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Assignment on Logical Framework Approach Submitted to Mohammad Hamiduzzaman, Lecturer Dept.

of Public Administration Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet Submitted by Group Name !"# Name r. !hon "ana *ahmida +han Afjal ,ossain .adia Afrin Tan oy Das $egistration No% #$$%#&'$() #$$%#&'$(' #$$%#&'$(#$$%#&'$/! #$$'#&'$#)

&th 'ear "st Semester (eptartment o) *ublic Administration

Shah+alal ,ni-ersity o) Science and .echnology, Sylhet

Content

1. Introduction 2. Logical Framework Approach 3. Logical Framework 4. Background 5. The proce o! logical !ramework anal" i #

$. %e" Feature o! a Logical Framework Approach &. Importance o! LFA '. (tep o! logical !ramework ). %e" Feature o! a Logical Framework Approach 1*. 11. (tep o! logical !ramework Conclu ion

Logical Framework Anal" i


Introduction#+ With the recognition that good planning is the basis of good implementation and effective management, various methodologies have been developed to assist with, and improve this process. Donors often require plans to be developed in a particular way and presented in a set format. A specific terminology has also developed which may vary, but in general the principles underpinning the approaches are the same. An effective manager will need to be familiar with some of these terms and approaches, especially if he has to seek funds from donors.

Logical Framework Approach#+ A Logical Framework Approach LFA! is a pro"ect design methodology that provides a systematic structure for identifying, planning and managing pro"ects. #he Logical Framework Approach LFA! is a management tool mainly used in the design, monitoring and evaluation of international development pro"ects. $t is also widely known as %oal &riented 'ro"ect 'lanning %&''! or &b"ectives &riented 'ro"ect 'lanning &&''!. Logical Framework Analysis or the Logical Framework Approach LFA! is an analytical process for structuring and systemati(ing the analysis of a pro"ect or program idea. LFA is a process involving stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, ob"ective setting and strategy selection.

Logical Framework Analysis or the Logical Framework Approach LFA! is the &utcome )apping that introduces some new notions such as focusing on capacity building of partners and defining the behavior changes of partners as key elements for social change. $t can be summari(ed by* +Framework , Language - .epresentation/. A Logical Framework or +logframe/ for short! summari(es in following0 1 What the pro"ect is going to achieve 1 What activities will be carried out 1 What means2resources2inputs human, technical, infrastructural, etc.! are required3 1 What potential problems could affect the success of the pro"ect3 1 4ow the progress and ultimate success of the pro"ect will be measured and verified %e" !igure#+ .osenberg and 'osner 5 6787 Among the 9: countries ;<D', Ausaid, ;=Aid etc

Figure* 0 Logic model Logical Framework Approach The proce o! logical !ramework anal" i #

1 $nvolve stakeholders in the problem analysis and design of the pro"ect 1 =ystematically and logically set out the pro"ect or program ob"ectives and the means0end relationships between them 1 >stablish what assumptions outside the scope of the pro"ect may influence its success, and 1 =et indicators to check whether the ob"ectives have been achieved.

LFA can ,e u ed#+ 6. $dentifying and assessing activity options. ?. 'reparing the activity design. 9. Apprising activity design. @. $mplementing approval activity and, :. )onitoring, reviewing and evaluation activity progress and performance. Background# #he Logical Framework Approach was developed in 67A7 for the ;nited =tates Agency for $nternational Development. #he creator of the LFA was Leon B. .osenberg, as a principal of Fry Consultants, based on worldwide study performed by .osenberg, 4anley, and 'osner. Final .eport, contract csd0?:6D, Buly ?@, 678D!. .osenberg then founded 'ractical Concepts $ncorporated 'C$!, which eEtended use of LFA to 9: countries. #he worldwide acceptance of the LFA led 'C$ to train thousands in it use, and then train more than 9,DDD trainers of trainers. LFA is widely used by bilateral and multilateral donors and organi(ations like A>C$D, %#F, =ida, <&.AD, DF$D, ;<D', >C and the $nter0American Development Gank. $t has also been widely adopted by <%&s, though not without reservations and concerns by some.

Logical !ramework A logical framework provides a means to define or present! a logic as a signature in a higher0order type theory in such a way that provability of a formula in the original logic reduces to a type inhabitation problem in the framework type theory. A logical framework is based on a general treatment of syntaE, rules and proofs. #o describe a logical framework, one must provide the following* 6. A characteri(ation of the class of ob"ect0logics to be representedH ?. An appropriate meta0languageH 9. A characteri(ation of the mechanism by which ob"ect0logics are represented.

