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Ff
McGraw-Hill’s
PAYSICS==" Tata McGraw-Hill
Published by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited,
7 West Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110 008
Course in Physics for ITT-JEE 2012
Copyright © 2011, by Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited.
First reprint 2011
RQALCRAGDABDB
No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publishers. The
program listings (if any) may be entered, stored and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for
publication.
This edition can be exported from India only by the publishers,
‘Teta McGraw Hill Education Private Limited.
Price: & 625.00
ISBN (13):978-0-07-132929.3
ISBN (10): 0-07-132929-3,
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Information contained in this work has been obtained by Tata McGraw-Hill, from sources believed to be reliable. However,
neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein,
and neither Tata McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use
Of this information. This work is published with the understanding that Tata McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying
information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the
assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.
‘Typeset at Script Makers, 19, A1-B, DDA Market, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110 063, and text and cover printed at Gopsons,
A-2 & 3, Sector-64, Noida, U.P. 201301
Cover Designer: K AnoopContents
A Word to the Reader
Syllabus
11, Hydrostatics (Fluid Pressure and Buoyancy)
12. A ics (Bernoulli's Theorem and Viscosity)
13. Simple Harmonic Motion
14, Waves and Doppler’s Effect
15. Thermal Expansion
16. Measurement of Heat
17, Thermodynamics (Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes)
18. Kinetic Theory of Gases
19. Transmission of Heat
20. Electrostatic Field and Potential
21. Capacitance and Capacitors
22. Electric Current and D.C. Circuits
23. Heating Effect of Current
24. Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism
25. Electromagnetic Induction and A.C. Circuits
26. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
27. Wave Optics
28. Atomic Physics
29._Nuclear Physics
Annexure I—Important Formulae and Tips
Annexure Il—Model Solutions of IIT-JEE Physics Papers 2007, 2008 and 2009
‘Annexure IIl—Model Solutions of IIT-JEE Physics Papers 2010UNITs AND DIMENSIONS
REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
1.1 The SI System of Units
‘The internationally accepted standard units of the
fundamental physical quantities are given in Table 1.1
Table 1.1
Physical Quantity
Length |
Mass
Time
Blectric current
Temperature
Luminous intensity
Amount of substance
‘Angle in a plane
Solid
Fundamental SI Units
‘Name of the Unis Symbol
‘metre ™
kilogram kg
second s
ampere A
kelvin K
candela ed
‘mole mol
radian rad
steradian se
Physical quantities which can be defined in terms of
the above nine fundamental quantities are called derived
quantities. Table 1.2 below gives the SI units of some
derived physical quantities.
Table 12. SI Units of Some Derived Physical
‘Quantities
Physical Quantity ‘Name of the Unii____ Symbol
Length ‘metre ™
Force ‘newton N
Work, Energy Joule J
Power ‘watt w
Frequency hertz He
Electric charge coulomb c
Electric potential volt v
Electric capacitance farad F
Electric resistance ohm a
Magnetic flux weber wo
Magnetic flux density tesla T
Inductance henry H
lumination ux ik
Luminous flux Jumen Im
Quantity of heat joule J
(Contd...)
(Contd)
Velocity ‘metre per second ms!
Acceleration ‘metre per second square ms
Pressure newton per square metre Nm
or pascal or Pa
Moment of inertia Kilogram metre square kg m?
Momentum kilogram metre per second kg ms
‘Surface tension newton per metre Nm!
Elastic moduli newton per square metre Nm“?
Specific heat capacity joule per (kilogram-kelvin) J kg"!K
Specific latent heat joule per kilogram Jkt
‘Thermal conductivity watt per (metre-kelvin) — Wm"K"*
‘Quantity of light Jumen second Ims
Luminance ccandela per square metre cd m=
‘Sound intensity watt per square mee = Wm
Absolute permeability henry per metre
Magnetic field strength ampere per metre
Magnetic vector potential weber per metre
Intensity of magnetisation ampere per metre
Magnetic energy density joule per cubic metre
Reluctance ampere per weber
Absolute permittivity farad per metre
Electric dipole moment coulomb metre
Electric field intensity volt per metre
Electric polarisation coulomb per square metre Cm
Electrochemical kilogram per coulomb kg C
‘equivalent
Poynting vector ‘watt per metre squared Wm?
Viscosity poiseville PL
Planck's constant joule second Js
Wien's constant metre kelvin mk
Boltzmann constant joule per kelvin aK
Gas constant joule per (mole kelvin) — Jmol”'K~!
1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities
‘The dimensions of a physical quantity are the powers to
which the fundamental units of mass (M), length (L) and
time (T) must be raised to represent the unit of that
‘quantity. The dimensional formula of a physical quantity
is an expression that tells us how and which of the
fundamental quantities enter into the unit of that quantity.
In mechanics, the dimensional formula is written in
terms of the dimensions of mass, length and time (M, L
and 7). In heat and thermodynamics, in addition to M, L1.2. Course in Physies for IIT-JEE
and T, we need to mention the dimension of temperature
in kelvin (K). In electricity and magnetism, in addition to
M, L and T, we need to mention the dimension of current
or charge per unit time (I or QT").
Table 1.3 below gives the dimensional formulae of
some important derived physical quantities.
Table 1.3 Dimensional Formulae of some Physical Quantities
Physical Quanity Dimensional Formal Physical Quartiy Dimensional Formula
‘Arca wT? Heat encrey MOT?
Volume wr? Estropy MET!
Density Mur? Specific beat MOLT
Velocity Mur! Latent heat wer?
Acceleration weLr? Molar specific heat MUT#K" mot!
Momentum MLT* ‘Thermal conductivity, MLT?K
“Angular momentum Mor! Wien's constant MLT'K
Force MLT? ‘Stefan's constant MLOToK+
Energy, work MOT? Boltzmann's constant MUT?K!
Power Mur Molar gas constant MULT ?K* mol
“Torque, couple MT? Electric charge TA
Impulse MLT* Electric current A
Frequency wr BBectric potential MLT? A"
‘Angular frequency Mur! hectic field MLTS At
‘Angular acceleration Mer? ‘Capacitance ML?TA?
Pressure Mit? Inductance MLT?A?
Elastic moduli Resistance MUTA?
Stress ‘Magnetic flux MUTA
Moment of inertia Magnetic flux density or = ML°T2A~!
Magnetic induction fiekd
‘Surface tension Permeability MLT*A7
Viscosity Permitivity ML Tia?
Gravitational constant Phanck's constant MT!
1.3. Principle of Homogeneity of Dimensions
Consider a simple equation,
A+B=C
If this is an equation of physics, ic. if A, B and C are
physical quantities, then this equation says that one physi-
‘cal quantity A, when added to another physical quantity
B, gives a third physical quantity C. This equation wi
have no meaning in physics if the nature (i.e. the dimen-
sions) of the quantities on the left-hand side of the equa-
tion is not the same as the nature of the quantity on the
right-hand side. For example, if A is a length, B must also
bbe a length and the result of addition of A and B must
express a length. In other words, the dimensions of both
sides of a physical equation must be identical. This is
called the principle of homogeneity of dimensions.
14. Uses of Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional equations provide a very simple method of
deriving relations between physical quantities involved in
any physical phenomenon. The analysis of any pheno
‘enon carried out by using the method of dimensions is
called dimensional analysis. This analysis is based on the
principle of homogeneity of dimensions explained above.
‘There are four important uses of dimensional
equations:
1. Checking the correctness of an equation.
2. Derivation of the relationship between the physical
quantities involved in any phenomenon.
3. Finding the dimensions of constants or variables in
an equation.
4. Conversion of units from one system to another.
1.5 Limitations of Dimensional Analysis
‘Though the dimensional method is a simple and a very
convenient way of finding the dependence of a physical
‘quantity on other quantities of a given system, it has its
‘own limitations, some of which are listed as follows:
1, In more complicated situations, it is often not easy
to find out the factors on which a physical quantity
will depend. In such cases, one has to make a guess
which may or may not work.
2. This method gives no information about the dimen-
sionless constant which has to be determined eitherby experiment or by a complete mathematical deri-
vation.
3. This method is used only if a physical quantity var-
ies as the product of other physical quantities. It
fails if a physical quantity depends on the sum or
difference of two quantities. Try, for instance, to
tain the relation $= ut + a using the method
of dimensions.
4, This method will not work if a quantity depends on
another quantity as sin or cos of an angle, i.. if the
dependence is by a trigonometric function, The
method works only if the dependence is by power
functions only.
5. This method does not give a complete information
in cases where a physical quantity depends on more
than three quantities, because by equating the pow-
ers of M, L and T, we can obtain only three equa-
tions for the exponents,
1.6 Significant Figures
The number significant figure in any measurement
indicates the degree of precision of that measurement.
‘The degree of precision is determined by the least count
of the measuring instrument. Suppose a length measured
bya metre scale (of least count = 0.1 em) is 1-5 em, then it
has two significant figures, namely 1 and 5. Measured
with a vernier callipers (of least count = 0.01 cm) the
same length is 1.53 cm and it then has three significant
figures. Measured with a screw gauge (of least count =
0.001 cm) the same length may be 1.536 cm which has
four significant figures.
It must be clearly understood that we cannot increase
the accuracy of a measurement of changing the unit. For
example, suppose a measurement of mass yields a value
39.4 kg. It is understood that the measuring instrument
has a least count of 0.1 kg. In this measurement, three
figures 3, 9 and 4 are significant. If we change 39.4 kg to
39400 g or 39400000 mg. we cannot change the accuracy
of measurement. Hence 39400 g or 39400000 mg still
have three significant figures; the zeros only serve to
indicate only the magnitude of measurement.
Estimation of Appropriate Significant Figures in
Calculations
‘The importance of significant figures lies in calculation to
find the result of addition or multiplication of measured
quantities having a different number of significant
figures. The least accurate quantity determines the
accuracy of the sum or product. The result must be
rounded off to the appropriate digit.
Rules for Rounding off
‘The following rules are used for dropping figures that are
not significamts
Units and Dimensions 1.3
1. If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, the next
(preceding) digit to be retained is left unchanged.
For example, if a number 5.34 is to be rounded off
to two significant figures, the digit to be dropped is
4 which is less than 5.
2. Ifthe digit to be dropped is more than 5, the preced-
ing digit to be retained is increased by 1. For ex-
amples 7.536 is rounded off as 7.54 to three signifi-
cant figures.
3. If the digit to be dropped happens to be 5, then
(a) the preceding digit to be retained is increased
by 1 if it odd, or
(b) the preceding digit is retained unchanged if it
is even.
4, Hence the next digit, namely 3, is not changed, The
result of the indicated rounding-off is therefore, 5.3.
For example, 6.75 is rounded off to 6.8 to two significant
figures and 4.95 is rounded off to 5.0 but 3.45 is rounded
off to 3.4,
Significant Figures in Addition and Subtraction
Suppose there are four objects of mass 2.5 kg, 1.54 kg,
3.668 kg and 5.1278 kg. The total mass (M) = 2.5 + 1.54
+ 3.668 + 5.1278 = 12.8358 kg. There are two significant
figures in the first mass, three in the second, four in the
third and five in the fourth. There are 6 digits in the value
of the sum. The final result cannot be more accurate that
the least accurate quantity, which in this example of
2.5 kg. This mass is accurate only up to the first decimal
place in kg. Hence the result must be rounded off to the
first decimal placed in kg. The correct result up to
appropriate significant figures is M = 12.8 kg.
