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uploaded by user Umarzilla Class: Lecture/Exam: School: Semester: Professor: SOC 248 Full Semester SBU Fall 2013 Burroway

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Lecture 1
Globalization is not something new, it has always been there since the very start of the world. A truly global trade system started when America was discovered (when Spain discovered the Americas) and brought America to the trading system. The nature of it changes with the late 1800s with industrialization. Control raw materials in order to keep power. Africa became the center for competition because of its material. Next big shift: Technology rise of the internet, being able to connect to the world because of ease of communication. Now globalization means economic globalization global trade market and trade system. Theres cultural and political globalization.

Lecture 2
Inequality between and among nations Tourism is the predominant form of income in Jamaica hotels buy all their products from foreign companies Chapter1 talks about Inequality being a double divide income gap Inequality between nations and within the nations. Great gaps in income/wealth both between countries and within countries Gini coefficient it measures income inequality (education, race, other inequality but Gini measures wealth). A Gini coefficient of 0 is total equality; 100 means total inequality (if 1 person had everything and everyone else has nothing) GDP per capita: value of all goods and services produced in a country, divided by the population. PPP (purchasing power parity) o Gap between nations tend to be larger than the gap w/in any single country

Is the world income inequality declining? Is that meaningful? Economic developments happen because of industrialization. Luxemburg is the richest country in the world GDP with $90,000 per year Zimbabwe is the poorest country in the world GDP with $185 per year U.S. 8th richest with $67,000 per year Even though U.S. is the 8th richest, it has an infant mortality rate of 7/1000 (40 countries above us doing better, we are at 150th) because of health care. Classic theories: Theories of the economy: neoliberalism (neoclassical)

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Adam Smith (1776): freedom leads to greater wealth. He believed that giving people the freedom to do whatever they wanted to do would give them greater wealth; that it is an individual matter and should not be regulated by the government. Emphasis on capitalism: means of production should be privately owned and operated for profit in a competitive market. Neoliberalism: free trade, deregulation, and privatization (more modern term of Adam Smiths belief). Free trade: no tax on trade; countries should be able to trade without and restrictions such as tariffs. Open boarders for trading Deregulation: govt gives regulation to businesses that companies have to abide by, such as minimum wage, working conditions, environmental laws Selling anything that the govt owns to private systems. Taking those services that the govt runs to sell to a private business that it can maximize its profit and that would increase economic growth.

Theories of the Economy: Marxism o Marx agreed that capitalism will bring economic growth, but this growth will NOT benefit all. Why wouldnt it work: rise of the capitalist class (owners) depends on the exploitation of the proletariat (working class/workers) such as getting more working hours out of the employees; the capitalists need the workers and the workers need the capitalist (for job) even if it is exploitive. Although it brings profit, it doesnt bring it to everybody and wouldnt trickle down to everybody as Adam Smith predicted. As machines become more productive, workers are displaced and wages are driven down.

Why are nations poor? Modernization theory Rooted in neoclassical liberalism (of Adam Smith) Emphasis on economic growth The way to grow economy is to invest and attract foreign investment and industrialize as route to growth Electoral democracy, elected by people, should replace religious leaders or kings Economic growth eventually trickles down to social welfare But then it implies why cant you be more like us? emulate the rich countries

Why are Nations poor? Dependency/World Systems Roots in Marxism foreign investment and trade brings o Exploitation: Terms of trade are rigged against the poor. does bring $ to poor countries but very exploitative o Distortion: Goods produced dont serve local needs and economies are no longer selfsufficient. coffee example

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Domination: poor countries become dependent on rich nations and MNCs (Multinational corporation) for their livelihood Dependent, but unequal exchange that results in uneven development among core and periphery states (Wallerstein 1974) [world systems] Poor countries werent always poor. They were made poor when a rich country comes to overpower another country; it strips of its natural resources and cheap labor.

Why are people in poor in rich nations? Differences in the Welfare State No country is purely capitalist, with no government involvement (third-way economics) Many sociologists point to the centrality of the welfare state for reducing poverty. The most important predictor of poverty among the rich nations is the welfare state. Welfare as a social safety net Welfare: the way for the govt to distribute resources such as to people with prolong illness, elderly, people below a certain income level, etc. Example: child poverty before and after government intervention

Lecture 3
Review from last class: Gini coefficient assesses inequality. Inequalities between countries tend to be lower than within countries. World Gini is about 67 Global inequality is decreasing over time because of effect of 2 very large countries: china and India why are some nations poor: Dependency and world systems theory says that countries are falling behind because they trade but powerful countries are exploiting the poor countries. This is in contrast to modernization theory, rooted in classical neoliberalism - best route to improving wellbeing. It will lift everyone eventually because the wealth trickles down: foreign investments and trade.

Lesson 1) Modernization: economic growth = good Foreign investment = good 2) World Systems: Foreign investment = bad SACHS - in between Foreign investment can be good; it has the potential to be good but not necessarily. It mainly depends on what the money is being invested in. should be invested in sanitation system, hunger
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Millennium goal: in the year 2000 make a goal by a certain time - eradicate poverty; improve sanitation, malnutrition, etc. Sachs - goal is good but depends where the money is spent. Economic growth: on pg. 56, "...progress in neither automatic nor inevitable." Advocating for a 3rd new explanation of why countries are falling behind: 3) -GeographyProximity to trade route: most of the poverty in sub-Saharan - countries that are land blocked. If you are a landlocked country then it is much harder to trade with the outside world. No ports for importing and exporting cut off from the rest of the world. Natural Resources: Asian countries had more water available which gives it a better start. Technology, green revolution. In addition, green revolution was a revolution in the 60s and 70s, transferrable technology to help them grow crops. The U.S. and other countries were involved in the process by the developed world. Already added to fact that the climate was more favorable to them. New seed varieties developed were for crops for Asian soil. Disease: because of the tropical climate in sub-Saharan Africa caused Malaria. People are often sick and die from Malaria. Answer to all the problems: Foreign Aid Money for clean water, money for land/crops and irrigation systems, money for malaria aid. It would take about $160 billion which is the equivalent of .5% GDP to cut poverty in half and it is half than 1% of the GDP per world capita but that is also equal to twice as the money as we are already giving. Problems with his solution: 1) Practicality of $160 bil $160 bil is a lot for a country considering that is how much they are already given. Money is not given because people are hesitant to keep giving because the result is not shown in the result they want to see - public support of giving more money is doubtful. Whats the point? Since it doesnt show results, what's the point? doesnt benefit us Fix what is broken at home first 2) Is $160 billion even enough? money would keep increasing $110/person

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3) Good Governance giving the money to where it is needed 4) Land lock and foreign investment not being able to trade 5) Dependency on aid Goes back to the issue on how the money is used. type of aid that is given is also important, for example, giving food and money to refugees versus building and creating infrastructure 6) Lumps everyone together he's making these sweeping generalization which makes is sound like everybody in Africa is poor which isn't true and lumps all the rich countries together which also has poverty, "one size fits all prescription" 7) Not just $ Different point than how the money is going to be used, but how do we know if the country has the necessities to build that infrastructure? 8) What's next? 9) Underestimating poverty? Talks a lot about a dollar a day. His figure is about 1 billion people. We see a trend of an about a billion people. What if we change the poverty line to $2 a day, then what would happen to the figure? 10) India & China Does globalization make the rich richer and poor poorer? His answer: no and he uses India and China as success stories, that they are able to advanced very rapidly through it. But we are not taking into account the amount inequality within the country. The people in the urban centers are reaping the benefits rather than the profit people. 11) Underestimating history

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he didnt take into account the fact that Africa had slavery and how much advancement they could've had by taking out all the man power since Africa had its independence only a few decades ago during the 60s

Lecture 4
Ch 2: The Global Assembly Line 1) Division of Labor a. In simpler economies most people worked together or in complimentary tasks People were engaged in similar tasks such as hunting and gathering and similar pursuits b. How has this changed in modern times? When societies become more specialized in tasks, we becomes more dependent on goods and services, as time increases we becomes more dependent. How does the division of labor affect society? Adam Smith Theory of neoliberalism His main argument: when workers specialize, theyre more efficient. Efficient production + markets = prosperity for everyone BUTpossibility for owners to manipulate [the system for their own benefit] Workers are no longer self-sufficient when you become so specialized; its difficult to move to another job, theyre stuck in the bad cycle to do the work anyway.

How does the division of Labor affect society? David Ricardo Adam Smiths ideas extended internationally Comparative advantage + world trade = prosperity. Every country should do what they do best. Every nation should concentrate on whatever it is they do best and if we have free trade and we can all trade our products in an open market then this will bring prosperity for everybody. But small countries can become dependent on one or two products if anything
happens to that product then it would sink

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What if a countrys comparative advantage is in providing cheap labor or relaxed environmental regulations?

How does the division of labor affect society? Emile Durkheim Agricultural societies had solidarity because they worked together and had common concerns automatic strong bonds btwn ppl bcuz of common concern or similar pursuits. More modern societies can also find solidarity because ppl need ea/other. we rely and are dependent on each other more and that will allow societies to be more cohesive simply bcuz they need ea/other. Structural Functionalism he used the metaphor of the body, how the parts of the body are specialized in order to work properly. This may mean we need poverty we depend on cheap foreign labor to sell and afford.