-e!inition o! logical !ramework anal" i #+ According to Dr. )okbul Ahmed Ihan0 J#he Logical Framework Approach is a set of inter looking concepts which must be used together in a dynamic fashion to develop a well design, ob"ectively describe and evaluable pro"ectK =o, we can say that, LFA offers a way to clarify pro"ect design and describe and valuable pro"ect. Logical framework approach is engaged from planning to evaluate implementation. Logical framework is a dynamic process, which provides a framework of a pro"ect design in order to make the pro"ect more realistic, valuable efficient and effective to the pro"ect authority. The LFA i an anal"tical. pre entational and management tool which can help planner and manager to#+ Analy(e the eEisting situation during activity preparation. >stablish a logical hierarchy of means by which ob"ectives will be reached.

$dentify the potential risk to achieving the ob"ectives and to sustainable outcomes >stablish how outputs and outcomes might best to monitored and evaluated $f desired present a summary of the activity in a standard format and )onitor and review activities during implementation %enerally, the logical framework analysis is a great technique for making sure that one/s pro"ect plan is robust and coherent. LFA are important for0 'lanning Designing Approving )onitoring and evaluation of a pro"ect.

%e" Feature o! a Logical Framework Approach# Logical framework is a tool for summering the key features of a program and best used to help program designers and stake holders. $ntervention logic*0 %oal*0 the higher level ob"ectives towards which the pro"ect is eEpected to contribute mention target group!. 'urpose*0the effects which is eEpected to be achieved as the result of the pro"ect. &utputs*0#he results that the pro"ect management should be able to guarantee mention target groups!. Activities*0#he results that have to be undertaken by the pro"ection order to produce outputs. %oal

'urpose &utput Activities ;nder full control of pro"ect management

$nputs

Geyond control of pro"ect management

Figure# + Iey Features of a Logical Framework Approach Importance o! logical !ramework anal" i Logical framework analysis has been used by WWF for over ten years. $t was first developed in the late 67ADs, and has been adopted as a pro"ect planning and management tool by most government aid agencies %AAs!. A good understanding of the principles of LFA is therefore essential when developing pro"ects for donor funding. Gecause logframes are used by a large number of international <%&s and %AAs, they provide a common language when discussing pro"ects. #he logical framework approach provides a set of design tools that, when applied creatively, can be used for planning, designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating pro"ects. Logframes give a structured, logical approach to setting priorities, and determining the intended purpose and results of a pro"ect. ;sed correctly, logframes can provide a sound mechanism for pro"ect development. Logical frameworks also lay the basis for activity scheduling, budgeting, monitoring, and for evaluating the impact, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of a pro"ect. =ince logical framework analysis begins with planning sessions with stakeholders and partners, it is about people/s priorities. Furthermore, it allows information to be analy(ed and organi(ed in a structured way, and thus functions as an aid to thinking. 'reparation of the logframe with the participation of all stakeholders can help build a pro"ect where all involved share the same ideas on where the pro"ect is going and why the activities are necessary. #he resulting logframe matriE provides a concise summary of the pro"ect that forms an essential part of the conservation action plan and proposal for funding.

/h" logical !ramework i important#


Network display performance overtime

Design

<etwork display performance overtime

Establishes performance oriented project design and sets basis for evaluation

Evaluation

Project objective achieved

Execution

Evaluation system

Reporting system

Figure* Logical Framework 'rovides a #ool to =upport all stages of the pro"ect cycle

(tep o! logical !ramework#+

#here are three steps of logical framework. #hey are shown in following0
=takeholder/s analysis

Geneficiary class
Problem analysis #arget group

=ituation analysis

Logical framew ork

=trategy analysis

ocal Objective point Final beneficiary

method s oriented

Logical framework matriE 'artners


Gi0lateral )ulti0lateral

Objective analysis

Figure# + steps of logical framework.

