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TOPIC 7 : STRESS Question 1 Two recent graduates join the same organization.

Both are recruited as marketing executives. Both work long hours and have tight deadlines to complete their assignments. They are under constant pressure to complete projects and meeting deadlines. One executive is increasingly feeling fatigue and despondent and has taken several days sick leave. The other is getting the work done and seems to enjoy the challenges.

a) Use your knowledge on stress to explain why these two executives are reacting differently to their jobs. b) How can organization help its employees in coping with stress?

Answer a) Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well – being. Because of unique personal characteristics, people have different stress experiences when expose to the same stressor. Stressor can be work stressor, interpersonal, role related, task control, organization or physical environment or there is no work stress known as nonwork stressor. Consequences of stress can be physiological, behavioral, and psychological. Job-related factors such as overwork, relocation, and problems with customers may put the person under stress. External, environment factors can lead to job stress. These include work schedule, pace of work, job security, route to and from work, and the number and nature of customers or clients. Even noise, including people talking and telephones ringing, contributes to stress. No two persons react to the job in the same way, because personal factors also influence stress. For example in this case can be type a personalities, people who are workaholics and who feel driven to always be on time and meet deadlines, normally place themselves under greater stress than do others. Similarly your tolerance for ambiguity, patience, self-esteem, health and exercise, and work and sleep patterns can also affect how react to stress. Non-job problems like divorce or family quarrel may add to job stress.

Then. Those who exercise and have healthy lifestyles have a larger store of energy to cope with high stress levels. or risk. such as analyzing the sources of stress and finding ways to neutralize these problems. Another personal characteristic is a workaholism. anxiety. Classic workaholics are more prone to job stress and have significantly higher scores on depression. and positive emotions. Research suggests that employees who try to ignore or deny the existence of a suffer more in the long run than those who try to find ways to weaken the stressor and seek social support. which is attracts more stressors and weakens the capacity to cope with them. and other resources. . is highly involved in work.Other reason for this is that people have different threshold levels of resistance to the stressor. reason why some people experience less stress than others is that some have higher resilience. some of which are more effective than others. but their stress can be fairly low if their level of responsibility is also low. Resilient people possess personality traits such as high extroversion and low neuroticism that generate more optimism. sports coaches are under immense pressure to win games. and has a low enjoyment of work. confidence. intimate relationships. In contrast. Furthermore. Resilience is the capability of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change. For the other reason for different stress responses is that people use different coping strategies. Resilience also involves specific competencies and behaviors for responding and adapting more effectively to stressors. yet they have little control over what happens on the playing field. The classic workaholic or also called work addict. attention span. often to the exclusion and detriment of personal health. the degree to which low task control is a stressor increases with the burden of responsibility the employee must carry. They also apply productive coping strategies. Workaholics are compulsive and preoccupied with work. feels compelled or driven to work because of inner pressures. and family. Low task control increases employee exposure to the risk of burnout because they face high workloads without the ability to adjust the pace of the load to their own energy. adversity. Assembly-line workers have low task control. and anger. Research indicates that resilient people have higher emotional intelligence and good problemsolving skills. Those with high resilience are able to withstand adversity as well as recover more quickly from it.

This strategy gives employees the ability to work part-time in jobs that are naturally designed for full-time responsibilities. Finding a more suitable job.Job stress affects both of the employee and the company. An important way to improve work-life balance is limiting the number of hours that employees are expected to work and giving them flexibility in scheduling those hours. These range from commonsense remedies such as getting more sleep and eating better to more exotic remedies like biofeedback and meditation. personal leave. with some overlapping work time in the weekly schedule to coordinate activities. To the employee. getting counseling. and planning and organizing each day’s activities are other sensible responses. Another important way that companies can remove stressor is by facilitating better worklife balance. . he/she will face the stress if fail to complete the assignment within the period. stress cause anxiety. For the company. having a complaint system and taking corrective action against harassment. Five of the most common work-life balance initiatives are flexible and limited work time. and giving employees more control over the work process.  Flexible and limited work time. reducing excessive workplace noise. b) There are several ways to reduce stress. Job sharing splits a career position between two people so that they experience less time-based stress between work and family. They typically work different parts of the week. anger. the two graduates should work together in terms of sharing a job. employee should schedule their timeline to complete their assignments within time given. In this case. job sharing. increases absenteeism and health care costs.  Jobs sharing. stress affects job performance. Work-life balance initiatives minimize conflict between the employee’s work and nonwork demands. For this case. Some of the more common actions involve assigning employees to jobs that match their skills and preferences. telecommuting. depression. Otherwise. and headaches. and child care support.

another way to manage stress is to help this employee improve their self-concept so that job challengers are not perceived as threatening even though he/she work long hours and have tight deadlines to complete the assignment. Child care support reduces stress because employees are less rushed to drop off children and less worried during the day about how well their children are doing. The programs that would control the consequences of stress experienced by this employee is change stress perceptions. with set personal . telecommuting may increase stress for those who crave social interaction and who lack the space and privacy necessary to work at home. Employees experience has different stress level because they have different levels of resilience. almost one-quarter of large American companies provide on-site or subsidized child care facilities.  Telecommuting Telecommuting reduces the time and stress of commuting to work and makes it easier to fulfill family obligations. For this employee situation. We also able to control the consequences of stress through several programs. Otherwise.  Child care support According to one estimate. he/she can improve optimism and create positive emotions by taking some psychological weight off the situation.With cooperation with each other able to reduce stress and can complete the job within time given. The U. Research suggests that telecommuters tend to experience better work-life balance. However. Consequently. most countries provide 12 to 16 weeks of paid leave. and personal leave for employees to care for a new family or take advantage of a personal experience.  Personal leave Employers with strong work-life values offer extended maternity. However. with some offering one year or more of fully or partially paid maternity leave. including self-confidence and optimism.S Family and Medical Leave Act gives expecting mothers and anyone considered to have an illness 12 weeks of unpaid job-protected leave. paternity.

