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1.2.

K thut pht thanh s Nhng nm gn y k thut s nhanh chng lm thay i cch thc sn xut, phn phi chng trnh pht thanh. Cc nh lm pht thanh u t rt nhiu vo vic s ho khu vc sn xut v phn phi chng trnh pht thanh. V by gi, thi k chuyn hng trong khu vc pht sng v ang din ra si ng. Do s pht trin nhanh chng ca k thut s, ti thi k hi t cc k thut thng tin lin lc, k thut pht sng v k thut my tnh. 1.2.1. Tnh hnh pht trin ca pht thanh s hu ht cc nc Chu u, vic th nghim pht thanh s trn mt t ang c trin khai. Ngi ta d nh trong mt vi nm ti pht thanh s s ng mt vai tr ng k v s dn thay th cho kiu pht thanh truyn thng. Sau y l mt s t liu tham kho v tin trnh ang din ra trn th gii. Hip hi pht thanh Chu u (EBU) chnh thc trnh ln hip hi vin thng quc t (ITU) tiu chun pht thanh s - EUREKA 147 gi tt l pht thanh DAB l tiu chun s p dng trn phm vi ton Chu u. Hin nay ti Chu u nhiu quc gia hon thnh giai on th nghim pht thanh s v bt u thi k hot ng chnh thc ca cc dch v ny. Ngoi Chu u, mt s nc khc nh Canada, Singapore, i loan, Australia cng a h thng pht thanh s theo tiu chun E147 vo khai thc chnh thc. Sau tiu chun E147 tiu chun pht thanh s DRM - pht thanh s trn cc bng tn nh hn 30 MHz c t chc ITU thng qua vo thng 4/2001 v ti thng 9/2001 t chc v tiu chun ETSTI ban hnh tiu chun ny. Sau khi ban hnh tiu chun s tin hnh pht th nghim nm 2002 v nm 2003 chnh thc a vo hot ng pht thanh s theo chun DRM. Ngi M i theo hng khc vi Chu u. Ngi ta ang nghin cu chun IBOC - (In Band On Channel) pht thanh s trn cc bng tn cho FM v AM truyn thng. Tuy khi xng kh sm nhng nm ca thp nin 90 nhng hin nay tt c cn trong giai on nghin cu th nghim. Ngi Nht a ra mt tiu chun cho mnh l tiu chun pht thanh s trn mt t ISDB-T. y l tiu chun dng chung cho pht thanh v truyn hnh,

trong ISDB-T bng hp 9429 KHz hoc 1,3 MHz) cho pht thanh. Th nghim pht thanh s theo tiu chun ny c tin hnh ti Nht v cho kt qu kh quan. Ngi Hn Quc a ra mt tiu chun pht thanh s a phng tin DMB. y l tiu chun dng chung cho pht thanh v truyn hnh s s dng cc thit b thu l in thoi di ng. K thut ca pht thanh s DMB pht trin da trn s cht lc nhng u im ca k thut DAB v hon ton tng thch vi DAB. Vi chun pht thanh s ny th ngi Hn Quc gii quyt c vn my thu thanh s. Hin nay tiu chun ny c tin hnh pht ti Hn Quc v mt s nc v cho kt qu rt kh quan. y l mt chun mi nhng ang c rt nhiu nc quan tm v th nghim. Trong thi gian qua ngi ta c nhiu n lc thc y tin trnh pht trin pht thanh s. So vi truyn hnh s, pht thanh s c nhiu vn kh khn hn. Ngay ti thi im ny, trn th gii vn cn tip tc nghin cu v DSB. Trong khi c khong 230 triu ngi trn hnh tinh c th s dng dch v DAB (Pht thanh s theo chun E 147) vi 400 cc dch v khc nhau. Gi thnh my thu l vn chnh lm chm tin trnh pht trin DSB. Hin nay trn th trng c khong 16 loi my thu khc nhau theo chun E-147. cc bng mch my thu PCI l hng pht trin ca cc nh sn xut my thu. Hip hi ABU trong thi gian qua cng c nhiu n lc h tr cc nc trong khu vc pht trin DSB. t chc nhiu hi tho v thnh lp nhiu nhm cng tc, phn tch lp chin lc pht trin. i TNVN cng ang nghin cu v la chn tiu chun pht thanh s cho Vit Nam, hin nay i ting Ni Vit Nam ang pht th nghim pht thanh s DRM. Cho n nay, nhp pht trin cng ngh pht thanh s khng c nh mong i. Th trng my thu thanh s l mt ro cn ln cho qu trnh pht trin pht thanh s. Bn cnh , do c nhng xu hng v mc hon thin cng ngh khc nhau nn tnh hnh trin khai pht thanh s cng din ra khc nhau gia cc nc trn th gii v trong khu vc. Sau y l mt s thng tin cp nht v vic ng dng pht thanh s ti mt s nc khu vc Chu - Thi Bnh Dng theo t liu ABU. - Australia