‘Thus for addition and subtraction is the rule is as
follows:
Round off the final result such that it has the same
number of digits after the decimal place as in the least
accurate measurement.
Significant Figures in Multiplication and Division
We use the following rule to determine the number of
significant figures in the result of multiplication and
division of various physical quantities.
Do not worry about the number of digits after the
decimal place. Round off the result so that it has the same
number of significant figures as in the least accurate
quantity.
Example: A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. Find his
average speed up to appropriate significant figure.
1002 «9.708737 ms
The distance 100.5 m has four significant figures but the
time 10.3 s has only three. Hence the value of the result
‘must be round off to three significant figures. The correct
result is 7 = 9.71 ms"!1.4 Course in Physies for ITT-JEE
1.7. Least Counts of Some Measuring
Instruments
1, Least count of metre seale = 1 mm = 0.1 em
2. Vernier constant (or least count) of vernier callipers
= value of | main scale division ~ value of 1 vernier
scale division = 1 M.S.D.~1 V.S.D
Let the value of 1 M.S.D =a unit
If n vernier scale divisions coincide with m main
scale divisions, then value of
LV.S.D= of 1MS.D
n
ma
= unit
”
Least count =~" = ( - 2) unit
n n
3. Least count of a micrometer screw is found by the
formula
Least count =
Pitch of screw
Total number of divisions on circular scale
where pitch = lateral distance moved in one com-
plete rotation of the screw.
Aa = Ar + Ay
We take the worst case in which errors add up.
Aa _ Ar+ Ay
a (x~))
. Error in product and division: Suppose we de-
termine the value of a physical quantity u by mea-
suring three quantities x, y and z whose true values
are related to u by the eq)
uate z
Let the expected small errors in the measurement
of quantities x, y and z be respectively * dx, + dy
and + 3: so that the error in u by using these ob-
served quantities is + du. The numerical values of
&x, dy and & are given by the least count of the
instruments used to measure them.
Taking logarithm of both sides we have
log w= alog x + Blog y~ ylog
Partial differentiation of the above equation gives
Bg gE gh yh
y z
y
. J
‘The proportional of relative error in u is du/u. The
values of Sx, 5y and d: may be positive or negative
and in some uses the terms on the right hand side
1.8 Order of Accuracy: Proportionate Error ‘may counteract each other. This effect cannot be
‘The order of accuracy of the result of measurements is relied upon and itis necessary to consider the worst
determined by the least counts of the measuring case which is the case when all errors add up giv-
instruments used to make those measurements. Suppose a ing an error du given by the equation:
length xis measured with a metre scale, then the error in.x ‘Su
is + Ar, where Ax= least count of metre scale = 0.1 em. If (*).
the same length is measured with vernier callipers of least
count 0.01 cm, then Ax = 0.01 em,
ox
ey
u eye
‘Thus to find the maximum proportional error in u,
multiply the proportional errors in each factor
(x, y and z) by the numerical value of the power to
which each factor is raised and then add all the
terms so obtained.
The sum thus obtained will give the maximum
propor-tional error in the result of u. When the pro-
aaxty portional error of a quantity is multiplied by 1
‘Then Sa = Ax + Ay is the maximum error and ‘we get the percentage error of that quantity. It is
Aa Ax+Ay evident that a small error in the measurement of the
a Gin quantity having the highest rower will connie
maximum percentage error in the value of u. Hence
2. Error in Difference: If a =x — y, then the maxi- the panty hag the highest power should be
iti eta measured with as great a precision as possible.
Fractional or proportionate error is defined as =.
Maximum percentage error= 4 x 100.
z
1. Error in sum: Suppose a quantity is given by
SECTION I
Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct
1. The pressure P is related to distance x, Boltzmann
avike
constant k and temperature 6 as e
a
po
6The dimensional formula of b is
@ MET (>) [MLT?}
(c) (M°L? T°) (@) [M°L°T)
. The magnitude of induced emf e in a conductor of
length £ rotating in magnetic field B is given by
1
(BR)
‘The dimensional formula of a is
(a) (M°L°T] (>) [ML?°T=)
(ce) [M7LT™) (@) M°L'T|
Two resistors R, = {3.0 + 0.1] 9 and R, = (6.0
0.3) Q are connected in parallel. The resistance of
the combination is
(a) (2.0 £04) 2 ——_(b) (2.00 + 0.08) Q
(©) 20202) — (d) 2.00 + 0.04) 2
If the resistances in Q.3 above were connected in
series, the maximum percentage error in the resis-
tance of the combination will be
(a) 1.1% (b) 2.2%
(c) 33% (@) 44%
5. Which of the following pairs of physical quantities
do not have the same dimensions?
(a) Pressure and Young's modulus
(b) Emf and electric potential
(©) Heat and work
(@) Electric dipole moment and electric flux.
.. Which of the following pairs of physical quantities
have different dimensions?
(a) Impulse and linear momentum
(b) Planck’s constant and angular momentum
(©) Moment of inertia and moment of force
(@) Torque and energy
. In the expression A = Ay e “7, k is Boltzmann
constant and T is the absolute temperature. The
dimensions of a are the same as those of
(a) energy (b) time
(©) acceleration (@) velocity
‘A cube has a side of 1.2 cm. The volume of the
‘cube up to appropriate significant figures is
(a) 1.728 em* (b) 1.73 em?
(c) 1.7 cm* (@) 17.3 em*
. In the determination of the acceleration due to
gravity (g) using the formula
rear [E
®
the errors in the measurements of L and T are 1%
and 2% respectively. The maximum percentage
‘error in the value of g is
(a) 5%
(c) 3%
(b) 4%
@) 1.5%
10.
i.
12.
3B.
4.
15.
16.
7.
18,
Units and Dimensions 1.5
‘The quantities L/R and RC (where L, C and R
stand for inductance, capacitance and resistance
respectively) have the same dimensions as those of
(a) velocity (b) acceleration
(c) time (d) force
‘The dimensions of entropy are
(a) MLK (>) MOL? 79K?
(©) MLT?K (@) MUT?KT
What is the physical quantity whose dimensions
are ML?T*?
(a) kinetic energy (b) pressure
(c) momentum (d) power
Which one of the following has the dimensions of
ML"T??
(a) torque (b) surface tension
(©) viscosity (d) stress
‘The dimensions of angular momentum are
(a) MLT* >) ML
(c) ML'T (d) ML°T?
The gravitational force F between two masses m,
‘and my separated by a distance r is given by
Fe San ‘where G is the universal gravitational
constant. What are the dimensions of G?
(@) M"LT? (b) ML'T?
() MLT* @ MIT?
‘The equation of state of a real gas can be expressed
(ret lu — b) = cT where P is the pressure,
Vithe volume, T the absolute temperature and a, b
and c are constants. What are the dimensions of a?
(@ MT (b) MUST?
(©) ML (d) ML°T*
‘The equation of state for n moles of an ideal gas is
PV= nkT
where R is the universal gas constant and P, Vand
T have the usual meanings. What are the dimen-
sions of R?
(a) M®LT?K"! mo?
(b) ML? T? K! mot!
(©) M°L? T? Kt mor!
(@) ML? T? Kt mor!
‘The SI unit of the universal gas constant R is
(a) erg K! mort
(b) watt Kt mot
(c) newton K™! mol
(@) joule K" mor!1,6 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
19.
a.
22,
According to the quantum theory, the energy E of
fa photon of frequency vis given by
E=hv
where A is Planck's constant. What is the dimen
sional formula for h?
@ MULT? (b) ML? T!
(©) MULT @ MULT
What is the SI unit of Planck’s constant?
(a) watt second () watt per second
(©) joule second (@) joule per second
The dimensions of Planck’s constant are the same
as those of
(a) energy
(b) power
(6) angular frequency
(@) angular momentum
‘Time period T of a simple pendulum may depend
‘on m, the mass of the bob, [, the length of the
string and g, the acceleration due to gravity. ie.
Tx ml ge
What are the values of a, b and c?
@ 0, 5-4 () 0, -
1
2 a
@to-4, (a) ~
2 2
The volume V of water passing any point of a
uniform tube during # seconds is related to the
cross-sectional area A of the tube and velocity u of
water by the relation
VaeAtuer?
which one of the following will be true?
(a) a= Bay (bo) azBzy
(c) a= Bey dd) aepey
‘Which one of the following relations is dimension-
ally consistent where f is height to which a liquid
of density prises ina capillary tube of radius, r, T
is the surface tension of the liquid, @ the angle of
contact and g the acceleration due to gravity?
(a) b= PESO wy p= EE
Px 008 @
2pg cos @ 2Tr px
= E88 gy pe
(o) h = 20S @ fe
The frequency n of vibrations of uniform string of
length J and stretched with a force F is given by
nak fE
2Vm
where p is the number of segments of the vibrating
string and m is a constant of the string, What are
the dimensions of m?
2.
a.
32.
@ ML'T! (by) ML T°
(©) ML? T° (@ ML'T°
‘When a wave traverses a medium, the displace-
ment of a particle located at x at time 1 is given by
y=asin (bt ex)
where a, b and ¢ are constants of the wave. The
dimensions of b are the same as those of
(a) wave velocity (b) amplitude
(©) wavelength (d) wave frequency
126, the dimensions of © are the same a those of
(a) wave velocity (b) wavelength
(©) wave amplitude (d) wave frequency
The Van der Waal equation for n moles of a real
gas is
RT
(P+) u-»
where P is the pressure, V is the volume, Tis the
absolute temperature, R is the molar gas constant
and a, b are Van der Waal constants. The dimen-
sions of a are the same as those of
(a) PV (b) PY?
(©) PV (@) PIV
In Q.28. the dimensions of b are the same as those of
(a) P ob) v
() PV (@) nT
In Q.28, the dimensions of nR7 are the same as
those of
(a) energy (b) force
(c) pressure (d) specific heat
In Q. 28, the dimensional formula for ab is.
(a) ML°T? (b) ML*T?
(c) ML°T> (a) ML“T?
If velocity (V), acceleration (A) and force (F) are
taken as fundamental quantities instead of mass
(M), length (L) and time (7), the dimensions of
Young's modulus would be
(a) FAV? (b) FAV
(c) FAV (@) Fav
‘The dimensions of permittivity (&) of vacuum are
@ MTL? TA? (b) ML? T? A?
(©) MEL Tt AP (@ ML’ T? A*
(L1T.1998)
What are the dimensions of permeability (tq) of
vacuum?
(a) MLT™ A* (b) MLT? A?
(c) ML" T? a? (@) MUTT? A*
(LLT,1998)3s.
a7.
