can this condition be %"l%illed< There can be no learnin& o% learnin&* and there%ore no beco!in& o% beco!in&. 2ince there is not !o(e!ent either o% s"bstance or o% relation or o% acti(ity and passi(ity* it re!ains that !o(e!ent is in respect o% 7"ality and 7"antity and place' %or each o% these ad!its o% contrariety. By 7"ality I !ean not that $hich is in the s"bstance +%or e(en the di%%erentia is a 7"ality,* b"t the passi(e 7"ality* in (irt"e o% $hich a thin& is said to be acted on or to be incapable o% bein& acted on. The i!!obile is either that $hich is $holly incapable o% bein& !o(ed* or that $hich is !o(ed $ith di%%ic"lty in a lon& ti!e or be&ins slo$ly* or that $hich is o% a nat"re to be !o(ed and can be !o(ed b"t is not !o(ed $hen and $here and as it $o"ld nat"rally be !o(ed. This alone a!on& i!!obiles I describe as bein& at rest' %or rest is contrary to !o(e!ent* so that it !"st be a pri(ation in that $hich is recepti(e o% !o(e!ent. "Thin&s $hich are in one pro-i!ate place are to&ether in place* and thin&s $hich are in di%%erent places are apart> thin&s $hose e-tre!es are to&ether to"ch> that at $hich a chan&in& thin&* i% it chan&es contin"o"sly accordin& to its nat"re* nat"rally arri(es be%ore it arri(es at the e-tre!e into $hich it is chan&in&* is bet$een. That $hich is !ost distant in a strai&ht line is contrary in place. That is s"ccessi(e $hich is a%ter the be&innin& +the order bein& deter!ined by position or %or! or in so!e other $ay, and has nothin& o% the sa!e class bet$een it and that $hich it s"cceeds* e.&. lines in the case o% a line* "nits in that o% a "nit* or a ho"se in that o% a ho"se. +There is nothin& to pre(ent a thin& o% so!e other class %ro! bein& bet$een., )or the s"ccessi(e s"cceeds so!ethin& and is so!ethin& later' /one/ does not s"cceed /t$o/* nor the %irst day o% the !onth the second. That $hich* bein& s"ccessi(e* to"ches* is conti&"o"s. +2ince all chan&e is bet$een opposites* and these are either contraries or contradictories* and there is no !iddle ter! %or contradictories* clearly that $hich

is bet$een is bet$een contraries., The contin"o"s is a species o% the conti&"o"s. I call t$o thin&s contin"o"s $hen the li!its o% each* $ith $hich they to"ch and by $hich they are #ept to&ether* beco!e one and the sa!e* so that plainly the contin"o"s is %o"nd in the thin&s o"t o% $hich a "nity nat"rally arises in (irt"e o% their contact. And plainly the s"ccessi(e is the %irst o% these concepts +%or the s"ccessi(e does not necessarily to"ch* b"t that $hich to"ches is s"ccessi(e' and i% a thin& is contin"o"s* it to"ches* b"t i% it to"ches* it is not necessarily contin"o"s' and in thin&s in $hich there is no to"chin&* there is no or&anic "nity,' there%ore a point is not the sa!e as a "nit' %or contact belon&s to points* b"t not to "nits* $hich ha(e only s"ccession' and there is so!ethin& bet$een t$o o% the %or!er* b"t not bet$een t$o o% the latter. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK AII Part 1 " "The s"b0ect o% o"r in7"iry is s"bstance' %or the principles and the ca"ses $e are see#in& are those o% s"bstances. )or i% the "ni(erse is o% the nat"re o% a $hole* s"bstance is its %irst part' and i% it coheres !erely by (irt"e o% serial s"ccession* on this (ie$ also s"bstance is %irst* and is s"cceeded by 7"ality* and then by 7"antity. At the sa!e ti!e these latter are not e(en bein& in the %"ll sense* b"t are 7"alities and !o(e!ents o% it*-or else e(en the not-$hite and the not-strai&ht $o"ld be bein&' at least $e say e(en these are* e.&. /there is a not-$hite/. )"rther* none o% the cate&ories other than s"bstance can e-ist apart. And the early philosophers also in practice testi%y to the pri!acy o% s"bstance' %or it $as o% s"bstance that they so"&ht the principles and ele!ents and ca"ses. The thin#ers o% the present day tend to ran# "ni(ersals as s"bstances +%or &enera are "ni(ersals* and these they tend to describe as principles and s"bstances* o$in& to the abstract nat"re o% their in7"iry,' b"t the thin#ers o% old ran#ed partic"lar thin&s as s"bstances* e.&. %ire and earth* not $hat is co!!on to both* body. "There are three #inds o% s"bstance-one that is sensible +o% $hich one s"bdi(ision is eternal and another is perishable' the latter is reco&ni3ed by all !en* and incl"des e.&. plants and ani!als,* o% $hich $e !"st &rasp the ele!ents* $hether one or !any' and another that is i!!o(able* and this certain thin#ers assert to be capable o% e-istin& apart* so!e di(idin& it into t$o* others identi%yin& the )or!s and the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* and others positin&* o% these t$o* only the ob0ects o% !athe!atics. The %or!er t$o #inds o% s"bstance are the s"b0ect o% physics +%or they i!ply !o(e!ent,' b"t the third #ind belon&s to another science* i% there is no principle co!!on to it and to the other #inds. Part 6 " "2ensible s"bstance is chan&eable. .o$ i% chan&e proceeds %ro! opposites

or %ro! inter!ediates* and not %ro! all opposites +%or the (oice is not-$hite* +b"t it does not there%ore chan&e to $hite,,* b"t %ro! the contrary* there !"st be so!ethin& "nderlyin& $hich chan&es into the contrary state' %or the contraries do not chan&e. )"rther* so!ethin& persists* b"t the contrary does not persist' there is* then* so!e third thin& besides the contraries* (i3. the !atter. .o$ since chan&es are o% %o"r #inds-either in respect o% the /$hat/ or o% the 7"ality or o% the 7"antity or o% the place* and chan&e in respect o% /thisness/ is si!ple &eneration and destr"ction* and chan&e in 7"antity is increase and di!in"tion* and chan&e in respect o% an a%%ection is alteration* and chan&e o% place is !otion* chan&es $ill be %ro! &i(en states into those contrary to the! in these se(eral respects. The !atter* then* $hich chan&es !"st be capable o% both states. And since that $hich /is/ has t$o senses* $e !"st say that e(erythin& chan&es %ro! that $hich is potentially to that $hich is act"ally* e.&. %ro! potentially $hite to act"ally $hite* and si!ilarly in the case o% increase and di!in"tion. There%ore not only can a thin& co!e to be* incidentally* o"t o% that $hich is not* b"t also all thin&s co!e to be o"t o% that $hich is* b"t is potentially* and is not act"ally. And this is the /One/ o% Ana-a&oras' %or instead o% /all thin&s $ere to&ether/-and the /Mi-t"re/ o% 5!pedocles and Ana-i!ander and the acco"nt &i(en by De!ocrit"s-it is better to say /all thin&s $ere to&ether potentially b"t not act"ally/. There%ore these thin#ers see! to ha(e had so!e notion o% !atter. .o$ all thin&s that chan&e ha(e !atter* b"t di%%erent !atter' and o% eternal thin&s those $hich are not &enerable b"t are !o(able in space ha(e !atter-not !atter %or &eneration* ho$e(er* b"t %or !otion %ro! one place to another. "One !i&ht raise the 7"estion %ro! $hat sort o% non-bein& &eneration proceeds' %or /non-bein&/ has three senses. I%* then* one %or! o% non-bein& e-ists potentially* still it is not by (irt"e o% a potentiality %or any and e(ery thin&* b"t di%%erent thin&s co!e %ro! di%%erent thin&s' nor is it satis%actory to say that /all thin&s $ere to&ether/' %or they di%%er in their !atter* since other$ise $hy did an in%inity o% thin&s co!e to be* and not one thin&< )or /reason/ is one* so that i% !atter also $ere one* that !"st ha(e co!e to be in act"ality $hich the !atter $as in potency. The ca"ses and the principles* then* are three* t$o bein& the pair o% contraries o% $hich one is de%inition and %or! and the other is pri(ation* and the third bein& the !atter. Part ; " ".ote* ne-t* that neither the !atter nor the %or! co!es to be-and I !ean the last !atter and %or!. )or e(erythin& that chan&es is so!ethin& and is chan&ed by so!ethin& and into so!ethin&. That by $hich it is chan&ed is the i!!ediate !o(er' that $hich is chan&ed* the !atter' that into $hich it is chan&ed* the %or!. The process* then* $ill &o on to in%inity* i% not only the bron3e co!es to be ro"nd b"t also the ro"nd or the bron3e co!es to be' there%ore there !"st be a stop. ".ote* ne-t* that each s"bstance co!es into bein& o"t o% so!ethin& that shares its na!e."ral ob0ects and other thin&s both ran# as s"bstances., )or thin&s co!e into bein& either by art or by nat"re or by l"c# or by spontaneity. .o$ art is a principle o% !o(e!ent in so!ethin& other than the thin& !o(ed* nat"re is a principle in the

thin& itsel% +%or !an be&ets !an,* and the other ca"ses are pri(ations o% these t$o. "There are three #inds o% s"bstance-the !atter* $hich is a /this/ in appearance +%or all thin&s that are characteri3ed by contact and not* by or&anic "nity are !atter and s"bstrat"!* e.&. %ire* %lesh* head' %or these are all !atter* and the last !atter is the !atter o% that $hich is in the %"ll sense s"bstance,' the nat"re* $hich is a /this/ or positi(e state to$ards $hich !o(e!ent ta#es place' and a&ain* thirdly* the partic"lar s"bstance $hich is co!posed o% these t$o* e.&. 2ocrates or 1allias. .o$ in so!e cases the /this/ does not e-ist apart %ro! the co!posite s"bstance* e.&. the %or! o% ho"se does not so e-ist* "nless the art o% b"ildin& e-ists apart +nor is there &eneration and destr"ction o% these %or!s* b"t it is in another $ay that the ho"se apart %ro! its !atter* and health* and all ideals o% art* e-ist and do not e-ist,' b"t i% the /this/ e-ists apart %ro! the concrete thin&* it is only in the case o% nat"ral ob0ects. And so Plato $as not %ar $ron& $hen he said that there are as !any )or!s as there are #inds o% nat"ral ob0ect +i% there are )or!s distinct %ro! the thin&s o% this earth,. The !o(in& ca"ses e-ist as thin&s precedin& the e%%ects* b"t ca"ses in the sense o% de%initions are si!"ltaneo"s $ith their e%%ects. )or $hen a !an is healthy* then health also e-ists' and the shape o% a bron3e sphere e-ists at the sa!e ti!e as the bron3e sphere. +B"t $e !"st e-a!ine $hether any %or! also s"r(i(es a%ter$ards. )or in so!e cases there is nothin& to pre(ent this' e.&. the so"l !ay be o% this sort-not all so"l b"t the reason' %or pres"!ably it is i!possible that all so"l sho"ld s"r(i(e., 5(idently then there is no necessity* on this &ro"nd at least* %or the e-istence o% the Ideas. )or !an is be&otten by !an* a &i(en !an by an indi(id"al %ather' and si!ilarly in the arts' %or the !edical art is the %or!al ca"se o% health. Part = " "The ca"ses and the principles o% di%%erent thin&s are in a sense di%%erent* b"t in a sense* i% one spea#s "ni(ersally and analo&ically* they are the sa!e %or all. )or one !i&ht raise the 7"estion $hether the principles and ele!ents are di%%erent or the sa!e %or s"bstances and %or relati(e ter!s* and si!ilarly in the case o% each o% the cate&ories. B"t it $o"ld be parado-ical i% they $ere the sa!e %or all. )or then %ro! the sa!e ele!ents $ill proceed relati(e ter!s and s"bstances. What then $ill this co!!on ele!ent be< )or +1* a, there is nothin& co!!on to and distinct %ro! s"bstance and the other cate&ories* (i3. those $hich are predicated' b"t an ele!ent is prior to the thin&s o% $hich it is an ele!ent. B"t a&ain +b, s"bstance is not an ele!ent in relati(e ter!s* nor is any o% these an ele!ent in s"bstance. )"rther* +6, ho$ can all thin&s ha(e the sa!e ele!ents< )or none o% the ele!ents can be the sa!e as that $hich is co!posed o% ele!ents* e.&. b or a cannot be the sa!e as ba.* there%ore* o% the intelli&ibles* e.&. bein& or "nity* is an ele!ent' %or these are predicable o% each o% the co!po"nds as $ell., .one o% the ele!ents* then* $ill be either a s"bstance or a relati(e ter!' b"t it !"st be one or other. All thin&s* then* ha(e not the sa!e ele!ents. "Or* as $e are $ont to p"t it* in a sense they ha(e and in a sense

they ha(e not' e.&. perhaps the ele!ents o% perceptible bodies are* as %or!* the hot* and in another sense the cold* $hich is the pri(ation' and* as !atter* that $hich directly and o% itsel% potentially has these attrib"tes' and s"bstances co!prise both these and the thin&s co!posed o% these* o% $hich these are the principles* or any "nity $hich is prod"ced o"t o% the hot and the cold* e.&. %lesh or bone' %or the prod"ct !"st be di%%erent %ro! the ele!ents. These thin&s then ha(e the sa!e ele!ents and principles +tho"&h speci%ically di%%erent thin&s ha(e speci%ically di%%erent ele!ents,' b"t all thin&s ha(e not the sa!e ele!ents in this sense* b"t only analo&ically' i.e. one !i&ht say that there are three principles-the %or!* the pri(ation* and the !atter. B"t each o% these is di%%erent %or each class' e.&. in colo"r they are $hite* blac#* and s"r%ace* and in day and ni&ht they are li&ht* dar#ness* and air. "2ince not only the ele!ents present in a thin& are ca"ses* b"t also so!ethin& e-ternal* i.e. the !o(in& ca"se* clearly $hile /principle/ and /ele!ent/ are di%%erent both are ca"ses* and /principle/ is di(ided into these t$o #inds' and that $hich acts as prod"cin& !o(e!ent or rest is a principle and a s"bstance. There%ore analo&ically there are three ele!ents* and %o"r ca"ses and principles' b"t the ele!ents are di%%erent in di%%erent thin&s* and the pro-i!ate !o(in& ca"se is di%%erent %or di%%erent thin&s. 4ealth* disease* body' the !o(in& ca"se is the !edical art. )or!* disorder o% a partic"lar #ind* bric#s' the !o(in& ca"se is the b"ildin& art. And since the !o(in& ca"se in the case o% nat"ral thin&s is-%or !an* %or instance* !an* and in the prod"cts o% tho"&ht the %or! or its contrary* there $ill be in a sense three ca"ses* $hile in a sense there are %o"r. )or the !edical art is in so!e sense health* and the b"ildin& art is the %or! o% the ho"se* and !an be&ets !an' %"rther* besides these there is that $hich as %irst o% all thin&s !o(es all thin&s. Part ? " "2o!e thin&s can e-ist apart and so!e cannot* and it is the %or!er that are s"bstances. And there%ore all thin&s ha(e the sa!e ca"ses* beca"se* $itho"t s"bstances* !odi%ications and !o(e!ents do not e-ist. )"rther* these ca"ses $ill probably be so"l and body* or reason and desire and body. "And in yet another $ay* analo&ically identical thin&s are principles* i.e. act"ality and potency' b"t these also are not only di%%erent %or di%%erent thin&s b"t also apply in di%%erent $ays to the!. )or in so!e cases the sa!e thin& e-ists at one ti!e act"ally and at another potentially* e.&. $ine or %lesh or !an does so. +And these too %all "nder the abo(e-na!ed ca"ses. )or the %or! e-ists act"ally* i% it can e-ist apart* and so does the co!ple- o% %or! and !atter* and the pri(ation* e.&. dar#ness or disease' b"t the !atter e-ists potentially' %or this is that $hich can beco!e 7"ali%ied either by the %or! or by the pri(ation., B"t the distinction o% act"ality and potentiality applies in another $ay to cases $here the !atter o% ca"se and o% e%%ect is not the sa!e* in so!e o% $hich cases the %or! is not the sa!e b"t di%%erent' e.&. the ca"se o% !an is +1, the ele!ents in !an +(i3. %ire and earth as !atter* and the pec"liar %or!,* and %"rther +6, so!ethin& else o"tside* i.e. the %ather* and +;, besides these the s"n and its obli7"e co"rse* $hich are neither !atter nor %or! nor

pri(ation o% !an nor o% the sa!e species $ith hi!* b"t !o(in& ca"ses. ")"rther* one !"st obser(e that so!e ca"ses can be e-pressed in "ni(ersal ter!s* and so!e cannot. The pro-i!ate principles o% all thin&s are the /this/ $hich is pro-i!ate in act"ality* and another $hich is pro-i!ate in potentiality. The "ni(ersal ca"ses* then* o% $hich $e spo#e do not e-ist. )or it is the indi(id"al that is the ori&inati(e principle o% the indi(id"als. )or $hile !an is the ori&inati(e principle o% !an "ni(ersally* there is no "ni(ersal !an* b"t Pele"s is the ori&inati(e principle o% Achilles* and yo"r %ather o% yo"* and this partic"lar b o% this partic"lar ba* tho"&h b in &eneral is the ori&inati(e principle o% ba ta#en $itho"t 7"ali%ication. ")"rther* i% the ca"ses o% s"bstances are the ca"ses o% all thin&s* yet di%%erent thin&s ha(e di%%erent ca"ses and ele!ents* as $as said' the ca"ses o% thin&s that are not in the sa!e class* e.&. o% colo"rs and so"nds* o% s"bstances and 7"antities* are di%%erent e-cept in an analo&ical sense' and those o% thin&s in the sa!e species are di%%erent* not in species* b"t in the sense that the ca"ses o% di%%erent indi(id"als are di%%erent* yo"r !atter and %or! and !o(in& ca"se bein& di%%erent %ro! !ine* $hile in their "ni(ersal de%inition they are the sa!e. And i% $e in7"ire $hat are the principles or ele!ents o% s"bstances and relations and 7"alities-$hether they are the sa!e or di%%erentclearly $hen the na!es o% the ca"ses are "sed in se(eral senses the ca"ses o% each are the sa!e* b"t $hen the senses are distin&"ished the ca"ses are not the sa!e b"t di%%erent* e-cept that in the %ollo$in& senses the ca"ses o% all are the sa!e. They are +1, the sa!e or analo&o"s in this sense* that !atter* %or!* pri(ation* and the !o(in& ca"se are co!!on to all thin&s' and +6, the ca"ses o% s"bstances !ay be treated as ca"ses o% all thin&s in this sense* that $hen s"bstances are re!o(ed all thin&s are re!o(ed' %"rther* +;, that $hich is %irst in respect o% co!plete reality is the ca"se o% all thin&s. B"t in another sense there are di%%erent %irst ca"ses* (i3. all the contraries $hich are neither &eneric nor a!bi&"o"s ter!s' and* %"rther* the !atters o% di%%erent thin&s are di%%erent. We ha(e stated* then* $hat are the principles o% sensible thin&s and ho$ !any they are* and in $hat sense they are the sa!e and in $hat sense di%%erent. Part B " "2ince there $ere three #inds o% s"bstance* t$o o% the! physical and one "n!o(able* re&ardin& the latter $e !"st assert that it is necessary that there sho"ld be an eternal "n!o(able s"bstance. )or s"bstances are the %irst o% e-istin& thin&s* and i% they are all destr"ctible* all thin&s are destr"ctible. B"t it is i!possible that !o(e!ent sho"ld either ha(e co!e into bein& or cease to be +%or it !"st al$ays ha(e e-isted,* or that ti!e sho"ld. )or there co"ld not be a be%ore and an a%ter i% ti!e did not e-ist. Mo(e!ent also is contin"o"s* then* in the sense in $hich ti!e is' %or ti!e is either the sa!e thin& as