1. (ituation anal" i * prior to beginning work on activity designed and the construction of a logframe matriE. $t is important to undertake a structured analysis of the eEisting situation. =ituation analysis has three steps. #his includes 1.1. (takeholder anal" i # =takeholders analysis is presented in this guideline as coming after problem analysis. $n practice stakeholders analysis is going throughout the design process, and does not neatly fit into anyone step. The main purpo e o! takeholder anal" i are to#+ ;nderstand the interest of different groups and their capacities to address identified problem and Design activity that appropriate address institutional capacity, distributional and social issues. )ain steps of stakeholders analysis0 $dentify the principle stakeholders. $nvesting their roles, interests, relative power and capacity to participate $dentifying the eEtent of cooperation or conflict in the relationship between stakeholders and

$nterpreting the findings of the analysis and defining how this should be incorporated into activity design 1.2. 0ro,lem anal" i # development activities are usually proposed as a response to addressing development situations and overcoming identified development problems in those situations. #he key propose of this analysis is to try and ensure that +root causes/ are identified and subsequently addressed in the activity design, not "ust the symptoms of the problem s!. 1.3. 1,2ecti3e anal" i # ob"ective analysis should be prepared after the problem has been completed and an initial stakeholder analysis has been undertaken. &nce the negative statement from the problem analysis have been reworded to positive statements, should then check0 Are the statements clear and under bigamous3 Are the links between each statement logical and reasonable3 Will the achievement of one help support the attainment of another that is above it in the hierarchy! $s there a need to add any other positive actions and2 or statements3 )ore detail may be required Are the positive actions at one level sufficient to lead to the result above3 Do the risk to the achieving the ob"ectives and also having sustainable outcomes appear to be manageable3 $s the overall structure simple and clear3 =imply it is possible or necessary.

#he results of the stakeholder/s analysis may be helped to give better focus to priority problems and not all of the original problems statements may be therefore need to be translated into ob"ective statements. 2. (trateg" anal" i #+During the process of analy(ing the problems, stakeholder/s issues and developing a draft ob"ective analysis, views on the

potential merits or difficulties and risk associated with different possible interventions should have been developed and discussed. #o assess alternative interventions in a working shop setting. $t is useful to identify and agree on a number of assessment criteria against which alternative interventions can be ranked or scored criteria that may be used to help make a broad assessment of different interventions options could include the eEpected. Genefits to target group levels of benefits equity and participation =ustainability of the benefits Ability to repair and maintain assets post activity #otal cost and recurrent cost implications Financial and economic viability Contribution to institutional strengthening and management capacity building >nvironmental impact and Compatibility of activity with sector or program priorities 3. Logical Framework matri4# the results of the logical framework analysis can be presented and further analy(ed, throw the development of a log frame matriE. &ne standard analytical product of the LFA is logical framework matriE. $t consist a matriE with four column and four rows which summari(e selected aspect of an activity design, namely*0 6. What the activity will do, and what it will produce activity description! ?. #he activities hierarchy of ob"ectives and planned results activity description! 9. #he key assumptions that are being made assumption!

@. 4ow the activities of achievement will be measured and evaluated indicators and means of verified! LFA+,a ed pro2ect a e ment. when properl" carried out. will#+ Foster reflection within the pro"ect implementing institution %enerate early warnings before things go wrong and allow for corrective decisions $mprove pro"ect monitoring and reporting, and Facilitate and improve pro"ect evaluation, both internal and eEternal. As a tool, however, a logframe must not be considered as an end in itself 5 it is only as good as the field eEperience and analytical abilities of the people creating and using. 5oal+What results are eEpected3 0urpo e+ why will do this prospect3 1utput+What results are achieved3 Indication o! achie3ement+how one will know that the pro"ect successfully3 6ean o! 3eri!ication+ how one will check reported results3 7i k and a umption+ what assumption underline the structure of pro"ect and what is the risk they will not prevail3 'ro"ect summery %oal 'urpose &utputs Activitie s $ndicators of )eans of .isk and achievements verification assumption

'ro"ect summery %oal*0within fiEed date to count population, quality of population, enumeration

$ndicators of achievement >numeration completed their work within specific date Average population

)eans of verification Gangladesh bureau of statistics =urvey reports Census reports >valuation reports

.isk and assumption 'opulation does not eEceed because over population create

increased from AD08D lak by the year ?DD60 ?D6D

'urpose*0within 6D years how many population has increased

$n every year the population increased from 8D0LD thousand 6:Mpopulation maintain family planning ;nlit ?D6D, estimate for total population approEimately 6A core :Dthousand population trained to increased public awareness #he accurate result of population approEimately

'ro"ect monitoring reports >valuation reports 4ousehold survey reports G.G.=

many problem For declining population the governmen t will be taken different steps 'opulation remain stable #raining facilities eEists Adequate consciousn ess

&utput*0until ?D6D, the total population of Gangladesh 'opulation trained

$mplementation monitoring and )onitoring reports 'ro"ect program reports G.G.=

Activities*0 Accurate result of population

'ro"ect performance )onitoring report

Family planning training taken when needed 'opulation will take family planning and receive training 'opulation receptive to new method

