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Heat RecoverySystems & CHP Vol. 12, No. 6, pp.

525-529, 1992 Printed in Great Britain

0890-4332/92 $5.00+ .00 Pergamon Press Ltd

TECHNICAL NOTE E N E R G Y - E X E R G Y ANALYSIS OF A DIESEL ENGINE


N. M. AL-NAJEM a n d J. M. DIAB Mechanical Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait
(Received 27 September 1991)

Almraet--An energy-exergy analysis for a diesel engine has been conducted. Both First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics are employed to take into account the quantity and quality of energy. The availability or exergy analysis based on the Second Law is utilized to identify the source of losses in useful energy within the components of diesel engines. This shows about 50% of the chemical availability of the fuel is destroyed due to uncounted factors and about 15% is lost in the cooling water or exhaust gases. On the other hand, the energy analysis shows 50% is wasted in the cooling water and exhaust gases and 15% is lost due to uncounted factors.

NOMENCLATURE A Qi~ mf m, me AF SFC LHV k n R~ availability input fuel energy to the engine fuel flow rate fresh air flow rate exhaust gas flow rate the air-fuel ratio specific fuel consumption of the engine lower heating value of the diesel fuel specific heat ratio of fresh air speeifie heat ratio of exhaust gases gas constant for air

Cooling system me cooling water flow rate Twl inlet cooling water temperature to the engine T,,2 outlet cooling water temperature from the engine Cw specific heat of the cooling water Turbo-charger system P,,~ pressure of fresh air entering the compressor Pa.o pressure of fresh air leaving the compressor e,i pressure of exhaust gases entering the turbine Pe.o pressure of exhaust gases leaving the turbine r compression ratio of the compressor Ta.~ temperature of fresh air entering the compressor 7",.o temperature of fresh air leaving the compressor Tcj temperature of exhaust gases entering the turbine T,.o temperature of exhaust gases leaving the turbine

INTRODUCTION Diesel o r c o m p r e s s i o n ignition engines have a wide r a n g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y their relatively high efficiency a n d their c a p a b i l i t y to meet c u r r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s . In general, diesel engines have efficiencies o f a b o u t 3 5 % a n d a b o u t 5 0 % o f the i n p u t fuel energy is lost in c o o l i n g w a t e r a n d e x h a u s t gases. T h e w a s t e d energy in the c o o l i n g w a t e r is u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d useless d u e to its low t e m p e r a t u r e level. H o w e v e r , m u c h a t t e n t i o n is focused u p o n the e x h a u s t gas waste h e a t a n d several m e t h o d s are suggested for recovering it. These include r e g e n e r a t i o n , t u r b o - c h a r g i n g , t u r b o - c o m p o u n d i n g a n d R a n k i n e engine c o m p o u n d i n g . 525

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N.M.

AL-NAJEM and J. M. DIAB

For better energy utilization, it is important to take into account the quantity and quality of energy. This can be accomplished by employing the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. Both are required, one complements the other. The methodology which utilizes both laws is called availability or exergy analysis [1]. Through exergy analysis, the locations where destruction or losses of useful energy occur within a device or process can be identified and rank ordered as to their significance. The Second Law analysis differentiates between high grade energy such as shaft work and low grade energy. Further, the First Law analysis might indicate no loss in energy for some processes e.g. a throttling process, but actually there is a real loss in the value or quality of energy. Another point in the comparison between the First and the Second Law analyses [2] is the datum (zero level) of energy and availability. While the datum for energy is arbitrarily chosen, the availability datum is chosen scientifically, at the level where there is no further useful work that can be produced. This means that for some processes the enthalpy drop and losses can be the same whether it happens near the datum or away from it for the same processes. The availability drops and the losses will differ and depend on whether they are near or far from the datum. The purpose of the present analysis is to illustrate the capability of the exergy analysis to provide a systematic approach to pinpoint the waste and lost energy within diesel engines. This leads to a significant improvement in energy utilization. E N E R G Y A N A L Y S I S OF DIESEL E N G I N E Before we proceed to our energy analysis, it is important to mention that the present study is based on the technical data given in Table 1 for a turbo-charged, Mercedes-Benz OM422A diesel engine [3, 4]. A schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. Further, to simplify the analysis, it is assumed that the fuel is dodecane C 1 2 H 2 6 . Here, the physical properties of the exhaust gases are determined from the products of a complete combustion of the fuel. We found that the specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume are 1.0774 and 0.7844 kJ/kg. K, respectively. The energy input in any internal combustion engine is contained in its fuel. This amount of energy is then converted into other forms. In a diesel engine, the input energy contained in diesel fuel is converted to: I. 2. 3. 4. Useful brake output power; Energy transferred to cooling water; Energy transferred to the exhaust gases; Uncounted losses due to friction, radiation, heat transfer to surroundings, operating auxiliary equipment . . . . etc.