T ngy 17 thng 11 nm 2003, ton b mng pht thanh thng mi Sydney cng cc i pht thanh cng ng nh ABC v SBS bt u pht thanh s trn bng III ca di tn VHF theo tiu chun Eureka- 147. Vic th nghim cng ngh pht thanh s ti c c tin hnh cch y 5 nm do mt vi i pht thanh thng mi v i ABC thc hin trn bng tn L. D n pht thanh s Sydney l d n pht thanh s u tin c thc hin trn hai knh truyn hnh trong bng III ca ph tn VHF. Vic th nghim ny cho php so snh cht lng truyn dn trong bng L v bng III cng nh phn ng ca khch hng v cc nh lm qung co i vi cng ngh v cc loi my thu mi. Trong giai on th nghim thit lp mt cng xooc-xiom gi l Digital Radio Broadcasting Australia Pty Ltd (DRBA) s hu h thng truyn dn s ca Sydney v chu trch nhim i vi vic qun l ghp knh. i tc chin lc trong giai on th nghim bao gm cc nh sn xut my thu nh: Alpine Electronics; Pure Digital; Factum Electronics AB v Blaupunkt; hng chuyn bn l Harvey Norman; hng qung co Universal McCann; cc nh cung cp c s h tng nh Radio Scape, BSA, Comsyst, RFS v TXA. Cc nh cng nghip ang thng tho vi chnh ph v chnh sch thng nht trong gii thiu v ph cp pht thanh s trong c nc trn c s mt m hnh thng nht. - Brunei i pht thanh truyn hnh Brunei RTB (Radio Television Brunei) bt u pht th nghim dch v DAB-T t cui nm 2001 da trn tiu chun Eureka- 147. Hin nay dch v bao gm 5 knh FM pht ng thi. H lp mt my pht DAB T 300W pht trn knh 12B. Giai on pht trin th nghim c vng ph sng ti a khong 60Km. Tnh ti thi im hin nay, vn cha c mt k hoch no m rng vng th nghim ra trn khp c nc. Tuy nhin RTB vn tip tc n lc cung cp, a k thut cng ngh ny ti tt c mi ngi. - Trung Quc Trung Quc bt u th nghim cng ngh DAB ln u tin vo nm 1995. Ba trm pht Eureka-147 u tin (Mng mt tn s SFN) c pht sng vo ngy 15 thng 12 nm 1996 ti 3 khu vc Foshan, Guangzhou v Zhongshan ti tnh Qung

ng. i pht sng Foshan l trung tm x l tn hiu ca mng ny. N cn cung cp cc thnh phn ho v hnh nh theo thi gian thc. Vng ph sng DAB ca mng mt tn s ny vo khong 8% din tch ca tnh Qung ng, phc v cho khong 1,3465 triu ngi. Mng mt tn s th hai c thit lp ti Beijing, Tianjing v Langfang vo thng 5 nm 2000. Hai mng mt tn s ny hin nay vn ang hot ng th nghim v cung cp chng trnh m thanh DAB. Trung Quc thay i tn s pht t 85Mhz sang tn s 209,936Mhz vo nm 1998. Hu nh cc my thu DAB hin c Trung Quc u c sn xut ti i Loan v Nht Bn. Ti nay mi ch bn c vi chic my thu, do gi thnh my thu qu cao. Mt s cng ty a phng tin c nh pht trin my thu DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) v thit b truyn dn da trn cng ngh MPEG-4. Thng 4 nm 2004, ti cuc hp hi ng chung hng nm Hng Chu, Trung Quc, i pht thanh quc t Trung Quc v i pht thanh quc gia Trung Quc ng h pht DRM trong di sng trung v sng ngn. Trung Quc cn mong mun tham gia vo h thng pht trn ton cu. Trung Quc tin hnh pht th nghim cng ngh DRM Zhejiang s dng bng tn sng trung v sng ngn. - ng Timor Dch v pht thanh cng cng ca Timor Leste gn y vn cha c bt k k hoch no ng dng pht thanh s. ng Timor vn ang giai on bt u ca vic xy dng mt h thng truyn dn tng t ca quc gia cho c pht thanh v truyn hnh, v c gng vt qua cc th thch ch yu nh l kh nng k thut, cc vn v in, nhin liu v cc vn v hu cn khc. - Hng Kng Cc pht thanh v cng ngh thng tin Hng Kng TBB (Information Technology and Broadcasting Bureau) nay i tn thnh CTB (Communications and Technology Brand) pht hnh phiu tham kho kin v pht thanh s mt t vo ngy 1 thng 12 nm 2000 Hng Kng trong vng 3 thng. Qua phiu tham kho cho thy vn k thut i vi vic th nghim DAB c tnh kh thi, nhng v mt thng mi c th khng th ng vng c trong giai on ny. Cng qua phiu tham kho, nhiu ngi cho rng chnh ph nn xem xt, cn nhc cc ng dng hp dn ca dch v DAB khi tim nng th trng ca n tr nn r nt hn.