39,
The dimensions of 1//fip&p are the same as those
of
(a) velocity (b) acceleration
(©) force (@) energy
The dimensions of specific heat are
(a) MLT? K* (b) ML? T? K
(©) MT? Kt @) MLT? KT
‘What are the dimensions of latent heat?
(@) ML? T? (b) ML? T?
(c) M°LT? (@) M° LT?
What are the dimensions of Boltzmann's constant?
(a) MLT? K" (b) ML°T? Kt
(©) M°LT? Kk (@) MT? Kt
The dimensions of potential difference are
(@) ML>T~3 Av! (b) MLT? At
(©) MOT-7 A (d) MLT?7A
|. What are the dimensions of electrical resistance?
(a) MLIT? A?
(©) ML? Ta?
(b) ML? T? A?
(a) ML? T? A?
41. The dimensions of electric field are
(a) MLT? At (b) MLT? At
(©) MLT“! At (@) MLT° At
42. The dimensions of magnetic induction field are
(@) ML°T! At (b) M°L T"' At
(©) MLT? At (@) ML°T? At
43. What are the dimensions of magnetic flux?
(@) MU? T? a" (b) ML? T? A?
© ML? T? At (@) ML? T? A
44, The dimensions of self inductance are
(a) ML>T? at (b) ML? T? A?
(©) ML* T? At (@) ML? T? A?
45, The dimensions of capacitance are
47.
(@) MTL? Ta? () MTL? TA?
© MLE A @ ML? Ta
If velocity (V), force (F) and energy (E) are taken
as fundamental units, then dimensional formula for
mass will be
@) V7RE (b) V°FE?
(©) VF7E° @) VORE
Frequency (n) of a tuning fork depends upon length
(D of its prongs, density (p) and Young’s modulus
(Y) of its material. Then frequency and Young's
modulus will be related as
(@) ne VV (b) n= ¥
i
ne 0
(© n= T @ ney
Units and Dimensions 1.7
48. The dimensions of + E (€y = permittivity of
free space and E = electric field) are
(a) MLT“" (b) MULT?
(c) ML"T? (@) MULT
(LL-T. 2000)
49. Of the following quantities, which one has dimen-
sions different from the remaining three
(a) Energy per unit volume
(b) Force per unit area
(c) Product of voltage and charge per unit volume
(d) Angular momentum
‘50. If the time period 1 of a drop of liquid of density d,
radius r, vibrating under surface tension s is given
by the formula r= Jd*r°s* and ifa=1,c=-1,
then bis
@ 1 (b) 2
3 @4
S1. A pair of physical quantities having the same
dimensional formula is
(a) angular momentum and torque
(b) torque and energy
(c) entropy and power
(@) power and angular momentum
52. In the measurement of a physical quantity X =
2
oe 5... -The percentage errors introduced in the
measurements of the quantities A, B, C and D are
2%, 2%, 4% and 5% respectively. Then the mini-
mum amount of percentage of error in the mea-
surement of X is contributed by:
@A (b) B
Cc @ D
53. Which of the following has the dimensions
ML'T!?
(a) Surface tension (b) Coefficient of viscosity
(c) Bulk modulus (c) Angular momentum
Pressure gradient dp/de is the rate of change of
pressure with distance. What are the dimensions
of dpvdx?
@ ML! Tt (b) ML? T?
(ce) ML" T? (@) ML? T"
SS. If E, M, J and G respectively denote energy, mass,
angular momentum and gravitational constant, then
2
=). has the dimensions of
(a) length (b) angle
(©) mass (@) time
(LT, 1990)1.8 Course in Physics for IITJEE
56. If e, & h and c respectively represent electronic
charge, permittivity of free space, Planck’s con-
2
stant and speed of light, then ae has the dimen-
sions of
(a) current (b) pressure
(©) angular momentum —(d) angle
57. If L, R, C and V respectively represent inductance,
resistance, capacitance and potential difference,
then the dimensions of are the same as those
RCV
of
1
‘current
1
(c) charge @ ange
$8. If E and B respectively represent electric field and
magnetic induction field, then the ratio £ has the
dimensions of
(a) displacement (b) velocity
(c) acceleration (4) angle
59. If C and V respectively represent the capacitance
‘of a capacitor and the potential difference between
its plates, then the dimensions of CV’ are
(a) MPT? (bo) MUTA
() MUT'At @ ML
60, If h and ¢ respectively represent Planck's constant
(@) current ro)
and electronic charge, then the dimensions o(*)
are the same as those of
(a) magnetic field (b) electric field
(©) magnetic flux (@) electric flux
61. If energy E, velocity V and time T are chosen as
the fundamental units, the dimensional formula for
surface tension will be
@) BVT? (&) EV'T?
(©) BV?r? @) EBV 'T?
62. The number of particles crossing a unit area per-
is in a unit time is given by
where n, and n, are the number of particles per unit
volume at x =x, and x = x, respectively and D is
the diffusion constant. The dimensions of D are
(@) MLT? (b) M°L*T*
(©) M°LT* @ MT!
63. A gas bubble from an explosion under water
‘oscillates with a period proportional to P* d? ES
where P is the static pressure, d is the density of
water and E is the energy of explosion. Then a, b
and c respectively are
S11 1-51
@ >, Pa OTF
11 -
OPPs @ uit
(LT, 1981)
64, In a system of units in which the unit of mass is
‘akg, unit of length is b metre and the unit of time is
second, the magnitude of a calorie
42c 42c*
@ ©)
abe 42
oF @
65. The error in the measurement of the radius of a
sphere is 1%. The error in the measurement of the
volume is
(a) 1% (b) 3%
© 5% (a) 8%
66. If the error in the measurement of the volume of a
sphere is 6%, then the error in the measurement of
its surface area will be
(a) 2% (b) 3%
() 4% @) 715%
67. A physical quantity X is represented by X =
(M'L'T*), The maximum percentage errors in the
measurement of M, L and T respectively are a%,
6% and c%. The maximum percentage error in the
measurement of X will be
(a) (ax + by ~ cz) percent
(b) (ax + by + cz) percent
(©) (ax ~ by + cz) percent
(d) (ax ~ by ~ €2) percent
68, The percentage errors in the measurements of the
length of a simple pendulum and its time period are
2% and 3% respectively. The maximum error in the
value of the acceleration due to gravity obtained
from these measurements is
(a) 5% (b) 1%
(©) 8% (@) 10%
69. The moment of inertia of a body rotating about a
given axis is 6.0 kg m* in the SI system. What is
the value of the moment of inertia in a system of
units in which the unit of length is 5 cm and the
unit of mass is 10 g?0.
nm.
72.
7.
4.
18.
(a) 24 x 10° (b) 24 x 10°
(c) 6.0 x 10° (d) 6.0 x 10°
A quantity X is given by att where &) is the
permittivity of free space, L is a length, AV is a
potential difference and Af is a time interval. ‘The
dimensional formula for X is the same as that of
(a) resistance (b) charge
(©) voltage (d) current
(LLT. 2001)
‘The coefficient of viscosity (7) of a liquid by the
‘method of flow through a capillary tube is given by
the formula
arr
81g
where = radius of the capillary tube,
1 = length of the tube,
P = pressure difference between its ends,
and
Q = volume of liquid flowing per second.
Which quantity must be measured most accu-
rately?
@R (byt
wP @o
The mass m of the heaviest stone that can be
moved by the water flowing in a river depends on
», the speed of water, density (d) of water and the
acceleration due to gravity (g). Then m is propor-
tional to
(@ o (b) of
ov @o
The speed (v) of ripples debpends upon their
wavelenth (A), density (p) and surface tension (0)
‘of water. Then is proportional to
@) va (b) a
1 1
(c) > (d)
Og OF
‘The period of revolution (7) of a planet moving
round the sun in a circular orbit depends upon the
radius (r) of the orbit, mass (M) of the sun and the
gravitation constant (G). Then T is propartional to
(a) 7? (b) r
ee @?
If energy (£), momentum (p) and force (F) are
chosen as fundamental units, the dimensions of
mass in the new system will be
Units and Dimensions 1.9
@ E'y Fo (b) Elp*F°
(©) E'pr> (@) E%p'F?
76. If the velocity of light (c), gravitational constant
(G) and planck’s constant (4) are chosen as fun-
damental units, the dimensions of time in the new
system will be
@ “ene (o) GH?
(©) Gh? (a) GH?
77. The amplitude of a damped oscillator of mass m
varies with time t as
Az Age
‘The dimensions of a are
@ MU! (b) M°LT"
(c) MLT" (@) ML“T
78. A student measures the value of g with the help of
‘a simple pendulum using the formula
4eL
se
‘The errors in the measurements of L and T are AL
and AT respectively. In which of the following
ccases is the error in the value of g the minimum?
(a) AL = 05 cm, AT = 05 s
(b) AL = 02 em, AT = 02s
(©) AL = 0.1 cm, AT = 1.0
(@) AL = 0.1 em, AT = 0.1 s
79. A student performs an experiment to determine the
‘Young's modulus of a wire, exactly 2 m long, by
Searle's method. In a particular reading, the stu-
dent measures the extension in the length of the
wire to be 0.8 mm with an uncertainty of
+£0.05 mm at a load of exactly 1.0 kg. The student
also measures the diameter of the wire to be
0.4 mm with a uncertainty of ¢ 0.01 mm. Take g =
9.8 m/s? (exact). The Young's modulus obtained
from the reading is
(a) (2.0 + 0.3) x 10"! Nim?
(b) (2.0 = 0.2) x 10" Nim?
(©) 2.0 # 0.1) x 10" Nim?
(@) (2.0 + 0.05) x 10" N/m? (LT. 2007)
80. In a vernier callipers, one main scale division is
x cm and n divisions of the vernier scale coincide
with (n ~ 1) divisions of the main scale. The least
‘count (in cm) of the callipers is
(b)
@
x x
© 7 @ G-»p
(LT. 2007)
»1.10 Course in Physics for IT-JEE
ANSWERS
L © 2. (a)
7. (@) 8. ()
13. (d) 14. ()
19. () 20. (c)
25. (@) 26. @)
3. @) 32. (c)
37. (@) 38. (b)
8. @ 44, ()
49. (d) 50. (c)
58. (b) 56. (d)
61. ©) 62. (d)
67. (b) 68. (c)
73, (@) 74, (c)
79, (b) 80. (c)
SOLUTIONS
1, The exponent is dimensionless. Hence
ke JK K
w- [2]
x m
=Jm'
= [MLT*] x (L“]
= MLT*
{al
pj = Wel
‘Ato TP) (bl
fal _ [MUT?
(1 Fras
So the correct choice is (c).
BL _ (M°L’T} x [MUTA] x (7)
€ (MET? A7]
= (MT!
= [l= | = (M’LT?)
Ras
v1 6R=0.019 x R’ = 0.019 x (2)? = 0.076 = 0.08 2
Hence the correct choice is (b).
4. R=R, +R, =3.04+6.0=9.02
OR = 5R, + OR, = 0.1 +03 = 04
4. d)
10. (c)
16. (b)
22, (a)
28. (b)
34. ()
40. (b)
46. (d)
52. (c)
58. (b)
A. (b)
70. (4)
76. (a)
see
10.
uu.