!o(e!ent or an attrib"te o% !o(e!ent. And there is no contin"o"s !o(e!ent e-cept !o(e!ent in place* and o% this only that $hich is circ"lar is contin"o"s. "B"t i% there is so!ethin& $hich is capable o% !o(in& thin&s or actin& on the!* b"t is not act"ally doin& so* there $ill not necessarily be !o(e!ent' %or that $hich has a potency need not e-ercise it. .othin&* then* is &ained e(en i% $e s"ppose eternal s"bstances* as the belie(ers in the )or!s do* "nless there is to be in the! so!e principle $hich can ca"se chan&e' nay* e(en this is not eno"&h* nor is another s"bstance besides the )or!s eno"&h' %or i% it is not to act* there $ill be no !o(e!ent. )"rther e(en i% it acts* this $ill not be eno"&h* i% its essence is potency' %or there $ill not be eternal !o(e!ent* since that $hich is potentially !ay possibly not be. There !"st* then* be s"ch a principle* $hose (ery essence is act"ality. )"rther* then* these s"bstances !"st be $itho"t !atter' %or they !"st be eternal* i% anythin& is eternal. There%ore they !"st be act"ality. ":et there is a di%%ic"lty' %or it is tho"&ht that e(erythin& that acts is able to act* b"t that not e(erythin& that is able to act acts* so that the potency is prior. B"t i% this is so* nothin& that is need be' %or it is possible %or all thin&s to be capable o% e-istin& b"t not yet to e-ist. ":et i% $e %ollo$ the theolo&ians $ho &enerate the $orld %ro! ni&ht* or the nat"ral philosophers $ho say that /all thin&s $ere to&ether/* the sa!e i!possible res"lt ens"es. )or ho$ $ill there be !o(e!ent* i% there is no act"ally e-istin& ca"se< Wood $ill s"rely not !o(e itsel%-the carpenter/s art !"st act on it' nor $ill the !enstr"al blood nor the earth set the!sel(es in !otion* b"t the seeds !"st act on the earth and the se!en on the !enstr"al blood. "This is $hy so!e s"ppose eternal act"ality-e.&. e"cipp"s and Plato' %or they say there is al$ays !o(e!ent. B"t $hy and $hat this !o(e!ent is they do say* nor* i% the $orld !o(es in this $ay or that* do they tell "s the ca"se o% its doin& so. .o$ nothin& is !o(ed at rando!* b"t there !"st al$ays be so!ethin& present to !o(e it' e.&. as a !atter o% %act a thin& !o(es in one $ay by nat"re* and in another by %orce or thro"&h the in%l"ence o% reason or so!ethin& else. +)"rther* $hat sort o% !o(e!ent is pri!ary< This !a#es a (ast di%%erence., B"t a&ain %or Plato* at least* it is not per!issible to na!e here that $hich he so!eti!es s"pposes to be the so"rce o% !o(e!ent-that $hich !o(es itsel%' %or the so"l is later* and coe(al $ith the hea(ens* accordin& to his acco"nt. To s"ppose potency prior to act"ality* then* is in a sense ri&ht* and in a sense not' and $e ha(e speci%ied these senses. That act"ality is prior is testi%ied by Ana-a&oras +%or his /reason/ is act"ality, and by 5!pedocles in his doctrine o% lo(e and stri%e* and by those $ho say that there is al$ays !o(e!ent* e.&. e"cipp"s. There%ore chaos or ni&ht did not e-ist %or an in%inite ti!e* b"t the sa!e thin&s ha(e al$ays e-isted +either passin& thro"&h a cycle o% chan&es or obeyin& so!e other la$,* since act"ality is prior to potency. I%* then* there is a constant cycle* so!ethin& !"st al$ays re!ain* actin& in the sa!e $ay. And i% there is to be &eneration and destr"ction* there !"st be so!ethin& else $hich is al$ays actin& in di%%erent $ays. This !"st* then* act in one $ay in (irt"e o% itsel%* and in another

in (irt"e o% so!ethin& else-either o% a third a&ent* there%ore* or o% the %irst. .o$ it !"st be in (irt"e o% the %irst. )or other$ise this a&ain ca"ses the !otion both o% the second a&ent and o% the third. There%ore it is better to say /the %irst/. )or it $as the ca"se o% eternal "ni%or!ity' and so!ethin& else is the ca"se o% (ariety* and e(idently both to&ether are the ca"se o% eternal (ariety. This* accordin&ly* is the character $hich the !otions act"ally e-hibit. What need then is there to see# %or other principles< Part C " "2ince +1, this is a possible acco"nt o% the !atter* and +6, i% it $ere not tr"e* the $orld $o"ld ha(e proceeded o"t o% ni&ht and /all thin&s to&ether/ and o"t o% non-bein&* these di%%ic"lties !ay be ta#en as sol(ed. There is* then* so!ethin& $hich is al$ays !o(ed $ith an "nceasin& !otion* $hich is !otion in a circle' and this is plain not in theory only b"t in %act. There%ore the %irst hea(en !"st be eternal. There is there%ore also so!ethin& $hich !o(es it. And since that $hich !o(es and is !o(ed is inter!ediate* there is so!ethin& $hich !o(es $itho"t bein& !o(ed* bein& eternal* s"bstance* and act"ality. And the ob0ect o% desire and the ob0ect o% tho"&ht !o(e in this $ay' they !o(e $itho"t bein& !o(ed. The pri!ary ob0ects o% desire and o% tho"&ht are the sa!e. )or the apparent &ood is the ob0ect o% appetite* and the real &ood is the pri!ary ob0ect o% rational $ish. B"t desire is conse7"ent on opinion rather than opinion on desire' %or the thin#in& is the startin&-point. And tho"&ht is !o(ed by the ob0ect o% tho"&ht* and one o% the t$o col"!ns o% opposites is in itsel% the ob0ect o% tho"&ht' and in this* s"bstance is %irst* and in s"bstance* that $hich is si!ple and e-ists act"ally. +The one and the si!ple are not the sa!e' %or /one/ !eans a !eas"re* b"t /si!ple/ !eans that the thin& itsel% has a certain nat"re., B"t the bea"ti%"l* also* and that $hich is in itsel% desirable are in the sa!e col"!n' and the %irst in any class is al$ays best* or analo&o"s to the best. "That a %inal ca"se !ay e-ist a!on& "nchan&eable entities is sho$n by the distinction o% its !eanin&s. )or the %inal ca"se is +a, so!e bein& %or $hose &ood an action is done* and +b, so!ethin& at $hich the action ai!s' and o% these the latter e-ists a!on& "nchan&eable entities tho"&h the %or!er does not. The %inal ca"se* then* prod"ces !otion as bein& lo(ed* b"t all other thin&s !o(e by bein& !o(ed. .o$ i% so!ethin& is !o(ed it is capable o% bein& other$ise than as it is. There%ore i% its act"ality is the pri!ary %or! o% spatial !otion* then in so %ar as it is s"b0ect to chan&e* in this respect it is capable o% bein& other$ise*-in place* e(en i% not in s"bstance. B"t since there is so!ethin& $hich !o(es $hile itsel% "n!o(ed* e-istin& act"ally* this can in no $ay be other$ise than as it is. )or !otion in space is the %irst o% the #inds o% chan&e* and !otion in a circle the %irst #ind o% spatial !otion' and this the %irst !o(er prod"ces. The %irst !o(er* then* e-ists o% necessity' and in so %ar as it e-ists by necessity* its !ode o% bein& is &ood* and it is in this sense a %irst principle. )or the necessary has all these senses-that $hich is necessary per%orce beca"se it is contrary to the nat"ral i!p"lse* that $itho"t $hich the &ood is i!possible* and that $hich cannot be other$ise b"t can e-ist only in a sin&le $ay.

"On s"ch a principle* then* depend the hea(ens and the $orld o% nat"re. And it is a li%e s"ch as the best $hich $e en0oy* and en0oy %or b"t a short ti!e +%or it is e(er in this state* $hich $e cannot be,* since its act"ality is also pleas"re. +And %or this reason are $a#in&* perception* and thin#in& !ost pleasant* and hopes and !e!ories are so on acco"nt o% these., And thin#in& in itsel% deals $ith that $hich is best in itsel%* and that $hich is thin#in& in the %"llest sense $ith that $hich is best in the %"llest sense. And tho"&ht thin#s on itsel% beca"se it shares the nat"re o% the ob0ect o% tho"&ht' %or it beco!es an ob0ect o% tho"&ht in co!in& into contact $ith and thin#in& its ob0ects* so that tho"&ht and ob0ect o% tho"&ht are the sa!e. )or that $hich is capable o% recei(in& the ob0ect o% tho"&ht* i.e. the essence* is tho"&ht. B"t it is acti(e $hen it possesses this ob0ect. There%ore the possession rather than the recepti(ity is the di(ine ele!ent $hich tho"&ht see!s to contain* and the act o% conte!plation is $hat is !ost pleasant and best. I%* then* 9od is al$ays in that &ood state in $hich $e so!eti!es are* this co!pels o"r $onder' and i% in a better this co!pels it yet !ore. And 9od is in a better state. And li%e also belon&s to 9od' %or the act"ality o% tho"&ht is li%e* and 9od is that act"ality' and 9od/s sel%-dependent act"ality is li%e !ost &ood and eternal. We say there%ore that 9od is a li(in& bein&* eternal* !ost &ood* so that li%e and d"ration contin"o"s and eternal belon& to 9od' %or this is 9od. "Those $ho s"ppose* as the Pytha&oreans and 2pe"sipp"s do* that s"pre!e bea"ty and &oodness are not present in the be&innin&* beca"se the be&innin&s both o% plants and o% ani!als are ca"ses* b"t bea"ty and co!pleteness are in the e%%ects o% these* are $ron& in their opinion. )or the seed co!es %ro! other indi(id"als $hich are prior and co!plete* and the %irst thin& is not seed b"t the co!plete bein&' e.&. $e !"st say that be%ore the seed there is a !an*-not the !an prod"ced %ro! the seed* b"t another %ro! $ho! the seed co!es. "It is clear then %ro! $hat has been said that there is a s"bstance $hich is eternal and "n!o(able and separate %ro! sensible thin&s. It has been sho$n also that this s"bstance cannot ha(e any !a&nit"de* b"t is $itho"t parts and indi(isible +%or it prod"ces !o(e!ent thro"&h in%inite ti!e* b"t nothin& %inite has in%inite po$er' and* $hile e(ery !a&nit"de is either in%inite or %inite* it cannot* %or the abo(e reason* ha(e %inite !a&nit"de* and it cannot ha(e in%inite !a&nit"de beca"se there is no in%inite !a&nit"de at all,. B"t it has also been sho$n that it is i!passi(e and "nalterable' %or all the other chan&es are posterior to chan&e o% place. Part D " "It is clear* then* $hy these thin&s are as they are. B"t $e !"st not i&nore the 7"estion $hether $e ha(e to s"ppose one s"ch s"bstance or !ore than one* and i% the latter* ho$ !any' $e !"st also !ention* re&ardin& the opinions e-pressed by others* that they ha(e said nothin& abo"t the n"!ber o% the s"bstances that can e(en be clearly stated. )or the theory o% Ideas has no special disc"ssion o% the s"b0ect' %or those $ho spea# o% Ideas say the Ideas are n"!bers* and they spea# o% n"!bers no$ as "nli!ited* no$ as li!ited by the n"!ber 1@' b"t

as %or the reason $hy there sho"ld be 0"st so !any n"!bers* nothin& is said $ith any de!onstrati(e e-actness. We ho$e(er !"st disc"ss the s"b0ect* startin& %ro! the pres"ppositions and distinctions $e ha(e !entioned. The %irst principle or pri!ary bein& is not !o(able either in itsel% or accidentally* b"t prod"ces the pri!ary eternal and sin&le !o(e!ent. B"t since that $hich is !o(ed !"st be !o(ed by so!ethin&* and the %irst !o(er !"st be in itsel% "n!o(able* and eternal !o(e!ent !"st be prod"ced by so!ethin& eternal and a sin&le !o(e!ent by a sin&le thin&* and since $e see that besides the si!ple spatial !o(e!ent o% the "ni(erse* $hich $e say the %irst and "n!o(able s"bstance prod"ces* there are other spatial !o(e!ents-those o% the planets-$hich are eternal +%or a body $hich !o(es in a circle is eternal and "nrestin&' $e ha(e pro(ed these points in the physical treatises,* each o% these !o(e!ents also !"st be ca"sed by a s"bstance both "n!o(able in itsel% and eternal. )or the nat"re o% the stars is eternal 0"st beca"se it is a certain #ind o% s"bstance* and the !o(er is eternal and prior to the !o(ed* and that $hich is prior to a s"bstance !"st be a s"bstance. 5(idently* then* there !"st be s"bstances $hich are o% the sa!e n"!ber as the !o(e!ents o% the stars* and in their nat"re eternal* and in the!sel(es "n!o(able* and $itho"t !a&nit"de* %or the reason be%ore !entioned. That the !o(ers are s"bstances* then* and that one o% these is %irst and another second accordin& to the sa!e order as the !o(e!ents o% the stars* is e(ident. B"t in the n"!ber o% the !o(e!ents $e reach a proble! $hich !"st be treated %ro! the standpoint o% that one o% the !athe!atical sciences $hich is !ost a#in to philosophy-(i3. o% astrono!y' %or this science spec"lates abo"t s"bstance $hich is perceptible b"t eternal* b"t the other !athe!atical sciences* i.e. arith!etic and &eo!etry* treat o% no s"bstance. That the !o(e!ents are !ore n"!ero"s than the bodies that are !o(ed is e(ident to those $ho ha(e &i(en e(en !oderate attention to the !atter' %or each o% the planets has !ore than one !o(e!ent. B"t as to the act"al n"!ber o% these !o(e!ents* $e no$-to &i(e so!e notion o% the s"b0ect-7"ote $hat so!e o% the !athe!aticians say* that o"r tho"&ht !ay ha(e so!e de%inite n"!ber to &rasp' b"t* %or the rest* $e !"st partly in(esti&ate %or o"rsel(es* Partly learn %ro! other in(esti&ators* and i% those $ho st"dy this s"b0ect %or! an opinion contrary to $hat $e ha(e no$ stated* $e !"st estee! both parties indeed* b"t %ollo$ the !ore acc"rate. "5"do-"s s"pposed that the !otion o% the s"n or o% the !oon in(ol(es* in either case* three spheres* o% $hich the %irst is the sphere o% the %i-ed stars* and the second !o(es in the circle $hich r"ns alon& the !iddle o% the 3odiac* and the third in the circle $hich is inclined across the breadth o% the 3odiac' b"t the circle in $hich the !oon !o(es is inclined at a &reater an&le than that in $hich the s"n !o(es. And the !otion o% the planets in(ol(es* in each case* %o"r spheres* and o% these also the %irst and second are the sa!e as the %irst t$o !entioned abo(e +%or the sphere o% the %i-ed stars is that $hich !o(es all the other spheres* and that $hich is placed beneath this and has its !o(e!ent in the circle $hich bisects the 3odiac is co!!on to all,* b"t the poles o% the third sphere o% each planet are in the circle $hich bisects the 3odiac* and the !otion o% the %o"rth sphere is in the circle $hich is inclined at an an&le to the e7"ator o% the third

sphere' and the poles o% the third sphere are di%%erent %or each o% the other planets* b"t those o% Gen"s and Merc"ry are the sa!e. "1allipp"s !ade the position o% the spheres the sa!e as 5"do-"s did* b"t $hile he assi&ned the sa!e n"!ber as 5"do-"s did to 8"piter and to 2at"rn* he tho"&ht t$o !ore spheres sho"ld be added to the s"n and t$o to the !oon* i% one is to e-plain the obser(ed %acts' and one !ore to each o% the other planets. "B"t it is necessary* i% all the spheres co!bined are to e-plain the obser(ed %acts* that %or each o% the planets there sho"ld be other spheres +one %e$er than those hitherto assi&ned, $hich co"nteract those already !entioned and brin& bac# to the sa!e position the o"ter!ost sphere o% the star $hich in each case is sit"ated belo$ the star in 7"estion' %or only th"s can all the %orces at $or# prod"ce the obser(ed !otion o% the planets. 2ince* then* the spheres in(ol(ed in the !o(e!ent o% the planets the!sel(es are--ei&ht %or 2at"rn and 8"piter and t$enty%i(e %or the others* and o% these only those in(ol(ed in the !o(e!ent o% the lo$est-sit"ated planet need not be co"nteracted the spheres $hich co"nteract those o% the o"ter!ost t$o planets $ill be si- in n"!ber* and the spheres $hich co"nteract those o% the ne-t %o"r planets $ill be si-teen' there%ore the n"!ber o% all the spheres--both those $hich !o(e the planets and those $hich co"nteract these--$ill be %i%ty-%i(e. And i% one $ere not to add to the !oon and to the s"n the !o(e!ents $e !entioned* the $hole set o% spheres $ill be %orty-se(en in n"!ber. " et this* then* be ta#en as the n"!ber o% the spheres* so that the "n!o(able s"bstances and principles also !ay probably be ta#en as 0"st so !any' the assertion o% necessity !"st be le%t to !ore po$er%"l thin#ers. B"t i% there can be no spatial !o(e!ent $hich does not cond"ce to the !o(in& o% a star* and i% %"rther e(ery bein& and e(ery s"bstance $hich is i!!"ne %ro! chan&e and in (irt"e o% itsel% has attained to the best !"st be considered an end* there can be no other bein& apart %ro! these $e ha(e na!ed* b"t this !"st be the n"!ber o% the s"bstances. )or i% there are others* they $ill ca"se chan&e as bein& a %inal ca"se o% !o(e!ent' b"t there cannot he other !o(e!ents besides those !entioned. And it is reasonable to in%er this %ro! a consideration o% the bodies that are !o(ed' %or i% e(erythin& that !o(es is %or the sa#e o% that $hich is !o(ed* and e(ery !o(e!ent belon&s to so!ethin& that is !o(ed* no !o(e!ent can be %or the sa#e o% itsel% or o% another !o(e!ent* b"t all the !o(e!ents !"st be %or the sa#e o% the stars. )or i% there is to be a !o(e!ent %or the sa#e o% a !o(e!ent* this latter also $ill ha(e to be %or the sa#e o% so!ethin& else' so that since there cannot be an in%inite re&ress* the end o% e(ery !o(e!ent $ill be one o% the di(ine bodies $hich !o(e thro"&h the hea(en. "+5(idently there is b"t one hea(en. )or i% there are !any hea(ens as there are !any !en* the !o(in& principles* o% $hich each hea(en $ill ha(e one* $ill be one in %or! b"t in n"!ber !any. B"t all thin&s that are !any in n"!ber ha(e !atter' %or one and the sa!e de%inition* e.&. that o% !an* applies to !any thin&s* $hile 2ocrates is one. B"t the pri!ary essence has not !atter' %or it is co!plete reality. 2o the "n!o(able %irst !o(er is one both in de%inition and in n"!ber' so too* there%ore* is that $hich is !o(ed al$ays and contin"o"sly'