- n n l mt trong cc quc gia khc chp nhn h thng Eureka - 147 nh l h thng pht thanh cho tng lai. i pht thanh cng cng AIR (All India Radio) bt u pht th nghim u n DAB ti New Delhi t thng 4 nm 1997. Trong nm 2004, AIR pht dch v DAB th nghim vi my pht c cng sut l 1KW Delhi. Chng trnh pht gm 6 knh Stereo, ngoi ra cn c cc dch v cho PAD v d liu. Chng trnh th nghim DAB s m rng Chennai, Mumbai v Kolkata vo nm 2005-2006. - Iran IRIB l t chc pht thanh quc gia duy nht khuyn khch pht thanh s. Bn cnh vic pht DRM, IRIB cn xem xt h thng DAB Eureka-147 trn bng III v bng L. Th nghim trn h thng DRM c thc hin vo u nm 2001 da trn m phng my tnh. N c tin hnh bi mt vi my tnh m phng cng vic ca b iu ch, my pht v my thu khi tiu chun DRM c thit lp vo thng 9 nm 2001. u nm 2004, mt b exiter th nghim cng c pht trin da trn m phng my tnh. Kim tra truyn dn ca h thng DRM, s dng kt hp my pht cng sut thp v cao, c thc hin thnh cng vo nm 2004. IRIB ang c k hoch pht trin h thng phn cng DRM y , bao gm cc thnh phn my ch, b iu ch, my pht tng thch vi DRM cng sut ln v h thng iu khin, kim sot lin quan. - Nht Bn K t thng 4 nm 1999, ti 11 vng Nht Bn tin hnh vic kim tra, nh gi kh nng thc hin ca h thng ISDB-T. ISDB-T l cng ngh trong lnh vc pht sng cho c truyn hnh v pht thanh s vi kh nng pht bng thng rng ln bng thng hp. Nhng kim tra nh gi ny bao gm: Pht s liu pht thanh, truyn hnh, cc dch v khn cp v a phng tin di ng, EPG, truyn hnh tr tin v cc dch v theo yu cu khc. Theo k hoch vo nm 2006, ISDB-T s ph sng ton b Nht Bn, v nh vy truyn hnh tng t s c th ngng pht vo nm 2010. DRP (The Digital Radio Promotion Association) pht th nghim pht thanh s Nht Bn v ngy 10 thng 10 nm 2003 trn bng III ca di tn VHF. Vng ph

sng hin nay bao gm Tokyo v Osaka. Thng 2 nm 2004, NHK a ra dch v d bo thi tit theo nhiu ngn ng. Dch v pht thanh ny c da trn c s mt h thng t ng dch v c d liu v thi tit theo ting Nht Bn, Hn Quc, Anh v Trung Quc. Tm nhn 1, l nh cung cp thit b lin lc v dch v pht thanh v tinh, cho hng chng trnh v tinh s tr tin trn knh Sky Perfect TV, dch v in thoi Tu-Ka s v lin lc v tuyn ti tt c khch hng Nht Bn t ngy 1 thng 2 nm 2002. Chng trnh Sky Perfect TV cung cp hn 194 knh truyn hnh v 106 knh pht thanh s. Trn y l tnh hnh pht trin pht thanh s mt s nc trong khu vc Chu - Thi Bnh Dng. Ngoi ra cn nhiu nc khc trn th gii cng v ang trin khai pht thanh s, c th tnh hnh pht trin DAB ca mt s nc nh sau: Anh Thu in c H Lan Nauy Canada Ph 60% dn s Ph 75% dn s Ph 37% dn s Ph 45% dn s Ph 60% dn s Ph 60% dn s Ph 35% dn s Gia nm 1998 u nm 1998 Cui nm 1997 Gia nm 1998 Cui nm 1998 Cui nm 1999 Cui nm 1998

1.2.2. Nhng u, nhc im ca pht thanh s so vi pht thanh truyn thng. - Pht thanh s khc phc c nhc im ca pht thanh truyn thng nh can nhiu, mo pha inh trong truyn sng, giao thoa c bit gii quyt c s cht chi ca di tn s. - Pht thanh s t cht lng m thanh tng ng vi a CD, hn hn cc h thng pht thanh truyn thng k c pht thanh FM Stereo. N cung cp cho ngi nghe cht lng m thanh nh nhau vi my thu c nh, trn xe t, hoc bng my xch tay. Pht thanh s cho ta kh nng khng nhng truyn i m thanh cht lng tng ng vi a CD, m cn truyn d liu di dng vn bn, nh, hnh. Lc my thu thanh s tr thnh phng tin a chc nng gip con ngi tip nhn nhiu loi thng tin khc nhau.