How does the division of labor affect society? Karl Marx Agreed with Smith: division of labor brings productivity, BUT De-skilling of workers = vulnerability when you are engaged in 1 task then u dont have the chance to sharpen other tasks, vulnerable bcuz you cant move to another occupation. Agreed with Durkheim: industrialization could lead to greater solidarity, BUTprobably wouldnt happen owners of the factory or land wouldnt allow it because they have an incentive of not allowing workers of forming bonds ex: in the Kazakhstan video, the owner taking the passport of workers.

New International Division of Labor Colonial era (1700s) o Developing countries: producing raw material o Developed countries: producing finished goods. Throughout most of this time, Europeans were in charge. They sold the finished good from raw materials Offshoring (1970s) factory workers moving to office jobs

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o Developing: farm to factory from working out in the fields/mines (extracting raw material) now moving to factories and producing finished goods. o Developed: factory to office how did this happen: spread of technology. Tech: making finished goods, transporting, communicating. They now go to offices, in desk jobs, of marketing and management. Once, the factories were making the money but now the office jobs are the ones making more money. Factory jobs used to be a big source of income but not after the shift.

Outsourcing (1990s) office jobs moving to other countries o Developing: customer service, data management/analysis o Developed: marketing and management

Consequences of the New DOL (division of labor) U.S. wants cheap labor without immigration Bracero Program, Operation Wetback, growth of maquiladoras, NAFTA. o Right around WWII we started the Bracero Program because ppl were at war and we needed the jobs to be filled so we brought ppl from Mexico. o When the war was over and people came back, we went into recession. Operation Wetback were in a recession and send Mexicans back home o 60s we dont have to send them back Maquiladoras making factories near the border towns along the border, we can fund the building of factories in Mexico and pay the Mexican workers cheap labors. o NAFTA another result of this changing division of labor passed in 93 btwn Mexico, Canada and the U.S. trading with each other and opening up free trade. Consequences of NAFTA: agreement means for easier for the companies have permission of acquiring cheap labor. Another consequence: increased illegal immigration. We send our cheap crops to Mexico and they cant compete with our cheap products which damages. Wal-mart companies have to outsource to do business (ex: Levi Strauss)

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o Other companies who want to keep the operation in the U.S. then it wasnt fair since they didnt and then had a huge unfair disadvantage. o Eventually other companies that were native to America have to cave and cant compete with big companies like Wal-mart. More children are at work around the world than ever before Toys, electronics, textiles, food are all part of the global assembly line biggest consequence Race to the Bottom increasing search for cheap labor and increased search for relaxed labor laws. Insufficient labor laws and protection where there are lots of people desperate for work.

Regulating the World Market: IMF (International Monetary Fund) It was set up at the end of WWII (1944), 44 Allied nations set up IMF World Bank. Both institutions were established IMF: working to foster global monetary cooperation They are a Lending and structural adjustment economic reforms that countries have to abide by in order to receive loans help out countries by giving loans but the hook is that when they get a loan, they have to abide by their rules o A big criticism is you give money to us in order to help the economy both cut money from those who are most in need. Lecture 5
Offshoring industries moved to developed countries Rich countries from factories to office job, the management aspects still the developed countries are making more money Big shifts over time Consequences for global inequalities and poverty US wants cheap labor without immigration o Wal-mart looks to find the cheapest ways of manufacturing and finding cheap goods in developing countries and exploiting laborers whereas other companies such as Levis had to change their labor practices so they wont lose. o Continuing search for cheap labor: race to the bottom neverending search for cheap labor. IMF started by a handful of allied countries. Organizations that are overseeing policies and processes that affects everyone in the world.
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Structural agreement agreement countries make to receive loans. Quick move for govts to pay back debts cutting public services such as public schools. Lesson: Regulating the World Market: World Bank Provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries Stated mission: poverty reduction o Still under free trade, liberalization, etc. Criticisms of IMF and WB (world bank) o More and more debt o New form of imperialism (the countries owing the money are vulnerable and are under control of the countries they owe money to) Run by a few powerful countries Regulating the World Trade Market: WTO 1947 GATT and 1994 WTO monitors trade practices around the world o Tariff tax on imports and exports specifically on imports and exports Encourage ppl to buy local so you can protect local industry That means no tax on local and more jobs in local industry If no tariff, then ppl will buy foreign cars more often. Foreign products will be cheaper and will ruin economy, unemployment, and will help governments. Too many limits on imports = punitive tariffs Limited ability to keep out imports based on environmental or labor concerns One of the biggest criticisms of WTO US and Europe support exceptions for their own protected industries to benefit themselves. Stiglitz social Justice and Trade How do current economic arrangements disadvantage poor countries? o Tariffs are higher for developing countries than for developed countries. Countries want to protect their own industries and products. Local goods are bought but the developing countries cant sell their products on the free open market because of the tariffs. o Subsidy: when govt gives $ to a particular local industry (often agricultural industries agricultural subsidies) to keep it afloat.US govt gives billions of $ to cotton farmers in the US so the farmers can get cotton at a cheap price. Meanwhile, there are tens of thousands of cotton farmers in Africa and they arent able to receive the help from the govt. The US funds their own and makes it cheaper maximizing profit. Similar to corn, US helps to raise corn and sell to Mexico which destroys the Mexican economy and their corn producers o This is not a free trade b/c the govt is interfering.

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How do current economic arrangements disadvantage poor countries? o Secret negotiations Trade ministers are influenced by politicians, lobbyists and big companies. This is important because of intellectual property rights Patent protection for a certain amount of years. Diffilcult for foreign countries to make other pharmaceutical drugs o The issue of subsidies o Special interests

Whats the solution, according to Stiglitz? o No more secret negotiations: transparent; ensuring representation from different groups such as developing and rich and in btwn countries make sure everyone has a fair chance this should eliminate the problems of special interests. Kramer: Bangkok Life in the Shadows What is the informal sector? o Activities for money beyond the govt regulation; under the table money. Any sort of work that you are not paying taxes on and mostly paid in cash. Prostitution, construction workers, street vendors, drugs, pizzerias. o No health insurance, cant work way up, paid under minimum wage, etc. Who dominates the informal sectors? Why? o In the US, the informal sector is dominated by minorities and illegal immigrants o Women, because they are more vulnerable and disproportionate, and men are typically ones who hold more power. o Those who cant afford education and have no education. o Basically women, illegal immigrants and uneducated What factors influence the size of a city or countrys informal sector? o The countries that are in worse off financial situation, people are more desperate for money and would take any job they can get whether dangerous or exploitative.

Lecture 6
Gender as a Social Construction Sex is a biological reality Gender is a social reality o Perceptions about men and women are the result of cultural norms and habits o Gender must be taught Almost all societies rank by sex, and men usually are ranked higher than women Gender Inequality as we know it: the U.S. case No female presidents. Currently 78 women in the House and 18 women in the Senate (18% each house) Women earn 77 cents for every $1 men earn

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Median income for B.A. degree: about $35,000 for women and $50,000 for men Women and Work US and England cultural ideas (early 1800s) o Women = motherhood and caregiving o But the stereotypical picture of the Victorian woman is misleading. Why? o 1840: young, unmarried, poor women working in textile mills o 1930s: women worked out of necessity during the Depression How did WWII begin changing gender roles? o Women take over men roles But what happened after the war o Men came back and women were told to go back to home Big changes in the 60s and 70s o Civil rights movement and activism. Women started to reject the cultural idea of staying at home and raising families so they returned to the labor forces to raise money; there was something new about this: they wanted to be in the labor force, so it is not about temporary employment. Men and work 1800s idea: Men = breadwinners Again this is somewhat misleading. Why? o There wasnt enough income in the household so the women needed to work as well How does the changing international division of labor (chapter 2) affect men and womens work opportunities? o [Offshoring - Developing countries: farm to factories. Developed countries: factory to office] o Men used to be working in factories but now women are working in the factories because they are more vulnerable o As a lot of the jobs are leaving, fewer jobs are left drives wages down. o Shift means that women employment is more secure than men employment such as the service sector [teachers, nurses those providing services]. The service sector is becoming more predominant. As men have lost their jobs, women have found more job security [ability to find work] Consequences o Other than men are out of work and women have more job security, womens economic independence divorce feminization of poverty. --> They can leave abusive and other types of relationships but this also means that the single mothers are more vulnerable to poverty because they have to spread their money to children. --> This is a type of paradox [feminization of poverty] that this independence leads to poverty. o Double burden (Second Shift) women come to work in the labor force and then they have to come home and have the burden of caregiving because men are not picking up the responsibility of the caregiving.