The amount of each of these energies is evaluated on the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics as now described. The input energy (Qin) to the diesel engine is the amount of fuel energy content in the diesel fuel and it is given by: Qin = m f ' L H V = S F C . W . L H V = 684.8 kW.
Table 1. Technical data for the turbo-charged diesel engine [3, 4]
Engine data Type Power output, W Specific fuel consumption, SFC ir-fuel ratio, A F Cooling water data Cooling water flow rate, mc Inlet cooling water temperature to the engine, Tw) Outlet cooling water temperature for the engine, Tw2 Turbo-charger data Mercedes-Benz OM422A 243 kW 0.23 kg/kW, hr 20 7 kg/s 82C 88C I BAR 1.6 550C 75% 80%

Compressor pressure inlet, P,.~ Compressor compression ratio, r Temperature of exhaust gases entering the turbine, Te., Compressor efficiency, ~ Turbine efficiency,/A

Energy-exergy analysis of a diesel engine

527

8~
CoolIng Water /% N/
I

Pae=l.6 bar

Pel=2.3 bar Tel=550~

COMP

TURB

/%
Palffil bar

Peo

N/ Fig. ], Schematic diagram for turbo-charged diesel engine,

Therefore, the thermal efficiency of the engine is 35.5%. The heat transferred from the engine block to the cooling water jacket is
Qc.w = mwCw(Tw2 - T.1) = 175.7 kW.

The wasted energy in the exhaust gases is evaluated by Qo.g= Cp.e'mf(1 + A F ) ( T e , i - T o ) = 165.2 kW. Furthermore, there are unrecoverable and uncounted losses in the whole engine. Such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Combustion losses; Friction Losses; Heat loss to lubricating oil; Power consumed by auxiliary equipment (e.g. pumps, fans); Radiation losses; Thermal mixing losses; Intake throttling losses; Exhaust throttling losses; Fluid flow losses.
m, RaTa,i - 1) [r k-I)/k- 1]

The amount of the above uncounted losses is determined by performing an energy balance on the diesel engine and it is found to be equal to 100.9 kW. EXERGY ANALYSIS The availability input to the internal combustion engine is contained in its fuel chemical availability. This is then converted into other forms. In diesel engines the input availability contained in diesel fuel is converted, in a similar way to fuel energy, to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Useful brake output availability; Availability transferred to cooling water; Availability transferred to the exhaust gases; Availability destroyed in the turbo-charger; Uncounted availability destructions due to; friction, radiation, heat transfer to surroundings, operating auxiliary equipment, etc.

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The amount of each of these availability transfers is determined on the basis of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as now explained. Szargurt and Styrylska in ref. [5] developed the following correlation for computing the chemical availability for liquid fuels, Ain :

Ai, = mr L H V ' L I . 0 3 7 4 + O.O159" ~ + 0.0567-~


Aio = Qio" 1.0374 + 0.0159.~ + 0.0567.-~ + 0.5985.

017.

1 - 0.1737.

Substituting we would get, Aio = 737.2 kW. Alternatively, a simple expression is given in [6] for computing the chemical availability of fuels as Aio = 1.0338mf L H V = 707.9 kW with a deviation of about 4% from the first value. In the present analysis, the value of 707.9 kW is used. The availability lost in the cooling water is determined from the definition of availability as: Ac.w= mw[hw2- hw, + To(Sw, - Sw2)] = 29.1 kW. Similarly, the availability of exhaust gases is A e.g = me [he,o- ho + To (Se,o - So)]

=Qe.g+meTo Cp,eIn -~..