there%ore there is one hea(en alone., O"r %ore%athers in the !ost re!ote a&es ha(e handed do$n to their posterity a tradition* in the %or! o% a !yth* that these bodies are &ods* and that the di(ine encloses the $hole o% nat"re. The rest o% the tradition has been added later in !ythical %or! $ith a (ie$ to the pers"asion o% the !"ltit"de and to its le&al and "tilitarian e-pediency' they say these &ods are in the %or! o% !en or li#e so!e o% the other ani!als* and they say other thin&s conse7"ent on and si!ilar to these $hich $e ha(e !entioned. B"t i% one $ere to separate the %irst point %ro! these additions and ta#e it alone-that they tho"&ht the %irst s"bstances to be &ods* one !"st re&ard this as an inspired "tterance* and re%lect that* $hile probably each art and each science has o%ten been de(eloped as %ar as possible and has a&ain perished* these opinions* $ith others* ha(e been preser(ed "ntil the present li#e relics o% the ancient treas"re. Only th"s %ar* then* is the opinion o% o"r ancestors and o% o"r earliest predecessors clear to "s. Part E " "The nat"re o% the di(ine tho"&ht in(ol(es certain proble!s' %or $hile tho"&ht is held to be the !ost di(ine o% thin&s obser(ed by "s* the 7"estion ho$ it !"st be sit"ated in order to ha(e that character in(ol(es di%%ic"lties. )or i% it thin#s o% nothin&* $hat is there here o% di&nity< It is 0"st li#e one $ho sleeps. And i% it thin#s* b"t this depends on so!ethin& else* then +since that $hich is its s"bstance is not the act o% thin#in&* b"t a potency, it cannot be the best s"bstance' %or it is thro"&h thin#in& that its (al"e belon&s to it. )"rther* $hether its s"bstance is the %ac"lty o% tho"&ht or the act o% thin#in&* $hat does it thin# o%< 5ither o% itsel% or o% so!ethin& else' and i% o% so!ethin& else* either o% the sa!e thin& al$ays or o% so!ethin& di%%erent. Does it !atter* then* or not* $hether it thin#s o% the &ood or o% any chance thin&< Are there not so!e thin&s abo"t $hich it is incredible that it sho"ld thin#< 5(idently* then* it thin#s o% that $hich is !ost di(ine and precio"s* and it does not chan&e' %or chan&e $o"ld be chan&e %or the $orse* and this $o"ld be already a !o(e!ent. )irst* then* i% /tho"&ht/ is not the act o% thin#in& b"t a potency* it $o"ld be reasonable to s"ppose that the contin"ity o% its thin#in& is $eariso!e to it. 2econdly* there $o"ld e(idently be so!ethin& else !ore precio"s than tho"&ht* (i3. that $hich is tho"&ht o%. )or both thin#in& and the act o% tho"&ht $ill belon& e(en to one $ho thin#s o% the $orst thin& in the $orld* so that i% this o"&ht to be a(oided +and it o"&ht* %or there are e(en so!e thin&s $hich it is better not to see than to see,* the act o% thin#in& cannot be the best o% thin&s. There%ore it !"st be o% itsel% that the di(ine tho"&ht thin#s +since it is the !ost e-cellent o% thin&s,* and its thin#in& is a thin#in& on thin#in&. "B"t e(idently #no$led&e and perception and opinion and "nderstandin& ha(e al$ays so!ethin& else as their ob0ect* and the!sel(es only by the $ay. )"rther* i% thin#in& and bein& tho"&ht o% are di%%erent* in respect o% $hich does &oodness belon& to tho"&ht< )or to he an act o% thin#in& and to he an ob0ect o% tho"&ht are not the sa!e thin&. We ans$er that in so!e cases the #no$led&e is the ob0ect. In the prod"cti(e sciences it is the s"bstance or essence o% the ob0ect* !atter o!itted*

and in the theoretical sciences the de%inition or the act o% thin#in& is the ob0ect. 2ince* then* tho"&ht and the ob0ect o% tho"&ht are not di%%erent in the case o% thin&s that ha(e not !atter* the di(ine tho"&ht and its ob0ect $ill be the sa!e* i.e. the thin#in& $ill be one $ith the ob0ect o% its tho"&ht. "A %"rther 7"estion is le%t-$hether the ob0ect o% the di(ine tho"&ht is co!posite' %or i% it $ere* tho"&ht $o"ld chan&e in passin& %ro! part to part o% the $hole. We ans$er that e(erythin& $hich has not !atter is indi(isible-as h"!an tho"&ht* or rather the tho"&ht o% co!posite bein&s* is in a certain period o% ti!e +%or it does not possess the &ood at this !o!ent or at that* b"t its best* bein& so!ethin& di%%erent %ro! it* is attained only in a $hole period o% ti!e,* so thro"&ho"t eternity is the tho"&ht $hich has itsel% %or its ob0ect. Part 1@ " "We !"st consider also in $hich o% t$o $ays the nat"re o% the "ni(erse contains the &ood* and the hi&hest &ood* $hether as so!ethin& separate and by itsel%* or as the order o% the parts. Probably in both $ays* as an ar!y does' %or its &ood is %o"nd both in its order and in its leader* and !ore in the latter' %or he does not depend on the order b"t it depends on hi!. And all thin&s are ordered to&ether so!eho$* b"t not all ali#e*-both %ishes and %o$ls and plants' and the $orld is not s"ch that one thin& has nothin& to do $ith another* b"t they are connected. )or all are ordered to&ether to one end* b"t it is as in a ho"se* $here the %ree!en are least at liberty to act at rando!* b"t all thin&s or !ost thin&s are already ordained %or the!* $hile the sla(es and the ani!als do little %or the co!!on &ood* and %or the !ost part li(e at rando!' %or this is the sort o% principle that constit"tes the nat"re o% each. I !ean* %or instance* that all !"st at least co!e to be dissol(ed into their ele!ents* and there are other %"nctions si!ilarly in $hich all share %or the &ood o% the $hole. "We !"st not %ail to obser(e ho$ !any i!possible or parado-ical res"lts con%ront those $ho hold di%%erent (ie$s %ro! o"r o$n* and $hat are the (ie$s o% the s"btler thin#ers* and $hich (ie$s are attended by %e$est di%%ic"lties. All !a#e all thin&s o"t o% contraries. B"t neither /all thin&s/ nor /o"t o% contraries/ is ri&ht' nor do these thin#ers tell "s ho$ all the thin&s in $hich the contraries are present can be !ade o"t o% the contraries' %or contraries are not a%%ected by one another. .o$ %or "s this di%%ic"lty is sol(ed nat"rally by the %act that there is a third ele!ent. These thin#ers ho$e(er !a#e one o% the t$o contraries !atter' this is done %or instance by those $ho !a#e the "ne7"al !atter %or the e7"al* or the !any !atter %or the one. B"t this also is re%"ted in the sa!e $ay' %or the one !atter $hich "nderlies any pair o% contraries is contrary to nothin&. )"rther* all thin&s* e-cept the one* $ill* on the (ie$ $e are critici3in&* parta#e o% e(il' %or the bad itsel% is one o% the t$o ele!ents. B"t the other school does not treat the &ood and the bad e(en as principles' yet in all thin&s the &ood is in the hi&hest de&ree a principle. The school $e %irst !entioned is ri&ht in sayin& that it is a principle* b"t ho$ the &ood is a principle they do not say-$hether as end or as !o(er or as %or!. "5!pedocles also has a parado-ical (ie$' %or he identi%ies the &ood

$ith lo(e* b"t this is a principle both as !o(er +%or it brin&s thin&s to&ether, and as !atter +%or it is part o% the !i-t"re,. .o$ e(en i% it happens that the sa!e thin& is a principle both as !atter and as !o(er* still the bein&* at least* o% the t$o is not the sa!e. In $hich respect then is lo(e a principle< It is parado-ical also that stri%e sho"ld be i!perishable' the nat"re o% his /e(il/ is 0"st stri%e. "Ana-a&oras !a#es the &ood a !oti(e principle' %or his /reason/ !o(es thin&s. B"t it !o(es the! %or an end* $hich !"st be so!ethin& other than it* e-cept accordin& to o"r $ay o% statin& the case' %or* on o"r (ie$* the !edical art is in a sense health. It is parado-ical also not to s"ppose a contrary to the &ood* i.e. to reason. B"t all $ho spea# o% the contraries !a#e no "se o% the contraries* "nless $e brin& their (ie$s into shape. And $hy so!e thin&s are perishable and others i!perishable* no one tells "s' %or they !a#e all e-istin& thin&s o"t o% the sa!e principles. )"rther* so!e !a#e e-istin& thin&s o"t o% the none-istent' and others to a(oid the necessity o% this !a#e all thin&s one. ")"rther* $hy sho"ld there al$ays be beco!in&* and $hat is the ca"se o% beco!in&<-this no one tells "s. And those $ho s"ppose t$o principles !"st s"ppose another* a s"perior principle* and so !"st those $ho belie(e in the )or!s' %or $hy did thin&s co!e to participate* or $hy do they participate* in the )or!s< And all other thin#ers are con%ronted by the necessary conse7"ence that there is so!ethin& contrary to Wisdo!* i.e. to the hi&hest #no$led&e' b"t $e are not. )or there is nothin& contrary to that $hich is pri!ary' %or all contraries ha(e !atter* and thin&s that ha(e !atter e-ist only potentially' and the i&norance $hich is contrary to any #no$led&e leads to an ob0ect contrary to the ob0ect o% the #no$led&e' b"t $hat is pri!ary has no contrary. "A&ain* i% besides sensible thin&s no others e-ist* there $ill be no %irst principle* no order* no beco!in&* no hea(enly bodies* b"t each principle $ill ha(e a principle be%ore it* as in the acco"nts o% the theolo&ians and all the nat"ral philosophers. B"t i% the )or!s or the n"!bers are to e-ist* they $ill be ca"ses o% nothin&' or i% not that* at least not o% !o(e!ent. )"rther* ho$ is e-tension* i.e. a contin""!* to be prod"ced o"t o% "ne-tended parts< )or n"!ber $ill not* either as !o(er or as %or!* prod"ce a contin""!. B"t a&ain there cannot be any contrary that is also essentially a prod"cti(e or !o(in& principle' %or it $o"ld be possible %or it not to be. Or at least its action $o"ld be posterior to its potency. The $orld* then* $o"ld not be eternal. B"t it is' one o% these pre!isses* then* !"st be denied. And $e ha(e said ho$ this !"st be done. )"rther* in (irt"e o% $hat the n"!bers* or the so"l and the body* or in &eneral the %or! and the thin&* are one-o% this no one tells "s anythin&' nor can any one tell* "nless he says* as $e do* that the !o(er !a#es the! one. And those $ho say !athe!atical n"!ber is %irst and &o on to &enerate one #ind o% s"bstance a%ter another and &i(e di%%erent principles %or each* !a#e the s"bstance o% the "ni(erse a !ere series o% episodes +%or one s"bstance has no in%l"ence on another by its e-istence or none-istence,* and they &i(e "s !any &o(ernin& principles' b"t the $orld re%"ses to be &o(erned badly. " "/The r"le o% !any is not &ood' one r"ler let there be./ ----------------------------------------------------------------------

BOOK AIII Part 1 " "W5 ha(e stated $hat is the s"bstance o% sensible thin&s* dealin& in the treatise on physics $ith !atter* and later $ith the s"bstance $hich has act"al e-istence. .o$ since o"r in7"iry is $hether there is or is not besides the sensible s"bstances any $hich is i!!o(able and eternal* and* i% there is* $hat it is* $e !"st %irst consider $hat is said by others* so that* i% there is anythin& $hich they say $ron&ly* $e !ay not be liable to the sa!e ob0ections* $hile* i% there is any opinion co!!on to the! and "s* $e shall ha(e no pri(ate &rie(ance a&ainst o"rsel(es on that acco"nt' %or one !"st be content to state so!e points better than one/s predecessors* and others no $orse. "T$o opinions are held on this s"b0ect' it is said that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics-i.e. n"!bers and lines and the li#e-are s"bstances* and a&ain that the Ideas are s"bstances. And +1, since so!e reco&ni3e these as t$o di%%erent classes-the Ideas and the !athe!atical n"!bers* and +6, so!e reco&ni3e both as ha(in& one nat"re* $hile +;, so!e others say that the !athe!atical s"bstances are the only s"bstances* $e !"st consider %irst the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* not 7"ali%yin& the! by any other characteristic-not as#in&* %or instance* $hether they are in %act Ideas or not* or $hether they are the principles and s"bstances o% e-istin& thin&s or not* b"t only $hether as ob0ects o% !athe!atics they e-ist or not* and i% they e-ist* ho$ they e-ist. Then a%ter this $e !"st separately consider the Ideas the!sel(es in a &eneral $ay* and only as %ar as the accepted !ode o% treat!ent de!ands' %or !ost o% the points ha(e been repeatedly !ade e(en by the disc"ssions o"tside o"r school* and* %"rther* the &reater part o% o"r acco"nt !"st %inish by thro$in& li&ht on that in7"iry* (i3. $hen $e e-a!ine $hether the s"bstances and the principles o% e-istin& thin&s are n"!bers and Ideas' %or a%ter the disc"ssion o% the Ideas this re!ans as a third in7"iry. "I% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics e-ist* they !"st e-ist either in sensible ob0ects* as so!e say* or separate %ro! sensible ob0ects +and this also is said by so!e,' or i% they e-ist in neither o% these $ays* either they do not e-ist* or they e-ist only in so!e special sense. 2o that the s"b0ect o% o"r disc"ssion $ill be not $hether they e-ist b"t ho$ they e-ist. Part 6 " "That it is i!possible %or !athe!atical ob0ects to e-ist in sensible thin&s* and at the sa!e ti!e that the doctrine in 7"estion is an arti%icial one* has been said already in o"r disc"ssion o% di%%ic"lties $e ha(e pointed o"t that it is i!possible %or t$o solids to be in the sa!e place* and also that accordin& to the sa!e ar&"!ent the other po$ers and characteristics also sho"ld e-ist in sensible thin&s and none o% the! separately. This $e ha(e said already. B"t* %"rther* it is ob(io"s that on this theory it is i!possible %or any body $hate(er to be di(ided' %or it $o"ld ha(e to be di(ided at a plane* and the plane at a line* and the line at a point* so that i% the point cannot

be di(ided* neither can the line* and i% the line cannot* neither can the plane nor the solid. What di%%erence* then* does it !a#e $hether sensible thin&s are s"ch indi(isible entities* or* $itho"t bein& so the!sel(es* ha(e indi(isible entities in the!< The res"lt $ill be the sa!e' i% the sensible entities are di(ided the others $ill be di(ided too* or else not e(en the sensible entities can be di(ided. "B"t* a&ain* it is not possible that s"ch entities sho"ld e-ist separately. )or i% besides the sensible solids there are to be other solids $hich are separate %ro! the! and prior to the sensible solids* it is plain that besides the planes also there !"st be other and separate planes and points and lines' %or consistency re7"ires this. B"t i% these e-ist* a&ain besides the planes and lines and points o% the !athe!atical solid there !"st be others $hich are separate. +)or inco!posites are prior to co!po"nds' and i% there are* prior to the sensible bodies* bodies $hich are not sensible* by the sa!e ar&"!ent the planes $hich e-ist by the!sel(es !"st be prior to those $hich are in the !otionless solids. There%ore these $ill be planes and lines other than those that e-ist alon& $ith the !athe!atical solids to $hich these thin#ers assi&n separate e-istence' %or the latter e-ist alon& $ith the !athe!atical solids* $hile the others are prior to the !athe!atical solids., A&ain* there%ore* there $ill be* belon&in& to these planes* lines* and prior to the! there $ill ha(e to be* by the sa!e ar&"!ent* other lines and points' and prior to these points in the prior lines there $ill ha(e to be other points* tho"&h there $ill be no others prior to these. .o$ +1, the acc"!"lation beco!es abs"rd' %or $e %ind o"rsel(es $ith one set o% solids apart %ro! the sensible solids' three sets o% planes apart %ro! the sensible planes-those $hich e-ist apart %ro! the sensible planes* and those in the !athe!atical solids* and those $hich e-ist apart %ro! those in the !athe!atical solids' %o"r sets o% lines* and %i(e sets o% points. With $hich o% these* then* $ill the !athe!atical sciences deal< 1ertainly not $ith the planes and lines and points in the !otionless solid' %or science al$ays deals $ith $hat is prior. And +the sa!e acco"nt $ill apply also to n"!bers' %or there $ill be a di%%erent set o% "nits apart %ro! each set o% points* and also apart %ro! each set o% realities* %ro! the ob0ects o% sense and a&ain %ro! those o% tho"&ht' so that there $ill be (ario"s classes o% !athe!atical n"!bers. "A&ain* ho$ is it possible to sol(e the 7"estions $hich $e ha(e already en"!erated in o"r disc"ssion o% di%%ic"lties< )or the ob0ects o% astrono!y $ill e-ist apart %ro! sensible thin&s 0"st as the ob0ects o% &eo!etry $ill' b"t ho$ is it possible that a hea(en and its parts-or anythin& else $hich has !o(e!ent-sho"ld e-ist apart< 2i!ilarly also the ob0ects o% optics and o% har!onics $ill e-ist apart' %or there $ill be both (oice and si&ht besides the sensible or indi(id"al (oices and si&hts. There%ore it is plain that the other senses as $ell* and the other ob0ects o% sense* $ill e-ist apart' %or $hy sho"ld one set o% the! do so and another not< And i% this is so* there $ill also be ani!als e-istin& apart* since there $ill be senses. "A&ain* there are certain !athe!atical theore!s that are "ni(ersal* e-tendin& beyond these s"bstances. 4ere then $e shall ha(e another

inter!ediate s"bstance separate both %ro! the Ideas and %ro! the inter!ediates*-a s"bstance $hich is neither n"!ber nor points nor spatial !a&nit"de nor ti!e. And i% this is i!possible* plainly it is also i!possible that the %or!er entities sho"ld e-ist separate %ro! sensible thin&s. "And* in &eneral* concl"sion contrary ali#e to the tr"th and to the "s"al (ie$s %ollo$* i% one is to s"ppose the ob0ects o% !athe!atics to e-ist th"s as separate entities. )or beca"se they e-ist th"s they !"st be prior to sensible spatial !a&nit"des* b"t in tr"th they !"st be posterior' %or the inco!plete spatial !a&nit"de is in the order o% &eneration prior* b"t in the order o% s"bstance posterior* as the li%eless is to the li(in&. "A&ain* by (irt"e o% $hat* and $hen* $ill !athe!atical !a&nit"des be one< )or thin&s in o"r perceptible $orld are one in (irt"e o% so"l* or o% a part o% so"l* or o% so!ethin& else that is reasonable eno"&h' $hen these are not present* the thin& is a pl"rality* and splits "p into parts. B"t in the case o% the s"b0ects o% !athe!atics* $hich are di(isible and are 7"antities* $hat is the ca"se o% their bein& one and holdin& to&ether< "A&ain* the !odes o% &eneration o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics sho$ that $e are ri&ht. )or the di!ension %irst &enerated is len&th* then co!es breadth* lastly depth* and the process is co!plete. I%* then* that $hich is posterior in the order o% &eneration is prior in the order o% s"bstantiality* the solid $ill be prior to the plane and the line. And in this $ay also it is both !ore co!plete and !ore $hole* beca"se it can beco!e ani!ate. 4o$* on the other hand* co"ld a line or a plane be ani!ate< The s"pposition passes the po$er o% o"r senses. "A&ain* the solid is a sort o% s"bstance' %or it already has in a sense co!pleteness. B"t ho$ can lines be s"bstances< .either as a %or! or shape* as the so"l perhaps is* nor as !atter* li#e the solid' %or $e ha(e no e-perience o% anythin& that can be p"t to&ether o"t o% lines or planes or points* $hile i% these had been a sort o% !aterial s"bstance* $e sho"ld ha(e obser(ed thin&s $hich co"ld be p"t to&ether o"t o% the!. "9rant* then* that they are prior in de%inition. 2till not all thin&s that are prior in de%inition are also prior in s"bstantiality. )or those thin&s are prior in s"bstantiality $hich $hen separated %ro! other thin&s s"rpass the! in the po$er o% independent e-istence* b"t thin&s are prior in de%inition to those $hose de%initions are co!po"nded o"t o% their de%initions' and these t$o properties are not coe-tensi(e. )or i% attrib"tes do not e-ist apart %ro! the s"bstances +e.&. a /!obile/ or a pale/,* pale is prior to the pale !an in de%inition* b"t not in s"bstantiality. )or it cannot e-ist separately* b"t is al$ays alon& $ith the concrete thin&' and by the concrete thin& I !ean the pale !an. There%ore it is plain that neither is the res"lt o% abstraction prior nor that $hich is prod"ced by addin& deter!inants posterior' %or it is by addin& a deter!inant to pale that $e spea# o% the pale !an. "It has* then* been s"%%iciently pointed o"t that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics

are not s"bstances in a hi&her de&ree than bodies are* and that they are not prior to sensibles in bein&* b"t only in de%inition* and that they cannot e-ist so!e$here apart. B"t since it $as not possible %or the! to e-ist in sensibles either* it is plain that they either do not e-ist at all or e-ist in a special sense and there%ore do not /e-ist/ $itho"t 7"ali%ication. )or /e-ist/ has !any senses. Part ; " ")or 0"st as the "ni(ersal propositions o% !athe!atics deal not $ith ob0ects $hich e-ist separately* apart %ro! e-tended !a&nit"des and %ro! n"!bers* b"t $ith !a&nit"des and n"!bers* not ho$e(er 7"a s"ch as to ha(e !a&nit"de or to be di(isible* clearly it is possible that there sho"ld also be both propositions and de!onstrations abo"t sensible !a&nit"des* not ho$e(er 7"a sensible b"t 7"a possessed o% certain de%inite 7"alities. )or as there are !any propositions abo"t thin&s !erely considered as in !otion* apart %ro! $hat each s"ch thin& is and %ro! their accidents* and as it is not there%ore necessary that there sho"ld be either a !obile separate %ro! sensibles* or a distinct !obile entity in the sensibles* so too in the case o% !obiles there $ill be propositions and sciences* $hich treat the! ho$e(er not 7"a !obile b"t only 7"a bodies* or a&ain only 7"a planes* or only 7"a lines* or 7"a di(isibles* or 7"a indi(isibles ha(in& position* or only 7"a indi(isibles. Th"s since it is tr"e to say $itho"t 7"ali%ication that not only thin&s $hich are separable b"t also thin&s $hich are inseparable e-ist +%or instance* that !obiles e-ist,* it is tr"e also to say $itho"t 7"ali%ication that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics e-ist* and $ith the character ascribed to the! by !athe!aticians. And as it is tr"e to say o% the other sciences too* $itho"t 7"ali%ication* that they deal $ith s"ch and s"ch a s"b0ect-not $ith $hat is accidental to it +e.&. not $ith the pale* i% the healthy thin& is pale* and the science has the healthy as its s"b0ect,* b"t $ith that $hich is the s"b0ect o% each science-$ith the healthy i% it treats its ob0ect 7"a healthy* $ith !an i% 7"a !an>-so too is it $ith &eo!etry' i% its s"b0ects happen to be sensible* tho"&h it does not treat the! 7"a sensible* the !athe!atical sciences $ill not %or that reason be sciences o% sensibles-nor* on the other hand* o% other thin&s separate %ro! sensibles. Many properties attach to thin&s in (irt"e o% their o$n nat"re as possessed o% each s"ch character' e.&. there are attrib"tes pec"liar to the ani!al 7"a %e!ale or 7"a !ale +yet there is no /%e!ale/ nor /!ale/ separate %ro! ani!als,' so that there are also attrib"tes $hich belon& to thin&s !erely as len&ths or as planes. And in proportion as $e are dealin& $ith thin&s $hich are prior in de%inition and si!pler* o"r #no$led&e has !ore acc"racy* i.e. si!plicity. There%ore a science $hich abstracts %ro! spatial !a&nit"de is !ore precise than one $hich ta#es it into acco"nt' and a science is !ost precise i% it abstracts %ro! !o(e!ent* b"t i% it ta#es acco"nt o% !o(e!ent* it is !ost precise i% it deals $ith the pri!ary !o(e!ent* %or this is the si!plest' and o% this a&ain "ni%or! !o(e!ent is the si!plest %or!. "The sa!e acco"nt !ay be &i(en o% har!onics and optics' %or neither considers its ob0ects 7"a si&ht or 7"a (oice* b"t 7"a lines and n"!bers' b"t the latter are attrib"tes proper to the %or!er. And !echanics

too proceeds in the sa!e $ay. There%ore i% $e s"ppose attrib"tes separated %ro! their %ello$ attrib"tes and !a#e any in7"iry concernin& the! as s"ch* $e shall not %or this reason be in error* any !ore than $hen one dra$s a line on the &ro"nd and calls it a %oot lon& $hen it is not' %or the error is not incl"ded in the pre!isses. "5ach 7"estion $ill be best in(esti&ated in this $ay-by settin& "p by an act o% separation $hat is not separate* as the arith!etician and the &eo!eter do. )or a !an 7"a !an is one indi(isible thin&' and the arith!etician s"pposed one indi(isible thin&* and then considered $hether any attrib"te belon&s to a !an 7"a indi(isible. B"t the &eo!eter treats hi! neither 7"a !an nor 7"a indi(isible* b"t as a solid. )or e(idently the properties $hich $o"ld ha(e belon&ed to hi! e(en i% perchance he had not been indi(isible* can belon& to hi! e(en apart %ro! these attrib"tes. Th"s* then* &eo!eters spea# correctly' they tal# abo"t e-istin& thin&s* and their s"b0ects do e-ist' %or bein& has t$o %or!s-it e-ists not only in co!plete reality b"t also !aterially. ".o$ since the &ood and the bea"ti%"l are di%%erent +%or the %or!er al$ays i!plies cond"ct as its s"b0ect* $hile the bea"ti%"l is %o"nd also in !otionless thin&s,* those $ho assert that the !athe!atical sciences say nothin& o% the bea"ti%"l or the &ood are in error. )or these sciences say and pro(e a &reat deal abo"t the!' i% they do not e-pressly !ention the!* b"t pro(e attrib"tes $hich are their res"lts or their de%initions* it is not tr"e to say that they tell "s nothin& abo"t the!. The chie% %or!s o% bea"ty are order and sy!!etry and de%initeness* $hich the !athe!atical sciences de!onstrate in a special de&ree. And since these +e.&. order and de%initeness, are ob(io"sly ca"ses o% !any thin&s* e(idently these sciences !"st treat this sort o% ca"sati(e principle also +i.e. the bea"ti%"l, as in so!e sense a ca"se. B"t $e shall spea# !ore plainly else$here abo"t these !atters. Part = " "2o !"ch then %or the ob0ects o% !athe!atics' $e ha(e said that they e-ist and in $hat sense they e-ist* and in $hat sense they are prior and in $hat sense not prior. .o$* re&ardin& the Ideas* $e !"st %irst e-a!ine the ideal theory itsel%* not connectin& it in any $ay $ith the nat"re o% n"!bers* b"t treatin& it in the %or! in $hich it $as ori&inally "nderstood by those $ho %irst !aintained the e-istence o% the Ideas. The s"pporters o% the ideal theory $ere led to it beca"se on the 7"estion abo"t the tr"th o% thin&s they accepted the 4eraclitean sayin&s $hich describe all sensible thin&s as e(er passin& a$ay* so that i% #no$led&e or tho"&ht is to ha(e an ob0ect* there !"st be so!e other and per!anent entities* apart %ro! those $hich are sensible' %or there co"ld be no #no$led&e o% thin&s $hich $ere in a state o% %l"-. B"t $hen 2ocrates $as occ"pyin& hi!sel% $ith the e-cellences o% character* and in conne-ion $ith the! beca!e the %irst to raise the proble! o% "ni(ersal de%inition +%or o% the physicists De!ocrit"s only to"ched on the s"b0ect to a s!all e-tent* and de%ined* a%ter a %ashion* the hot and the cold' $hile the Pytha&oreans had be%ore this treated o% a %e$ thin&s* $hose de%initions-e.&. those o% opport"nity* 0"stice* or !arria&e-they connected $ith n"!bers' b"t it $as nat"ral

that 2ocrates sho"ld be see#in& the essence* %or he $as see#in& to syllo&i3e* and /$hat a thin& is/ is the startin&-point o% syllo&is!s' %or there $as as yet none o% the dialectical po$er $hich enables people e(en $itho"t #no$led&e o% the essence to spec"late abo"t contraries and in7"ire $hether the sa!e science deals $ith contraries' %or t$o thin&s !ay be %airly ascribed to 2ocrates-ind"cti(e ar&"!ents and "ni(ersal de%inition* both o% $hich are concerned $ith the startin&point o% science,>-b"t 2ocrates did not !a#e the "ni(ersals or the de%initions e-ist apart> they* ho$e(er* &a(e the! separate e-istence* and this $as the #ind o% thin& they called Ideas. There%ore it %ollo$ed %or the!* al!ost by the sa!e ar&"!ent* that there !"st be Ideas o% all thin&s that are spo#en o% "ni(ersally* and it $as al!ost as i% a !an $ished to co"nt certain thin&s* and $hile they $ere %e$ tho"&ht he $o"ld not be able to co"nt the!* b"t !ade !ore o% the! and then co"nted the!' %or the )or!s are* one !ay say* !ore n"!ero"s than the partic"lar sensible thin&s* yet it $as in see#in& the ca"ses o% these that they proceeded %ro! the! to the )or!s. )or to each thin& there ans$ers an entity $hich has the sa!e na!e and e-ists apart %ro! the s"bstances* and so also in the case o% all other &ro"ps there is a one o(er !any* $hether these be o% this $orld or eternal. "A&ain* o% the $ays in $hich it is pro(ed that the )or!s e-ist* none is con(incin&' %or %ro! so!e no in%erence necessarily %ollo$s* and %ro! so!e arise )or!s e(en o% thin&s o% $hich they thin# there are no )or!s. )or accordin& to the ar&"!ents %ro! the sciences there $ill be )or!s o% all thin&s o% $hich there are sciences* and accordin& to the ar&"!ent o% the /one o(er !any/ there $ill be )or!s e(en o% ne&ations* and accordin& to the ar&"!ent that tho"&ht has an ob0ect $hen the indi(id"al ob0ect has perished* there $ill be )or!s o% perishable thin&s' %or $e ha(e an i!a&e o% these. A&ain* o% the !ost acc"rate ar&"!ents* so!e lead to Ideas o% relations* o% $hich they say there is no independent class* and others introd"ce the /third !an/. "And in &eneral the ar&"!ents %or the )or!s destroy thin&s %or $hose e-istence the belie(ers in )or!s are !ore 3ealo"s than %or the e-istence o% the Ideas' %or it %ollo$s that not the dyad b"t n"!ber is %irst* and that prior to n"!ber is the relati(e* and that this is prior to the absol"te-besides all the other points on $hich certain people* by %ollo$in& o"t the opinions held abo"t the )or!s* ca!e into con%lict $ith the principles o% the theory. "A&ain* accordin& to the ass"!ption on the belie% in the Ideas rests* there $ill be )or!s not only o% s"bstances b"t also o% !any other thin&s' %or the concept is sin&le not only in the case o% s"bstances* b"t also in that o% non-s"bstances* and there are sciences o% other thin&s than s"bstance' and a tho"sand other s"ch di%%ic"lties con%ront the!. B"t accordin& to the necessities o% the case and the opinions abo"t the )or!s* i% they can be shared in there !"st be Ideas o% s"bstances only. )or they are not shared in incidentally* b"t each )or! !"st be shared in as so!ethin& not predicated o% a s"b0ect. +By /bein& shared in incidentally/ I !ean that i% a thin& shares in /do"ble itsel%/* it shares also in /eternal/* b"t incidentally' %or /the do"ble/ happens to be eternal., There%ore the )or!s $ill be s"bstance. B"t the sa!e

na!es indicate s"bstance in this and in the ideal $orld +or $hat $ill be the !eanin& o% sayin& that there is so!ethin& apart %ro! the partic"lars-the one o(er !any<,. And i% the Ideas and the thin&s that share in the! ha(e the sa!e %or!* there $ill be so!ethin& co!!on> %or $hy sho"ld /6/ be one and the sa!e in the perishable 6/s* or in the 6/s $hich are !any b"t eternal* and not the sa!e in the /6 itsel%/ as in the indi(id"al 6< B"t i% they ha(e not the sa!e %or!* they $ill ha(e only the na!e in co!!on* and it is as i% one $ere to call both 1allias and a piece o% $ood a /!an/* $itho"t obser(in& any co!!"nity bet$een the!. "B"t i% $e are to s"ppose that in other respects the co!!on de%initions apply to the )or!s* e.&. that /plane %i&"re/ and the other parts o% the de%inition apply to the circle itsel%* b"t /$hat really is/ has to be added* $e !"st in7"ire $hether this is not absol"tely !eanin&less. )or to $hat is this to be added< To /centre/ or to /plane/ or to all the parts o% the de%inition< )or all the ele!ents in the essence are Ideas* e.&. /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/. )"rther* there !"st be so!e Ideal ans$erin& to /plane/ abo(e* so!e nat"re $hich $ill be present in all the )or!s as their &en"s. Part ? " "Abo(e all one !i&ht disc"ss the 7"estion $hat in the $orld the )or!s contrib"te to sensible thin&s* either to those that are eternal or to those that co!e into bein& and cease to be' %or they ca"se neither !o(e!ent nor any chan&e in the!. B"t a&ain they help in no $ise either to$ards the #no$led&e o% other thin&s +%or they are not e(en the s"bstance o% these* else they $o"ld ha(e been in the!,* or to$ards their bein&* i% they are not in the indi(id"als $hich share in the!' tho"&h i% they $ere* they !i&ht be tho"&ht to be ca"ses* as $hite ca"ses $hiteness in a $hite ob0ect by enterin& into its co!position. B"t this ar&"!ent* $hich $as "sed %irst by Ana-a&oras* and later by 5"do-"s in his disc"ssion o% di%%ic"lties and by certain others* is (ery easily "pset' %or it is easy to collect !any and ins"perable ob0ections to s"ch a (ie$. "B"t* %"rther* all other thin&s cannot co!e %ro! the )or!s in any o% the "s"al senses o% /%ro!/. And to say that they are patterns and the other thin&s share in the! is to "se e!pty $ords and poetical !etaphors. )or $hat is it that $or#s* loo#in& to the Ideas< And any thin& can both be and co!e into bein& $itho"t bein& copied %ro! so!ethin& else* so that* $hether 2ocrates e-ists or not* a !an li#e 2ocrates !i&ht co!e to be. And e(idently this !i&ht be so e(en i% 2ocrates $ere eternal. And there $ill be se(eral patterns o% the sa!e thin&* and there%ore se(eral )or!s' e.&. /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/* and also /!an-hi!sel%/* $ill be )or!s o% !an. A&ain* the )or!s are patterns not only o% sensible thin&s* b"t o% )or!s the!sel(es also' i.e. the &en"s is the pattern o% the (ario"s %or!s-o%-a-&en"s' there%ore the sa!e thin& $ill be pattern and copy. "A&ain* it $o"ld see! i!possible that s"bstance and that $hose s"bstance it is sho"ld e-ist apart' ho$* there%ore* co"ld the Ideas* bein& the s"bstances o% thin&s* e-ist apart<

"In the Phaedo the case is stated in this $ay-that the )or!s are ca"ses both o% bein& and o% beco!in&. :et tho"&h the )or!s e-ist* still thin&s do not co!e into bein&* "nless there is so!ethin& to ori&inate !o(e!ent' and !any other thin&s co!e into bein& +e.&. a ho"se or a rin&, o% $hich they say there are no )or!s. 1learly there%ore e(en the thin&s o% $hich they say there are Ideas can both be and co!e into bein& o$in& to s"ch ca"ses as prod"ce the thin&s 0"st !entioned* and not o$in& to the )or!s. B"t re&ardin& the Ideas it is possible* both in this $ay and by !ore abstract and acc"rate ar&"!ents* to collect !any ob0ections li#e those $e ha(e considered. Part B " "2ince $e ha(e disc"ssed these points* it is $ell to consider a&ain the res"lts re&ardin& n"!bers $hich con%ront those $ho say that n"!bers are separable s"bstances and %irst ca"ses o% thin&s. I% n"!ber is an entity and its s"bstance is nothin& other than 0"st n"!ber* as so!e say* it %ollo$s that either +1, there is a %irst in it and a second* each bein& di%%erent in species*-and either +a, this is tr"e o% the "nits $itho"t e-ception* and any "nit is inassociable $ith any "nit* or +b, they are all $itho"t e-ception s"ccessi(e* and any o% the! are associable $ith any* as they say is the case $ith !athe!atical n"!ber' %or in !athe!atical n"!ber no one "nit is in any $ay di%%erent %ro! another. Or +c, so!e "nits !"st be associable and so!e not' e.&. s"ppose that 6 is %irst a%ter 1* and then co!es ; and then the rest o% the n"!ber series* and the "nits in each n"!ber are associable* e.&. those in the %irst 6 are associable $ith one another* and those in the %irst ; $ith one another* and so $ith the other n"!bers' b"t the "nits in the /6-itsel%/ are inassociable $ith those in the /;itsel%/' and si!ilarly in the case o% the other s"ccessi(e n"!bers. And so $hile !athe!atical n"!ber is co"nted th"s-a%ter 1* 6 +$hich consists o% another 1 besides the %or!er 1,* and ; $hich consists o% another 1 besides these t$o,* and the other n"!bers si!ilarly* ideal n"!ber is co"nted th"s-a%ter 1* a distinct 6 $hich does not incl"de the %irst 1* and a ; $hich does not incl"de the 6 and the rest o% the n"!ber series si!ilarly. Or +6, one #ind o% n"!ber !"st be li#e the %irst that $as na!ed* one li#e that $hich the !athe!aticians spea# o%* and that $hich $e ha(e na!ed last !"st be a third #ind. "A&ain* these #inds o% n"!bers !"st either be separable %ro! thin&s* or not separable b"t in ob0ects o% perception +not ho$e(er in the $ay $hich $e %irst considered* in the sense that ob0ects o% perception consists o% n"!bers $hich are present in the!,-either one #ind and not another* or all o% the!. "These are o% necessity the only $ays in $hich the n"!bers can e-ist. And o% those $ho say that the 1 is the be&innin& and s"bstance and ele!ent o% all thin&s* and that n"!ber is %or!ed %ro! the 1 and so!ethin& else* al!ost e(ery one has described n"!ber in one o% these $ays' only no one has said all the "nits are inassociable. And this has happened reasonably eno"&h' %or there can be no $ay besides those !entioned. 2o!e say both #inds o% n"!ber e-ist* that $hich has a be%ore and a%ter bein& identical $ith the Ideas* and !athe!atical n"!ber