Paae (2)
6. (ce)
12, (a)
18. (d)
24. (a)
30. (a)
36. (c)
42. (d)
48. (c)
54. (b)
60. (c)
66. (c)
72. (©)
78. (d)
2+ Maximum percentage error = of x 100
So the correct choice is (d).
. The correct choice is (d).
The correct choice is (c)..
Since &T has dimensions of energy, the correct
choice is (a).
= Ls 12cmx 1.2emx 12cm
= 1.728 em?
Since there are two significant figures in L = 1.2 cm,
the volume is accurate only up to two significant
figure.
Hence the correct choice is (c).
_ 4k
ee
», A
s
L/R is the time constant of an L-R circuit and CR
is the time constant of a C-R circuit. The dimen-
sion of the time constant is the same as that of
time. Hence the correct choice is (c).
Entropy $ is defined through the relation
= 40
T
where dS is the change in entropy, dQ the change
Is het comgy end T ste sbocke txperatae
BE AAT 218 42x28 25%MU T-?
MEK
Hence the correct choice is (4).
12. The dimensions of energy are ML?T~?. The dimen-
sions of pressure, momentum and power are
ML'T?, MLT™! and ML?T™ respectively. Thus
the correct choice is (a).
13. ML-'T~* are the dimensions of force per unit area.
Out of the four choices, stress is the only quantity
that is force per unit area, Hence the correct choice
is (@).
14. The angular momentum L of a particle with respect
to point whose position vector is r is given by
L=rxp
where p is the linear momentum of the moving
particle.
=. Dimensions of L = dimension of rx dimensions
ofp
=LxMLT!=MLT!
‘Thus the correct choice is (b).
18, su FP
ince G=
mm;
= dimensions of F x dimensions of r#
dimensions of mm,
MLT? x?

LE"
=MLT-7A~?
‘Therefore, the correct choice is (b).
Dimensions of
1s 1
——
hoe (MLT? A? x M"L*Ta*}
=
H
(L?T?)z
which are the dimensions of velocity. Hence the
correct choice is (a).
‘The heat energy content H of a body of mass m at
temperature is given by H = ms@
where s is the specific heat. Therefore
=LT-!
md
Dimensions of s
dimensions of heat energy
‘dimension of mass x dimension of temperature
MUT? your ?K-!
MxK
Thus the correct choice is (c).
Latent heat L is the amount of heat energy H re-
‘quired to change the state of a unit mass without
producing any change in temperature. Thus
te
MULT?
oo Dimensions of L =
eutte
‘Thus the correct choice is (d).
According to the law of equipartition of energy,
the energy per degree of freedom of a gas atom or
molecule at a temperature @ kelvin is given by
i 2E
Es 2 kO ork= @
where & is the Boltzmann's constant.
MT?39. ‘The potential difference V between two points is
the amount of work done in moving a unit charge
from one point to the other.
work done __W
Th v= —Work done __ WW
= charge moved — q
2p
Dimensions of ¥= MET” *
Given X= ae
‘Taking logarithm of both sides, we have
logX = 2 log A + og B- > log C - 3 log D
Partially differentiating, we have
ar )8A AB 1 aC _
x A B
Percentage eror in A = 2 “4
race enor 8 = 22 28
1 Ac
Percentage error in C= + 9S 2 1 x 4%
ac
i
3
ate
3
Percentage enor in D =3 92 = 3 x 5%
= 15%
We find that the minimum percentage error is
contributed by C. Hence the correct choice is (c).
Reo
61.
2B
}. The correct choice is (%
. The correct choice is (b)
|. The correct choice is (b)
}. Dimensions of J and G are ML°T™! and M“'L? T?
respectively.
|. Dimensions of &, and & are M'L~ T* A® and
ML?T™ respectively.
RC has the dimensions of time (T). V has the
dimensions of emf which has the dimensions of
a
Le.
at
The force F on a particle of charge q moving with a
velocity v in E and B fields is given by
F=q(E+vxB)
Hence the dimensions of E are the same as: those
of vB.
Energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C hav-
ing a potential difference V between its plates is
given by
Hence, the dimensions of CV’ limensions of en-
exgy. Hence the correct choice is (a).
apt
Dimensions of () oT
a
Dimensions of B= MT? A“
Magnetic flux = B x area
Let surface tension @= E* V’ T°. Using the dimen-
sions of a, E, V and T and equating powers: of M,
Land, find the values of a, b and c. The correct
choice is (c).
Dimensions of n (number of particles per unit area
per unit time) = L*T~', Dimensions of m, or
(number of particles per unit volume) = L~.
Dimensions of x, or x = L.
=ML?T? A
Let m, be the magnitude (i.e. numerical value) of a
physical quantity when the fundamental units are
(M,, L,, T,) and n, the magnitude of the same
physical quantity when the fundamental units are
(My, Ly, T,), then, it is obvious that
ny (MEL) TS) =m (M5373) @)
where x, y and z are the dimensions of the j hysical
quantity in mass, length and time respectively.
Now, we know that 1 calorie = 4.2 joule == 4.2 kg
m’s*. Therefore, in the first system of units
ny =42,x= 1,y =2andz=-2. Henoe, in the
second system of units in which M, = a kg,
L, = b mand T; = cs, we have from (i)65. V= 4m ‘Taking logarithm of both sides, we have
log V= log 4 + log +3 log r— log 3
Differentiating, we get
AV 540 ax im a3
7 r
66, BY 2388 or 66 = 34! of AF = 26,
v r r r
Now surface area s = 47 or log s= log 4x+2 log r
45 28? cox rma 48.
sor
67. X=M'L’ T~* or log X= xlog M + ylog L~zlog 7.
Differentiating, we have
AX AM AL
‘The maximum error in X is (since all errors add up)
AX _,4M AL, aT
AP ight
M L T
= Ga + yb + ze)%.
6. Tete] org de a orlogg=log r+
&
Jog !~ 2 log T. The maximum error in g is
ats 28T 2m 42038 = 8%
69. The dimensions of moment of inertia are (ML).
We have
ny(u,) = ng)
or m(MyLi) = m(M,L)
y= MLD 2 y (#)(BY
(M3) | (M,) (Ly
Given m =6.0,M, = 1 kg, Ly =1m,M = 10g and
L, = 5m. Therefore,
2
is) (1m
sy=ton() (22)
0x (0008) x (oem
10g Sem
= 6.0 x 100 x (20) = 2.4 x 10°
Units and Dimensions 1.15
70. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is
given by C = éyA/d. Hence the dimensions of él.
are the same as those of capacitance.
at av
+ Dit f Gh
mension of GL
dimension of C x dimensions of V
time
__ dimension of Q
time
Hence the correct choice is (d).
TL. The correct choice is (a).
The maximum permissible error in 17 is given by
the relation
An, gAR, Al AP Ag
” Rt’ PQ
It is clear that the error in the measurement of R is
‘magnified four times on account of the occurrence
of R* in the formula, Hence the radius (R) of the
capillary tube must be measured most accurately.
‘Thus the quantity which is raised to the highest
power needs the most accurate measurement.
72. Take m % v” d” g° and show that a = 6.
73. Take v & 2° p? a” and show that a = —
and c= 0.
76. The correct choice is (d).
77. The exponent is a dimensionless number. Hence
‘tim is dimensionless. Therefore,
dimension of m__M
dimension of ¢ T
=ML°T"
78. ‘The proportionate error in the measurement of g is
Ag _ AL aT
sot,
es L T
Hence Ag will be minimum if AL and AT are
‘minimum. Thus the correct choice is (4).
FL _ 4Mgl
. Yes
7. Al al?
Dimension of a =
a
0 kg (exact), g = 9.8 ms” (exact)
m (exact), {= 0.8 mm = 0.8 x 10° m
0.05 mm, d= 0.4mm = 04x 10% m
0.01 mm
Substituting the values of M, g, £,d and in Eq. (1)1.16 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
we get
¥=2.0x 10" Nm?
From Eg. (1) the proportionate uncertainty in Y is
Since the value of Y is correct only up to the first
decimal place, the value of AY must be rounded off
to the first decimal place. Thus AY = 0.2 x 10!"
given by Nm”. Therefore, the result of the experiment is
AY _ AM AL | 2Ad | Al ¥ + AY = (2.0 + 0.2) x 10" Nm?
YM 7 T Hence the correct choice is (b).
Since the values of Mf, g and L are exact, AM=0, | 80. Vernier constant = value of 1 M.S.D ~ value of
‘Ag = O and AL = 0. Hence 1V.S.D.
AY 2d AL 2x 001mm 005mm Now n V.S.D = (n- 1) M.D =(n~1) xem
AY 2d , M2 x00imm | Onn =
Yd "1" O4mm * 08mm tvs = (24) sem
= 0.05 + 0.0625 #
125 nat Ls
AY = 0.1125 x ¥= 0.1125 x 2.0 x 10" vec.=xom-(4=1 ) Fem 7
= 0.225 x 10"! Nm? Hence the correct choice is (c).
SECTION II
Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct
|. Which of the following are not a unit of time?
(@) parsee (b) light year
(c) micron (d) second
‘Choose the pair of physical quantities which have
identical dimensions.
(a) Impulse and linear momentum
(b) Planck's constant and angular momentum,
(c) Moment of inertia and moment of force
(4) Young's modutus and pressure
3. The dimensions of energy per unit volume are the
same as those of
(@) work (b) stress
(c) pressure _(d) modulus of elasticity
|. When a wave traverses a medium, the displace-
ment of a particle located atx at time s is given by
ye asin (bt—cx)
where a, b and c are constants of the wave. Which
of the following are dimensionless quantities?
() ya (b) or
(«x w+
5. In Q.4, the dimensions of 6 are the same as those of
(a) wave velocity (b) wave frequency
(c) particle frequency (d) wavelength
6 In QA, the dimensions of & are the same as those of
@
(@) wave velocity (b) angular frequency
(c) particle velocity (d) wave frequency
7. The Van der Waal equation for n moles of a real
gas is
10.
11
(P+) W—= ner
where P is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the
absolute temperature, R is the molar gas constant
and a, b are Van der Waal constants. The dimen-
sions of
(a) @ are the same as those of PV”
(b) are the same as those of V
(©) are the same as those of RT
(d) bP are the same as those of RT.
«
(b) v
© Pb o
In Q.7, the dimensions of nRT are the same as
those of
(a) pressure (b) energy
(c) work (d) force
Which of the following are dimensionless?
(a) Boltzmann constant (b) Planck's constant
(©) Poisson's ratio (4) relative density
For a body in uniformly accelerated motion, the
distance x of the body from a reference point at
time ris given by
xsartbr+c
where a, b and c are constants of mation.(a) The dimensions of c are the same as those of
x, at and br,
(b) The dimensional formula of b is (M° LT”).
© ; is dimensionless.
(d) The acceleration of the body is 2b.
12. The side of a cube is L = (1.2 £ 0.1) cm. The
volume of the cube is
(a) (1,728 + 0.003) cm? (b) (1.73 + 0.02) cm?
(©) (1.7 £04) em? @) (1.7 & 0.3) em?