#o create public awareness >ducation of qualificati on of women

6A core =uppose D? lack population are training family plan through <%&s #o raise awareness the govt. has taken many steps $n statistics show that women education has increased and they are conscious about their empowerment

$D)> reportsN 'ro"ect program reports

Concern people remain stable

(tep o! logical !ramework anal" i #+ 1. Identi!"ing output and acti3itie #+8 pro2ect ummer". column+19 #he first step is to brainstorm the outputs and activities required by the pro"ect, starting with the pro"ect goal. Do this in the pro"ect summery column one of the log frames. =tart by defining the goal and purpose of the pro"ect and from they identify the outputs and the activities required. 5oal# + what is the Jto beK state of the pro"ect3 What is the pro"ect trying to achieve3 0urpo e# + who are the beneficiaries3 What is the underling motivation for starting the pro"ect in the first phase3 1utput # + what are the deliverable results of the pro"ect3 What change must be made3 Acti3itie # + what will actually be done in order to deliver the outputs3

@. :eri!"ing the 3ertical logic#+ neEt we take a bottom0up approach to checking that the list of activities will deliver the desired results after all its possible activities will not be the one/s wanted, this checking process in very important part of making sure that the pro"ect plan is robust. $t is called the hierarchy of ob"ectives. =o, it is important to check that action identified deliver the results wanted. Check by the logic in column06 by voice and it activities will ensure that0
!oal

$f purpose then goal.


Purpose Output

$f outputs are achieved then purposed

"ctivities

$f activities are completed then outputs

6. $f complete the activity then outputs will occur ?. $f outputs are achieved then purpose of the pro"ect will be satisfied 9. $f purpose is satisfied then the goal of the pro"ect is achieved3 3. Identi!ied the ri k and a umption # + $t is now cross over to the other side of the identify risk associated with the pro"ectH and possible false assumptions that may be undermine it. #here are number of eEternal factors that can there pro"ect off course in the planning and design phase, the possible assumption that may one use to be. $ndentified the assumption which may or may not be correct and possible risks are also needed to be identified.

%oal

'urpose

And

Assumption

&utputs

And

Assumption

Assumption Activities And

Figure* Cause2>ffect logical framework analysis 4. :eri!"ing the logic o! the ri k and a umption#+ once one has identified the risk and assumption then it is needed to check them to determine. Whether the assumption will link one them of the pro"ect to the neEt. Whether risks are too large first of all check that the assumptions are logical using if2 this analysis. 6. $f activity is complete successfully and the assumptions are underlying it are true, the output will be achieved ?. $f the output is delivered, and the assumptions underlying it are true, the purpose will be achieved. 9. $f the purpose is achieved and the assumptions it is true, then the goal will be achieved. @. Determine the indicators of achievements and means of verification* 0 when they are satisfied with the structure of the log frame so far, and are comfortable that they can manage the risk related to this assumption. 'erformance indicators are the specified measured used to monitor this programs. 4ere are the criteria for good indicators of achievement.

Oalid .eliable =imple =ensitive ;seful Affordable ;sing this criteria, for each goal, purpose, outputs and activity, indicate what will be used to deter mine whether it was successfully achieved. Also note who will be responsible for setting these targets. P 0ha e o! Logical Framework Anal" i # LFA is used in mainly @ phase
Defined phase

#mplementation phase

Design phase

"nalysis& "dopt anal" i Figure# + 0ha e o! logical !ramework phase

Approache o! LFA#+

Approaches of LFA

Program management

$asic scientific method

%ystem analysis

%ources of verification

"ssumption

#ntervention logic ) vision goal objectiv result ' * +

#ndicators ,igh level indicators !oal indicator Objectives indicators Results indicator

Figure* =equence of a logical framework matriE Conclu ion#+ #o summari(e, it is clear to all that, the logframe should be first and foremost a tool to engage stakeholder commitment and to support a pro"ect management. #he participatory process of logical framework analysis is too important to the resulting logframe matriE. =o, we can say about Logical Framework approach illustrates that 5 J#hink upwards 5'lan downwardsK 7e!erence #+ 6. Chadha, =kylarkH )anaging 'ro"ects in Gangladesh 67L7 ? nd revised edition!. '( $slam, )d. <urulH =ocial Devalopment 'olicy and 'lanning ?DDL!.

%ources of verification %ources of verification %ources of verification %ources of verification . )/ )) 1 !oal assumption Objective "ssumption Result "ssumption 2