bein& di%%erent %ro! the Ideas and %ro! sensible thin&s* and both bein& separable %ro! sensible thin&s' and others say !athe!atical n"!ber alone e-ists* as the %irst o% realities* separate %ro! sensible thin&s. And the Pytha&oreans* also* belie(e in one #ind o% n"!ber-the !athe!atical' only they say it is not separate b"t sensible s"bstances are %or!ed o"t o% it. )or they constr"ct the $hole "ni(erse o"t o% n"!bers-only not n"!bers consistin& o% abstract "nits' they s"ppose the "nits to ha(e spatial !a&nit"de. B"t ho$ the %irst 1 $as constr"cted so as to ha(e !a&nit"de* they see! "nable to say. "Another thin#er says the %irst #ind o% n"!ber* that o% the )or!s* alone e-ists* and so!e say !athe!atical n"!ber is identical $ith this. "The case o% lines* planes* and solids is si!ilar. )or so!e thin# that those $hich are the ob0ects o% !athe!atics are di%%erent %ro! those $hich co!e a%ter the Ideas' and o% those $ho e-press the!sel(es other$ise so!e spea# o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics and in a !athe!atical $ay-(i3. those $ho do not !a#e the Ideas n"!bers nor say that Ideas e-ist' and others spea# o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* b"t not !athe!atically' %or they say that neither is e(ery spatial !a&nit"de di(isible into !a&nit"des* nor do any t$o "nits ta#en at rando! !a#e 6. All $ho say the 1 is an ele!ent and principle o% thin&s s"ppose n"!bers to consist o% abstract "nits* e-cept the Pytha&oreans' b"t they s"ppose the n"!bers to ha(e !a&nit"de* as has been said be%ore. It is clear %ro! this state!ent* then* in ho$ !any $ays n"!bers !ay be described* and that all the $ays ha(e been !entioned' and all these (ie$s are i!possible* b"t so!e perhaps !ore than others. Part C " ")irst* then* let "s in7"ire i% the "nits are associable or inassociable* and i% inassociable* in $hich o% the t$o $ays $e distin&"ished. )or it is possible that any "nity is inassociable $ith any* and it is possible that those in the /itsel%/ are inassociable $ith those in the /itsel%/* and* &enerally* that those in each ideal n"!ber are inassociable $ith those in other ideal n"!bers. .o$ +1, all "nits are associable and $itho"t di%%erence* $e &et !athe!atical n"!ber-only one #ind o% n"!ber* and the Ideas cannot be the n"!bers. )or $hat sort o% n"!ber $ill !an-hi!sel% or ani!al-itsel% or any other )or! be< There is one Idea o% each thin& e.&. one o% !an-hi!sel% and another one o% ani!al-itsel%' b"t the si!ilar and "ndi%%erentiated n"!bers are in%initely !any* so that any partic"lar ; is no !ore !an-hi!sel% than any other ;. B"t i% the Ideas are not n"!bers* neither can they e-ist at all. )or %ro! $hat principles $ill the Ideas co!e< It is n"!ber that co!es %ro! the 1 and the inde%inite dyad* and the principles or ele!ents are said to be principles and ele!ents o% n"!ber* and the Ideas cannot be ran#ed as either prior or posterior to the n"!bers. "B"t +6, i% the "nits are inassociable* and inassociable in the sense that any is inassociable $ith any other* n"!ber o% this sort cannot be !athe!atical n"!ber' %or !athe!atical n"!ber consists o% "ndi%%erentiated "nits* and the tr"ths pro(ed o% it s"it this character. .or can it be ideal n"!ber. )or 6 $ill not proceed i!!ediately %ro! 1 and the inde%inite dyad* and be %ollo$ed by the s"ccessi(e n"!bers* as they

say /6*;*=/ %or the "nits in the ideal are &enerated at the sa!e ti!e* $hether* as the %irst holder o% the theory said* %ro! "ne7"als +co!in& into bein& $hen these $ere e7"ali3ed, or in so!e other $ay-since* i% one "nit is to be prior to the other* it $ill be prior also to 6 the co!posed o% these' %or $hen there is one thin& prior and another posterior* the res"ltant o% these $ill be prior to one and posterior to the other. A&ain* since the 1-itsel% is %irst* and then there is a partic"lar 1 $hich is %irst a!on& the others and ne-t a%ter the 1-itsel%* and a&ain a third $hich is ne-t a%ter the second and ne-t b"t one a%ter the %irst 1*-so the "nits !"st be prior to the n"!bers a%ter $hich they are na!ed $hen $e co"nt the!' e.&. there $ill be a third "nit in 6 be%ore ; e-ists* and a %o"rth and a %i%th in ; be%ore the n"!bers = and ? e-ist.-.o$ none o% these thin#ers has said the "nits are inassociable in this $ay* b"t accordin& to their principles it is reasonable that they sho"ld be so e(en in this $ay* tho"&h in tr"th it is i!possible. )or it is reasonable both that the "nits sho"ld ha(e priority and posteriority i% there is a %irst "nit or %irst 1* and also that the 6/s sho"ld i% there is a %irst 6' %or a%ter the %irst it is reasonable and necessary that there sho"ld be a second* and i% a second* a third* and so $ith the others s"ccessi(ely. +And to say both thin&s at the sa!e ti!e* that a "nit is %irst and another "nit is second a%ter the ideal 1* and that a 6 is %irst a%ter it* is i!possible., B"t they !a#e a %irst "nit or 1* b"t not also a second and a third* and a %irst 6* b"t not also a second and a third. 1learly* also* it is not possible* i% all the "nits are inassociable* that there sho"ld be a 6-itsel% and a ;-itsel%' and so $ith the other n"!bers. )or $hether the "nits are "ndi%%erentiated or di%%erent each %ro! each* n"!ber !"st be co"nted by addition* e.&. 6 by addin& another 1 to the one* ; by addin& another 1 to the t$o* and si!ilarly. This bein& so* n"!bers cannot be &enerated as they &enerate the!* %ro! the 6 and the 1' %or 6 beco!es part o% ; and ; o% = and the sa!e happens in the case o% the s"cceedin& n"!bers* b"t they say = ca!e %ro! the %irst 6 and the inde%inite $hich !a#es it t$o 6/s other than the 6itsel%' i% not* the 6-itsel% $ill be a part o% = and one other 6 $ill be added. And si!ilarly 6 $ill consist o% the 1-itsel% and another 1' b"t i% this is so* the other ele!ent cannot be an inde%inite 6' %or it &enerates one "nit* not* as the inde%inite 6 does* a de%inite 6. "A&ain* besides the ;-itsel% and the 6-itsel% ho$ can there be other ;/s and 6/s< And ho$ do they consist o% prior and posterior "nits< All this is abs"rd and %ictitio"s* and there cannot be a %irst 6 and then a ;-itsel%. :et there !"st* i% the 1 and the inde%inite dyad are to be the ele!ents. B"t i% the res"lts are i!possible* it is also i!possible that these are the &eneratin& principles. "I% the "nits* then* are di%%erentiated* each %ro! each* these res"lts and others si!ilar to these %ollo$ o% necessity. B"t +;, i% those in di%%erent n"!bers are di%%erentiated* b"t those in the sa!e n"!ber are alone "ndi%%erentiated %ro! one another* e(en so the di%%ic"lties that %ollo$ are no less. 5.&. in the 1@-itsel% their are ten "nits* and the 1@ is co!posed both o% the! and o% t$o ?/s. B"t since the 1@-itsel% is not any chance n"!ber nor co!posed o% any chance ?/s--or* %or that !atter* "nits--the "nits in this 1@ !"st di%%er. )or i% they do not di%%er* neither $ill the ?/s o% $hich the 1@ consists di%%er'

b"t since these di%%er* the "nits also $ill di%%er. B"t i% they di%%er* $ill there be no other ?/s in the 1@ b"t only these t$o* or $ill there be others< I% there are not* this is parado-ical' and i% there are* $hat sort o% 1@ $ill consist o% the!< )or there is no other in the 1@ b"t the 1@ itsel%. B"t it is act"ally necessary on their (ie$ that the = sho"ld not consist o% any chance 6/s' %or the inde%inite as they say* recei(ed the de%inite 6 and !ade t$o 6/s' %or its nat"re $as to do"ble $hat it recei(ed. "A&ain* as to the 6 bein& an entity apart %ro! its t$o "nits* and the ; an entity apart %ro! its three "nits* ho$ is this possible< 5ither by one/s sharin& in the other* as /pale !an/ is di%%erent %ro! /pale/ and /!an/ +%or it shares in these,* or $hen one is a di%%erentia o% the other* as /!an/ is di%%erent %ro! /ani!al/ and /t$o-%ooted/. "A&ain* so!e thin&s are one by contact* so!e by inter!i-t"re* so!e by position' none o% $hich can belon& to the "nits o% $hich the 6 or the ; consists' b"t as t$o !en are not a "nity apart %ro! both* so !"st it be $ith the "nits. And their bein& indi(isible $ill !a#e no di%%erence to the!' %or points too are indi(isible* b"t yet a pair o% the! is nothin& apart %ro! the t$o. "B"t this conse7"ence also $e !"st not %or&et* that it %ollo$s that there are prior and posterior 6 and si!ilarly $ith the other n"!bers. )or let the 6/s in the = be si!"ltaneo"s' yet these are prior to those in the D and as the 6 &enerated the!* they &enerated the =/s in the D-itsel%. There%ore i% the %irst 6 is an Idea* these 6/s also $ill be Ideas o% so!e #ind. And the sa!e acco"nt applies to the "nits' %or the "nits in the %irst 6 &enerate the %o"r in =* so that all the "nits co!e to be Ideas and an Idea $ill be co!posed o% Ideas. 1learly there%ore those thin&s also o% $hich these happen to be the Ideas $ill be co!posite* e.&. one !i&ht say that ani!als are co!posed o% ani!als* i% there are Ideas o% the!. "In &eneral* to di%%erentiate the "nits in any $ay is an abs"rdity and a %iction' and by a %iction I !ean a %orced state!ent !ade to s"it a hypothesis. )or neither in 7"antity nor in 7"ality do $e see "nit di%%erin& %ro! "nit* and n"!ber !"st be either e7"al or "ne7"al-all n"!ber b"t especially that $hich consists o% abstract "nits-so that i% one n"!ber is neither &reater nor less than another* it is e7"al to it' b"t thin&s that are e7"al and in no $ise di%%erentiated $e ta#e to be the sa!e $hen $e are spea#in& o% n"!bers. I% not* not e(en the 6 in the 1@-itsel% $ill be "ndi%%erentiated* tho"&h they are e7"al' %or $hat reason $ill the !an $ho alle&es that they are not di%%erentiated be able to &i(e< "A&ain* i% e(ery "nit I another "nit !a#es t$o* a "nit %ro! the 6-itsel% and one %ro! the ;-itsel% $ill !a#e a 6. .o$ +a, this $ill consist o% di%%erentiated "nits' and $ill it be prior to the ; or posterior< It rather see!s that it !"st be prior' %or one o% the "nits is si!"ltaneo"s $ith the ; and the other is si!"ltaneo"s $ith the 6. And $e* %or o"r part* s"ppose that in &eneral 1 and 1* $hether the thin&s are e7"al or "ne7"al* is 6* e.&. the &ood and the bad* or a !an and a horse' b"t those $ho hold these (ie$s say that not e(en t$o "nits are 6.

"I% the n"!ber o% the ;-itsel% is not &reater than that o% the 6* this is s"rprisin&' and i% it is &reater* clearly there is also a n"!ber in it e7"al to the 6* so that this is not di%%erent %ro! the 6-itsel%. B"t this is not possible* i% there is a %irst and a second n"!ber. ".or $ill the Ideas be n"!bers. )or in this partic"lar point they are ri&ht $ho clai! that the "nits !"st be di%%erent* i% there are to be Ideas' as has been said be%ore. )or the )or! is "ni7"e' b"t i% the "nits are not di%%erent* the 6/s and the ;/s also $ill not be di%%erent. This is also the reason $hy they !"st say that $hen $e co"nt th"s-/1*6/-$e do not proceed by addin& to the &i(en n"!ber' %or i% $e do* neither $ill the n"!bers be &enerated %ro! the inde%inite dyad* nor can a n"!ber be an Idea' %or then one Idea $ill be in another* and all )or!s $ill be parts o% one )or!. And so $ith a (ie$ to their hypothesis their state!ents are ri&ht* b"t as a $hole they are $ron&' %or their (ie$ is (ery destr"cti(e* since they $ill ad!it that this 7"estion itsel% a%%ords so!e di%%ic"lty-$hether* $hen $e co"nt and say -1*6*;-$e co"nt by addition or by separate portions. B"t $e do both' and so it is abs"rd to reason bac# %ro! this proble! to so &reat a di%%erence o% essence. Part D " ")irst o% all it is $ell to deter!ine $hat is the di%%erentia o% a n"!ber-and o% a "nit* i% it has a di%%erentia. Lnits !"st di%%er either in 7"antity or in 7"ality' and neither o% these see!s to be possible. B"t n"!ber 7"a n"!ber di%%ers in 7"antity. And i% the "nits also did di%%er in 7"antity* n"!ber $o"ld di%%er %ro! n"!ber* tho"&h e7"al in n"!ber o% "nits. A&ain* are the %irst "nits &reater or s!aller* and do the later ones increase or di!inish< All these are irrational s"ppositions. B"t neither can they di%%er in 7"ality. )or no attrib"te can attach to the!' %or e(en to n"!bers 7"ality is said to belon& a%ter 7"antity. A&ain* 7"ality co"ld not co!e to the! either %ro! the 1 or the dyad' %or the %or!er has no 7"ality* and the latter &i(es 7"antity' %or this entity is $hat !a#es thin&s to be !any. I% the %acts are really other$ise* they sho"ld state this 7"ite at the be&innin& and deter!ine i% possible* re&ardin& the di%%erentia o% the "nit* $hy it !"st e-ist* and* %ailin& this* $hat di%%erentia they !ean. "5(idently then* i% the Ideas are n"!bers* the "nits cannot all be associable* nor can they be inassociable in either o% the t$o $ays. B"t neither is the $ay in $hich so!e others spea# abo"t n"!bers correct. These are those $ho do not thin# there are Ideas* either $itho"t 7"ali%ication or as identi%ied $ith certain n"!bers* b"t thin# the ob0ects o% !athe!atics e-ist and the n"!bers are the %irst o% e-istin& thin&s* and the 1-itsel% is the startin&-point o% the!. It is parado-ical that there sho"ld be a 1 $hich is %irst o% 1/s* as they say* b"t not a 6 $hich is %irst o% 6/s* nor a ; o% ;/s' %or the sa!e reasonin& applies to all. I%* then* the %acts $ith re&ard to n"!ber are so* and one s"pposes !athe!atical n"!ber alone to e-ist* the 1 is not the startin&-point +%or this sort o% 1 !"st di%%er %ro! the-other "nits' and i% this is so* there !"st

also be a 6 $hich is %irst o% 6/s* and si!ilarly $ith the other s"ccessi(e n"!bers,. B"t i% the 1 is the startin&-point* the tr"th abo"t the n"!bers !"st rather be $hat Plato "sed to say* and there !"st be a %irst 6 and ; and n"!bers !"st not be associable $ith one another. B"t i% on the other hand one s"pposes this* !any i!possible res"lts* as $e ha(e said* %ollo$. B"t either this or the other !"st be the case* so that i% neither is* n"!ber cannot e-ist separately. "It is e(ident* also* %ro! this that the third (ersion is the $orst*-the (ie$ ideal and !athe!atical n"!ber is the sa!e. )or t$o !ista#es !"st then !eet in the one opinion. +1, Mathe!atical n"!ber cannot be o% this sort* b"t the holder o% this (ie$ has to spin it o"t by !a#in& s"ppositions pec"liar to hi!sel%. And +6, he !"st also ad!it all the conse7"ences that con%ront those $ho spea# o% n"!ber in the sense o% /)or!s/. "The Pytha&orean (ersion in one $ay a%%ords %e$er di%%ic"lties than those be%ore na!ed* b"t in another $ay has others pec"liar to itsel%. )or not thin#in& o% n"!ber as capable o% e-istin& separately re!o(es !any o% the i!possible conse7"ences' b"t that bodies sho"ld be co!posed o% n"!bers* and that this sho"ld be !athe!atical n"!ber* is i!possible. )or it is not tr"e to spea# o% indi(isible spatial !a&nit"des' and ho$e(er !"ch there !i&ht be !a&nit"des o% this sort* "nits at least ha(e not !a&nit"de' and ho$ can a !a&nit"de be co!posed o% indi(isibles< B"t arith!etical n"!ber* at least* consists o% "nits* $hile these thin#ers identi%y n"!ber $ith real thin&s' at any rate they apply their propositions to bodies as i% they consisted o% those n"!bers. "I%* then* it is necessary* i% n"!ber is a sel%-s"bsistent real thin&* that it sho"ld e-ist in one o% these $ays $hich ha(e been !entioned* and i% it cannot e-ist in any o% these* e(idently n"!ber has no s"ch nat"re as those $ho !a#e it separable set "p %or it. "A&ain* does each "nit co!e %ro! the &reat and the s!all* e7"ali3ed* or one %ro! the s!all* another %ro! the &reat< +a, I% the latter* neither does each thin& contain all the ele!ents* nor are the "nits $itho"t di%%erence' %or in one there is the &reat and in another the s!all* $hich is contrary in its nat"re to the &reat. A&ain* ho$ is it $ith the "nits in the ;-itsel%< One o% the! is an odd "nit. B"t perhaps it is %or this reason that they &i(e 1-itsel% the !iddle place in odd n"!bers. +b, B"t i% each o% the t$o "nits consists o% both the &reat and the s!all* e7"ali3ed* ho$ $ill the 6 $hich is a sin&le thin&* consist o% the &reat and the s!all< Or ho$ $ill it di%%er %ro! the "nit< A&ain* the "nit is prior to the 6' %or $hen it is destroyed the 6 is destroyed. It !"st* then* be the Idea o% an Idea since it is prior to an Idea* and it !"st ha(e co!e into bein& be%ore it. )ro! $hat* then< .ot %ro! the inde%inite dyad* %or its %"nction $as to do"ble. "A&ain* n"!ber !"st be either in%inite or %inite' %or these thin#ers thin# o% n"!ber as capable o% e-istin& separately* so that it is not possible that neither o% those alternati(es sho"ld be tr"e. 1learly it cannot be in%inite' %or in%inite n"!ber is neither odd nor e(en* b"t the &eneration o% n"!bers is al$ays the &eneration either o% an odd or o% an e(en n"!ber' in one $ay* $hen 1 operates on an e(en n"!ber* an odd n"!ber is prod"ced' in another $ay* $hen 6 operates* the n"!bers