13. Two resistances R, = (3.0 + 0.1) Q and R; = (6.0 +
Units and Dimensions 1.17
14. A physical quantity P is given by
ae
Ponce
‘The percentage errors in the measurements of a, b,
c, and d are 1%, 3%, 4%, and 3% respectvely.
(a) The maximum percentage error in P is 14%
(b) The maximum percentage error in P is 10%
(c) The maximum error is contributed by the
measurement of b.
(d) The minimum error is contributed by the
‘measurement of c.
15. When a plane wave travels in a meduim, the
ae aan tele ae obtainable is oo diplacement y of a particle located at x at time ris
; given by
0.3) Q
(b) The maximum resistance obtainable is (9.0 = sin (bt — ex)
0.2) 2 where a, b, and c are constants.
“ni (a) The unit a is the same as that of y.
(c) The minimum resistance obtainable is (2.0 + (b) The SI unit of b is Hz.
@ Ae net istance obtainable is (2.0 (©) The dimensional formule of ¢ is (M°L"'T)
‘minimum resistance obtainable is (2.0
02) 9 (8) The dimensions of © are the same those of
velocity. ©
ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS
1. Choices (a), (b) and (¢) are units of length
2. ‘The dimensions of moment of inertia are ML?T®
and of moment of force are ML*T~?. All other pairs
in (a), (b) and (d) have identical dimensions.
3 Dimensions of energy per unit volume are =
dimensions of energy/dimensions of volume =
MLT“/L? = ML“'T~*. Stress, pressure and
modulus of elasticity all have the dimensions of
ML" 'T~. The dimensions of work are ML>T-?,
Hence the correct choices are (b), (c) and (d),
4, Since the sine function is dimensionless, sin (br —
2) is dimensionless. Therefore, y and a must have
the same dimensions, i.e. y/a is dimensionless.
Since the argument of a sine function (or any
‘trigonometric function) must be dimensionless, bt
and cx are also dimensionless. Hence the correct
choice are (a), (b) and (c).
S. Since bt is dimensionless, the dimensions of b =
dimensions of 1/ = T~', which are the dimensions
of angular frequency as well as wave frequency.
‘Hence the correct choices are (b) and (d).
6. Dimensions of bt = dimensions of cx. Therefore
Dimensions of 2 = dimensions of = = LT.
Hence the correct choices are (a) and (c).
7. Expanding Van der Waal equation we get
PV-Ph+ 4-4 =nRT
From the principle of homogeneity, it follows that
all the four choices are correct.
. The correct choices are (a), (b), (c) and (@).
). The dimensions of ni sions of PV
= ML7 TL? = ML? T*
which are dimensions of energy as well as work.
Hence the correct choices are (b) and (c).
‘The correct choices are (c) and (d).
|. From the principle of homogeneity of dimensions,
the dimensions of c must be the same as those of
x at and bi”. Therefore, choice (a) is correct. Also
dimension of br = dimension of x. Hence [b]=
{LT}. Hence choice (b) is also correct. Velocity
of the body is
S =F ars be + cl=a+2m
and acceleration is
do_d ie
B ~ © (a+ 2b) = 2b, which is choice @)
choice (c) is wrong since ; has dimension of
time [T]118
13.
Course in Physics for IIT JEE
.2emx L.2em x12
.728 em’. Now L = (1.2 + 0.1) em has two
significant figures. Hence the value of V must be
rounded to two segnificant figures. The correct
value of V = 1.7 cm’, Now
a
D* 0.25
2. AV = 0.25 x V = 0.25 x 1.7 cm’ = 0.425 cm?
‘The error in V is in the first decimal place. Hence
the value of AV should be rounded off as AV =
0.4 cm’. Thus the correct result is V+ AV = (1.7 +
0.4) cm’, which is choice (c).
‘The maximum value is obtained when the resis-
tances are joined in series. Therefore, the maximum
value is
R= Rit R= 3.0 + 6.0 = 9.09
= AR\+ AR= 0.2 +0.1= 039
9.0 +03) 9
Thus choice (a) is correct and choice (b) is wrong.
‘The minimum value is obtained when the resis-
tances are joined in parallel .
30x60
30 + 61
209
Now
++ Minimum value is (Ry * AR,)
Hence choice (c) is wrong and choice (d) is is
correct.
14.
saeiwarnaeeate lca
= 3% + 6% + 3% +2% = 14%
Hence the correct choices are (a), (¢) and (4).
15. The value of any trignomatric function is a dimen-
sionless number. Hence choice (a) is correct. The
argument of a trignometric function is also dimen-
sionless. Hence (bt ct) is dimensionless. Hence b
has dimension (T'] the same as that of frequency
and c has dimension of (L~]. Thus choices (b), (c)
and (d) are all correct.
SECTION II
Multiple Choice Questions Based on Passage
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the following passage.
Passage-I
‘The dimensional method is a very convenient way of
finding the dependence of a physical quantity on other
physical quantities of a given system. This method has its
‘own limitations. In a complicated situation, itis often not
‘easy to guess the factors on which a physical quantity
will depend, Secondly, this method gives no information
about the dimensionless proportionality constant. Thirdly,
this method is used only if a physical quantity depends on
the product of other physical quantities. Fourthly, this
method will not work if a physical quantity depends only
‘on another quantity as a trignometric or exponential
function. Finally, this method does not give complete
information in cases where a physical quantity depends
‘on more than three quantities in problems in mechanics.
1. The dimensional method cannot be used to obtain
denpendence of
(a) the height to which a liquid rises in a capil-
lary tube on the angle of contact
(b) speed of sound in an elastic medium on the
modulus of elactricity.
(©) height to which a body, projected upwards
with a certain velocity, will rise on time 1.
(d) the decrease in energy of a damped oscillator
con time 1.
2. In dimensional method, the dimensionless propor-
tionality constant is to be determined
(a) experimentally
(b) by a detailed mathematical derivation
(c) by using the principle of dimensional homo-
genet
(@) by equating the powers of M, L and T.‘(Questions 3 and 4 are based on the following passage.
Passage-II
In the study of physics, we often have to measure the
physical quantities. The numerical value of a measured
‘quantity can only be approximate as it depends upon the
‘least count of the measuring instrument used. The number
of significant figures in any measurement indicates the
degree of precision of that measurement, The importance
of significant figures lies in calculation. A mathematical
calculation cannot increase the precision of a physical
measurement. Therefore, the number of significant
figures in the sum or product of a group of numbers
cannot be greater than the number that has the Jeast
umber of significant figures. A chain cannot be stronger
than its weakest link.
{ANSWERS AND SOLUTION
1, The correct choices are (a), (c) and (4). The height
of a liquid in a capillary tube depends on
cos 8, where Bis the angle of contact. The height §
to which a body rises is given by S= ur + La
which is a sum of two terms ut and far. The
energy of a damped oscillator decreases exponen-
tially with time,
2, The correct choices are (a) and (b)
3. Total mass = 0.000087 + 0.0123 = 0.012387 kg.
‘The mass of the bee is accurate upto sixth decimal
place in kg, whereas the mass of the flower is accu-
rate only upto the fourth decimal place. Hence the
4, The radius of a uniform wire is r
5. Average speed =
Units and Dimensions 119
3. A bee of mass 0.000087 kg sits on a flower of mass
0.0123 kg. What is the total mass supported by the
stem of the flower upto appropriate significant fig-
ures?
(a) 0.012387 kg, (b) 0.01239 kg
(©) 0.0124 kg (@) 0.012 kg
.021 cm. The
value z is given to be 3.142. What is the area of
‘cross-section of the wire upto appropriate signifi-
‘cant figures?
(a) 0.0014 cm? (b) 0.00139 cm?
(©) 0.001386 em? (@) 0.0013856 cm?
5. A man runs 100.5 m in 10.3 s. Find his average
speed upto appropriate significant figures.
(@) 9.71 ms" (b) 9.708 ms“
(©) 9.7087 ms“ (@) 9.70874 mst
sum must be rounded off to the fourth decimal
place. Therefore the correct choice is (c).
4. A= mr? = 3.142 x (0.021)? = 0.00138562 cm?.
Now, there are only two significant figures in
0.021 cm. Hence the result must be rounded off to
two significant figure as A = 0.0014 cm*, which is
choice (a).
100.5 m
103s
‘The distance has four significant figures but
the time has only three. Hence the result must
be rounded off to three signigicant figure to
9.71 ms“. Thus the correct choice is (a).
1.708737 ms“
SECTION IV
Matching
1. Match the physical quantities in column I with their dimensions in column II. M, L, T, K and A denote the
dimensions of mass, length, time, temperature and electric current respectively
Column I
(a) Viscosity
(b) Thermal conductivity
(©) Electric field
(@) Magnetic induction field
ANSWER
L @> ©)
© @)
Column I
(p) MLT*K"
(q) MLT? A"
@ MU'T!
(s) MT?"
) > (p)
(a) > (5)1.20 Course in Physics for IT-JEE
2. Match the physical quantities in column I with their SI units in column It
Column I ‘Column I
(a) Stefan's constant (p) JK" mol
(>) Universal gas constant @ Fm!
(©) Electrical permittivity (2) Hm
(d) Magnetic permeability (s) Wm? K*
ANSWER
2. (@) > () (b) > (p)
o7@ Moo
3. Match the measurements in column I with the number of significant figures in column I.
Column I Column I
(a) 62.028 3
(b) 0.034 @4
(©) 0.002504 (2
@) 1.25 x 1.0" (s) 5
ANSWER
3. @>) wo 40
o7@ @>@
4. Match the quantities in column I with their order of magnitude given in column II
Column I ‘Column Il
(a) 2.6 x 10% (p) 10°
(b) 3.9.x 10% @ 10
(c) 2.8 x 107 (10%
@) 42x10 (s) 10%
ANSWER
4. Use the following method to find the order of magnitude. For example, if a quantity is x = 4.3 x 10°, take its
logarithm to the base 10. Log x = 3.633 and round if off as log x = 4 . So the order of magnitnde of x is 10*.
@ > 6)
oO>®
() > (p)
(d@) > (@)
SECTION V
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
In the following questions, Statement-1(Assertion) is
followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has
the following four options out of which only one choice
is correct.
(a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true and State-
‘ment-2 is the correct explanation for Statement-1.
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State-
ment-2 is not the correct explanation for State-
ment-1.
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is false.
(d) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
1. Statement-1
The order of accuracy of measnrement depends
on the feast count of the measuaing instrument.
Statement-2
The smaller the least count the greater is the num-
ber of significant figures in the measured value.2. Statement-1
‘The dimensional method cannot be used to abtain
the dependence of the work done by a force F on
the angle @between force F and displacement x.
Statement-2
All trignometric functions are dimensionless.
SOLUTIONS
1. The corrent choice is (b).
2. Work done is W = Fx cos 8. since cos @ is dimen-
sionless, the dependence of Won @ cannot be
determined by the dimensional method. Hence the
correct choice is (a)
Units and Dimensions 1.21
3. Statement-1
‘The mass of an object is 13.2 kg. In this measure-
ment there are 3 significant figures.