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Feminization of migration women who are migrating to the U.S. to work as domestic workers. This refers to the change in the recent decades of recent women migrating the US to work as domestic workers. This movement is from American women to professional positions and the outside women to work domestically an immigrant work who comes illegally and stays and works at home. Male alienation and vulnerability suicide, alcoholism, violence At the end of the day, who still sits in positions of power? wealthy men, theyre still the CEOs

Lecture 7
Amartya Sen: Womens Agency What is the difference between improving well-being and improving agency? o He thinks agency is more important because it leads to well-being. Well-being: physical and tangible being (health care, different health indicators, secondary education rates, mortality rates, etc.) Agency: decision making power, giving women a voice independence, needs and wants, desires, improving decision making power. He makes the focus of their ability to be heard agency their ability to make choice; by improving those then then well-being comes along as a result. What types of things enhance womens agency? o Education: improves agency by know what they want, more able to know, more variety of jobs, more respect in the family & community. Intangible ways of improving the agency. Why is womens agency important? o Because it impact the lives of all household members How many children die every day on average? Answer: 22,000 mostly in developing countries & from preventable causes Mothers everywhere are the caregivers for their children. Their autonomy is going to have repercussions for their kids because their lives are interconnected. Professors study: How doe gender inequality affect differences in child health across 50 developing countries? Gender inequality types: education, political representation, contraceptive prevalence, and life expectancy. Child health = o Diarrhea: recent episode o Stunting: low height-for-age o Wasting: low weight-for-height (food deprivation for not so long time frame few weeks) o Underweight: low weigh-for-age Education

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Work outside home & earn income Greater bargaining power in the household more say in the household, more say in the resources that are spent on the children. More decisions of the resources, then more spending on food and clean water for the kids. Access to information and health knowledge simple matter of hand washing, disposing waste in the household, if you see your kid is getting sick and you dont know why (even though it has a simple fix) Utilize health care services more effectively Enhanced access to political process voting, cant vote if cant read

Political Representation Decision-making and allocation resources Female legislators more likely to: o Rate womens and childrens issues as high legislative priorities in the U.S. alone has about 18% of women in govt. o Support increased spending on public health Reproductive Autonomy Reflects decision-making power o Lack of access to family planning services o Ability to use contraception Direct links to maternal & child health smaller family size, fewer resources, healthier for the women because less kids Linked to other aspects of equality (education & employment) fewer children = more time to get jobs. Highly educated = less likely to have a larger family. Life Expectancy

Reflects cumulative resources invested in women over the life cycle basic indicator of women physical condition Crude and sharply visible aspect of gender inequality (Sen 1999: 104) a lot of negotiation if hidden in the family home and not visible. If women are higher valued in society, there will be more effort to extent their life expectancy. Measure of womens basic physical condition. Employment has no relationship with the malnutrition [and of child health]; countries are all over the place. It depends if the woman has a high paid job or in a domestic job or an agricultural job.

Lecture 8
Beginning of Formal Education

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The idea that all children belong in school is relatively new School was for the elite o China for bureaucrats, European priests and elites, U.S. in the beginning was for aristocrats and elites. How did Ben Franklin change the game in the US? o Wanted to make the school more practical by incorporating math and science and English into the system so that it can be practiced in the farm and technology (rather than studying ancient languages, philosophy, etc.) o He advocated school for all (not only the elite). He envisioned an academy regardless of class (he opened the University of Pennsylvania). Everybody meaning all white men regardless of their class (women and minorities werent included in the education) Problem #1: How to get every child in school? Small and poorly equipped schools, less likely to attend in rural areas o If a family is reliant on child labor then the children cannot get education, especially because of the race to the bottom. o Different schools are in different quality and areas, there are hazards for students to get to school and even general school quality which are poorly equipped including teachers who arent well trained. The school can be very far away. Inequality in urban areas o In the U.S., some schools are better than others because they get funds from taxes and in high quality areas and property taxes have more funds for education. Property taxes are low in some neighborhoods. Dependence on children for income, labor, childcare If jobs are scarce, whats the use? Persistent gender and racial/ethnic gaps o In the U.S., the gender gap isnt pronounced but the racial and ethnic gaps are. Problem #2: What should we teach? Nigeria: (largest country in Africa) Dozens of ethnic groups, languages, several major religions. o What should be taught in the school, what should be the language to teach, cultural heritage, religious traditions which should be chosen? Problems of Heterogeneity Japan: few electives, emphasis on math/science, rote memorization, rigorous standardized tests, less than half can go to college. o US lags behind in test scores, but does better in grad school and entrepreneurship Northern Europe: exams and tracking from early ages, clearer school-to-work transition US: discomfort with this system --- why? o Uncomfortable with deciding at an early age of deciding what career to choose and this is because we dont want govt intervention, especially because the U.S. teaches individualism and freedom. o But are US students on a clear path to employment? o Concern over standardized test scores

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Focus on board education, critical thinking, innovation Internships

What is the answer for families who insisted they need their children to help with their work? Or who insists that education is a waste of time since jobs are scarce? o Work at school o Govt can offer incentives such as tax cuts or other sorts of benefits (but the govt does need taxes to keep school running) o Offer unemployed teacher to go to home schools funded by the govt or the families or areas where kids cant walk to school o Free breakfast and lunch gives students incentives to go to school and does seem to be pretty effective o One solution: govt to invest more money in the schools because when the students are out of school they will help the govt eventually What should a curriculum emphasize: national traditions and culture, technical skills, literacy, creativity? o At first, teach practical skills which will find you employment and secondary to that should be cultural and literary o Creativity is important because it is something that trains someone to come out with new ideas although literacy is the first important step and essential for progress which brings the country forward. Who should decide this: govts, school administrators, teachers, parents?

Lecture 9
Human capital theory education is key, number 1 priority, to national development and economic growth. This is a concern when test scores arent as good as other nations. Organizations such as World Bank say education is more important than building road or clean water and building power lines. Does education always lead to economic productivity/more money for country/more GDP per capita? No because when the economy is low, it lags behind develop. Best example of this is India increased education, it isnt growing economically fast enough to keep up with its population. Brain drain: when people become highly education and no economic opportunity, they go somewhere else to find a place for better opportunity this creates more of a problem for those developing countries because the educational people leave. Education increases GDP per capita. Does it work vice versa? Yes, when you can invest money in the school system. Sometimes it doesnt work b/c the economic development wont let money toward education because education doesnt seem like the #1 problem, it goes to infrastructure and other

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physical development because that is needed, often, more than education. Rising GDP per capita doesnt tell about the funds and where they are being placed. (From reading) Problem to access to education can be solved be State govt level: Kerala (in India) state in India where economic prod is slow, unemployment is through the roof, but almost everyone is educated and everyone is healthy. 99% literacy rate for both boys and girls gender parity and they have infant mortality that match those of the developed world; lower than even the U.S. This proves the point of govt in investing where they have to. The democratic nation invests into, through the democratic process, particularly in education (more toward women education) and health. This is an example where education and economic productivity goes hand-inhand and shows power of govt. Democratic state can choose where to invest their resources. Nat govt level: Suggests the nat. govt can provide funding in non-governmental organization. They can at least invest some tax money and pay non-profit org to help ensure that kids get in school. It can do things remove school fees and free lunches. Some of them can even crack-down on child labor which is what takes kids out of school, it can prevent the practice. Intl action: Main argument intl org arent doing enough to solve the prob. Multinational organization are partly responsible for the problem, partially because of race to the bottom. They could either police themselves and stop child labor or if they continue to use it, they can additionally provide education to the job site where the kids work (1 hour of school or finishing early and provide schooling)

She calls on to UN, World Bank rich intl actors they can provide to education. Theories of increasing specialization of labor Health consequences IMF does it have a positive impact that its supposed to have? Probably not in the video Literacy opens up access to the political process. All of the organization and going to couldnt have if the women were illiterate.

Lecture 10
Causes of Crime In Camden, NY, 44% live in poverty and often ranked among the nations most dangerous cities. Whats the connection? high poverty, high crime

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It is all a matter of where the opportunities lie. (Sernau pg. 128) Professors favorite quote; the draw is going to be to join the informal sector, fast catch drug trade. Durkheim: anomie increased division of labor brings solidarity. Used the word anomie to describe the feelings of alienation and not having purpose that results in societies growing and urbanizing. Societies became larger and larger; they would create feelings of alienation/helplessness and not knowing where to belong. Growing economic changes in particular could lead to these sorts of feelings. He wrote several centuries ago and we can still see these changes today. How structure of society affects an individual. The larger things that happen around you that affect your behavior. Merton: strain theory built on Durkheims idea. Strain occurs when society doesnt provide the means to achieve the goals considered desirable. When you cannot achieve what society deems are desirable, then one retreats or innovates. Retreat: alcoholism, drug abuse using substances as a way to escape from societies goals. Innovate: being creative and finding other ways to make money, typically in the informal sector this is why there are high crime rates in poverty areas. Bottom line: Crime is a result of social limitations and inequalities. Big main point: sociologists dont see crimes as an individual failing of the poor because they have bad morals but it is because of limitations. International Drug Trade: Opium Drugs have been bound up with power and violence since the early 1800s. British East India Co. = first drug lord. Britain was the first drug power gave drugs to India. Wanted to trade with China but China wasnt interested with England because they have nothing to offer them until company found what the Chinese wanted: Opium. Very powerful commodity. Relied on the fact that it is addictive to open the trading avenue and local official can be bribed since the trade was popular. Opium war of 1838-1842 attempted to destroy shipment and block traffic. British declared war interference of trade. Justified violence in the name of global trade china was interfering with global relationships. At the time, they couldnt defeat Britains navy, China lost, and British continued the trade. Addictive drugs = profitable, good way to support war effort, effective means of social control led to more trade with china Today, US tobacco companies aggressively market across Asia. Why, because smoking rates dropped in the US. Rise in cocaine trade transformed entire regions of Central and South America. How? Poor farmers vs. drug traffickers The leaves to make cocaine are mostly found in that area. Valuable commodity for poor farmers (drugs) will be much more profitable than regular plants easy money. The poor farmers dont get the money but the drug lords are the ones who make the money. The drugs traffickers take control who dominates the markets using bribery and violence to take control. The rural farming areas have been transformed into an area of drugs where farms have been taken over by drug traffickers.