attitudes. . For example annual on-site checkups and meditation classes or counseling services. and stress influence employee behavior mainly through motivation.  Build an especially effective and supportive relationship with your boss. and possibly remove the stressor. and moderate breathing and heart rate. pleasant. Dr.  Build rewarding. The other programs that would control the consequences of stress by helping employee moderate his/her breathing and heart rate. Karl Albrecht suggests the following ways to reduce job stress.  Find ways to reduce unnecessary noise. Behavioral also would control the consequences of stress. delegate routine work whenever possible. Research has found that various forms of meditation reduce anxiety.  Limit interruptions. muscle tension.  Don’t bite off more than you can chew. reduce blood pressure and muscle tension.  Reduce the amount of trivia in your job.  Learn as much as you can about upcoming events and get as much lead time as you can to prepare for them. This employee can have a motivation to avoid him/her from excessive stress and able to make them love and enjoy with their jobs. or wellness programs can help control the consequences of stress. That includes solutions for each problems. In his book Stress and the Manager. comprehend. Social support also provides information to help the person interpret.  Don’t put off dealing with distasteful problems. Through the physical exercise able to reduce the physiological consequences of stress. and stomach acidity. This is known as receive a social support. cooperative relationships with colleagues and employees.goal setting and self-reinforcement can also reduce the stress that people experience when they enter new work settings.  Negotiate with your boss for realistic deadlines on important projects.  Make a constructive “worry list”. Employee emotions. This employee also can join the fitness and relaxation or meditation.  Talk a walk around the office to keep your body refreshed and alert.  Find time every day for detachment and relaxation.

Being healthy enables employees to resist stress. . Companies can help by introducing fitness programs. and encouraging a healthy lifestyle. Employees expect to be fairly rewarded for good performance.Human Resource (HR) specialists and supervisors can also play a role in reducing job stress. monitoring the quality of food served at the cafeteria. Fair treatment and support are two possible actions.

 Instrumentality The probability assigned by the individual that a specific level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes. offers an elegant model based on rational logic to predict the chosen direction. (outcome valence) Components of the Expectancy Model:  Expectancy The belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance. level. are valuable to the individual. . we are motivated to achieve the goals with the highest expected payoff.  Valence The value or importance that the individual attaches to various work outcomes (rewards). Answer Expectancy theory on the other hand. and persistence of motivation. or rewards. (E-to-P expectancy)  Rewards are attached to performance. The expectancy theory is the motivation to expend effort to do something is determined by three basic individual perceptions:  Effort will lead to performance. Essentially. (P-to-O expectancy)  Outcomes. In other words. the theory states that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes.TOPIC 5: MOTIVATION Question 1 Use all three components of expectancy theory to explain why some employees are motivated to show up for work during a snowstorm whereas others don’t make any effort to leave their home.

employee will not motivated if their feel that there is no reward if their willing to work in a bad condition like work during a snowstorm. and public ceremonies to illustrate when behavior has been rewarded.Increasing E-to-P Expectancies E-to-P expectancies are influenced by the individual’s belief that he or she can successfully complete the task. Increasing P-to-O Expectancies The most obvious ways to improve P-to-O expectancies are to measure employee performance accurately and distribute more valued rewards to those with higher job performance. Even though working during a snowstorm. This is show their attitude how they show their effort and responsible to the company. For this situation. Some companies increase this can-do attitude by assuring employees that they have the necessary competencies. and they need to know how that connection occurs. Otherwise. and necessary resources to reach the desired levels of performance. if company has provide the rewards for those employees who are provide good performance. clear role perceptions. P-to-O expectancies are perceptions. employee will have responsibilities to the company and normally willing to contribute to the company. so employees need to know that higher performance will result in higher rewards. With the highest motivation and good behavior in terms of complete the task. . employees will motivated to give the best commitment for companies. Employee will take an advantage or make as a reason why they not supposed to go to the work during a snowstorm. anecdotes. Matching employees to jobs on the basis of their abilities and clearly communicating the tasks required for the job are important parts of this process. employees still motivated to commit with the company as their feel company has appreciate their effort or contribute to company. Similarly E-to-P expectancies are learned so behavioral modeling and supportive feedback (positive reinforcement) typically strengthen the individual’s belief that he or she is able to perform the task. Companies meet these needs by explaining how specific rewards are connected to specific past performance and by using examples.

critics have a number of concerns with how the theory has been tested. At the same time. peer pressure may cause some employees to perform their jobs at the minimum standard even though formal rewards and the job itself would otherwise motivate them to perform at higher levels.Increasing Outcome Valences Everyone has unique values and experiences. The valence element of expectancy theory captures some of this emotional process but only peripherally. . and persistence of effort. For example. expectancy theory is a useful model that explains how people rationally figure out the best direction. It has been tested in a variety of situations and predicts employee motivation in different cultures. Consequences with negative valences that reduce rather than enhance employee motivation. Consequently. individualizing rather than standardizing rewards and other performance outcomes is an important ingredient in employee motivation. However. intensity. leaders need to watch for countervalent outcomes. Overall. which translate into different needs at different times. Another concern is that expectancy theory ignores the central role of emotion in employee effort and behavior.