Statement-2
‘The same mass when expressed in grams as
13200 g has five significant figures.
3. The correct choice is (c). The degree of accurany
(and hence the number of significant figures) of a
‘measurement cannot be increased by changing the
unit.MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION
REVIEW OF BASIC CONCEPTS
21 Scalar and Vector Quantities
A scalar quantity has only magnitude but no direction, such
as distance, speed, mass, area, volume, time, work, energy,
power, temperature, specific heat, charge, potential, etc
A vector quantity has both magnitude and direction,
such as displacement, velocity, acceleration, force,
momentum, torque, electric field, magnetic field, etc.
22 Distance and Displacement
‘The distance is the total path travelled by a body in a
certain interval of time and the displacement is the
shortest distance (in a specified direction) between the
initial and final positions of the body.
This distinction between distance and displacement is
true not only for a uniform motion but also for a non-
uniform motion. Ifa ball is thrown vertically upward from
position, say A, above the ground and after some time, it
‘comes back to the same point A, the displacement of the
ball is zero but the distance travelled by it is not zero—it
is twice the distance between the point A and the highest
point up to which it rises.
23 Speed, Velocity and Acceleration
‘The speed of a body is the rate of change of distance. If a
body travels a distance As is time Ar, its average spec
given by
_ As
Ar
If the body is in uniform motion, its speed is given by
p= 5 = Lolal distance travelled
t total time taken
The instantaneous speed is the speed of a body at a
given instant of time and is given by
Beat
armoar dt
The velocity of a body is the rate of change of
displacement and is given by
ds
pate
dt
Speed is a scalar quantity but velocity is a vector
quantity. The magnitude of the velocity vector gives the
speed of the body and its direction gives the direction of,
motion of the body.
The rate of change of the velocity vector is called
acceleration.
dv
Thus a=7
dt
24 One-Dimensional Motion with Constant
Acceleration
A particle moving in a straight line has one-dimensional
motion. If the acceleration of the particle does not change
with time, it is said to have a constant acceleration.
Equations of Motion ‘The equations of one-dimensional
motion with constant acceleration as follows:
vsutat
1
ssutt sar
2
ow =2as
A body moving with a velocity u (which we call the
initial velocity) in a straight line is given a constant
acceleration a at time ¢ = 0. As a result of the acceleration,
its velocity increases to v in time 1 (which we call the final
velocity) during which the body suffers a displacement s.
While solving numerical problems, we will consider
only the magnitudes of u, 0, a and s and take care of their
direction by assigning a positive or negative sign to the
quantity. For example + a will mean an acceleration and
~a will mean retardation or deceleration.
‘The distance traversed in nth second is given by
wee Lane
5, = u+ Fan 1)2.2 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE
2.5 Motion Under Gravity
Fora body thrown vertically upwards or falling vertically
downwards, the following sign convention is used.
1. All quantities directed upwards are taken as posi-
tive,
2. All quantities directed downwards are taken as
negative.
Under this sign convention, the acceleration due to
gravity (g) which is directed downwards is always
negative irrespective of the direction of motion of the
body. On or near the surface of the earth, the average
value of acceleration due to gravity is
g =-9.8 ms?
2.6 Graphical Representation
The displacement-time and velocity-time graphs of a
motion give us a graphical representation of the motion of
particle. The shape of these graphs tells us about the
kind of motion a particle has (see Fig. 2.1)
From these graphs, it follows that
(i) the speed of the particle at any instant is given by
the slope of the displacement-time graph,
(ii) the magnitude of the acceleration of the particle at
any instant is given by the slope of the velocity-
time graph and
(iii) the distance moved by the particle in a time inter-
val from 1, tof, is given by the area under the ve-
locity-time graph during that time interval.
“ 5
:
i
© @
Fig. 21. Curves (a) and (©) represent motion with a
constant speed 1, Curves (b) and (d) represent
‘motion with a uniform acceleration « starting
with an initial speed 1.
27 Relative Velocity
‘When two objects move in the same straight line, we
‘compare their motions in terms of their relative velocity.
If two objects A and B are moving in a straight line
with velocities v, and yp respectively, the relative
velocity of object A with respect to object B is given by
Van = 4 Ya
It follows that the relative velocity of object B with
respect to object A will be
Yea = ¥p
SECTION I
Multiple Choice Questions with Only One Choice Correct
1. From the top of a tower 60 m tall, a body is thrown
vertically down with a velocity of 10 ms“, At the
same time, another body is thrown vertically up-
wards from the ground with a velocity of 20 ms“.
‘At what height above the ground do they meet?
Take ¢ = 10 ms?
(@) 10m (b) 20 m
(©) 30m (@) 40m
2. A ball is dropped from the top of a tower. In the
last second of its fall, the ball covers a distance
925 times the height of the tower. If g = 10 ms,
the height of the tower
(a) 75 m
(©) 125 m
(>) 100 m
(@) 150. m
3. A ball is thrown vertically upwards from the foot
of a tower. It crosses the top of the tower twice
after an interval of 4 s and reaches the foot of the
tower 8 s afler it was thrown. What is the height of
the tower? Take g = 10 ms”,
(a) 60m (b) 80 m
(c) 100 m (d) 120 m
‘The displacement x (in metres) of a body varies
with time 1 (in seconds) as
2p
*e-5 + 161+ 2
How long does the body take to come to rest?
fa) 3s (b) 6s
fc) 9s (@) 12s10.
‘Two cars travelling on a straight road cross
meter stone A at the same time with velocities
20 ms”! and 10 ms“! with constant accelerations
of | ms” and 2 ms™ respectively. If they cross
another kilometer stone B at the same instant, the
distance between A and B is
(a) 600 m (b) 800 m
(©) 1000 m (@) 1200 m
. The acceleration a of a body moving with initial
velocity w changes with distance x as a = fx,
where k is a positive constant. The distance trav-
elled by the body when its velocity becomes 2u is
oar oR
juy? au?
Sai @ (24
© (3) o (i
‘A particle is moving along the x-axis. Its instanta-
neous velocity when it is at a distance x from the
origin is v= yp ~qx* , where p and g are positive
constants. The acceleration of the particle at that
instant is
(a) zero
2px
© ~G-o
‘The velocity of a particle moving along the x-axis
is given by v = kx where kis a positive constant.
The acceleration of the particle is
ve k
@ > o>
B
oF @ 2e
|. The velocity of a particle at time 1 (in second) is
related to its displacement x (in metre) as v =
J3x-+4 . The initial velocity of the particle is
(a) 1 ms (b) 2 ms"
(©) 3 ms" (@) 4 ms"
‘Acar, starting from rest, has @ constant accelera-
tion of 3 ms™ for some time and then has a con-
stant retardation of 2 ms“ for some time and
finally comes to rest. The total time taken is 15 s.
‘The maximum velocity of car during its motion is
(a) 12 mst (b) 15 ms
(c) 18 ms" (@) 21 ms"
ML
12.
13.
14.
1s,
16.
Motion in One Dimension 2.3
A freely falling body, falling from a tower of height
hicovers adistance h/2 in the last second of its mo-
tion, The height of the tower is (take g = 10 ms”)
nearly
(a) 38m (>) 50m
(c) 60 m (@ 35 m
Ball A is rolled in a straight line with a speed of 5
ms“! towards a bigger ball B lying 20 m away. Af-
ter collision with ball B, ball A retraces the path
and reaches its starting point with a speed of
4 ms". What is the average velocity of ball A dur-
ing the time interval 0 to 6 s?
(a) zero (>) 2 ms"!
(c) 4 mst (a) 5 mst
A trainis moving southwards at a speed of 30 ms".
‘A monkey is running northwards on the roof of the
train with a speed of 5 ms~!, What is the velocity
of the monkey as observed by a person standing
on the ground?
(a) 35 ms" in the southward direction
(b) 35 ms“ in the northward direction
(©) 25 ms" in the southward direction
(d) 25 ms* in the northword direction
A jet airplane travelling from east to west ata speed
of 500 km h” ejects out gases of combustion at a
‘speed of 1500 km h™ with respect to the jet plane.
‘What is the velocity of the gases with respect fo an
observer on the ground?
(a) 1000 km h”" in the direction west to east
(b) 1000 km h”" in the direction east to west
(c) 2000 km h”! in the direction west to cast
(@) 2000 km ht in the direction east to west
A police van moving on a highway with a speed of
36 km bh fires a bullet at a thief's car speeding
away in the same direction with a speed of
108 km h!. If the muzzle speed of the bullet is 140
ms”!, with what speed will the bullet hit the thief’s
car?
(a) 120 mst (b) 130 ms!
(e) 140 ms (@) 150 ms
Car A is moving with a speed of 36 km bh”! on a
two-lane road. Two cars B and C, each moving
with a speed of 54 km bh” in opposite directions on
the other lane are approaching car A. At a certain
instant when the distance AB = distance AC = 1
km, the driver of car B decides to overtake A before
C does. What must be the minimum acceleration
of car B so as to avoid an accident?
(@ 1 ms? (b) 2 ms?
(c) 3 ms? (@) 4 ms?24° Course in Physics for IIT-JEE
17. The driver of a train A moving at a speed of 30 ms
sights another train B moving on the same track at
a speed of 10 ms” in the same direction. He imme-
diately applies brakes and achieves a uniform retar-
dation of 2 ms™. To avoid collision, what must be
the minimum distance between the trains?
(a) 80m (b) 100 m
(©) 120m @) 140m
18. The driver of a train A moving at a speed of 30
ms” sights another train B moving on the same
track towards his train at a speed of 10 ms’. He
immediately applies brakes and achieves a uniform
retardation of 4 ms™. To avoid head-on collision,
what must be the minimum distance between the
trains?
(a) 100 m (b) 200 m
(©) 300 m (@) 400 m
19, A bullet is fired vertically upwards. After 10seconds
it returns to the point of firing. If g = 10 ms”, the
location of the bullet after 7 seconds from the time
of firing will be the same as that after
@2s (b) 25s
3s @) 358
20, A body, starting from rest, moves in a straight line
with a constant acceleration a for a time interval ¢
during which it travels a distance 5). It continues to
move with the same acceleration for the next time
interval ¢ during which it travels a distance s,. The
relation between s, and 5 is
@) 5, n (b) 5) = 2s,
(c) 5, = 35, (@) 5) = 4s,
21. In Q.20, if v, is the velocity of the body at the end
of first time interval and v, that at the end of the
second time interval, the relation between v, and
vis
@) m= > (b) 0) = 2,
(©) 0, = 30, (d) v, = 40,
22. A body dropped from the top of a tower hits the
ground after 4 s. How much time does it take to
cover the first half of the distance from the top of
the tower?
@ is (b) 28
©) 22s @ 3s
23. Figure 2.3 shows the displacement-time (x-1) graph
of a body moving in a straight line, Which one of
the graphs shown in Fig. 2.4 represents the veloc-
ity-time (v-1) graph of the motion of the body.
° ee)
t—
Fig. 23
° °
5 10 18 20 s 10 18)
el ional
@ ©
r .