- H thng pht thanh s bng tn thp cung cp kh nng ph sng pht thanh trn mt vng rng ln, khng ch trn phm vi mt quc gia m thm ch trn na qu a cu. phc v trn phm vi rng ln ny, h thng ch cn n mt trm pht cng sut va phi, iu ny tng chng ch c th thc hin v cng vi s pht trin th pht thanh s c nhng u im hn pht thanh truyn thng l : - mo tn s ca pht thanh s t hn pht thanh truyn thng. - Tn hiu a vo pht thanh s c th a nhiu knh v cng mt dng chuyn ti (Khi ghp knh dng chuyn ti). Ngi ta khuyn ngh vi cc di tn s sau s ph hp cho my thu DSB dn dng (c nh, di ng xch tay, trn t): Bng L (1,452 GHz-1,492 GHz) S (2,310 GHz-2,360 GHz) VHF Band 3 (174-240 MHz) Bng FM (87-108 MHz) Bng AM < 30 MHz Cc bng tn cao hn s b nh hng ca thi tit nn c suy hao ln do ch phc v cho cng vic truyn tn hiu gc t Studio n cc i pht sng thng qua cc thit b thu pht c nh. Vic qun l, phn b di thng trn cc bng tn L & S cho pht thanh Digital c th gii nht tr quy nh theo WARC' 92 (WARC l vit tt ca World Aministrative Radio Conference) V mt cng ngh, hin nay k thut x l tn hiu m thanh s t nhiu thnh tu mi, iu c minh chng bng s ra i ca hng lot gii php x l nn tn hiu v hng lot cc tiu chun qui nh cho truyn dn v pht sng c ban hnh.

1.2.3. Pht thanh s chun DAB (Digital Audio Broadcating)

Cho n nay mi ngi u tha nhn mt thc t l s song song cng tn ti mt s tiu chun v pht thanh s. La chn tiu chun l cng vic ca mi quc gia, trong c cc t chc quc t ch ng vai tr h tr. Hin nay c mt s tiu chun pht thanh DSB c thng qua hoc v ang th nghim trn th gii: + EUREKA 147 Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB). + Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM). + IBOC US Digital Radio (IDAB, DRE). + ISDB T (Japan). + Wold space. 1.2.3.1 S khi h thng pht DAB Tiu chun ny do EBU ca Chu u a ra v c ITU cng nhn l tiu chun cho pht thanh s (1992). H thng lm vic di tn s t 30 MHz n 3 GHz. - Hnh 1.a l s khi my pht thanh s theo tiu chun E147
Thng tin dch v Thng tin ghp knh Ghp knh dng truyn ti Ghp knh Data Ghp knh gi M ho knh Hnh 1.a: S my pht thanh s chun DAB

Tn hiu Audio

Tn hiu DAB f=1,5MHz OFDM Trn tn

M ho ngun

M ho knh

Tn s Radio

1. M ha ngun - Khi m ha ngun thc hin x l tn hiu m thanh s theo chun nn MPEG-1 Layer-2 v MPEG-2 Layer-2. Vi tc bit c th thay i d dng t 8 Kps n 384 Kbps. - Truyn d liu: c th truyn cc lung data ring bit hoc ng gi.

- Truyn cc d liu lin quan n chng trnh PAD (Programme Associated Data) bng cch gn vo lung d liu m thanh. Tc thp nht l 667bps v c th thay i theo m tn hiu m thanh c s dng. - Truy cp d liu c iu kin CA (Conditional Access) phc v cho cc mc ch thng mi. - Truyn thng tin dch v SI (Service Information): Thng tin gip cho ngi s dng la chn chng trnh. Ngoi ra SI cn lin kt vi cc dch v trong phm vi cng mt knh tn hiu tng hp v cc dch v ca cc tn hiu tng hp (Esemble) khc, ng thi c th lin kt vi cc nh cng cp dch v trn FM hoc AM. 2. M ho knh. D liu ca chng trnh c tri ra, xp xp theo m v chn theo thi gian. tri d liu ra thnh cc chui bt ngu nhin mang ni dung tng ng cn c d liu sp xp tn hiu DAB. Vi phng php ny vic s dng cc b khuch i cng sut t hiu qu cao. M sp xp thc hin x l bng cch a thm cc d liu ph gip cho my thu nhn bit v loi tr tt cc sai st do truyn dn. i vi tn hiu m thanh, mt vi thnh phn trong khung m thanh t b nh hng bi sai st truyn dn hn cc thnh phn khc cho nn c th gim s lng d liu ph. Ch ny gi l chng sai st khng cn bng Unequal Error Protection (UEP). 3. iu ch OFDM v cc ch truyn dn: S dng phng thc iu ch OFDM yu cu vic truyn dn d liu vi tc cao ph hp cho cc my thu di ng, xch tay v c nh, c bit l trong mi trng truyn sng phc tp. Kiu iu ch ny c thc hin bng cch chia thng tin ra thnh nhiu khong nh, s dng sng mang ring bit m ho, sau a chng vo knh truyn dn. Cho php thit lp mng mt tn s do x l iu ch tn hiu COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequeney Division Multiplex). Hin ti EUREKA 147 a ra bn ch khc nhau p dng trong tng trng hp c th: - Ch I: Thch hp cho mng ph sng trn mt t do mt tn s trn bng VHF, c kh nng ln nht cch ly cc i pht.