&ot %ro! 1 by do"blin& are prod"ced' in another $ay* $hen the odd n"!bers operate* the other e(en n"!bers are prod"ced. A&ain* i% e(ery Idea is an Idea o% so!ethin&* and the n"!bers are Ideas* in%inite n"!ber itsel% $ill be an Idea o% so!ethin&* either o% so!e sensible thin& or o% so!ethin& else. :et this is not possible in (ie$ o% their thesis any !ore than it is reasonable in itsel%* at least i% they arran&e the Ideas as they do. "B"t i% n"!ber is %inite* ho$ %ar does it &o< With re&ard to this not only the %act b"t the reason sho"ld be stated. B"t i% n"!ber &oes only "p to 1@ as so!e say* %irstly the )or!s $ill soon r"n short' e.&. i% ; is !an-hi!sel%* $hat n"!ber $ill be the horse-itsel%< The series o% the n"!bers $hich are the se(eral thin&s-the!sel(es &oes "p to 1@. It !"st* then* be one o% the n"!bers $ithin these li!its' %or it is these that are s"bstances and Ideas. :et they $ill r"n short' %or the (ario"s %or!s o% ani!al $ill o"tn"!ber the!. At the sa!e ti!e it is clear that i% in this $ay the ; is !an-hi!sel%* the other ;/s are so also +%or those in identical n"!bers are si!ilar,* so that there $ill be an in%inite n"!ber o% !en' i% each ; is an Idea* each o% the n"!bers $ill be !an-hi!sel%* and i% not* they $ill at least be !en. And i% the s!aller n"!ber is part o% the &reater +bein& n"!ber o% s"ch a sort that the "nits in the sa!e n"!ber are associable,* then i% the =-itsel% is an Idea o% so!ethin&* e.&. o% /horse/ or o% /$hite/* !an $ill be a part o% horse* i% !an is It is parado-ical also that there sho"ld be an Idea o% 1@ b"t not o% 11* nor o% the s"cceedin& n"!bers. A&ain* there both are and co!e to be certain thin&s o% $hich there are no )or!s' $hy* then* are there not )or!s o% the! also< We in%er that the )or!s are not ca"ses. A&ain* it is parado-icali% the n"!ber series "p to 1@ is !ore o% a real thin& and a )or! than 1@ itsel%. There is no &eneration o% the %or!er as one thin&* and there is o% the latter. B"t they try to $or# on the ass"!ption that the series o% n"!bers "p to 1@ is a co!plete series. At least they &enerate the deri(ati(es-e.&. the (oid* proportion* the odd* and the others o% this #ind-$ithin the decade. )or so!e thin&s* e.&. !o(e!ent and rest* &ood and bad* they assi&n to the ori&inati(e principles* and the others to the n"!bers. This is $hy they identi%y the odd $ith 1' %or i% the odd i!plied ; ho$ $o"ld ? be odd< A&ain* spatial !a&nit"des and all s"ch thin&s are e-plained $itho"t &oin& beyond a de%inite n"!ber' e.&. the %irst* the indi(isible* line* then the 6 Kc.' these entities also e-tend only "p to 1@. "A&ain* i% n"!ber can e-ist separately* one !i&ht as# $hich is prior1* or ; or 6< Inas!"ch as the n"!ber is co!posite* 1 is prior* b"t inas!"ch as the "ni(ersal and the %or! is prior* the n"!ber is prior' %or each o% the "nits is part o% the n"!ber as its !atter* and the n"!ber acts as %or!. And in a sense the ri&ht an&le is prior to the ac"te* beca"se it is deter!inate and in (irt"e o% its de%inition' b"t in a sense the ac"te is prior* beca"se it is a part and the ri&ht an&le is di(ided into ac"te an&les. As !atter* then* the ac"te an&le and the ele!ent and the "nit are prior* b"t in respect o% the %or! and o% the s"bstance as e-pressed in the de%inition* the ri&ht an&le* and the $hole consistin& o% the !atter and the %or!* are prior' %or the concrete thin& is nearer to the %or! and to $hat is e-pressed in the de%inition* tho"&h in &eneration it is later. 4o$ then is 1 the startin&-point< Beca"se it is not di(isiable* they say' b"t both

the "ni(ersal* and the partic"lar or the ele!ent* are indi(isible. B"t they are startin&-points in di%%erent $ays* one in de%inition and the other in ti!e. In $hich $ay* then* is 1 the startin&-point< As has been said* the ri&ht an&le is tho"&ht to be prior to the ac"te* and the ac"te to the ri&ht* and each is one. Accordin&ly they !a#e 1 the startin&-point in both $ays. B"t this is i!possible. )or the "ni(ersal is one as %or! or s"bstance* $hile the ele!ent is one as a part or as !atter. )or each o% the t$o is in a sense one-in tr"th each o% the t$o "nits e-ists potentially +at least i% the n"!ber is a "nity and not li#e a heap* i.e. i% di%%erent n"!bers consist o% di%%erentiated "nits* as they say,* b"t not in co!plete reality' and the ca"se o% the error they %ell into is that they $ere cond"ctin& their in7"iry at the sa!e ti!e %ro! the standpoint o% !athe!atics and %ro! that o% "ni(ersal de%initions* so that +1, %ro! the %or!er standpoint they treated "nity* their %irst principle* as a point' %or the "nit is a point $itho"t position. They p"t thin&s to&ether o"t o% the s!allest parts* as so!e others also ha(e done. There%ore the "nit beco!es the !atter o% n"!bers and at the sa!e ti!e prior to 6' and a&ain posterior* 6 bein& treated as a $hole* a "nity* and a %or!. B"t +6, beca"se they $ere see#in& the "ni(ersal they treated the "nity $hich can be predicated o% a n"!ber* as in this sense also a part o% the n"!ber. B"t these characteristics cannot belon& at the sa!e ti!e to the sa!e thin&. "I% the 1-itsel% !"st be "nitary +%or it di%%ers in nothin& %ro! other 1/s e-cept that it is the startin&-point,* and the 6 is di(isible b"t the "nit is not* the "nit !"st be li#er the 1-itsel% than the 6 is. B"t i% the "nit is li#er it* it !"st be li#er to the "nit than to the 6' there%ore each o% the "nits in 6 !"st be prior to the 6. B"t they deny this' at least they &enerate the 6 %irst. A&ain* i% the 6-itsel% is a "nity and the ;-itsel% is one also* both %or! a 6. )ro! $hat* then* is this 6 prod"ced< Part E "2ince there is not contact in n"!bers* b"t s"ccession* (i3. bet$een the "nits bet$een $hich there is nothin&* e.&. bet$een those in 6 or in ; one !i&ht as# $hether these s"cceed the 1-itsel% or not* and $hether* o% the ter!s that s"cceed it* 6 or either o% the "nits in 6 is prior. "2i!ilar di%%ic"lties occ"r $ith re&ard to the classes o% thin&s posterior to n"!ber*-the line* the plane* and the solid. )or so!e constr"ct these o"t o% the species o% the /&reat and s!all/' e.&. lines %ro! the /lon& and short/* planes %ro! the /broad and narro$/* !asses %ro! the /deep and shallo$/' $hich are species o% the /&reat and s!all/. And the ori&inati(e principle o% s"ch thin&s $hich ans$ers to the 1 di%%erent thin#ers describe in di%%erent $ays* And in these also the i!possibilities* the %ictions* and the contradictions o% all probability are seen to be inn"!erable. )or +i, &eo!etrical classes are se(ered %ro! one another* "nless the principles o% these are i!plied in one another in s"ch a $ay that the /broad and narro$/ is also /lon& and short/ +b"t i% this is so* the plane $ill be line and the solid a plane' a&ain* ho$ $ill an&les and %i&"res and s"ch thin&s be e-plained<,.

And +ii, the sa!e happens as in re&ard to n"!ber' %or /lon& and short/* Kc.* are attrib"tes o% !a&nit"de* b"t !a&nit"de does not consist o% these* any !ore than the line consists o% /strai&ht and c"r(ed/* or solids o% /s!ooth and ro"&h/. "+All these (ie$s share a di%%ic"lty $hich occ"rs $ith re&ard to species-o%-a-&en"s* $hen one posits the "ni(ersals* (i3. $hether it is ani!al-itsel% or so!ethin& other than ani!al-itsel% that is in the partic"lar ani!al. Tr"e* i% the "ni(ersal is not separable %ro! sensible thin&s* this $ill present no di%%ic"lty' b"t i% the 1 and the n"!bers are separable* as those $ho e-press these (ie$s say* it is not easy to sol(e the di%%ic"lty* i% one !ay apply the $ords /not easy/ to the i!possible. )or $hen $e apprehend the "nity in 6* or in &eneral in a n"!ber* do $e apprehend a thin&-itsel% or so!ethin& else<,. "2o!e* then* &enerate spatial !a&nit"des %ro! !atter o% this sort* others %ro! the point -and the point is tho"&ht by the! to be not 1 b"t so!ethin& li#e 1-and %ro! other !atter li#e pl"rality* b"t not identical $ith it' abo"t $hich principles none the less the sa!e di%%ic"lties occ"r. )or i% the !atter is one* line and plane-and soli $ill be the sa!e' %or %ro! the sa!e ele!ents $ill co!e one and the sa!e thin&. B"t i% the !atters are !ore than one* and there is one %or the line and a second %or the plane and another %or the solid* they either are i!plied in one another or not* so that the sa!e res"lts $ill %ollo$ e(en so' %or either the plane $ill not contain a line or it $ill he a line. "A&ain* ho$ n"!ber can consist o% the one and pl"rality* they !a#e no atte!pt to e-plain' b"t ho$e(er they e-press the!sel(es* the sa!e ob0ections arise as con%ront those $ho constr"ct n"!ber o"t o% the one and the inde%inite dyad. )or the one (ie$ &enerates n"!ber %ro! the "ni(ersally predicated pl"rality* and not %ro! a partic"lar pl"rality' and the other &enerates it %ro! a partic"lar pl"rality* b"t the %irst' %or 6 is said to be a /%irst pl"rality/. There%ore there is practically no di%%erence* b"t the sa!e di%%ic"lties $ill %ollo$*-is it inter!i-t"re or position or blendin& or &eneration< and so on. Abo(e all one !i&ht press the 7"estion /i% each "nit is one* $hat does it co!e %ro!</ 1ertainly each is not the one-itsel%. It !"st* then* co!e %ro! the one itsel% and pl"rality* or a part o% pl"rality. To say that the "nit is a pl"rality is i!possible* %or it is indi(isible' and to &enerate it %ro! a part o% pl"rality in(ol(es !any other ob0ections' %or +a, each o% the parts !"st be indi(isible +or it $ill be a pl"rality and the "nit $ill be di(isible, and the ele!ents $ill not be the one and pl"rality' %or the sin&le "nits do not co!e %ro! pl"rality and the one. A&ain* +*the holder o% this (ie$ does nothin& b"t pres"ppose another n"!ber' %or his pl"rality o% indi(isibles is a n"!ber. A&ain* $e !"st in7"ire* in (ie$ o% this theory also* $hether the n"!ber is in%inite or %inite. )or there $as at %irst* as it see!s* a pl"rality that $as itsel% %inite* %ro! $hich and %ro! the one co!es the %inite n"!ber o% "nits. And there is another pl"rality that is pl"rality-itsel% and in%inite pl"rality' $hich sort o% pl"rality* then* is the ele!ent $hich co-operates $ith the one< One !i&ht in7"ire si!ilarly abo"t the point* i.e. the ele!ent o"t o% $hich they !a#e spatial !a&nit"des.

)or s"rely this is not the one and only point' at any rate* then* let the! say o"t o% $hat each o% the points is %or!ed. 1ertainly not o% so!e distance I the point-itsel%. .or a&ain can there be indi(isible parts o% a distance* as the ele!ents o"t o% $hich the "nits are said to be !ade are indi(isible parts o% pl"rality' %or n"!ber consists o% indi(isibles* b"t spatial !a&nit"des do not. "All these ob0ections* then* and others o% the sort !a#e it e(ident that n"!ber and spatial !a&nit"des cannot e-ist apart %ro! thin&s. A&ain* the discord abo"t n"!bers bet$een the (ario"s (ersions is a si&n that it is the incorrectness o% the alle&ed %acts the!sel(es that brin&s con%"sion into the theories. )or those $ho !a#e the ob0ects o% !athe!atics alone e-ist apart %ro! sensible thin&s* seein& the di%%ic"lty abo"t the )or!s and their %ictitio"sness* abandoned ideal n"!ber and posited !athe!atical. B"t those $ho $ished to !a#e the )or!s at the sa!e ti!e also n"!bers* b"t did not see* i% one ass"!ed these principles* ho$ !athe!atical n"!ber $as to e-ist apart %ro! ideal* !ade ideal and !athe!atical n"!ber the sa!e-in $ords* since in %act !athe!atical n"!ber has been destroyed' %or they state hypotheses pec"liar to the!sel(es and not those o% !athe!atics. And he $ho %irst s"pposed that the )or!s e-ist and that the )or!s are n"!bers and that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics e-ist* nat"rally separated the t$o. There%ore it t"rns o"t that all o% the! are ri&ht in so!e respect* b"t on the $hole not ri&ht. And they the!sel(es con%ir! this* %or their state!ents do not a&ree b"t con%lict. The ca"se is that their hypotheses and their principles are %alse. And it is hard to !a#e a &ood case o"t o% bad !aterials* accordin& to 5pichar!"s> /as soon as /tis said* /tis seen to be $ron&./ "B"t re&ardin& n"!bers the 7"estions $e ha(e raised and the concl"sions $e ha(e reached are s"%%icient +%or $hile he $ho is already con(inced !i&ht be %"rther con(inced by a lon&er disc"ssion* one not yet con(inced $o"ld not co!e any nearer to con(iction,' re&ardin& the %irst principles and the %irst ca"ses and ele!ents* the (ie$s e-pressed by those $ho disc"ss only sensible s"bstance ha(e been partly stated in o"r $or#s on nat"re* and partly do not belon& to the present in7"iry' b"t the (ie$s o% those $ho assert that there are other s"bstances besides the sensible !"st be considered ne-t a%ter those $e ha(e been !entionin&. 2ince* then* so!e say that the Ideas and the n"!bers are s"ch s"bstances* and that the ele!ents o% these are ele!ents and principles o% real thin&s* $e !"st in7"ire re&ardin& these $hat they say and in $hat sense they say it. "Those $ho posit n"!bers only* and these !athe!atical* !"st be considered later' b"t as re&ards those $ho belie(e in the Ideas one !i&ht s"r(ey at the sa!e ti!e their $ay o% thin#in& and the di%%ic"lty into $hich they %all. )or they at the sa!e ti!e !a#e the Ideas "ni(ersal and a&ain treat the! as separable and as indi(id"als. That this is not possible has been ar&"ed be%ore. The reason $hy those $ho described their s"bstances as "ni(ersal co!bined these t$o characteristics in one thin&* is that they did not !a#e s"bstances identical $ith sensible thin&s. They tho"&ht that the partic"lars in the sensible $orld $ere a state o% %l"- and none o% the! re!ained* b"t that the "ni(ersal

$as apart %ro! these and so!ethin& di%%erent. And 2ocrates &a(e the i!p"lse to this theory* as $e said in o"r earlier disc"ssion* by reason o% his de%initions* b"t he did not separate "ni(ersals %ro! indi(id"als' and in this he tho"&ht ri&htly* in not separatin& the!. This is plain %ro! the res"lts' %or $itho"t the "ni(ersal it is not possible to &et #no$led&e* b"t the separation is the ca"se o% the ob0ections that arise $ith re&ard to the Ideas. 4is s"ccessors* ho$e(er* treatin& it as necessary* i% there are to be any s"bstances besides the sensible and transient s"bstances* that they !"st be separable* had no others* b"t &a(e separate e-istence to these "ni(ersally predicated s"bstances* so that it %ollo$ed that "ni(ersals and indi(id"als $ere al!ost the sa!e sort o% thin&. This in itsel%* then* $o"ld be one di%%ic"lty in the (ie$ $e ha(e !entioned. Part 1@ " " et "s no$ !ention a point $hich presents a certain di%%ic"lty both to those $ho belie(e in the Ideas and to those $ho do not* and $hich $as stated be%ore* at the be&innin&* a!on& the proble!s. I% $e do not s"ppose s"bstances to be separate* and in the $ay in $hich indi(id"al thin&s are said to be separate* $e shall destroy s"bstance in the sense in $hich $e "nderstand /s"bstance/' b"t i% $e concei(e s"bstances to be separable* ho$ are $e to concei(e their ele!ents and their principles< "I% they are indi(id"al and not "ni(ersal* +a, real thin&s $ill be 0"st o% the sa!e n"!ber as the ele!ents* and +b, the ele!ents $ill not be #no$able. )or +a, let the syllables in speech be s"bstances* and their ele!ents ele!ents o% s"bstances' then there !"st be only one /ba/ and one o% each o% the syllables* since they are not "ni(ersal and the sa!e in %or! b"t each is one in n"!ber and a /this/ and not a #ind possessed o% a co!!on na!e +and a&ain they s"ppose that the /0"st $hat a thin& is/ is in each case one,. And i% the syllables are "ni7"e* so too are the parts o% $hich they consist' there $ill not* then* be !ore a/s than one* nor !ore than one o% any o% the other ele!ents* on the sa!e principle on $hich an identical syllable cannot e-ist in the pl"ral n"!ber. B"t i% this is so* there $ill not be other thin&s e-istin& besides the ele!ents* b"t only the ele!ents. "+b, A&ain* the ele!ents $ill not be e(en #no$able' %or they are not "ni(ersal* and #no$led&e is o% "ni(ersals. This is clear %ro! de!onstrations and %ro! de%initions' %or $e do not concl"de that this trian&le has its an&les e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les* "nless e(ery trian&le has its an&les e7"al to t$o ri&ht an&les* nor that this !an is an ani!al* "nless e(ery !an is an ani!al. "B"t i% the principles are "ni(ersal* either the s"bstances co!posed o% the! are also "ni(ersal* or non-s"bstance $ill be prior to s"bstance' %or the "ni(ersal is not a s"bstance* b"t the ele!ent or principle is "ni(ersal* and the ele!ent or principle is prior to the thin&s o% $hich it is the principle or ele!ent. "All these di%%ic"lties %ollo$ nat"rally* $hen they !a#e the Ideas o"t o% ele!ents and at the sa!e ti!e clai! that apart %ro! the s"bstances

$hich ha(e the sa!e %or! there are Ideas* a sin&le separate entity. B"t i%* e.&. in the case o% the ele!ents o% speech* the a/s and the b/s !ay 7"ite $ell be !any and there need be no a-itsel% and b-itsel% besides the !any* there !ay be* so %ar as this &oes* an in%inite n"!ber o% si!ilar syllables. The state!ent that an #no$led&e is "ni(ersal* so that the principles o% thin&s !"st also be "ni(ersal and not separate s"bstances* presents indeed* o% all the points $e ha(e !entioned* the &reatest di%%ic"lty* b"t yet the state!ent is in a sense tr"e* altho"&h in a sense it is not. )or #no$led&e* li#e the (erb /to #no$/* !eans t$o thin&s* o% $hich one is potential and one act"al. The potency* bein&* as !atter* "ni(ersal and inde%inite* deals $ith the "ni(ersal and inde%inite' b"t the act"ality* bein& de%inite* deals $ith a de%inite ob0ect* bein& a /this/* it deals $ith a /this/. B"t per accidens si&ht sees "ni(ersal colo"r* beca"se this indi(id"al colo"r $hich it sees is colo"r' and this indi(id"al a $hich the &ra!!arian in(esti&ates is an a. )or i% the principles !"st be "ni(ersal* $hat is deri(ed %ro! the! !"st also be "ni(ersal* as in de!onstrations' and i% this is so* there $ill be nothin& capable o% separate e-istence-i.e. no s"bstance. B"t e(idently in a sense #no$led&e is "ni(ersal* and in a sense it is not. ---------------------------------------------------------------------BOOK AIG Part 1 " "R59ARDI.9 this #ind o% s"bstance* $hat $e ha(e said !"st be ta#en as s"%%icient. All philosophers !a#e the %irst principles contraries> as in nat"ral thin&s* so also in the case o% "nchan&eable s"bstances. B"t since there cannot be anythin& prior to the %irst principle o% all thin&s* the principle cannot be the principle and yet be an attrib"te o% so!ethin& else. To s"&&est this is li#e sayin& that the $hite is a %irst principle* not 7"a anythin& else b"t 7"a $hite* b"t yet that it is predicable o% a s"b0ect* i.e. that its bein& $hite pres"pposes its bein& so!ethin& else' this is abs"rd* %or then that s"b0ect $ill be prior. B"t all thin&s $hich are &enerated %ro! their contraries in(ol(e an "nderlyin& s"b0ect' a s"b0ect* then* !"st be present in the case o% contraries* i% any$here. All contraries* then* are al$ays predicable o% a s"b0ect* and none can e-ist apart* b"t 0"st as appearances s"&&est that there is nothin& contrary to s"bstance* ar&"!ent con%ir!s this. .o contrary* then* is the %irst principle o% all thin&s in the %"ll sense' the %irst principle is so!ethin& di%%erent. "B"t these thin#ers !a#e one o% the contraries !atter* so!e !a#in& the "ne7"al $hich they ta#e to be the essence o% pl"rality-!atter %or the One* and others !a#in& pl"rality !atter %or the One. +The %or!er &enerate n"!bers o"t o% the dyad o% the "ne7"al* i.e. o% the &reat and s!all* and the other thin#er $e ha(e re%erred to &enerates the! o"t o% pl"rality* $hile accordin& to both it is &enerated by the essence o% the One., )or e(en the philosopher $ho says the "ne7"al and the One are the ele!ents* and the "ne7"al is a dyad co!posed o% the &reat and s!all* treats the "ne7"al* or the &reat and the s!all*