5 1015 20 8 10 hs 20
t— —
© @
Fig. 24
24, Which of the displacement-time (xt) graphs
shown in Fig. 2.5 can possibly represent one-
dimensional motion of a particle?
D. 2
° ?— 0 t=
a @)25.
26.
2,
3.
32,
A stone is dropped from a height of 125 m. If g =
10 ms~, what js the ratio of the distances travelled
by it during the first and the last second of its
motion?
(a) 1:9 (b) 2:9
(1:3 @ 4:9
A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial
velocity of SO ms!. If g = 10 ms™, what is the
ratio of the distances travelled by the bullet during
the first and the last second of its upward motion?
(a) 9:1 (b) 9:2
(e) 3:1 9:4
‘A body moving in a straight line with constant
acceleration of 10 ms covers a distance of 40 m
in the 4" second. How much distance will it cover
in the 6% second?
(a) 50m (b) 60 m
(c) 70m (d) 80m
‘A body, moving in a straight line with an initial
velocity of 5 ms"! and a constant acceleration, cov-
ers a distance of 30 m in the 3" second. How
much distance will it cover in the next 2 seconds?
(a) 70m (b) 80 m
(c) 90 m (d) 100 m
‘A body, moving in a straight line, with an initial
velocity w and a constant acceleration a, covers
distance of 40 m in the 4" second and a distance of
60 m in the 6" second. The values of w and a
respectively are
(@) 10 ms*, 5 ms*
(c) Sms", 5 ms* — @) Sms", 10 ms
A body, starting from rest and moving with a con-
stant acceleration, covers a distance s, in the 4"
second and a distance s, in the 6" second, The
ratio s/s, is
2
@ >
4
© >
6 7
© @ Ty
‘A car, starting from rest, has a constant accelera-
tion a, for a time interval r, during which it covers
a distance 5}. In the next time interval f, the ear
hhas a constant retardation a, and comes to rest
after coyering a distance s, in time f,, Which of the
following relations is correct?
a I 8B A
OD Oa) b
Sade. Stee Bi:
© ah Oa
In Q.31, the average speed of the car during its
entire journey is given by
33.
Motion in One Dimension 2.5
i
(@) Fa pat (b) Flat tant)
© Ha ta,\+h) (d) zero
In Q.31, if the total distance covered by the car is s,
the maximum speed attained by it will be
1 1
@ (2) ) (2 Sit }
+0, a -0;
1 1
‘sam VP ‘saa, YE
ofa) oF)
‘A car, starting from rest, is accelerated at a
‘constant rate ct until it attains a speed v. It is then
retarded at a constant rate until it comes to rest.
The average speed of the car during its entire jour-
ney is
ao
(a) zero © 35
po 2
om ws
The displacement of a body from a reference point,
is given by
vr 2243
where x is in metres and 1 in seconds. This shows
that the body is
(@) at rest (b) accelerated
(©) decelerated (@) in uniform motion
In Q.35, what is the initial velocity of the body?
(a) 2 ms" (b) 3 ms"
(©) 6 ms" @) 12 ms
In Q.35, what is the acceleration of the body?
(a) 2 ms (b) 3 ms
(c) 6 ms* (a) 8 ms*
A car, starting from rest, at a constant acceleration
covers a distance 5; in a time interval t.It covers a
distance of s, in the next time interval ¢ at the same
acceleration. Which of the following relations is true?
(@) s= 5, (b) 5 = 2s,
© 52 = 34 (@) 52 = 45,
A car moving at a speed v is stopped in a certain
distance when the brakes produce a deceleration a,
If the speed of the car was nv, what must be the
deceleration of the car to stop it in the same
distance and in the same time?
(a) Yna (b) ng
©) ra @ wa
‘Two balls are dropped from the same point after an
interval of 1 second. What will be their separation
3 seconds after the release of the second ball? Take
g=10ms?,
(@) 25m (>) 30 m
(c) 35 m (d) 40. m2.6 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
aL.
42,
‘A bullet is fired vertically upwards with an initial
velocity of 50 ms". It covers a distance h, during
the first second and a distance hy during the last 3
seconds of its upward motion, If ¢ = 10 ms, A,
and /y will be related as
(a) hy = 3h (b) iy = hy
(c) hy = hy @) he 4
A ball is thrown vertically downward with a veloc-
ity w from the top of a tower. It strikes the ground
with a velocity 3u, The time taken by the ball to
reach the ground is given by
u 2u
Os, (b) ’
3u 4u
Oe Oe
43. In Q.42, the height of the tower is given by
2 » 2
@ ‘ (b) 8
2 4
oy oy
A 150 m long through train having a constant
acceleration crosses a 300 m long platform. It en-
ters the platform at a speed of 40 ms“! and leaves it
at a speed of $0 ms~', What is the acceleration of
the train?
(@) 0.6 ms? (b) 0.8 ms?
(c) 1.0 ms* (a) 1.2 ms*
45. In Q.44, how long will the train take to cross the
platform?
(a 6s (b) 8s
(c) 10s @ 2s
46. The motion of a body is given by the equation
') at time 7 (in sec~
0, the magnitude
(b) 6 ms®
(@) 2210
47, In Q.46, the speed of the body varies with time as
@ Vo ==)
) Vip =20-e%)
(©) Vo = Bie 2
@ Vo = 3(-)
48. In Q.46, the speed of the body when the accelera-
tion is half the initial value is
(a) I ms! (b) 2 ms!
(c) 3 mst (d@) 4 ms
49. A car starts from rest, accelerates uniformly for 4
seconds and then moves with uniform velocity.
Which of the (x-1) graphs shown in Fig. 2.6 repre-
sents the motion of the car upto t = 7 s?
xs
1234567
—
@)
I
a
0123458 67
i
e
: Straight
Curved
01234567
(—
©
Straight
Curved
NS
o1234567
ti
@
Fig. 26
$0. Two stones are thrown up simultaneously with
initial speeds of u; and 1, (4; > u,). They hit theground after 6 s and 10 s respectively. Which
graph in Fig. 2.7 correctly represents the time
variation of Ax = (x) ~ x,), the relative position of
the second stone with respect to the first upto
+= 10s? Assume that the stones do not rebound
afier hitting the ground.
‘an acceleration as shown in Fig. 2.8.
‘Motion in One Dimension 2.7
t
ite,
Fig. 28
Which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.9 represents
the velocity-time (0-1) graph of the motion of the
body from t= 0's to s?
52. In Q.51 above, what is the velocity of the body at
time t= 2.5 8?
(a) 2.5 ms (b) 3.5 mst
©) 45 mst (4) 5.5 ms"
53. In Q.51, how much distance does the body cover
from 1= 0 tor=4 8?
(@) 6m b) 9m
(©) 12m (@) 15 m
54, In Q51, which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.10
represents the displacement-time (x-t) graph of the
motion of the body from r=0stot=4s?
(ns)
3
4 c
o
+ 2 3 4
(8) —
©
t 6 8
>
(os)
3
" ©
+ 2 3 6
1)
©28 Course in Physics for ITE
ts A
ms")
:
4 c
:
t(s)
@
Fig. 29
t? £
™ 5 : B fm)
‘4
‘
(8) —> 18) ——
b)
t" &
& alls
F
;
t(8) —> 1) —
©) @
fig 230
55. A body, moving in a straight line, covers half the
distance with a speed V, the remaining part of the
distance was covered with a speed V’ for half the
time and with a speed V” for the other half of the
time. What is the average speed of the body?
v's Vv") vv'+v")
© ovevey © Queer
av've vv"
i )
© Wve © Tw
56. A particle moving in a straight line covers half the
distance with a speed of 3 mis. The other half of
the distance is covered in two equal time intervals
with speeds of 4.5 m/s and 7.5 m/s respectively.
The average speed of the particle during this
‘motion is,
57.
(a) 4.0 mis (b) 5.0 mis
(©) 5.5 ms (@) 48 ms
(LT. 1992)
Figure 2.11 shows the velocity-time (0 ~ 1) graphs
for one dimensional motion. But only some of
these can be realized in practice. These are
(a) (@, (ii) and (iv) only
(b) (i), Gi) and (ii) only
(©) Gi) and (iv) only
@ all
2
wl
Fig. 211
|. A stone dropped from a building of height h
reaches the ground after £ seconds. From the same
building if two stones are thrown (one upwards and
the other downwards) with the same velocity u and
they reach the ground after ; and 1, seconds
respectively, then the time interval ris
nth
@ t=h-% (b) t=
(©) t= Vhh @ t= P-g
). Displacement (x) of a particle is related to time (1)
as.x=ar+ br - cr
where a, 6 and ¢ are constants of motion. The
velocity of the particle when its acceleration is zero
is given by
2 2
@ar ware
c 2e
2 2
war @a+ aur. 1988)
ae 4c
}. A ball is dropped vertically from a height & above
the ground. It hits the ground and bounces up
vertically to a height h/2. Neglecting subsequent
‘motion and air resistance, its velocity v varies with
the height # as (see Fig. 2.12) (LT. 2000)61,
62.
t {
RY,
/
O) ©
! !
vO n TT h
© @
Fig. 212
A car, starting from rest, accelerates ata constant
rate of 5 ms” for some time. It then retards at a
constant rate of 10 ms” and finally comes to rest.
If the total taken is 6 s, what is the maximum speed
attained by the car?
(@) 5 mst (b) 10 ms"!
(©) 20 ms (d) 40 ms"
In Q61, what is the total distance travelled by the
caris 6 5?
(a) 60 m (b) 80 m
(©) 100 m (@) 120 m
A car is moving at a certain speed. The minimum
distance over which it can be stopped is x. If the
speed of the car is doubled, what will be the mini-
mum distance over which the car can be stopped
during the same time?
(@) 4x (b) 2
(©) 2 (6)
‘The distance x covered by a body moving in a
straight line in time 1 is given by the relation
Q+3x=t
If v is the velocity of the body at a certain instant
of time, its acceleration will be
@-0 (b) ~ 20"
(c) = 30° (a) - 40°
The distance x covered by a body moving in a
straight line in time ris given by
ParsUs3
‘The acceleration of the body will vary as
@+t os
(©) or @)
Motion in One Dimension 2.9
66. A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity w. It
passes three points A, 8 and C in its upward jour-
ney with velocities ey and ; respectively. The
io AB i
ratio = is
BC
20
= (b) 2
@ > (b)
10
© > @1
67. A body is thrown vertically up with a velocity w. It
‘passes a point at a height t above the ground at
time f, while going up and at time ¢, while falling
down. Then the relation between u, t, and t, is
Qu
@ nen On-4=
“
nutans OM
68. In Q. 67 above, the relation between 4, fy and h is
@ hh = 2 0b) nh = .
2h A
Om +yeS WM +yrst
(e) (4 + Hy 7 (@) (4 + OY z
69. A body dropped from a height H above the ground
strikes an inclined plane at a height A above the
ground. As a result of the impact, the velocity of
the body becomes horizontal. The body will take
the maximum time to reach the ground if
H H
=f b) he
oe 4 (b) Wt
H H
(hes @) hee
70. A body of density p enters a tank of water of den-
sity p’after falling through a height /. The maxi-
mum depth to which it sinks in water is
hy’ hp
@ ®)
(e-) (p-P)
@ @ @
? ?