- Ch II: Thch hp cho s dng mng mt tn s khong gia bng L v cho pht thanh khu vc s dng mt i pht. khong tn s cch ly gia cc i pht ln cho nn s phn bit thng tin gia cc i pht cao v cho php s dng anten hu hng. - Ch III: Thch hp vi phng thc truyn qua cp, qua v tinh, ph sng mt t cho vng lm. Do c th lm vic ti cc tn s ti 3 GHz phc v tt cho thu di ng. Phng thc ny cho php di pha ln nht. - Ch IV: Cng p dng cho bng L, cho php dn cch khng gian gia cc i pht trong mng mt tn s ln. ng thi t b nh hng khi thu trn xe t chy vi tc cao. 4. Thit lp mng: Mng mu thit lp theo tiu chun EUREKA 147 (Hnh 7.2). Trong cc chng trnh c tch hp li nh b dn knh theo cu trc hai tng: - Tng 1: Cc nh cung cp dch v pht thanh trn mng phi thc hin: + M ho m thanh. + D liu lin quan n chng trnh (PAD). + Thng tin dch v. + Thng tin cho iu khin v trng thi. + Cc dch v d liu c lp.

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Dch v pht thanh Chng trnh m ho m thanh

To ra PAD Chng trnh gn nhn dch v

Dn knh Thng tin dch v

M ho d liu ng gi

Dch v cho gi d liu

Dn knh chung

My pht DAB

Dn knh Dch v thng tin

Giao din iu khin dn knh

Nhn dng tn hiu pht

Cc dch v khc

Tng 1

Tng 2

Tng 3

Hnh 1.b: Mng mu thit lp theo chun EUREKA 147 - Tng 2: Thc hin tng hp chung bao gm: + Thit lp lung d liu a dch v cho DAB, tr cc thng tin a thm ti my pht. + a thm thng tin h tr cho iu khin v trng thi. Mt trong nhng c im chnh ca b dn knh DAB l d dng thay i li tn s phi hp gia cc chng trnh v cc nh cung cp khc nhau khi cn thit. - Tng 3: my pht DAB 1.2.3.2 S khi my thu DAB

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Antena

Mch v o (Tuner)

Gii iu ch OFDM

Gii m knh

Gii m Audio

D liu m thanh

D lu ph FIC Gii m Data D Liu

Bus iu khin

VXL

Giao din ng-i s dng

1.2.4 Pht thanh s DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) p ng nhng rng buc trong pht thanh trong cc knh di tn di 30 MHz, tc bit cho m ho ngun nm trong khong t 8 Kbit/s (Vi cc knh c rng ph tn thp) ti 20 Kbit/s (Vi knh HF tiu chun) v ti a l ti 48 Kbit/s (Gp knh). K thut m ho m thanh kiu MPEG 4 AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) c cc cng c chng li cao dng chung cho c pht thanh mono v Stereo (V d hot ng vi tc 20 Kbit/s). iu ch kiu QAM. * Di y l s khi my pht thanh s theo tiu chun DRM.
Bo v BT DL m thanh

M ho ngun

Cao Bo v BT Cao

Ghp knh

Bo v BT Cao

Phn tn nng lng

M ho knh

MSC

Ci xen
Tn hiu DRM

D Liu

M ho ngun

Pht Pilot Phn tn nng lng Phn tn nng lng M FAC ho SC knh M ho knh
SDC

nh X
IU CH OFDM

Thng tin truy nhp knh nhanh

Tin m ho Tin M ho

Trn Tn

Thng tin m t dich v

Hnh 1.c: S khi my pht thanh s theo tiu chun DRM


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1.2.5 Pht thanh s chun DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) DMB l tiu chun do h thng pht thanh truyn hnh Hn Quc KBS gii thiu. Phng n ny c cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc truyn thng rt quan tm, c th ni y l bc t ph v cng ngh pht thanh trong lnh vc truyn thng i chng hin nay. Vi s ra i ca cng ngh mi c bit l cng ngh DMB, ranh gii gia pht thanh truyn hnh truyn thng v pht truyn thng a phng tin s b xo m. Cng ngh DMB thc cht l s pht trin mi ca phng thc pht thanh qua di ng vi vic cung cp hnh nh cht lng cao, m thanh s v cc d liu ht sc a dng km theo. DMB l s cht lc cc im mnh ca h thng pht thanh s EUREKA 147 v hon ton tng thch vi h thng DAB ca Chu u. Di y l bng thng k cht lng v cng ngh ca DMB cho tng loi tn hiu: Loi T. hiu Audio Stereo cht lng gn CD (BER 10-4) MUSICAM (MPEG-1, 2 Layer 2 Video Mn hnh 7 QVGA MPEG- 4 AVC Cht lng Cng ngh

(320x240@30 hnh /giy) Audio Stereo cht lng FM Video (DMB) D liu Mux Knh thu D liu bn tin giao thng Audio/Video/Data Di ng, th ( BER 10-8) MPEG- 4 SL, TS RS (204, 188) Conv..Byte Nhiu ng dng khc MPEG- 4 BSAC MPEG- 4 BIFS

Interleave Slice show

EPG, bn tin, thi tit, chng khon, PAD, NPAD, TDC, MOT, BWS,

DMB c thit k cung cp dch v a phng tin nhm n i tng khch hng di ng. Vi h thng DMB, khch hng c th thu c cc chng trnh truyn hnh, pht thanh v cc dch v d liu khc khi di chuyn vi tc cao nh trn t, tu ho, xe inDo c pht trin t h thng pht thanh s E147