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U.S. govt response: war on drugs = more drugs creates more violence. What is the REAL problem: supply or demand? o Real problem is on the US sides because were the ones creating the demands. It wouldnt be so profitable if we werent to want the drugs. o If we cut off the demand first, then there would be no supply. o Could legalize drugs and then heavily tax them or heavily decrease the value. Deterrence and Effectiveness (Drugs) US holds 25% of the worlds prison population (chart on pg. 139) Single biggest factor: drug sentencing Black men are 5 times more likely to serve jail sentences than white men in the US Middle East and Asia: strict drug laws AND social controls Thailand and Mexico: stricter enforcement is undermined by corruption and underfunding of law enforcement Europe: drug use is a public health problem than it is a crime. In the US, it is a crime. Europe: invest less in the jails and law enforcement; more money in public health. Netherlands: small amount of marijuana is legal. Became a huge concern that it would be a gateway drug and would corrupt the youth but it proved the opposite. US: high inequality, limited treatment option worst problems of drug-related imprisonment.

Lecture 11
Deterrence and Effectiveness (Violence) A gun in the home is 22 times more likely to be used against a family member by accident) Private security forces in Latin America and Africa prevent trouble by violently targeting suspects suspects = poor people, street children o Does this reduce crime of is it just a new form of crime? Two political perspectives on crime Political conservatives: need to restore order through effective policing o Strict law enforcement, uniforms, weapons Issues: bias and funding Political progressives: need opportunity through educational improvement and full employment o How can mainstream, law-abiding values be live out in neighborhoods abandoned by legitimate businesses, institutions, and alternatives to criminal activity? [tyrone brown] Weeding Out Process: Definition Reimans main claim: the criminal population in our nations jails is distorted by a criminal justice system that Weeds out the wealthy weeds out the upper class in every state of the crime from arrest to sentencing to conviction; the upper class always gets away. How do we define crime? o Robbery, murder, one-on-one physical harm

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How does TV distort our sense of crime? The very definition of crime contributes to the weeding out process mine executives not taking safety precautions seriously in the 80s 10ppl died. We dont think of it as murder but as a mining accident Weeding Out Process: Arrest Official crime records rely on stats about who gets arrested and convicted, not necessarily who commits crime o Research on the incidence of crime among different socioeconomic classes is mixed Decisions about who to arrest are not made simply on the basis of offenses committed o How and why do police handle middle to upper-class offenses differently? stereotype that middle/upper class discipline kids more properly but stats show thats not the case The only thing that should count in court is whether the accused is guilty and whether the accused is guilty and whether this can be proved beyond reasonable doubt

Two other factors that are completely irrelevant to guilt significantly affect the outcome (both related to economic status): o Ability to be free on bail prior to trial o Access to legal counsel Harsher penalties for the poor, leniency for the rich o Medicaid fraud o 100:1 disparity between cocaine and crack penalties o Fire at processing plant in NYC o Mine accident in KY o Bank scandals dismissed die to lack of labor power, but 100,000 new police officers to fight street crime

Lecture 12
Iraq War Why did US invade Iraq in 2003? o o o o To promote democracy and b/c of 9/11 Someone needed to intervene to stop the human rights abuses Natural resources (Ex: oil) Possibility of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Huge costs on both sides o Returning vets with health problems who have to be reintegrated into societies (physical and mental health problems)

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o o

3000 death of US soldiers Economic costs of the war (Stieglitz estimated direct and direct which equaled to about $3 trillion disapproval of the president and the US all over the world). People say the aggressive intervention lead to an adverse effect, lead to resentment and more violence Iraq side casualties up to 600,000 people; tons of orphans (up to 35% from UN result) 5 million refugees No access to clean water and stable institution along with crumbling societies and no education

o o o

How can a war be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit? o o Reasons for intervention was probably justified and probably not Increasing violence plays a role

War made states; states made war Has war always been part of human history? o Absolutely, nothing new about it. What is new is the way war is being introduced at the current time. People used to fight in adherence to the rules (no civilian deaths), face to face with spears. Rise of guns power depended on large armies o As many weapons as possible, weapons and tactics changed because of technology o Rulers ability to stay in power depended on how big the army is and the amount of guns Chronic warfare and competing national identities in Europe formed the modern state o The vying for power carved up Europe as a collection of states o War made state competing with each other through violence o The lines the marked states, after the states were formed, the states continued to war with each other as they tried to maintain power and take over other states. o War and violence means for not maintaining power but also gaining more power. o Europe into Asia, India, America result of warfare Years of competition culminated in 2 World Wars From Total War to Cold War How did rapid industrialization change war? o Ships, submarines, and even more gun-power When did total war reach its peak? o Through the 1800s ships and bigger and better guns, submarines; conflict becomes more bloody because of the increase of guns o Peak was during the WWII. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki saw the beginning of nuclear warfare. Not only killed thousands of people but also had after effects because of the radiation at a larger radius. Realization that weapons technology could destroy the world changed the nature of war again o More out of fear of destroying the entire planet, that the country had those kinds of weapons.

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After WWII beginning of cold war. 2 major world powers - SU and US both have nuclear weapons and had the capability of destroying the planet. US intervened in regional conflicts to contain Communism o Both were in a stalemate because both sides know that both have the nuclear capacity to destroy each other and the world o The US gets involved in smaller regional battles (Korean and Vietnam War and Central/Southern America). The US intervening for no other reason that accounting for what they saw as a threat. Preventing communist influence from spreading End of Cold War, but rise of intl terrorism o Now comes the rise of international terrorism (9/11 and invasion of Iraq)

o o

Global Arms Trade Legacy of the cold war: hugely expensive arms race and world of full of weapons The SU and US poured weapons into the world World full of weapons which remain in circulation and no way of counting, which has them, and gaining them back. Could be as many as 50 million ak47s, relatively easy to get ($20) Weapons have become cheap: AK47 is less than a bag of rice in West Africa US is top arms supplier by far (pg. 162); next to SU or what was once the SU $6.8 billion business (legal business, not counting the off-the-books dealings) Countries in northern Africa and Asia. The US prioritizes maintaining its overwhelming military power as the basis of its security and status. We prioritize spending on military

Chinese general critiques American military spending (news article) Chinese general suggests that the US dont spend as much in the military and acknowledges its economic recession We could perhaps be spending on educational and employment opportunities Reason for him saying that: less threat, more on trade, what if China increases in military rankings. What will bring about peace and stability? Increase militarization Spread democracy: where people have some say, less prone to wareven if forced? o Give ppl a voice in the govt, and then give the govt a response to ppl o More justification of war in Iraq was spreading democracy but the probably was will democracy bring about peace if the means is force? Preemptive strikes war prevention or war expansion? o Justification of Iraq was WMD, that would bring about peace but in light of the costs of the war, was it an example of escalation of violence or its expansion? Globalization: War too risky and too expensivebut breeding instability and resentment? o As globalization continues and world becomes dominated by corporation, they have a real interest in keeping peace because war is costly for them o As economies are interconnected with each other, which will be connected to peace; but on the other negative side workers being paid minimum wage, environmental and
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health condition globalization could lead to instability and resentment. Those millions of people living in poverty could become the harbors of terrorism rom the exploitation of the corporate process making. ICC [international criminal court] wont work b/c US wont agree with it. Nothing will work if the US will get on board and the US wont get on board b/c US doesnt want other countries telling it what to do.

What about human development? President Eisenhower: Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifiesa theft from those who hunger and are not fed, whose who are cold and are not clothed (pg. 168) Less than of the worlds military spending would be enough to meet the UN estimate for poverty elimination

Lecture 13
Gender and War Men wage war, women are targeted victims o Violence and war separates gender roles much more sharply Sexual violence is consciously used as a weapon of war o Humiliation and domination psychological strategy of domination of women and men o Fear holds communities hostage o Pregnancy and STDs = social outcast Combatants forcibly pregnant women alter the genetics of the community by raping. The child and the mother are outlasted of the community. Stigma attached to the women and children. o Often persists long after the end of conflict Human trafficking is particularly prevalent in conflict-affected areas o Prostitution when moving to/from refugee camps as theyre moving, its fairly easy to target them and force them into sexual slavery. Lack of other viable option also forces women to for prostitution Peacekeeping operations can be problematic! o They have been involved in the trafficking and abuse easy way to make money and difficult to regulate. Sexual violence is the least condemned war crime o Only addressed in 18 peace agreements Women are not part of the peace process o typically men are the ones involved in keeping these peace treaties o If war causes this much effect on women and that they are the primary caregivers, then they should have an influence in the government. Child Soldiers

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Possibly 30,000 children in militia groups in DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) alone o Used as spies, porters (to carry stuff around), sexual slaves, and actually soldiers Why do they join? o Out of poverty (only means of employment and pays a lot more than other means of opportunity) and for security (if youre not with us, youre against us), sometimes the kids are automatically abducted and forced into it. Challenges of reintegration o Poverty at home vs. paid military service = many re-enlist o Lack of access to education in conflict areas no choice