as bein& one* and does not dra$ the distinction that they are one in de%inition* b"t not in n"!ber. B"t they do not describe ri&htly e(en the principles $hich they call ele!ents* %or so!e na!e the &reat and the s!all $ith the One and treat these three as ele!ents o% n"!bers* t$o bein& !atter* one the %or!' $hile others na!e the !any and %e$* beca"se the &reat and the s!all are !ore appropriate in their nat"re to !a&nit"de than to n"!ber' and others na!e rather the "ni(ersal character co!!on to these-/that $hich e-ceeds and that $hich is e-ceeded/. .one o% these (arieties o% opinion !a#es any di%%erence to spea# o%* in (ie$ o% so!e o% the conse7"ences' they a%%ect only the abstract ob0ections* $hich these thin#ers ta#e care to a(oid beca"se the de!onstrations they the!sel(es o%%er are abstract*-$ith this e-ception* that i% the e-ceedin& and the e-ceeded are the principles* and not the &reat and the s!all* consistency re7"ires that n"!ber sho"ld co!e %ro! the ele!ents be%ore does' %or n"!ber is !ore "ni(ersal than as the e-ceedin& and the e-ceeded are !ore "ni(ersal than the &reat and the s!all. B"t as it is* they say one o% these thin&s b"t do not say the other. Others oppose the di%%erent and the other to the One* and others oppose pl"rality to the One. B"t i%* as they clai!* thin&s consist o% contraries* and to the One either there is nothin& contrary* or i% there is to be anythin& it is pl"rality* and the "ne7"al is contrary to the e7"al* and the di%%erent to the sa!e* and the other to the thin& itsel%* those $ho oppose the One to pl"rality ha(e !ost clai! to pla"sibility* b"t e(en their (ie$ is inade7"ate* %or the One $o"ld on their (ie$ be a %e$' %or pl"rality is opposed to %e$ness* and the !any to the %e$. "/The one/ e(idently !eans a !eas"re. And in e(ery case there is so!e "nderlyin& thin& $ith a distinct nat"re o% its o$n* e.&. in the scale a 7"arter-tone* in spatial !a&nit"de a %in&er or a %oot or so!ethin& o% the sort* in rhyth!s a beat or a syllable' and si!ilarly in &ra(ity it is a de%inite $ei&ht' and in the sa!e $ay in all cases* in 7"alities a 7"ality* in 7"antities a 7"antity +and the !eas"re is indi(isible* in the %or!er case in #ind* and in the latter to the sense,' $hich i!plies that the one is not in itsel% the s"bstance o% anythin&. And this is reasonable' %or /the one/ !eans the !eas"re o% so!e pl"rality* and /n"!ber/ !eans a !eas"red pl"rality and a pl"rality o% !eas"res. +Th"s it is nat"ral that one is not a n"!ber' %or the !eas"re is not !eas"res* b"t both the !eas"re and the one are startin&-points., The !eas"re !"st al$ays be so!e identical thin& predicable o% all the thin&s it !eas"res* e.&. i% the thin&s are horses* the !eas"re is /horse/* and i% they are !en* /!an/. I% they are a !an* a horse* and a &od* the !eas"re is perhaps /li(in& bein&/* and the n"!ber o% the! $ill be a n"!ber o% li(in& bein&s. I% the thin&s are /!an/ and /pale/ and /$al#in&/* these $ill scarcely ha(e a n"!ber* beca"se all belon& to a s"b0ect $hich is one and the sa!e in n"!ber* yet the n"!ber o% these $ill be a n"!ber o% /#inds/ or o% so!e s"ch ter!. "Those $ho treat the "ne7"al as one thin&* and the dyad as an inde%inite co!po"nd o% &reat and s!all* say $hat is (ery %ar %ro! bein& probable or possible. )or +a, these are !odi%ications and accidents* rather than s"bstrata* o% n"!bers and !a&nit"des-the !any and %e$ o% n"!ber* and the &reat and s!all o% !a&nit"de-li#e e(en and odd* s!ooth and

ro"&h* strai&ht and c"r(ed. A&ain* +b, apart %ro! this !ista#e* the &reat and the s!all* and so on* !"st be relati(e to so!ethin&' b"t $hat is relati(e is least o% all thin&s a #ind o% entity or s"bstance* and is posterior to 7"ality and 7"antity' and the relati(e is an accident o% 7"antity* as $as said* not its !atter* since so!ethin& $ith a distinct nat"re o% its o$n !"st ser(e as !atter both to the relati(e in &eneral and to its parts and #inds. )or there is nothin& either &reat or s!all* !any or %e$* or* in &eneral* relati(e to so!ethin& else* $hich $itho"t ha(in& a nat"re o% its o$n is !any or %e$* &reat or s!all* or relati(e to so!ethin& else. A si&n that the relati(e is least o% all a s"bstance and a real thin& is the %act that it alone has no proper &eneration or destr"ction or !o(e!ent* as in respect o% 7"antity there is increase and di!in"tion* in respect o% 7"ality alteration* in respect o% place loco!otion* in respect o% s"bstance si!ple &eneration and destr"ction. In respect o% relation there is no proper chan&e' %or* $itho"t chan&in&* a thin& $ill be no$ &reater and no$ less or e7"al* i% that $ith $hich it is co!pared has chan&ed in 7"antity. And +c, the !atter o% each thin&* and there%ore o% s"bstance* !"st be that $hich is potentially o% the nat"re in 7"estion' b"t the relati(e is neither potentially nor act"ally s"bstance. It is stran&e* then* or rather i!possible* to !a#e not-s"bstance an ele!ent in* and prior to* s"bstance' %or all the cate&ories are posterior to s"bstance. A&ain* +d, ele!ents are not predicated o% the thin&s o% $hich they are ele!ents* b"t !any and %e$ are predicated both apart and to&ether o% n"!ber* and lon& and short o% the line* and both broad and narro$ apply to the plane. I% there is a pl"rality* then* o% $hich the one ter!* (i3. %e$* is al$ays predicated* e.&. 6 +$hich cannot be !any* %or i% it $ere !any* 1 $o"ld be %e$,* there !"st be also one $hich is absol"tely !any* e.&. 1@ is !any +i% there is no n"!ber $hich is &reater than 1@,* or 1@*@@@. 4o$ then* in (ie$ o% this* can n"!ber consist o% %e$ and !any< 5ither both o"&ht to be predicated o% it* or neither' b"t in %act only the one or the other is predicated. Part 6 " "We !"st in7"ire &enerally* $hether eternal thin&s can consist o% ele!ents. I% they do* they $ill ha(e !atter' %or e(erythin& that consists o% ele!ents is co!posite. 2ince* then* e(en i% a thin& e-ists %or e(er* o"t o% that o% $hich it consists it $o"ld necessarily also* i% it had co!e into bein&* ha(e co!e into bein&* and since e(erythin& co!es to be $hat it co!es to be o"t o% that $hich is it potentially +%or it co"ld not ha(e co!e to be o"t o% that $hich had not this capacity* nor co"ld it consist o% s"ch ele!ents,* and since the potential can be either act"al or not*-this bein& so* ho$e(er e(erlastin& n"!ber or anythin& else that has !atter is* it !"st be capable o% not e-istin&* 0"st as that $hich is any n"!ber o% years old is as capable o% not e-istin& as that $hich is a day old' i% this is capable o% not e-istin&* so is that $hich has lasted %or a ti!e so lon& that it has no li!it. They cannot* then* be eternal* since that $hich is capable o% not e-istin& is not eternal* as $e had occasion to sho$ in another conte-t. I% that $hich $e are no$ sayin& is tr"e "ni(ersally-that no s"bstance is eternal "nless it is act"ality-and i% the ele!ents are !atter that "nderlies s"bstance* no eternal s"bstance can ha(e ele!ents present

in it* o% $hich it consists. "There are so!e $ho describe the ele!ent $hich acts $ith the One as an inde%inite dyad* and ob0ect to /the "ne7"al/* reasonably eno"&h* beca"se o% the ens"in& di%%ic"lties' b"t they ha(e &ot rid only o% those ob0ections $hich ine(itably arise %ro! the treat!ent o% the "ne7"al* i.e. the relati(e* as an ele!ent' those $hich arise apart %ro! this opinion !"st con%ront e(en these thin#ers* $hether it is ideal n"!ber* or !athe!atical* that they constr"ct o"t o% those ele!ents. "There are !any ca"ses $hich led the! o%% into these e-planations* and especially the %act that they %ra!ed the di%%ic"lty in an obsolete %or!. )or they tho"&ht that all thin&s that are $o"ld be one +(i3. Bein& itsel%,* i% one did not 0oin iss"e $ith and re%"te the sayin& o% Par!enides> " "/)or ne(er $ill this he pro(ed* that thin&s that are not are./ " "They tho"&ht it necessary to pro(e that that $hich is not is' %or only th"s-o% that $hich is and so!ethin& else-co"ld the thin&s that are be co!posed* i% they are !any. "B"t* %irst* i% /bein&/ has !any senses +%or it !eans so!eti!es s"bstance* so!eti!es that it is o% a certain 7"ality* so!eti!es that it is o% a certain 7"antity* and at other ti!es the other cate&ories,* $hat sort o% /one/* then* are all the thin&s that are* i% non-bein& is to be s"pposed not to be< Is it the s"bstances that are one* or the a%%ections and si!ilarly the other cate&ories as $ell* or all to&etherso that the /this/ and the /s"ch/ and the /so !"ch/ and the other cate&ories that indicate each so!e one class o% bein& $ill all be one< B"t it is stran&e* or rather i!possible* that the co!in& into play o% a sin&le thin& sho"ld brin& it abo"t that part o% that $hich is is a /this/* part a /s"ch/* part a /so !"ch/* part a /here/. "2econdly* o% $hat sort o% non-bein& and bein& do the thin&s that are consist< )or /nonbein&/ also has !any senses* since /bein&/ has' and /not bein& a !an/ !eans not bein& a certain s"bstance* /not bein& strai&ht/ not bein& o% a certain 7"ality* /not bein& three c"bits lon&/ not bein& o% a certain 7"antity. What sort o% bein& and non-bein&* then* by their "nion pl"rali3e the thin&s that are< This thin#er !eans by the non-bein& the "nion o% $hich $ith bein& pl"rali3es the thin&s that are* the %alse and the character o% %alsity. This is also $hy it "sed to be said that $e !"st ass"!e so!ethin& that is %alse* as &eo!eters ass"!e the line $hich is not a %oot lon& to be a %oot lon&. B"t this cannot be so. )or neither do &eo!eters ass"!e anythin& %alse +%or the en"nciation is e-traneo"s to the in%erence,* nor is it nonbein& in this sense that the thin&s that are are &enerated %ro! or resol(ed into. B"t since /non-bein&/ ta#en in its (ario"s cases has as !any senses as there are cate&ories* and besides this the %alse is said not to be* and so is the potential* it is %ro! this that &eneration proceeds* !an %ro! that $hich is not !an b"t potentially !an* and

$hite %ro! that $hich is not $hite b"t potentially $hite* and this $hether it is so!e one thin& that is &enerated or !any. "The 7"estion e(idently is* ho$ bein&* in the sense o% /the s"bstances/* is !any' %or the thin&s that are &enerated are n"!bers and lines and bodies. .o$ it is stran&e to in7"ire ho$ bein& in the sense o% the /$hat/ is !any* and not ho$ either 7"alities or 7"antities are !any. )or s"rely the inde%inite dyad or /the &reat and the s!all/ is not a reason $hy there sho"ld be t$o #inds o% $hite or !any colo"rs or %la(o"rs or shapes' %or then these also $o"ld be n"!bers and "nits. B"t i% they had attac#ed these other cate&ories* they $o"ld ha(e seen the ca"se o% the pl"rality in s"bstances also' %or the sa!e thin& or so!ethin& analo&o"s is the ca"se. This aberration is the reason also $hy in see#in& the opposite o% bein& and the one* %ro! $hich $ith bein& and the one the thin&s that are proceed* they posited the relati(e ter! +i.e. the "ne7"al,* $hich is neither the contrary nor the contradictory o% these* and is one #ind o% bein& as /$hat/ and 7"ality also are. "They sho"ld ha(e as#ed this 7"estion also* ho$ relati(e ter!s are !any and not one. B"t as it is* they in7"ire ho$ there are !any "nits besides the %irst 1* b"t do not &o on to in7"ire ho$ there are !any "ne7"als besides the "ne7"al. :et they "se the! and spea# o% &reat and s!all* !any and %e$ +%ro! $hich proceed n"!bers,* lon& and short +%ro! $hich proceeds the line,* broad and narro$ +%ro! $hich proceeds the plane,* deep and shallo$ +%ro! $hich proceed solids,' and they spea# o% yet !ore #inds o% relati(e ter!. What is the reason* then* $hy there is a pl"rality o% these< "It is necessary* then* as $e say* to pres"ppose %or each thin& that $hich is it potentially' and the holder o% these (ie$s %"rther declared $hat that is $hich is potentially a /this/ and a s"bstance b"t is not in itsel% bein&-(i3. that it is the relati(e +as i% he had said /the 7"alitati(e/,* $hich is neither potentially the one or bein&* nor the ne&ation o% the one nor o% bein&* b"t one a!on& bein&s. And it $as !"ch !ore necessary* as $e said* i% he $as in7"irin& ho$ bein&s are !any* not to in7"ire abo"t those in the sa!e cate&ory-ho$ there are !any s"bstances or !any 7"alities-b"t ho$ bein&s as a $hole are !any' %or so!e are s"bstances* so!e !odi%ications* so!e relations. In the cate&ories other than s"bstance there is yet another proble! in(ol(ed in the e-istence o% pl"rality. 2ince they are not separable %ro! s"bstances* 7"alities and 7"antities are !any 0"st beca"se their s"bstrat"! beco!es and is !any' yet there o"&ht to be a !atter %or each cate&ory' only it cannot be separable %ro! s"bstances. B"t in the case o% /thises/* it is possible to e-plain ho$ the /this/ is !any thin&s* "nless a thin& is to be treated as both a /this/ and a &eneral character. The di%%ic"lty arisin& %ro! the %acts abo"t s"bstances is rather this* ho$ there are act"ally !any s"bstances and not one. "B"t %"rther* i% the /this/ and the 7"antitati(e are not the sa!e* $e are not told ho$ and $hy the thin&s that are are !any* b"t ho$ 7"antities are !any. )or all /n"!ber/ !eans a 7"antity* and so does the /"nit/* "nless it !eans a !eas"re or the 7"antitati(ely indi(isible. I%* then* the 7"antitati(e and the /$hat/ are di%%erent* $e are not told $hence or ho$ the /$hat/ is !any' b"t i% any one says they are the sa!e* he has to %ace !any inconsistencies.

"One !i&ht %i- one/s attention also on the 7"estion* re&ardin& the n"!bers* $hat 0"sti%ies the belie% that they e-ist. To the belie(er in Ideas they pro(ide so!e sort o% ca"se %or e-istin& thin&s* since each n"!ber is an Idea* and the Idea is to other thin&s so!eho$ or other the ca"se o% their bein&' %or let this s"pposition be &ranted the!. B"t as %or hi! $ho does not hold this (ie$ beca"se he sees the inherent ob0ections to the Ideas +so that it is not %or this reason that he posits n"!bers,* b"t $ho posits !athe!atical n"!ber* $hy !"st $e belie(e his state!ent that s"ch n"!ber e-ists* and o% $hat "se is s"ch n"!ber to other thin&s< .either does he $ho says it e-ists !aintain that it is the ca"se o% anythin& +he rather says it is a thin& e-istin& by itsel%,* nor is it obser(ed to be the ca"se o% anythin&' %or the theore!s o% arith!eticians $ill all be %o"nd tr"e e(en o% sensible thin&s* as $as said be%ore. Part ; " "As %or those* then* $ho s"ppose the Ideas to e-ist and to be n"!bers* by their ass"!ption in (irt"e o% the !ethod o% settin& o"t each ter! apart %ro! its instances-o% the "nity o% each &eneral ter! they try at least to e-plain so!eho$ $hy n"!ber !"st e-ist. 2ince their reasons* ho$e(er* are neither concl"si(e nor in the!sel(es possible* one !"st not* %or these reasons at least* assert the e-istence o% n"!ber. A&ain* the Pytha&oreans* beca"se they sa$ !any attrib"tes o% n"!bers belon&in& te sensible bodies* s"pposed real thin&s to be n"!bers-not separable n"!bers* ho$e(er* b"t n"!bers o% $hich real thin&s consist. B"t $hy< Beca"se the attrib"tes o% n"!bers are present in a !"sical scale and in the hea(ens and in !any other thin&s. Those* ho$e(er* $ho say that !athe!atical n"!ber alone e-ists cannot accordin& to their hypotheses say anythin& o% this sort* b"t it "sed to be "r&ed that these sensible thin&s co"ld not be the s"b0ect o% the sciences. B"t $e !aintain that they are* as $e said be%ore. And it is e(ident that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics do not e-ist apart' %or i% they e-isted apart their attrib"tes $o"ld not ha(e been present in bodies. .o$ the Pytha&oreans in this point are open to no ob0ection' b"t in that they constr"ct nat"ral bodies o"t o% n"!bers* thin&s that ha(e li&htness and $ei&ht o"t o% thin&s that ha(e not $ei&ht or li&htness* they see! to spea# o% another hea(en and other bodies* not o% the sensible. B"t those $ho !a#e n"!ber separable ass"!e that it both e-ists and is separable beca"se the a-io!s $o"ld not be tr"e o% sensible thin&s* $hile the state!ents o% !athe!atics are tr"e and /&reet the so"l/' and si!ilarly $ith the spatial !a&nit"des o% !athe!atics. It is e(ident* then* both that the ri(al theory $ill say the contrary o% this* and that the di%%ic"lty $e raised 0"st no$* $hy i% n"!bers are in no $ay present in sensible thin&s their attrib"tes are present in sensible thin&s* has to be sol(ed by those $ho hold these (ie$s. "There are so!e $ho* beca"se the point is the li!it and e-tre!e o% the line* the line o% the plane* and the plane o% the solid* thin# there !"st be real thin&s o% this sort. We !"st there%ore e-a!ine this ar&"!ent too* and see $hether it is not re!ar#ably $ea#. )or +i, e-tre!es are not s"bstances* b"t rather all these thin&s are li!its. )or e(en $al#in&* and !o(e!ent in &eneral* has a li!it* so that on their theory this $ill be a /this/ and a s"bstance. B"t that is abs"rd.