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nn vic thit lp h thng DRM tng i n gin, ch cn b xung thm thit b m ho video v h thng thit b pht thanh s E147 hin c. T chc TU Media v SK Telecom pht DMB v tinh (DMB-S) vo ngy 1 thng 9 nm 2004 trong khi chnh ph d nh pht DMB mt t ( DMB-T) vo cui nm 2004 hoc u nm 2005. DMB-S l dch v da trn c s thu bao ph sng ton quc, trong khi DMB l dch v min ph. Mi giy php DMB -S cho php cung cp 11 dch v hnh nh, 25 dch v m thanh v 3 dch v d liu vi d n l 500.000 thu bao trong nm th nht v tip tc ti 8 triu thu bao trong vng 5 nm ti. Cc cng ty Pers Tsl, FreeSat, Samsung v TBK Electronic pht trin cc my thu, Module DAB v DRM.

Audio Data

Knh pht thanh


(MUSICAM)

Knh d liu

Video Audio Data

M ho Video M ho Video TS Mux RS Encoder Conv. Interleaver

H thng my pht H thng DAB my pht (E147) DAB (E147)

RF

Hnh 1.d: S khi h thng DMB (E147) Vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca in thoi di ng v my tnh c nhn, ngi ta hy vng rng pht thanh s vi cng ngh DMB s c iu kin pht trin nhanh chng. 1.3. H thng AM/FM vi IN- BAND/ON- CHANNEL (IBOC). Do thiu ht v bng thng, khng th b tr tn s mi cho dch v DSB nh Chu u (Chun EUREKA 147). Hoa K a ra h thng IBOC, nhm xy dng h thng pht thanh DSB mt t dng ph tn ca pht thanh AM v FM analog. H thng IBOC tng thch vi tn hiu analog ang s dng IBOC cho php truyn ng thi c m thanh analog, digital v d liu trn ph tn c ca analog. Khi c s giao thoa khng mong mun gia cc tn hiu analog v tn hiu digital, cn loi tr vn ny.

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Quy nh mi nht ca IBOC, p dng chun nn MPEG- 2AAC. - i vi bng FM: + IBOC cho php trn cng mt tn s pht ng thi chng trnh Audio digital v Audio analog. + Tc m m thanh 96kbps hoc 128 kbps. + K thut iu ch OFDM. + Tc truyn d liu > 64 Kbps trong : Vi d liu lin quan n chng trnh (PAD) l 8 kbps : D liu ph: B gii hn bi qu trnh m ho Audio l t 2 n 32 kbps. D liu chun a vo l 64 Kbps (D liu c phn b). - i vi bng AM: + Bng tn vi di thng ca RF 30KHz. + Tc m Audio 48-32-16 Kbps. H thng IBOC tri qua hai giai on pht trin c bn. 1. Thi k 1994 1996: Giai on pht trin u tin. Thi k ny h thng a ra 4 vn v thng s ( 3 cho FM, 1 cho AM) l: + V FM: AT & T/LUCENT/AMATI USA DR FM-1 USA DR FM- 2 + V AM: 1st GENERATION a ra phn b li tn s cho pht DAB. Tuy nhin c 4 vn trn u khng thch hp vi pht thanh DAB. iu ny c khc phc trong giai on 2. 2. T nm 1997 n nay, trn c s k tha nhng thnh tu m giai on 1 t c, IBOC pht trin cc k thut mi, c bit l vic p dng chun nn MPEG 2AAC. IBOC a ra khuyn ngh v c Digital Radio Express chp thun th nghim. Vo thng 1/1998, t chc USA Digital Radio ( USADR) ng cho pht trin IBOC nhng theo yu cu ring ca mnh. Giai on ny c tn l Next generation IBOC. Vn ca IBOC phi gii quyt l giao thoa gia cc thnh phn vi tn hiu Radio, vn ny c gii quyt EUREKA 147.

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Khi gii quyt vn giao thoa tn hiu, ph tn s 18Khz (20Khz) i vi AM v 200Khz i vi FM ca pht thanh tng t hin nay l khng thch hp. Tuy nhin h thng Next generation IBOC s dng th thut x l theo thi gian Time diversity t c tnh thch hp vi ph tn quy nh ca Analog. iu ny tng kh nng khc phc s tc ng qua li gia cc thnh phn tn hiu v s tc nghn khi truyn tn hiu trong mt khong thi gian ngn t 1-5s. USADR s dng Time diversity cho chn m sa sai nhm loi tr kh nng giao thoa ca tn hiu Audio. Mt khc khi pht ng thi c analog v digital s c s h tr ging nh Time diversity l: nu chng trnh digital c li th my thu c th ly tn hiu m thanh ca chng trnh analog chn vo do s khng xy ra mt tn hiu. Hin ti IBOC ang c u th bng tn FM. 1.4 BST - OFDM ISDB (Japan). Tiu chun ny c khuyn ngh bi NHK (Japan) nhm ng dng cho pht cc tn hiu hnh nh, m thanh v truyn d liu di rng qua v tinh, pht trn mt t v qua cp. Cc c im c bn ca tiu chun ny nh sau: - i vi pht sng trn mt t, ISDB ch trng phn b di tn s thnh cc ph vi Segment c di thng 432 KHz. - p dng iu ch OFDM nn cho php xy dng mng ph sng dng mt tn s. phi hp hot ng gia pht thanh, truyn hnh s v mng vin thn g, Nht a ra giao din trao i d liu theo chun MPEG - 2 dn knh tn hiu, c bit s dng iu ch OFDM vi kiu iu ch s QPSK, DQPSK, 16 QAM v 64QAM. Tn hiu truyn dn c t chc vo mt s nhm trong khi OFDM (Gi l Segment c di thng 432 KHz). Cc tn hiu ng b v cc thng s truyn dn nh dng iu ch v xc nh li c th ch ra tng segment cho mi nhm segment OFDM, v vy n c th t ti 4 mc phn cp (Layer) khc nhau cho vic thit k trong knh. H thng ny vi cc chc nng c gii thiu nhm m bo cc dch v pht thanh, truyn hnh linh hot th hin nh sau:

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* C th pht truyn hnh c phn gii cao. * Cung cp cc dch v a phng tin v cc dch v lin kt. * C th s dng thit b thu di ng vi cht lng m thanh, hnh nh v d liu cao. * Nh cc Layers m vic truyn dn cc tn hiu c th thc hin ng thi trn 1 knh phc v cho cc thit b thu di ng v c nh. H thng c khuyn ngh ny a ra gii thng chun l 5,6 M hz v thm mt vng 432Khz, nn tng cng l 6 Mhz. Tuy nhin, n c th ko di ti 7 n 8 Mhz m khng gp bt k kh khn g v khi ch vic thm cc segment.
HDTV SDTV for mobile Stereo SDTV for mobile Stereo

..

..

..

Segment Interleaving Interleaving Interleaving

5,6Mhz

5,6Mhz

432Khz

My thu a h

My thu di ng

My thu thanh xch tay

Hnh 1.e: Cc dng truyn v thu tn hiu ca BST Trong hnh 1.e gii thiu 3 dng truyn v thu tn hiu nh sau: 1. Cc my thu nh di ng vi b gii m OFDM 5,6 MHz v mn hnh hin th nh SDTV. 2. My thu tch hp vi b gii iu ch OFDM 5,6 MHz dnh cho HDTV, c th thu tt c cc dch v. 3. My thu xch tay hoc b ti vi b gii m OFDM 432 KHz dng cho cc dch v m thanh v d liu. 1.5 H thng Worldspace ( ITU R digital system D).

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Worldspace s dng h thng 3 v tinh a tnh AFRISTAR (21E), ASIASTAR (105E), MERICASTAR (95W) ph sng 3 vng rng ln Chu Phi, Chu v Chu M : + Mi v tinh c 3 bp hng (Becam) ring. + Mi Becam ph sng c 14 n 28 triu km2. + Mi Becam c hai b pht p (Transponder) : 1 s dng, 1 iu ch vi lung d liu theo kiu QPSK. + Mi sng mang truyn i 96 knh (tc 16 Kbps mt knh) s dng thut ton nn MPEG - Layer 3. Tu thuc yu cu c th v cht lng ca m thanh cc knh ny c th tng hp t tc 128Kbps. + Vic x l d liu 96 knh c s thnh lung d liu bit kiu TDM c th c thc hin trm mt t hoc trn v tinh. Vic truyn tn hiu ln v tinh ca nh cung cp chng trnh thng qua trm up-link. Tu thuc vo khong cch ti v tinh, ngi ta s xc nh cng sut pht c th. sp xp cc chng trnh khc nhau, trm up-link s dng vic phn chia theo tn s FDMA (cc chng trnh c pht i trn cc tn s khc nhau). Trn v tinh c cc b phn x l tn hiu thu pht cc chng trnh tr li mt t vi phng thc phn chia theo thi gian TDMA. Mt s c im c bn ca Woldspace: - Tiu chun ny s dng chun nn MPEG-2.5 Layer3. - S dng iu ch tn hiu DQPSK (Differentia Quadrature Phase Shift Keying). - Tc truyn trong khong: 16Kbps ca knh (c bn) n 128 Kbps (ln nht). m bo cht lng m thanh khc nhau (tt hn AM, FM mono, gn nh CD). - Kh nng truyn ln nht ca mi sng mang l 1.5Mbps. - Vic dn knh c th thc hin mt t hoc trn v tinh nh cc Hub. Mi Beam c mt Hub. - Uplink tn hiu phn b theo tn s FDMA. - Downlink tn hiu theo thi gian TDMA. - Di tn s cho uplink l bng X (7025 n 7075 MHz).