Refugees/IDPs IDP [internally displaced persons] displaced but dont cross state lines; Refugees go elsewhere for refuge Largest refugee-producing countries most recently? o 2 largest refugees producing countries in the last several years: 1) Afghanistan, 2) Iraq 11.3 million refugees and 13.7 IDPs across the world o Millions of people leaving home because of violence conflict What is life like in refugee camps? o People living in tents, not much to do not institution set up, sanitation and clean water is a huge situation = lots of malnutrition and diseases Problems for neighboring countries o Problem of refugees has spillover effects in other countries. Preventing violence in refugee camps. Paul Collier: Economic Causes of Civil Conflict Main argument: civil wars occur where rebel organizations can sustain themselves financially. o Can a rebel org buy enough food and weapons to arm its soldiers? Risk factors for conflict: o Low GDP (low avg income) and [combined with] with economic decline o What would low GDP and economy have to do with war: joining the war = more economic profitable since there is high unemployment rate. Easy for rebels to recruit. o Low avg income not much $ from taxes = not enough $ for police protection for warding off rebels. The govt doesnt have enough money to protect the citizens o Primary commodity exports Diamond, timber, oil raw materials taken from a country and sold to another country that makes finished goods. If you concentrate all $ on that one

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thing, then it is relatively easy for rebels to take cntrl of that industry. Rebels can intercept command lines and sell the commodity. If you focused all $/GDP on a one thing, then it makes it particularly profitable. If enough money for rebels to take over enemy lines now controlling economy of that one country. o Others: Geography different lands, different resources. Difficult terrain of fighting. More land more difficult to control the group easy for rebels Mountainous terrains guerilla movements, easy for rebels to hide History If a country has a history of wars and conflict in past, then more likely to have conflict in the future Large American diaspora (Diaspora share some sort of common religion, ethnicity, etc. ex: nyc certain neighborhoods where certain ethnicities live together people who left their homeland and live in a community here [Diaspora in America]) It promotes violent conflicts because they still have strong political ties in to their countries and the ones who move are typically making more money. With those political ties, they send the money back home to support and contribute to the rebel organizations. Ethnic dominance better to have diversity because if there is no diversity there is conflict and one dominant group is predominant over the other creates ethnocentrism

Risk Factor Low GDP/economic decline

Solution Intl aid to inc economic growth *[Problem with solution] What can be wrong with intl aid: hesitation on the developed countries to give to developing countries dont want to give money if not sure how $ is going to be used and more threat of corruption. Which side is the right side? 1) Diversity economy, 2) Share $ with rebels [taking over the export] ; 3) Monitoring by intl community [mindful of where it is coming from] Not always an option. A lot of pressure from orgs likes WTO in specializing in 1 thing and in whichever they do well. Pressure in doing well in

Primary commodity exports

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Ethnic dominance

American diaspora

that one thing, how they will diversify their economy if their economy is built around one thing such as coffee. How will they invest in other industries? 2) Sharing money with other rebels if they want money then to de-incentivize them, then share the $ with the rebels to pacify them. What if other rebel groups are formed very foolish solution 3) Diamonds As a result of diamonds being confiscated by rebels and selling for profit. If people are more mindful of where commodities come from then they will stop trading with the rebels altogether such as diamonds Protect minority rights in constitution good idea on paper but protecting those means you have to have some way of enforcing that. Putting it on paper is a good start but having no mechanism will make no effect Built into peace process If these communities in the US are supporting violence elsewhere, then they should be educated

Lecture 14
Definition of terms Nation: group of people who share common culture State: a sovereign entity with recognized borders, centralized power, and the ability to exercise force Nation state: common land and common culture (e.g., Slovenia, Japan) Rise of Nationalism Ancient empires (2300BC 1500CE) were multicultural, no loyalty to a country Rulers of England, France, and Spain found that the best way to consolidate power was to create a national Identity intense nationalism and belief in ones nation was constructed by a handful of ruler and the best way to conquering other countries was to unite ppl in a certain form identity (language/culture) because ppl are ready to fight and die for something they believe in Led to the desire for separate state (ex: Soviet Union and Yugoslavia) The ugliness of Nationalism Favorite tool of dictators to rally the masses (e.g., Hitler, Milosevic) Germany and Bosnia Where nationalism doesnt exist, it can be created (ex: Saddam Hussein in Iraq) Iraq exists b/c British colonial administrators curved that part out as Iraq. Saddam Hussein rallied the masses in

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order to create a backing and creating a strong sense of Iraqi nationalism to incite the masses to go along with his plan to fit the portrait of what he painted of Iraq As a result, new vision of a united Europe with intentionally dispersed power European Union, and other coordination of laws and public policy. Creating a united but no centralized power that is too powerful and this is controversial because small states part of the EU and others are anti-EU b/c certain Euro states cant hold on to their nationalism. Rise of Democracy Imperialism (19th) nationalism (20th) democracy (21st)? 30 democratic countries in 1974 to 117 today with 60% of the world now Dem, it is becoming the only sort of legitimacy. It became the reason for intervention in Iraq. When we talk about Dem, we talk about Representative democracy = elected individuals serve as spokespersons Idea is not new, but becomes difficult today to achieve with population growth and increasing division of labor. The diversity of wants and needs allows for the representative democracy. Sen 1999: Importance of Democracy Instrumental importance: to express what we value and demand attention to it Dem allows us to express publically what we value o Political participation and competitive elections that participation gives people the opportunity to press the govt When we vote, the govt would tend to go toward the general preferences. Competitive elections have a threat (election) give an incentive to give what the voters because they can be kicked out of office. Voters can express they are not happy through press, democracy and polls. o Historically, no famines in multiparty democracy Constructive importance: from values and priorities deciding what the social problems are and how we can fix them. Recent Demands for Democracy Arab Spring revolutionary wave of protests across Arab world starting in Dec 2010 dictators who held power for a very long time: economic decline, corruption, govt crimes. Conflict in Libya started Feb 2011; part of Arab Spring o What was the controversy surrounding Gaddafis death and why does it matter? Call for democracy and part of democracy was right to trial. If the rebel forces killed Gaddafi on the spot then the rebels are no better than him; same principles of rule by repression o Paradoxical reaction to his death. Occupy Wall Street started Sept 2011; inspired by Arab Spring o Aim: how the richest 1% of the world (Wall Street bankers) is controlling the economy. Part of that was to restore Dem in America. Corporations are the ones who hold political power, hold power with politicians.

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o o

Aims to expose how the richest 1% controls the global economy and to restore democracy in America NYC General Assembly = collective decision-making open forum. The power wouldnt be concentrated in one persons hands, truly horizontal based decision making process.

Lecture 15
Practical Problems of Democracy What should be done when an undemocratic group is poised to win an election? How do we keep the Hitlers of the world from being elected again? o In the case of Hitler and Milosevic, both were totalitarian dictators who were elected through Dem processes. Turkey interruption of the govt How many political parties effectively represent the population without crippling decisionmaking? o too many groups cripples the decision making too many differing views no decisions How do you create an effective govt w/o autocracy? o Checks and balances. o Congress has power to declare war; President is commander-in-chief of military in a way, there is attempted checks and balance because congress is the one to declare war. Without real/official declaration of war Korean War and Vietnam War. o War Powers Resolution of 1973 was intended to check the power of the President in committing the US to armed conflict. States clearly: President has 48 hours to notify Congress and armed forces cant remain more than 60 days without authorization. recognized that sometimes there will be emergencies where the president will have to make a decision to send troops and when he does, he has 48 hours to send the troops and unless congress approved, if not, he has 60 days to bring Clinton (bombing in Kosovo in 1999) and Obama (intervention in Libya in 2011) both disregarded Effectiveness of political freedom depends on how its exercised o Sen pg. 156: In a democracy, people tend to get what they demand, and more crucially, do not typically get what they do not demand. Dem is only as effective as the voters let it be as people press the govt and take advantage of free speech and press and conscious choices of who they are electing to really rule for them o Dem created opportunities, but they have to be put into practice they have to be put into practice (mentioned above) o Only 18% (out of all registered) of 18-24 year olds in Northeast voted in the 2010 congressional election Arguments against democracy

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Poor countries need a Strong hand and cant afford the luxury of democracy (Lee thesis) BUT most evidence shows DEM increases economic growth, health care, edu. Lee Thesis (from Singapore): Poor country need a strong leader, need one person to lead the country that Dem is really a luxury for rich countries, and poor countries need it to lead to economic growth.

o Dem, poor, high well-being: Costa Rica or Kerala o Nondemocratic, wealthy, high well-being: Libya Eliminating poverty is more important than political rights o BUT: Political rights allow people to demand attn. to economic needs. Nobody should sacrifice political rights in the name of trying to eliminate poverty or improving economy b/c Dem is the mechanisms of improving each.