1 e,o

Here, the isentropic and actual temperatures of the exhaust gases leaving the turbine are T0.o, = To,i- W/(mo. Cp,o',t) = 483.25C
Te,oa = Te, i W/(m~"
Cp,e) = 4 9 6 . 6 C

and the pressure of the exhaust gases leaving the turbine is

P~.o = Po,i(Te,os/T~,i)<n/n-J) = 1.68 bar


therefore, Ao.g= 80.8 kW. The availability destruction, irreversibilities, in the compressor of the turbo-charger are

Ic = ma T(Sa, - Sa,i) = ma T[ Cp'~ ln ~


where

- R~ ln

Ta,o = Ta,a+ W/(ma. Cp,~)= 100C, and hence I c = 3.8 kW. Similarly, the irreversibility in the turbine is 1.9 kW, Therefore, the total availability (Iz) destruction in the turbo-charger is 5.7kW. The uncounted destruction of availability is determined from the availability balance as:
Auncounted = Ain - - Ashaft - -

Acw -

Ae.g - Itc

= 349.5 kW. DISCUSSION The results of the present study are summarized in Table 2. It is noticed that the losses in energy due to cooling and exhaust gases is about 50% of the total input fuel energy. This amount of energy
Table 2. Comparison between energy and exergy analysis
Energy analysis Qi. W shaft Q cooling Q exhaust W turbo-charger Q uncounted 100% (684.8 kW) 35.49% 25.66% 24.12% 14.73% Exergy analysis

Ain
A shaft A cooling A exhaust I turbo~harger A uncounted

100% (707.9 kW) 34.33% 4.10% 11.41% 0.804 49.36,4

Energy-exergy analysis of a diesel engine

529

can be usefully utilized in a heat recovery system to produce power or to use it in other processes. The determination of the kind of application depends mainly on the Second Law of Thermodynamics analysis. According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, the cooling water and exhaust gas energies seem to be identical regardless of the large temperature differences between them (88C and 500C respectively). This is true if the cooling water energy is used, for example, to heat up a stream (e.g. water) to low temperature for a specific application (e.g. preheating of feed seawater in a vapour compression desalination plant). In the same way the exhaust gases could be used to heat up a stream to a high temperature for another specific application. However, if we are considering the production of electricity from these wasted energies, then the temperature is considered a major factor in our selection. From the exergy point of view, about 47% of the exhaust gas energy can be utilized to produce useful work (i.e. about 11% of the total fuel availability), whereas about 16% of the cooling water energy is available to produce useful work. It is worth noting in the case of the turbo-charger, that the amount of energy (work) extracted from the system by the turbine is returned back to the system as a work input to drive the compressor. Therefore, the net effect on the system on the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics is nil. However, the exergy analysis showed that about 5.7 kW of useful work is destroyed due to irreversibilities encountered in the turbo-charger processes. Also, the uncounted losses in the exergy analysis are about 3.5 times the losses in the energy analysis. Furthermore, the study conducted by Flynn et al. [7] showed that about 30% of the fuel availability is destroyed in the combustion process. Therefore, more attention is needed to focus on such losses to improve the performance of the engine. CONCLUSIONS The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics are employed to analyse the quantity and quality of energy in a diesel engine. The study shows that the major part of wasted and lost energy is due to uncounted factors. The energy lost in the combustion process is about 30% of the total useful fuel energy. Therefore, more research should be devoted to minimize such losses. The exergy analysis enables us to develop a systematic approach that can be used to identify sites of real losses of valuable energy in thermal devices. REFERENCES
1. M. J. Moran, Availability Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1982). 2. M. I. Zeidan, Second Law analysis of a combined cycle. Masters thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kuwait University (1988). 3. S. E. Aly, Diesel engine waste heat power cycle. Heat Recovery Systems & CHP 7, 445-451 (1987). 4. S. E. Aly, Analysis of a diesel dual plant. Desalination 64, 137-150 (1987). 5. S.J. Luis Rodriguez, Calculation of Available-Energy Quantities. American Chemical Society, 0-8412-0541-8/80/47-122 (1980). 6. R. J. Primus and P. F. Flynn, The Assessment of losses in diesel engines using Second Law analysis. COMODIA 85, JSME, Tokyo (1985). 7. P. F. Flynn, K. L. Hoog, M. M. Kamal and R. J. Primus, A new perspective on diesel engine evaluation based on Second Law analysis. SAE paper 840032 (1984). 8. P. J. Petit and R. A. Gaggioli, Second Law Analysis for Evaluating Processes. American Chemical Society, 8412-0541-8/80/47-122 (1980).

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