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- Di tn quy nh cho downlink l bng L vi ph tn 40MHz t 1452 ti 1492 MHz. - Gc ngng uplink nh nht khong 100. - Gc ngng downlink tnh theo ng knh ca mi bp hng l 60. 1.6 Digital AM (SW and MW Replcement) Hin ti c hai nhm t chc xem xt tin ti thit lp tiu chun duy nht cho digital AM l: - Pht thanh digital bng hp NADIB (Narow Band Digital Broadcasting) ca Chu u. - DRM (Digital Radio Modiale) l t chc do nhiu nh pht thanh v hng sn xut thnh lp. Thc hin tng chuyn t pht thanh analog sang digital, hin nay c 4 t chc a khuyn ngh xem xt cng nhn lm tiu chun chung: - SKYWAVE2000 ca Thomcast. - T2MTELEFUNKEN- Multicast. - JPL/VOA- (ITU- R System B development). - IBOC. Trong IBOC mi a tiu chun nhng cha c xem xt. Hin nay hng pht trin nhm a ra tiu chun chung l ca 3 t chc cn li. SKYWAVE2000 v T2M c xt n giai on chuyn giao gia pht thanh analog sang digital th hin ch l gi nguyn ph tn giao cho pht AM, nhng thu hp di tn tn hiu analog ci thm tn hiu s. Lm nh vy tn hiu pht i s gm c tn hiu analog v digital. Tuy nhin cch x l tn hiu ca hai h thng rt khc nhau. SKYWAVE2000 tn hiu digital iu bin vi nhiu sng mang, thc hin iu ch song song, cn gii php ca T2M l dng mt sng mang ph iu ch tn hiu digital sau mi a chn vo ph analog, n thc hin iu ch mt sng mang digital s dng APSK. T thy rng SKYWAVE2000 pht trin ph hp vi phng thc pht analog SSB. T2M c th cho php pht analog AM cng vi mt hoc hai knh digital c cng ni dung hoc mt s chng trnh digital c ni dung khc, hoc tng hp hai knh thnh mt chng trnh digital cht lng cao.

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H thng JPL/VOA (ITU-R digital system B) cho bng AM<30MHz: thc hin ch trng chuyn ngay sang pht digital bng cch phn loi ph tn s c dn cch l 10Khz, tc l 32Kbps, di thng m thanh t c l 10Khz. Nu thc hin truyn d liu th phi gim tc bt ca m thanh digital. Tng t T2M , h thng JPL/VOA s dng sng mang ph cha tn hiu digital sau mi a i iu bin vi sng mang chnh. Sau khi chuyn sang pht digital hon ton th cht lng m thanh ca Digital AM s tng t FM mono v thm dch v truyn d liu. Vic thc hin pht digital iu bin ph hp vi cc my pht AM theo cng ngh PCM; PDM. D kin trong vng hai nm ti s c c tiu chun chung cho pht thanh s trn cc bng LW; MW; SW. - T chc digital AM hin ang xem xt 3 tiu chun c bn. + Skywave2000- (Thomcast). + T2M Telefunken Multicast. + JPL/VOA ( ITU- R System B). Cc tiu chun trn c nhng c im c bn sau: 1. Skywave 2000- (Thomcast): - C kh nng pht ng thi trn mt ph cao tn chng trnh anlalog v chng trnh digital (Simulcast). - C th thc hin cc ch : + iu bin DSB (Double Side Band) tiu chun. + SSB (Single Side Band bin trn hoc bin di. + i vi chng trnh analog th thch hp vi ch AM + digital. - Thi gian gin cch an ton (Symbols guard interval) 6ms/3ms. - Tiu chun m ho m thanh tng t MPEG2. - Tng hp cho vic s dng c cc my thu analog hin c. - Kh nng truyn dch v d liu 200-1200bps. - Di truyn thng m tn khi pht ng thi 4,5Khz/6Khz. - M knh s dng TCM (Trellis Coded Modulation). - Kiu iu ch: iu ch song song ch digital QAM trong OFDM.

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Hnh 1.f miu t ph tn tn hiu ca Skywave2000 ch pht ng thi analog v digital.


Tn hiu tng t Tn hiu s ho

4Kbps

8Kbps 208bps
3.5Khz 4.5Khz 3 Khz 1.5 Khz

Hnh 1.f: Ph tn tn hiu ca Skywave2000 ch pht ng

thi analog v digital


2. Tiu chun ca T2M Telefunken. - Cho php pht ng thi hai chng trnh Analog v Digital. - C th cho php lm vic theo cc ch : + Pht analog + 2 knh digital. + Pht analog + 1 knh digital bin thp. + Pht analog + 1 knh digital bin trn. + Pht thanh hon ton digital. - Tiu chun m ho m thanh MPEG - 2 Layer3. - Cho php s dng my thu hin c. - Kh nng truyn d liu: 1000bps. - Khi pht hon ton digital t gii thng l 6Khz i vi Mono v 2X4Khz i vi STEREO. - iu ch ni tip. - Ph tn hiu ca T2M theo cc ch pht khc nhau nh sau:

10

10

Khz

10

10

10

Digital

Analog

Hnh 1.g:

Ph tn hiu ca T2M theo cc ch pht khc nhau

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3. Tiu chun JBL/VOA ca Hoa k. - Ch cho php pht hon ton digital. - Phn b di thng 10KHz cho pht digital trn cc bng sng ngn. - t cht lng m thanh vi ph tn 10KHz, tnh n vic hiu chnh mc giao thoa. - Tng s thng tin (m thanh v d liu) c th truyn 32Kbps. - Phng thc x l tn hiu tng t T2M.

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