Lecture 16 Race & Ethnicity


Ethnicity : based on presume common ancestry Us vs. Them using language of family ties (common history) Race: based on physical characteristics i. Socially constructed: concept arose in the age of colonization with the slave trade. In order to justify people who are slaves, they categorize people into color (made them less humane) ii. Beliefs that link physical appearance to intellectual, behavioral & moral qualities. (Europeans were greater. Everyone was subordinated and belittled based on skin color) Overtime, the diverse people of Africa became black & the diverse peoples of Europe became white It then became not only the categorization of color but of privilege Ex: In Brazil, pardo vs. mulatto Pardo (brown people mixed ancestry of natives, blacks and European) Mulattos (mixed people mixed ancestry of white and blacks) It became economic/social status instead of characteristics Race & Ethnicity = ties that both bind and divide

1994 Genocide in Rwanda


At least 800,000 killed in 100 days Most efficient mass killing since atomic bombing High tech weapons? No, they only used machetes and guns Did anyone know, prior to the events?

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Yes, radio was broadcasting the news of the killings and the national army was on watch but did not intervene until Belgium came through. Other countries knew (UN), but did not react because they refused to call it genocide and viewed it as a civil war instead so they wouldnt have to get involved.

History of Hutus & Tutsis


Same language, religion & culture intermarried & intermingled (hard to tell the difference, many similarities) Source of distinction & original inequality ( Hutus = cultivators, Tutsis = herdsmen ) Tutsis became political & economic elite but lines were still fluid. (Because of intermarriage & social economic class Hutus & Tutsis were not precisely set on each individual). Tutsis became synonymous.

Social Construction of Difference


J.H. Speke (1863) : Africans who best resemble Europeans were superior. (Tutsis were more white than the Hutus so he believed they must be more dominant and the ones who should be ruling the country) Made it seem in his book that the Tutsis who are wealthier & whiter were originated from the white Europeans. Race science brought by Belgians. (Measured nose, weight, height etc. ) Tutsis were naturally/genetically superior to the Hutus. Belgians dismantled local government, put Tutsis in charge everywhere & issued ethnic identity cards. (Hutus & Tutsis peace & prosperity started going downhill.) Belgians made sure they marry in their own ethnic groups and made sure the Tutsis were always head of the organizations the Belgians had made ethnicity the defining feature of Rwandan existence (Gourevitch 57) Census racialized a difference that had been socioeconomic Catholic priest in 1917: a Tutsi was a European under a black skin Racial ideology became embedded in institutions, which in turn reproduced in the ideology. (Tutsi children had better education which resulted in the Tutsis getting better jobs, which led them to have more power and it continued to grow over generations while the Hutus continued to lack over time.)

Revolution of 1959
Hutus became fed up. Their children are not getting equal justice and they are the majority group. Hutus didnt have good jobs or economic standards. Hutus made up 85% of the Rwandan population. Hulu activist beaten by Tutsi activist violence spread Belgian colonel allied with Hutus in the name if democracy & held elections. Believed Belgians should start helping Hutus for equal justice.

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More pessimistic version of history: Tutsis wanted independence & Belgians should start helping Hutus control. Tutsis was getting too much power; Belgian got worried if the Tutsis would start a revolt against them. Hutus came to power: replacement of one racial dictatorship with another. (Tutsis became marginalized, victims of oppression. Hutus came back for revenge and took all the Tutsis advantages of power, education & resources.)

Genocide
1990: Rwandan Patriotic Front (Tutsi) invaded Rwanda. (after 30 years of Hutus being in power; hatred increases between the 2 groups) 1994: Assassination of the President (who did it?) Nobody knew who did it. They both blamed each other. Tutsis believed Hutus wanted a reason to start the genocide. Hutus believed Tutsis wanted to take over again. Coordination of government, military, civilians & even church was believed to want the elimination of the Tutsis.

Lecture 17
The other parts of the Rwanda story Many accounts blame the conflict on age-old racial/ethnic hatred. Was it? o The Belgians were responsible for the hatred because they brought race science, that the Tutsis were from the Europeans which made them superior. o Belgians transformed the economy coffee exports. Peasant farmers change to coffee exports instead. Traditionally the lower class was based on subsistence crops to feed themselves but changed it to coffee for exports. Possibilities of why they did that: subsistence agriculture didnt make $ 1989: coffee prices collapsed famine US refused to sign. Nobody controlled the market, value went down. Instead of making all sorts of money, there was more poverty. Starving because no money and no food. o 1990: IMF structural adjustment collapse of education and health system. (responsible for structural adjustment programs terms that the countries agreed to in order to get $ from the IMF). IMF as part of their lending program took money away from education and health care system child malnutrition and malaria increased. o Economic collapse + military attacks French-supported buildup of Hutu armed forces. French supported the build of Hutu forces. When the tutsis attacked in the 90s, the president asked for help. France intervened and they giving weapons and training to Hutus who became the genocidal killers later. France realized what they had done, France set up the refugee camps out of realization and regret. US role Belgian French US (didnt sign agreement of coffee which led to collapse) all had a hand. We didnt want to intervene at all

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o US refused to acknowledge genocide Population and Health worlds population at 7.5 billion people Population is also unevenly disputed. China: 1.3bil; India: 1.2bil The world is adding another billion every 12 years. 1800 1st billion, 1930 2nd billion, 1960 3rd billion, 1974 4th billion, 1987 5th billion, 1999 6th billion, 2011 7th billion, 2023 8th billion? The Population Bomb Debate For centuries, leaders saw a growing population as key to power. Military leaders encouraged population growth b/c population of men kept them in power. If military is the way to stay in power then they encouraged births. Malthus (1800s): population growth will outstrip the food supply and collapse in war, disease, and famine. Theorizing and predicted the horridness of population growth. He wrote before contraception was common. Eventually population will outstrip the food supply, when food supply runs low then more violence/war which will lead to disease and famine and the cycle will start over again. Marx (1800s): people are lands greatest strength; need for redistribution of wealth. As long as distribution of food is unequal, then there will be conflict not because of the growth of population but because of unequal distribution. Ehrlich (1968): The Population Bomb (book) claimed a world of 3 billion could never grow to 6. If it did, then many people would die in the 70s and 80s. If it did happen, the world would have about 2 square meters of space. Havent come close to any of those predictions. Malnutrition would also take over. o But, % of undernourished in developing countries has declined by about half from 1969 to 2000. Virtually all population growth is in the worlds poorest countries diagram: Demographic Transition Theory. Stage 1 (preindustrial): countries are preindustrial. Both the birth and death rate are high = slow population growth. Why high birth rate: high contraception. Death rate high: families have to have lots of kids when death is high so that kids can take care of them when they are old. More kids: more kids to support family. Pre-industrial: agricultural communities = lots of hands on the farm. They were having kids at young age. Stage 2 (Early industrial): people are dying less frequently. As countries start to build factories and engage in scientific endeavors, clean resources industrialization = urbanization. It stays high because technology changes much faster than the cultural norms large cultural norms of family. Large families were expected and were practical. It became much easier to change technology than to change about family size.

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Stage 3 (mature Industrial): Women have joined the labor force. They are becoming more educated and going to work = fewer babies Stage 4 (postindustrial): fewer kids: economic reasons. Birth rate also slowed down because women are more concerned about careers. In postindustrial economies, children are very expensive. Fertility rate: avg # of birth/women Birth rate: # of births/thousand Changing Demographics US birth rate has dropped 10% since 07 because of recession. Birth 18 years for middle income families = $266k to raise a child. Russia is one of the worlds fastest shrinking countries? Largest land with shrinking population = 91 Russia lost half of the population because population dispersed. Hard time economically after SU. Western Europe, Japan, Canada has aging population and fertility below replacement. Starting to face social problems with aging population and fertility below replacement. Increasingly large portion of worlds population will be in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

Lecture 18
Migration First great wave: European colonization of Africa, Americas, parts of Asia o Caused greatest population collapse in history o Labor shortage filled by poor Europeans and African slaves Second great wave: current movement from Africa, Latin America, Asia (counter-tide) Source of unrest or innovation & prosperity? o Example of brain drain (prosperity) o Stealing jobs (unrest) dont steal jobs because they take the jobs that Americans dont want part of the informal economy. It is beneficial because companies profit from it. Top sender of immigrants: Mexico Top receiver of immigrants: US Population Control Vatican and Islamic states oppose contraception and claim inequality is problem they say that, along with Marx, that the problem is not population but inequality because inequality can be solved by proper distribution Feminists in the US jailed for distributing contraceptives Fertility revolution in the 50s-60s: the pill

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Chinas one-child policy has been stigmatized and misunderstood that the policy has to do with the couples living in urban areas. The rural areas still have large families Migration policies the US and their migration policies with Mexico and how they change over time. When the economy is good, we welcome immigrants and vice versa. Life Expectancy (PRB 2011)

Opposite map of the fertility map less industrialization Life expectancy and Infant Mortality Worldwide life expectancy is increasing Infant mortality is decreasing, but huge gaps around the world problem with looking at things in the aggregate hides some factors o Example: Liberia vs. Finland Globalization contributes to improve health and poorer health at the same time, how? Japan leads the world in life expectancy, followed by Northern Europe. The US is high but lags behind. Why? **will be on the next exam** o Lack of access to health care. Myth: our health behavior

Health Care US: private pay system o US spends more money on health care than any country, but not as healthy as others. Why? o Over half of expenditures are on the last 6 months of life more money on keeping people alive during the end of their life rather than caring for them during their life o Less preventive care o Largest population of underinsured people in the developed world health insurance is tied with insurance, so if no job then no insurance. Also informal sector jobs for immigrant; jobs without benefit o Infant mortality rate for blacks is comparable to that of Botswana 36 births per death Sweden: national health care have had it for decades, to provide health care for everybody Great Britain: hybrid, mix of both public and private o Some health care to whoever needs it (safety net for those with no benefits). Quality from private better than that of the public Obama o Philosophy of individualism. pull yourself up o US prioritizes military o Doctors dont want to lose their salaries HIV video -

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HIV/AIDS in the US Black Americans make up 13% of the population, but account for 50% of new cases of HIV History of racism and segregation has shaped the opportunity structure (or lack thereof) for blacks as a result, blacks are more likely to live in poor neighborhood where unemployment is high and education opportunity is low Coping mechanisms: they retreat or innovate and these opportunities result in jail Plus, discrimination in the Criminal Justice system Policies (condoms, needle exchange) increase HIV risk *Example of what Paul Farmer class Structural violence socioeconomic and institutional circumstances that strain the choices that people can make. This case: resulting in higher HIV risk (other problems as well) which harms health. Farmer in Haiti women was poor, lived in country side, had to drop out of school because bad grades, alternatives: marriage. She gets infected, he dies, and she needs free treatment that Farmer opened.