.ot b"t $hat +ii, e(en i% they are s"bstances* they $ill all be the s"bstances o% the sensible thin&s in this $orld' %or it is to these that the ar&"!ent applied. Why then sho"ld they be capable o% e-istin& apart< "A&ain* i% $e are not too easily satis%ied* $e !ay* re&ardin& all n"!ber and the ob0ects o% !athe!atics* press this di%%ic"lty* that they contrib"te nothin& to one another* the prior to the posterior' %or i% n"!ber did not e-ist* none the less spatial !a&nit"des $o"ld e-ist %or those $ho !aintain the e-istence o% the ob0ects o% !athe!atics only* and i% spatial !a&nit"des did not e-ist* so"l and sensible bodies $o"ld e-ist. B"t the obser(ed %acts sho$ that nat"re is not a series o% episodes* li#e a bad tra&edy. As %or the belie(ers in the Ideas* this di%%ic"lty !isses the!' %or they constr"ct spatial !a&nit"des o"t o% !atter and n"!ber* lines o"t o% the n"!ber planes do"btless o"t o% solids o"t o% or they "se other n"!bers* $hich !a#es no di%%erence. B"t $ill these !a&nit"des be Ideas* or $hat is their !anner o% e-istence* and $hat do they contrib"te to thin&s< These contrib"te nothin&* as the ob0ects o% !athe!atics contrib"te nothin&. B"t not e(en is any theore! tr"e o% the!* "nless $e $ant to chan&e the ob0ects o% !athe!atics and in(ent doctrines o% o"r o$n. B"t it is not hard to ass"!e any rando! hypotheses and spin o"t a lon& strin& o% concl"sions. These thin#ers* then* are $ron& in this $ay* in $antin& to "nite the ob0ects o% !athe!atics $ith the Ideas. And those $ho %irst posited t$o #inds o% n"!ber* that o% the )or!s and that $hich is !athe!atical* neither ha(e said nor can say ho$ !athe!atical n"!ber is to e-ist and o% $hat it is to consist. )or they place it bet$een ideal and sensible n"!ber. I% +i, it consists o% the &reat and s!all* it $ill be the sa!e as the other-ideal-n"!ber +he !a#es spatial !a&nit"des o"t o% so!e other s!all and &reat,. And i% +ii, he na!es so!e other ele!ent* he $ill be !a#in& his ele!ents rather !any. And i% the principle o% each o% the t$o #inds o% n"!ber is a 1* "nity $ill be so!ethin& co!!on to these* and $e !"st in7"ire ho$ the one is these !any thin&s* $hile at the sa!e ti!e n"!ber* accordin& to hi!* cannot be &enerated e-cept %ro! one and an inde%inite dyad. "All this is abs"rd* and con%licts both $ith itsel% and $ith the probabilities* and $e see! to see in it 2i!onides /lon& ri&!arole/ %or the lon& ri&!arole co!es into play* li#e those o% sla(es* $hen !en ha(e nothin& so"nd to say. And the (ery ele!ents-the &reat and the s!all-see! to cry o"t a&ainst the (iolence that is done to the!' %or they cannot in any $ay &enerate n"!bers other than those &ot %ro! 1 by do"blin&. "It is stran&e also to attrib"te &eneration to thin&s that are eternal* or rather this is one o% the thin&s that are i!possible. There need be no do"bt $hether the Pytha&oreans attrib"te &eneration to the! or not' %or they say plainly that $hen the one had been constr"cted* $hether o"t o% planes or o% s"r%ace or o% seed or o% ele!ents $hich they cannot e-press* i!!ediately the nearest part o% the "nli!ited be&an to be constrained and li!ited by the li!it. B"t since they are constr"ctin& a $orld and $ish to spea# the lan&"a&e o% nat"ral science* it is %air to !a#e so!e e-a!ination o% their physical theorics* b"t

to let the! o%% %ro! the present in7"iry' %or $e are in(esti&atin& the principles at $or# in "nchan&eable thin&s* so that it is n"!bers o% this #ind $hose &enesis $e !"st st"dy. Part = "These thin#ers say there is no &eneration o% the odd n"!ber* $hich e(idently i!plies that there is &eneration o% the e(en' and so!e present the e(en as prod"ced %irst %ro! "ne7"als-the &reat and the s!all-$hen these are e7"ali3ed. The ine7"ality* then* !"st belon& to the! be%ore they are e7"ali3ed. I% they had al$ays been e7"ali3ed* they $o"ld not ha(e been "ne7"al be%ore' %or there is nothin& be%ore that $hich is al$ays. There%ore e(idently they are not &i(in& their acco"nt o% the &eneration o% n"!bers !erely to assist conte!plation o% their nat"re. "A di%%ic"lty* and a reproach to any one $ho %inds it no di%%ic"lty* are contained in the 7"estion ho$ the ele!ents and the principles are related to the &ood and the bea"ti%"l' the di%%ic"lty is this* $hether any o% the ele!ents is s"ch a thin& as $e !ean by the &ood itsel% and the best* or this is not so* b"t these are later in ori&in than the ele!ents. The theolo&ians see! to a&ree $ith so!e thin#ers o% the present day* $ho ans$er the 7"estion in the ne&ati(e* and say that both the &ood and the bea"ti%"l appear in the nat"re o% thin&s only $hen that nat"re has !ade so!e pro&ress. +This they do to a(oid a real ob0ection $hich con%ronts those $ho say* as so!e do* that the one is a %irst principle. The ob0ection arises not %ro! their ascribin& &oodness to the %irst principle as an attrib"te* b"t %ro! their !a#in& the one a principle-and a principle in the sense o% an ele!ent-and &eneratin& n"!ber %ro! the one., The old poets a&ree $ith this inas!"ch as they say that not those $ho are %irst in ti!e* e.&. .i&ht and 4ea(en or 1haos or Ocean* rei&n and r"le* b"t Fe"s. These poets* ho$e(er* are led to spea# th"s only beca"se they thin# o% the r"lers o% the $orld as chan&in&' %or those o% the! $ho co!bine the t$o characters in that they do not "se !ythical lan&"a&e thro"&ho"t* e.&. Pherecydes and so!e others* !a#e the ori&inal &eneratin& a&ent the Best* and so do the Ma&i* and so!e o% the later sa&es also* e.&. both 5!pedocles and Ana-a&oras* o% $ho! one !ade lo(e an ele!ent* and the other !ade reason a principle. O% those $ho !aintain the e-istence o% the "nchan&eable s"bstances so!e say the One itsel% is the &ood itsel%' b"t they tho"&ht its s"bstance lay !ainly in its "nity. "This* then* is the proble!*-$hich o% the t$o $ays o% spea#in& is ri&ht. It $o"ld be stran&e i% to that $hich is pri!ary and eternal and !ost sel%-s"%%icient this (ery 7"ality--sel%-s"%%iciency and sel%!aintenance--belon&s pri!arily in so!e other $ay than as a &ood. B"t indeed it can be %or no other reason indestr"ctible or sel%-s"%%icient than beca"se its nat"re is &ood. There%ore to say that the %irst principle is &ood is probably correct' b"t that this principle sho"ld be the One or* i% not that* at least an ele!ent* and an ele!ent o% n"!bers* is i!possible. Po$er%"l ob0ections arise* to a(oid $hich so!e ha(e &i(en "p the theory +(i3. those $ho a&ree that the One is a %irst principle and ele!ent* b"t only o% !athe!atical n"!ber,. )or on this (ie$ all the "nits beco!e identical $ith species o% &ood* and there is a &reat pro%"sion o%

&oods. A&ain* i% the )or!s are n"!bers* all the )or!s are identical $ith species o% &ood. B"t let a !an ass"!e Ideas o% anythin& he pleases. I% these are Ideas only o% &oods* the Ideas $ill not be s"bstances' b"t i% the Ideas are also Ideas o% s"bstances* all ani!als and plants and all indi(id"als that share in Ideas $ill be &ood. "These abs"rdities %ollo$* and it also %ollo$s that the contrary ele!ent* $hether it is pl"rality or the "ne7"al* i.e. the &reat and s!all* is the bad-itsel%. +4ence one thin#er a(oided attachin& the &ood to the One* beca"se it $o"ld necessarily %ollo$* since &eneration is %ro! contraries* that badness is the %"nda!ental nat"re o% pl"rality' $hile others say ine7"ality is the nat"re o% the bad., It %ollo$s* then* that all thin&s parta#e o% the bad e-cept one--the One itsel%* and that n"!bers parta#e o% it in a !ore "ndil"ted %or! than spatial !a&nit"des* and that the bad is the space in $hich the &ood is reali3ed* and that it parta#es in and desires that $hich tends to destroy it' %or contrary tends to destroy contrary. And i%* as $e $ere sayin&* the !atter is that $hich is potentially each thin&* e.&. that o% act"al %ire is that $hich is potentially %ire* the bad $ill be 0"st the potentially &ood. "All these ob0ections* then* %ollo$* partly beca"se they !a#e e(ery principle an ele!ent* partly beca"se they !a#e contraries principles* partly beca"se they !a#e the One a principle* partly beca"se they treat the n"!bers as the %irst s"bstances* and as capable o% e-istin& apart* and as )or!s. Part ? " "I%* then* it is e7"ally i!possible not to p"t the &ood a!on& the %irst principles and to p"t it a!on& the! in this $ay* e(idently the principles are not bein& correctly described* nor are the %irst s"bstances. .or does any one concei(e the !atter correctly i% he co!pares the principles o% the "ni(erse to that o% ani!als and plants* on the &ro"nd that the !ore co!plete al$ays co!es %ro! the inde%inite and inco!plete$hich is $hat leads this thin#er to say that this is also tr"e o% the %irst principles o% reality* so that the One itsel% is not e(en an e-istin& thin&. This is incorrect* %or e(en in this $orld o% ani!als and plants the principles %ro! $hich these co!e are co!plete' %or it is a !an that prod"ces a !an* and the seed is not %irst. "It is o"t o% place* also* to &enerate place si!"ltaneo"sly $ith the !athe!atical solids +%or place is pec"liar to the indi(id"al thin&s* and hence they are separate in place' b"t !athe!atical ob0ects are no$here,* and to say that they !"st be so!e$here* b"t not say $hat #ind o% thin& their place is. "Those $ho say that e-istin& thin&s co!e %ro! ele!ents and that the %irst o% e-istin& thin&s are the n"!bers* sho"ld ha(e %irst distin&"ished the senses in $hich one thin& co!es %ro! another* and then said in $hich sense n"!ber co!es %ro! its %irst principles.

"By and and b"t

inter!i-t"re< B"t +1, not e(erythin& is capable o% inter!i-t"re* +6, that $hich is prod"ced by it is di%%erent %ro! its ele!ents* on this (ie$ the one $ill not re!ain separate or a distinct entity' they $ant it to be so.

"By 0"-taposition* li#e a syllable< B"t then +1, the ele!ents !"st ha(e position' and +6, he $ho thin#s o% n"!ber $ill be able to thin# o% the "nity and the pl"rality apart' n"!ber then $ill be this-a "nit and pl"rality* or the one and the "ne7"al. "A&ain* co!in& %ro! certain thin&s !eans in one sense that these are still to be %o"nd in the prod"ct* and in another that they are not' $hich sense does n"!ber co!e %ro! these ele!ents< Only thin&s that are &enerated can co!e %ro! ele!ents $hich are present in the!. Does n"!ber co!e* then* %ro! its ele!ents as %ro! seed< B"t nothin& can be e-creted %ro! that $hich is indi(isible. Does it co!e %ro! its contrary* its contrary not persistin&< B"t all thin&s that co!e in this $ay co!e also %ro! so!ethin& else $hich does persist. 2ince* then* one thin#er places the 1 as contrary to pl"rality* and another places it as contrary to the "ne7"al* treatin& the 1 as e7"al* n"!ber !"st be bein& treated as co!in& %ro! contraries. There is* then* so!ethin& else that persists* %ro! $hich and %ro! one contrary the co!po"nd is or has co!e to be. A&ain* $hy in the $orld do the other thin&s that co!e %ro! contraries* or that ha(e contraries* perish +e(en $hen all o% the contrary is "sed to prod"ce the!,* $hile n"!ber does not< .othin& is said abo"t this. :et $hether present or not present in the co!po"nd the contrary destroys it* e.&. /stri%e/ destroys the /!i-t"re/ +yet it sho"ld not' %or it is not to that that is contrary,. "Once !ore* it has not been deter!ined at all in $hich $ay n"!bers are the ca"ses o% s"bstances and o% bein&-$hether +1, as bo"ndaries +as points are o% spatial !a&nit"des,. This is ho$ 5"ryt"s decided $hat $as the n"!ber o% $hat +e.&. one o% !an and another o% horse,* (i3. by i!itatin& the %i&"res o% li(in& thin&s $ith pebbles* as so!e people brin& n"!bers into the %or!s o% trian&le and s7"are. Or +6, is it beca"se har!ony is a ratio o% n"!bers* and so is !an and e(erythin& else< B"t ho$ are the attrib"tes-$hite and s$eet and hot-n"!bers< 5(idently it is not the n"!bers that are the essence or the ca"ses o% the %or!' %or the ratio is the essence* $hile the n"!ber the ca"ses o% the %or!' %or the ratio is the essence* $hile the n"!ber is the !atter. 5.&. the essence o% %lesh or bone is n"!ber only in this $ay* /three parts o% %ire and t$o o% earth/. And a n"!ber* $hate(er n"!ber it is* is al$ays a n"!ber o% certain thin&s* either o% parts o% %ire or earth or o% "nits' b"t the essence is that there is so !"ch o% one thin& to so !"ch o% another in the !i-t"re' and this is no lon&er a n"!ber b"t a ratio o% !i-t"re o% n"!bers* $hether these are corporeal or o% any other #ind. "."!ber* then* $hether it be n"!ber in &eneral or the n"!ber $hich consists o% abstract "nits* is neither the ca"se as a&ent* nor the !atter* nor the ratio and %or! o% thin&s. .or* o% co"rse* is it the %inal ca"se. Part B "

"One !i&ht also raise the 7"estion $hat the &ood is that thin&s &et %ro! n"!bers beca"se their co!position is e-pressible by a n"!ber* either by one $hich is easily calc"lable or by an odd n"!ber. )or in %act honey-$ater is no !ore $holeso!e i% it is !i-ed in the proportion o% three ti!es three* b"t it $o"ld do !ore &ood i% it $ere in no partic"lar ratio b"t $ell dil"ted than i% it $ere n"!erically e-pressible b"t stron&. A&ain* the ratios o% !i-t"res are e-pressed by the addin& o% n"!bers* not by !ere n"!bers' e.&. it is /three parts to t$o/* not /three ti!es t$o/. )or in any !"ltiplication the &en"s o% the thin&s !"ltiplied !"st be the sa!e' there%ore the prod"ct 1A6A; !"st be !eas"rable by 1* and =A?AB by = and there%ore all prod"cts into $hich the sa!e %actor enters !"st be !eas"rable by that %actor. The n"!ber o% %ire* then* cannot be 6A?A;AB and at the sa!e ti!e that o% $ater 6A;. "I% all thin&s !"st share in n"!ber* it !"st %ollo$ that !any thin&s are the sa!e* and the sa!e n"!ber !"st belon& to one thin& and to another. Is n"!ber the ca"se* then* and does the thin& e-ist beca"se o% its n"!ber* or is this not certain< 5.&. the !otions o% the s"n ha(e a n"!ber* and a&ain those o% the !oon*-yes* and the li%e and pri!e o% each ani!al. Why* then* sho"ld not so!e o% these n"!bers be s7"ares* so!e c"bes* and so!e e7"al* others do"ble< There is no reason $hy they sho"ld not* and indeed they !"st !o(e $ithin these li!its* since all thin&s $ere ass"!ed to share in n"!ber. And it $as ass"!ed that thin&s that di%%ered !i&ht %all "nder the sa!e n"!ber. There%ore i% the sa!e n"!ber had belon&ed to certain thin&s* these $o"ld ha(e been the sa!e as one another* since they $o"ld ha(e had the sa!e %or! o% n"!ber' e.&. s"n and !oon $o"ld ha(e been the sa!e. B"t $hy need these n"!bers be ca"ses< There are se(en (o$els* the scale consists o% se(en strin&s* the Pleiades are se(en* at se(en ani!als lose their teeth +at least so!e do* tho"&h so!e do not,* and the cha!pions $ho %o"&ht a&ainst Thebes $ere se(en. Is it then beca"se the n"!ber is the #ind o% n"!ber it is* that the cha!pions $ere se(en or the Pleiad consists o% se(en stars< 2"rely the cha!pions $ere se(en beca"se there $ere se(en &ates or %or so!e other reason* and the Pleiad $e co"nt as se(en* as $e co"nt the Bear as t$el(e* $hile other peoples co"nt !ore stars in both. .ay they e(en say that A* Ps and F are concords and that beca"se there are three concords* the do"ble consonants also are three. They 7"ite ne&lect the %act that there !i&ht be a tho"sand s"ch letters' %or one sy!bol !i&ht be assi&ned to 9P. B"t i% they say that each o% these three is e7"al to t$o o% the other letters* and no other is so* and i% the ca"se is that there are three parts o% the !o"th and one letter is in each applied to si&!a* it is %or this reason that there are only three* not beca"se the concords are three' since as a !atter o% %act the concords are !ore than three* b"t o% do"ble consonants there cannot be !ore. "These people are li#e the old-%ashioned 4o!eric scholars* $ho see s!all rese!blances b"t ne&lect &reat ones. 2o!e say that there are !any s"ch cases* e.&. that the !iddle strin&s are represented by nine and ei&ht* and that the epic (erse has se(enteen syllables* $hich is e7"al in n"!ber to the t$o strin&s* and that the scansion is* in the ri&ht hal% o% the line nine syllables* and in the le%t ei&ht. And they say that the distance in the letters %ro! alpha to o!e&a

is e7"al to that %ro! the lo$est note o% the %l"te to the hi&hest* and that the n"!ber o% this note is e7"al to that o% the $hole choir o% hea(en. It !ay be s"spected that no one co"ld %ind di%%ic"lty either in statin& s"ch analo&ies or in %indin& the! in eternal thin&s* since they can be %o"nd e(en in perishable thin&s. "B"t the la"ded characteristics o% n"!bers* and the contraries o% these* and &enerally the !athe!atical relations* as so!e describe the!* !a#in& the! ca"ses o% nat"re* see!* $hen $e inspect the! in this $ay* to (anish' %or none o% the! is a ca"se in any o% the senses that ha(e been distin&"ished in re%erence to the %irst principles. In a sense* ho$e(er* they !a#e it plain that &oodness belon&s to n"!bers* and that the odd* the strai&ht* the s7"are* the potencies o% certain n"!bers* are in the col"!n o% the bea"ti%"l. )or the seasons and a partic"lar #ind o% n"!ber &o to&ether' and the other a&ree!ents that they collect %ro! the theore!s o% !athe!atics all ha(e this !eanin&. 4ence they are li#e coincidences. )or they are accidents* b"t the thin&s that a&ree are all appropriate to one another* and one by analo&y. )or in each cate&ory o% bein& an analo&o"s ter! is %o"nd-as the strai&ht is in len&th* so is the le(el in s"r%ace* perhaps the odd in n"!ber* and the $hite in colo"r. "A&ain* it is not the ideal n"!bers that are the ca"ses o% !"sical pheno!ena and the li#e +%or e7"al ideal n"!bers di%%er %ro! one another in %or!' %or e(en the "nits do,' so that $e need not ass"!e Ideas %or this reason at least. "These* then* are the res"lts o% the theory* and yet !ore !i&ht be bro"&ht to&ether. The %act that o"r opponnts ha(e !"ch tro"ble $ith the &eneration o% n"!bers and can in no $ay !a#e a syste! o% the!* see!s to indicate that the ob0ects o% !athe!atics are not separable %ro! sensible thin&s* as so!e say* and that they are not the %irst principles. " T45 5.D ---------------------------------------------------------------------1opyri&ht state!ent> The Internet 1lassics Archi(e by Daniel 1. 2te(enson* Web Ato!ics. World Wide Web presentation is copyri&ht +1, 1EE=-6@@@* Daniel 1. 2te(enson* Web Ato!ics. All ri&hts reser(ed "nder international and pan-A!erican copyri&ht con(entions* incl"din& the ri&ht o% reprod"ction in $hole or in part in any %or!. Direct per!ission re7"ests to classicsMclassics.!it.ed". Translation o% "The Deeds o% the Di(ine A"&"st"s" by A"&"st"s is copyri&ht +1, Tho!as B"shnell* B29.

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