Lecture 19
Anti-Prostitution Pledge US law that requires any organization (intl or domestic) receiving HIV/AIDS funding to adopt policies explicitly opposing prostitution. Meant to reduce prostitution and spread of HIV dont want tax payer money to go to prostitution and spread of HIV, reduce exploitation of women and reduce HIV justification But what are the actual consequences? o Harder for NGOs to reach the women who need help the most o Worsens discrimination and stigma driving practice more underground since women dont want to come to the organizations then women cant get the contraception and testing. Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) WTO (world trade org) defined by US, Japanese, and European corporations a protocol for intellectual property rights for a core of wealthy nations Requires patent protection for 20 years no one can copy you for 20 years Meant to promote innovation by guaranteeing profits incentive for people to continue to try to come up with idea and better products when it comes to things with medicine, it cant be protected (?) But, what are the consequences? o Corporations of the developed world account for 97% if all patents creating a lot of inequality between the developed/developing world o HIV drugs are too expensive for developing countries competition drives prices down and makes more affordable to people. There was an 85% decline in HIV deaths with the drugs was first introduced. Shorter life expectancy in Africa because of lack of access.

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Indian company started producing generic drugs despite patent laws, resulted in lower prices. A lot of public pressure saying the drugs saves lives and as a result, the Indian company started creating the drugs before the 20 years law was up. Offering subSaharan African countries with reduced price. This would make penalties on the company by the WTO but nothing happened because of the benefit. DeVogli & Birbeck Article Macroeconomic Policies Risk Factors individual behaviors o Individual behavior: Risky sex, commercial sex, drug use, MTC (mother to child) transmission o Risk factors: Poverty (biggest factor it makes sex work to make money, stay in a bad relationship), unemployment, lack of education and health care o Policies: Currency devaluation, privatization, Liberalization structural adjustment programs from IMF to pay the debt. All the policies mentions are from the IMF programs and allow countries to pay debt. Free market: Concentrating on a particular export that makes money ex: coffee, tobacco, cotton, coffee, cotton, tobacco, when concentrating commodities to export then you are vulnerable to that product and the prices to the market. This leads to poverty and unemployment. Elimination of Agricultural subsidies govt money that goes to the farmers that makes food more affordable. If this is gone, the price of food rockets increases poverty and malnutrition Health and education fees something that the govt sometimes provides for free. If charging then less people who will use those services because they have to pay, which leads to lack of knowledge and diseases? Paying to test for clinic same concept. HOW IMF POLICIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL OF INCREASING HIV RATES WILL BE A QUESTION ON THE EXAM Urbanization Dhaka, Bangladesh 15 million people One of the fastest growing megacities in the world Ladder or a trap? If one doesnt have legal access to that land then that person doesnt have legal access to water rights and electricity. Patterns in Urbanization For the first time in history, we are an urbanized world more than half of the worlds population lives in cities as opposed to rural areas.

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1950: NYC had over 10 million people NYC was the only city in the world with over 10 million people 2015: at least 21 cities will that large, mostly in developing world Africa & Asia are still 2/3 rural on the whole but they are quickly changing

Causes of Urbanization: demographic Migration (international and internal) o Conflict or environmental degradation (poverty) o Agribusiness if food is now being produced with machinery then farmers cant compete with that business and they have to move to the cities to make money. Fertility o On avg, fertility is lower in urban areas, BUT o Large % of young people move to cities because of need for jobs o Poverty less access to family planning. Quickly growing slum areas that dont have access to contraception Economic opportunity o Wealth is centralized in cities in the video, both the man and the woman both benefited by moving to the cities. Investors go to the cities. Growth of industrial factories that produce jobs. o Industrialization = jobs Better services: education, health, water, sanitation concentration of people easier to benefit them with services vs. if they were in rural areas Opportunities for social mobilization and womens empowerment women are empowered by earning and independent income. They come into contact with other women and form networks of social support leads to union, educate about legal system, standing up for rights all comes from the informal networking they gain by moving to cities Can cities fulfill their promises? Poverty is growing faster in urban areas than rural areas first time, unparalleled concentration of poverty. Rapid urbanization, increase in concentration in slums. 1 billion people in slums (1/7 of worlds population) o 90% of slums are in the developing world o Overcrowding and lack of water, sanitation, and education if people have no legal title in land, then city doesnt have to provide you with benefits of services, also no schools. Violence & insecurity o Correlation between inequality and crime o Affluent people wall themselves in and pay for private security high rise cities and slums next to each other. The slums try to go to urban areas creates violence and inequality.

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Lecture 20
Video: Displacing 40,000 people from their homes created protest (didnt show that part, it delayed the demolition) Structural violence: the decision to demolish these products was not in the hands of the residents. Capreeni Green variety of socioeconomic and other forces. It was built in WWII who were coming from the war and housing for poor black farmers coming to the north 1960s: manufacturing workers leave Chicago, when those jobs leave the cities, they either move overseas or to the suburbs. When the jobs leave, they leave a void and lack of economic opportunity and low skill jobs. That combined during the 60s, including segregation and recession, the city had to cut services. The first place to cut the services: Capreeni Green: no police force, no city services, everything makes it a bad place to live. City decided to demolish it because it was a bad place to live. People ripped from their communities and families to move into the new apartments. Can be a good opportunity for the residents to start over and live in a better environment but thats only for a handful of families because of the screening process. World Structure, 2005 Even though mortality is highest but also fertility is high More percentage of less than 30: high urbanization The youth bulge in cities The number of children growing up in urban poverty is increasing Age structure affects socioeconomic & political issues o Orphans Govt cant support them, no economic resources, theyre exploited through human trafficking, not much communication, no extended kin o Invest in schools vs. health care Older ones invest in health care and education. The elder ones are voting for ways to use their tax money which is not interested in bettering the education but for them from the tax money o Youth unemployment unrest Camden NJ video o Ages 15-24 commit largest number of violent acts Relates to the opportunity structure Theories of Urbanization Central place theory o Idea that cities are necessary for economic productivity

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Big city centers develop economically; they function as an engine/center for economic growth and productivity. This automatically benefits the entire country.

Vs. Urban bias and hyper-urbanization (one part of the city is developed much faster than the rest of the country) o On the other hand it points out the negative aspects for cities growing too large o Idea that govt invest in cities and that means that they neglect rural areas o We see this a lot in Mexico city, Nairobi o That one hyper-urban city dominates the political and economic life of the city o What if the city leaves? The country may be left in crumbles Durkheim (anomie) and Simmel (indifference) o Wrote in the late 1800s; he argues that growth of urbanization would lead to anomie (feeling of isolation) when people left rural areas and villages where families were structured and organized, this would lead to more suicide and crime when you dont feel connected to other human beings around you.

Vs. Gans (urban villagers) and Abrahamson (ethic enclave) o Wrote in the early 1900s; he argued that moving to cities would create this indifference. This would result in retreating from social life and this would also create more social disorder and crime. o Other sociologist creates a positive view. It is like moving from one rural village and moving to a city and creating a new village where you seek out people who are like you and create networks in this urban space (enclave). Robert Park: urban neighborhoods go through patterns o Invasion assimilation First original group that is there isnt happy about the new comers then there is conflict then old group is happy with new group then assimilation and intermingling as if there was no problem There always will be conflict when new groups move into a new space but eventually everyone will get along and there will be assimilation Assimilation isnt always the goal and doesnt have to be the goal. Some may want to live in an ethnic enclave because there are a lot of negative that happen with assimilation: losing culture and gaining bad habit. o But, neighborhoods arent just shaped by selection, but by policies of segregation As been the case in the united states Midwest and northeast are 2-3 times more segregated than Canada along black/white lines

Suburban Sprawl in US

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Flight from cities began late 1800s and early 1900s. Why? Invention of large, steam-powered ships = millions of poor immigrants Movement of rural blacks to North Assembly line manufacturing of affordable cars White flight able to afford cars and move while blacks moved to urban areas Continues to segregation, urban poverty, and loss of farmland, pollution Businesses also move to the suburbs because they follow the money, increase in urban poverty, lack of job opportunities, more pollution in rural areas (cars) and loss of farmland

Lecture 21
Urbanization in the Philippines (Kramer) Why do people move to Manila? What is one of the biggest problems in the slums of Manila? o Not owning the land where people are living; property ownership and land title How do globalization and urban bias contribute to the problems of the poor? o One area of Philippines where the govt is putting all their services in o Race to the bottom; they may leave the Philippines and go somewhere else again (jobs) o Hurts the people in the slums because if govt invests in center then the land values increase. If the center is growing economically, then the land is becoming very valuable so the govt will not help the people living in the slums Do cities need slums to survive? o They need labor from the slums Will Dem improve well-being in Manila? o Manila was previously ruled by dictatorship o Theoretically we should see an increase in the wellbeing and decrease in poverty there are bribery for votes. Campaign worker gave a woman $3 for their vote; this wont improve the wellbeing of the people o Appearance of democracy but not democracy OECD: most developed, richest countries of the world (around 30 countries) [graph] Increase by 53% from 2008-2035 problem because safe and renewable source of energy. Fossil fuels that are non-renewable, causes a lot of environmental damage in the use Why? Economic and population growth population growth, economic growth, in poor countries, need more energy to support those people. Around 2000 OECD consuming more but from 08/15, Non-OECD countries (34) consume more, but faster growth in OECD Non-OECD energy consumption (1990-2035) China and India in the lead (21% of world energy consumption in 2008)

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Why? Strong growth in other regions, but slow growth in Russia and former Soviet Republics why would energy decrease? huge population decrease, economic growth less energy consumption

Wood Used for fuel and income (in Africa, India, and parts of Haiti) or both dual purpose Result: deforestation, loss of only income and energy source for the poor Solution 1: reforestation (plant more trees) cost of replanting trees is significant, seeds doesnt cost a lot but having the capacity and making that happen is the problem Solution 2: high-efficiency stoves dont have to use as much to heat the same amount of space. This brings the problem of the cost too expensive. Reforestation remains the most feasible option.

Coal Fueled industrialization of the 19th century main source of fuel for all of the industrialization period Abundant, but difficult to extract & transport, messy to burn environmental problems o Young boys were preferred in mines in the 1800s children responsible for earning income for the family o But Soot in the air = black lung the soot particles in the air and breathing through lungs results in lung disease which is common in the 1800s o Acid rain, global warming o Excavation pollutes streams and valleys coal is difficult to extract

Oil Fuels the 20th century Persian Gulf contains 2/3 of worlds oil reserves o Arab embargoed oil exports to US and Europe because of their support for Israel in the 1970s in the 70s, Arab prevented exports to US because US was supporting Israel Oil-related economic, political, environmental problems o Saudia Arabia has worlds largest oil reserves but middle-income, high unemployment, high gender and class inequality S.A. is middle income on par with Latin America. The well isnt evenly distributed and is in the hands of only a few. The larger population doesnt reap the benefits o Often finances the elite and contribute to violence double edged source. More oil more violence, control oil controlling the monetary benefits o Spills and accidents, global warming

Lecture 22
Chad-Cameroon Pipeline

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Industrialized nations are reaping the benefits of extractive industries and do not face any challenges in the process Expectations vs. realities of pipeline Was compensation fair and adequate? What role should nations importing resources from other countries play in regulating the impact of these industries? Chad the country with oil. The pipe has to be through Cameroon since chad cannot have the pipeline. Cameroon is the one being screwed because it has to come through Cameroon to be shipped globally. Profits expected in Cameroon: biggest expectation this project would bring jobs to the country. The jobs that were available were bush-whacking for a day or two. Income from the oil, profit: only 20mil vs. few billions and that money was toward the govt; no legal title to land, govt took the land Players: World Bank, Exxon Mobil, govt of Chad, govt of Cameroon, US govt had a little bit of hand because Exxon belongs to the US US consumption and production patterns are related to inequality, both at home and abroad Oil in Chad/Cameroon o US is by far the largest consumer of gas Coltan in the Congo (Coltan for chips and electronics) o Metallic ore used in electronics products o Violence, child labor, pollution o Mining contributes to the violence, rebels armies need to keep the armies fed and clothed. This fuels the rebel army which fuels the conflict. Do countries importing resources have an obligation to intervene in exploitation? Who is responsible? o the video blamed the multinational companies who demanded the products; they are manufacturing the products because we/consumers are demanding them Agribusiness and World Inequality Huge companies controlling the way that food is produced Agriculture Global food regime controlled by corporate agriculture and massive import/export system which is incredibly efficient and inefficient o US is feeding the world which we are producing but the food production is controlled by corporate agribusiness. We are exporting large amounts of it and other countries are importing large amounts of it o Efficient: more bang for the buck more food at a time makes it cheaper Capacity of feeding more people

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Inefficient: Food that we are making is not healthy/organic because of the pesticides It took the jobs of the traditional small farmers Killing species of animals by clearing farmlands Energy expended in producing the food is more than the energy we get from the food along with shipping the food across the world

Increases competition (ex: Jamaica and Mexico werent able to compete with the US) Increases international division of labor focusing on one product in the market = more vulnerable if the price of that product is lost economy collapses Is there enough food to feed the world? We have the capacity (calories) to feed the planet but why then to people die from malnutrition? o Could be an infrastructure problem o Food is not free o Paying for the technology poor countries cant pay for them o Poverty is the biggest issue Agribusiness & US inequality Jobs and farms are concentrated among low-income people of color o Particularly states like North Carolina, it has a lot of agribusiness (crops and animals) o Poor working conditions o Pesticide exposure increases risk of cancer, birth defects, cerebral damage (no health care benefits because workers are paid in cash) There are laws that require farms to submit toxicity data to EPA isnt very effective because the farmers simply report fraudulent/no data Air and water pollution o Animal factories are one of the largest contributors to air pollution, causing lung and heart problems o Waste can leech into ground water

Lecture 23
Hamburger Connection Rapid growth of beef to American fast food chains affects deforestation in Central and South America Brazilian beef exports increased by about 5x over 6 years massive deforestation in Amazon o Currency devaluation encourages trade o Elimination of livestock disease in Brazil, plus new disease threats outside of Brazil international news o International demand McDonald encourages cattle ranches in Brazil. Great demand for beef economic demand

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More on Pollution E-waste: commodity or toxic garbage? o Globalization to child labor o What desperate people will do out of economic necessity o pollution to air and ground water o Another way in which consumers are contributing to social problems Toxic colonialism trade in hazardous waste o Tightening of environmental laws, globalization of shipping, need for cash In the 70s, the US decided that we needed to pay more attention to pollution and cleaning up dumps and rivers. The cost of dumping the rose dramatically, the corporation then found other places to dump. Globalization for shipping: faster planes, faster ships, most transfers on ship matter of practicality, easy to dump waste in a foreign country than was 10 years ago. Third factor: need for cash for developing country a way to make money. o Basel Convention: intl treaty to regulate, but effectiveness is debated try to ensure that people were managing waste in an environmentally sound way. Rules of how much you were allowed to dump in certain places. The problem is that the effectiveness has really been debated. It sort of seen on balanced since it doesnt see effective and countries like the US dont want to follow the convection. The US makes separate agreements with Mexico because it doesnt benefit us and not ratifying treaty so we can continue dumping in poor countries. Industrial sites (remember video on maquiladoras?) o Pollution and birth defects to the community o Stricter environmental laws, we are post-industrial society where the factories have gone to developing countries. The fact that our factories left is a reason we dont have much pollution. Ex: Baltimore. Contaminated water remains one of the worlds largest killers

Water Availability in Kenya (graph) Water providers in Kenya Majority of Kenyas urban population lives in informal settlements o No formal land title land can be taken at any time. Theres no point of providing infrastructure when that settlement can be gone and it doesnt belong to anyone. Utility companies find these places unprofitable. The areas arent seen as profitable since it can be gone a moments notice and because the residents are very poor. Third issue: affordability of getting piped water into your place in a slum. Even if a company is willing to get it pumped, the residents cant afford it. (~$440 to get piped water to home in Kenya; avg income of Kenyans = $2/day). Most are also working in the informal economy and being paid cash.

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o Utility co. sees areas as unprofitable o Unaffordable ($447) o Requirements for water connection ***solution: private water vendors o door to door selling water o work in a diff part of city for a trucking company and you fill a tanker with water and bring the tanker to the city by the jug Positives: o Increased water supply coverage o Greater flexibility in payment system (credit, pay as you go) someone pays for you, deferred payment Negatives o HIGH prices! (15-30x what utility companies would charge extortion) o Water of questionable quality o Illegal extraction from piped system and deliberate creation of shortages to raise demand because of the demand, people are illegally extracting water from piped systems which deliberately causes a shortages and leads to an increased demand o Cartels fix prices at higher rate no competition, any price Obstacles to Social Change Defining the problem vs. fixing it o Ex: planned parenthood actors who find the problems (NGOs) and other actors fixing the problems (Lawyers and other professions) Sometimes solutions give rise to a whole new set of problems o Ex: Demolition of Cabrini Green, water providers Resistance to change o Changes in norms makes people uncomfortable (ex: contraception late 1800s jailed) o People profit from the status quo [child labor] (Ex: sweatshops) Complexity of social problems (Ex: crime, oil pipelines)

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