71. A body, falling freely under gravity, covers half the
total distance in the last second of its fall. If it falls
for n seconds, then the value of 1 is
(a) 2 (b) 3
(©) 2-2 (@) 242210
2.
2B.
74.
5.
16.
Course in Physics for ITT-JEE.
In 1.05, a particle goes from point A Ar
to point B, moving in a semicircle of
radius 1.0 m as shown in Fig. 2.13.
‘The magnitude of the average veloc-
ity of the particle is
(a) 3.14 ms
(©) 1.0 mst
(b) 2.0 ms
(@) zero 8
(LLT. 1999)
A body of mass m,, projected verti-
cally upwards with an i
maximum height A. Another body of mass m, is
projected along an inclined plane making an angle
of 30° with the horizontal and with speed u. The
‘maximum distance travelled along the incline is
(a) 2h (b) A
h h
© @ 4
The displacement x of a particle moving in one
dimension is related to time r by the equation
toe +3
where xis in metres and rin seconds. The displace-
ment of the particle when its velocity is zero is
(@) zero (b) 4m) Lm (4) OS m
A particle initially (i.e, at ¢ = 0) moving with a
velocity w is subjected to a retarding force, as a
result of which it decelerates at a rate
a=-kJo
where © is the instantancous velocity and k is a
positive constant. The time T taken by the particle
10 come to rest is given by
vu mH
@ r= 58 wr-F
2” a
©) Ts z @) T= r
A particle starts from rest. Its acceleration at time
10 is 5 ms™ which varies with time as shown in
Fig. 2.14. The maximum speed of the particle will
Fig. 214
77. Figure 2.15 shows the variation of velocity (0)
of a body with position (x) from the origin O.
Which of the graphs shown in Fig. 2.16 cor-
rectly represents the variation of the accelera-
tion (a) with position (x)?
re 25
v. NK
a
(a) e)
7
+
2005)
78. The velocity (v) of a body moving along the
postive x-direction varies with displacement (x)
from the origin as v = k-Vx , where k is a constant.
‘Which of the graphas shown in Fig. 2.17 correctly
represents the displacement-time (x — f) graph of
‘the motion?ANSWERS
1. (b) 2) 3. (a)
7. @) 8. (c) 9 (b)
13. (©) 14, (a) 15. (a)
19. (c) 20. (©) 21. (b)
25, (a) 26. (a) 27. (b)
3. (d) 32. (a) 33. (a)
37. @) 38. (c) 39. (c)
43. (d) 44, (c) 45. (c)
49. (0) 50, (a) 51. (d)
55. (a) 56. (a) $7. (c)
61. (c) 62. (a) 63. (a)
67. (a) 68, (a) 6. (©)
73. (a) 74. (a) 75, (a)
SOLUTIONS
1. Relative velocity = 20 + 10 = 30 ms". The time at
which they meet is
2s
alg
1
Now haut = eP
+38
=0x2+ 3 KCI xO?
2, Let ht be the height of the tower and s be the time
taken by the ball to hit the ground. Then
a)
pee - @Q)
From Eqs. (1) and (2), we get ¢ = 5 s. Therefore
he bx 10x (57 = 125m
Let h = AB be the height of the tower and P be the
highest point reached (Fig. 2.18).The time taken
by the ball to go from B to P = 4/2 = 2 s and the
time taken to go from A to P = 8/2 = 4s, There-
fore, time taken by the ball to go from A to B is
124-2225,
If wis the velocity of projection, then
O=u- 10x 4 =u = 40 mst
@
(©)
@)
()
fc)
(@)
(c)
(b)
(ec)
()
@)
@)
(b)
RSPRRELER ASS
Motion in One Dimension 2.11
5. (a)
1. (a)
17. (b)
23, (a)
29. (@)
35. (b)
41. (c)
47. (b)
53. (c)
59. (c)
65. (c)
71. (a)
71. (a)
1
heu+ + gf
ute
40x24 2 19 QF
= 60m
=0=- $14 16 which gives r= 128
Let s be the distance between A and B. Then, for
the first car
se2retxixPsm+t? a)
2 2
For the second car,
@
20 s. Using this
se lore 5 xQ) xe = lore e
Equating (1) and (2), we get ¢
value of rin either (1) or (2) gi
ade a,
vdvsadx=KVx dx242
1
%
10.
ue
(Course in Physics for IMT-JEE.
»
2 fedvek fie ax
au)
> zs (#) + which is choice (b).
2k
oa a OS
Ode de dt de
dv_d
Pe Fp - gr)
a de fe - 4")
1 >
= 0 -a¥y" x 240)
= =# fe v= @-¢ry)
Hence a = — qx, which is choice (4).
‘The acceleration is
do
aw Zl
a
a= kv Sais)
k
= kx
% wr
So the correct choice is (c).
Given v = 3x + 4. Comparing with v*
we have w* = 4 which gives «= 2 ms".
Let 1, be the time during which the car accelerates.
‘The velocity at the end oft, is
veu+an=0434 = 34
‘The time during which the car decelerates is f, =
(t= t,) where # is the total time taken for the car to
come to rest. During time 1,, the initial velocity is
‘v= 31, and the final velocity is zero. Hence
O= 34, - 2t
= 34-2
= St - 20
= ye re? xiss6s
5S
‘The car attains the maximum velocity at the end of
1, after which it decelerates. Hence
Vag = 34 = 3X 6 = 18 ms, whiel
choice (c),
We have $ e@n-sotnann tf #1}
2-2 alg
Hence h is given by
wt oped lafay,)?
hay em be{t(4e1)
13.
14.
18.
16.
2
=he(H tet) +m)
seg
Simplifying and putting g = 10 ms®, we get
1 ~60h + 100=0
‘The positive root of this quadratic gives h = 58m,
Hence the correct choice is (
The time taken by ball A toreach ball B= 22 = 4,
During the time interval 0 to 6 s, ball A covers a
distance of 20 m upto ball (which takes 4 5) and
in the next 2s, it covers a distance of 4 ms x2.s=
8 m in the opposite direction.
+. Net displacement = 20 m—8 m = 12m
Average velocity = ge = 2 ms which is
choice (b).
Suppose we choose the direction from south to
north as the positive direction. Then the velocity of
the train moving southwards = — 30 ms“, Velocit
of the monkey running northwards = + 5 ms,
‘Therefore, the velocity of the monkey as observed
by a person in the groun 30 +5 =~ 25 ms".
‘The negative sign indicates that the direction of this
velocity is southwards. Hence the correct choice
is(e).
Suppose we choose the positive direction to be
from east to west. Then the velocity of the plane =
+ 500 km h”'. Since the gases are ejected in the
direction opposite to the direction of motion of the
plane, the relative velocity of the gases with
respect to the plane = ~ 1500 km h”'. Therefore,
the velocity of the gases with respect to an observer
‘on the ground = — 1500 + 500 = — 1000 km h!.
‘The negative sign indicates that the direction of the
velocity is from west to east. Hence the correct
choice is (a).
Speed of the police van = 36 km bh! = 10 ms”.
Since the gun is in motion with the van and the
bullet is fired in the direction in which the van is
moving, the net speed of the bullet = speed of the
gun (ie. van) + the muzzle speed of the bullet =
10 + 140 = 150 ms“. Now, the speed of the thief’
car = 108 km h” = 30 ms“. The bullet is chasing
the thief's car with a speed of 150 ms“ and the
thief's car is speeding away at 30 ms', Hence the
bullet will hit the car with a speed which is the
relative speed of the bullet with respect to the
car = 150 ~ 30 = 120 ms", Thus the correct choice
is (a).
Let us suppose that cars A and B are moving in the
positive x-direction. Then car C is moving in the17.
18.
19.
negative x-direction. Therefore, v, = +36 kmh’
+10 ms", vp = + $4 kmh”! = + 15 ms and ve =
~~ $4.km hr! =~ 15ms"!, The relative velocity B with
respect to A is Ugy = Uy — U4 =15~10=5 ms”, The
relative velocity of C with respect t0 A is ¥¢4 = 0c
= 0, = -15 — 10 = - 25 ms". At time ¢ = 0, the
distance between A and B = distance between A and
(C= 1 km = 1000 m. The car C will cover a distance
AC = 1000 m and just reach car A at a time given
by
= AC 100m
[Pea] 25 ms
Car B will overtake car A just before car C does and
avoid an accident, if it acquires a minimum accel-
eration a such that it covers a distance s = AB =
1000 m in time # = 40, travelling at a relative speed
= Dg, = S ms‘, Putting these values in relation
watetot
samt a
1000 = 5 x 40.4 1 x a x (40)?
which gives a = 1 ms“ which in choice (a).
‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train
B= 30-10 = 20 ms“, To avoid collision, let the
‘minimum distance between them be s. This means
that the relative speed must reduce to zero when
the distance covered is s. Using 0” —u* = 2as we
have
=40s
We get
0-20 =2x2xs
which gives s = 100 m. Hence the correct choice
is (b).
‘The relative speed of train A with respect to train B
= 30+ 10 = 40 ms". The minimum distance now
is given by
0-40) =2x4xs5
which gives s = 200 m which is choice (b).
‘Since the bullet returns to its point of projection, its
net displacement is zero.The bullet takes 5 5 to
reach the maximum height. Therefore, initial speed
(u) of the bullet is (-- final velocity = 0)
u = gt = 10x 5 = 50 ms" directed upwards, The
maximum beight (hk) attained by the bullet ish
=f a? = $x 10(5)?= 125 m. Since the tout
time taken by the bullet to return to the point of
firing is 10 s, it takes 5 s to attain the maximum
height. In the next 2 seconds, the bullet falls a dis-
tance of 5, = $ ape 4 X10 x (2)? = 20 m. Also
‘the maximum height attained = 125 m. The loca-
tion of the bullet after 7 s will be the same as that
after t seconds, where 1 is the time taken by the
a.
Motion in One Dimension 2.13
bullet to rise to a height h = 125-20 = 105 m. This
value of tis given by
heut—1 gi? of 105=50-4x10x2
2 2
or = P~10r+21=0 of (1-3) (t-7)
which gives r= 3 s or 7 s. Thus the correct choice
is(o),
the initial velocity is zero, the distance tray-
elled in the first time interval tis
s20+Lat=d at
The velocity of the body at the end of this time in-
terval is 0 = 0 + at = at. This is the initial velocity
for the next time interval r during which the body
travels a distance.
seus aPeatst ated af (wea)
2 2 2
5, = 3.5). Thus the correct choice is (c).
Here 0, = 0 + at = at and 0, = 0) + ar = at + at =
2at. Therefore, 0; = 20,. Hence the correct choice
is)
. Let h be the height of the tower. Then h= 5 g?=
1 ge
3 84)
‘The time # taken to fall through 4 = 4gis given by
i
gP or? =8orr=2V2
‘Thus the correct choice is (c).
|. It follows from Fig. 2.3 that from 0 to 5 s, displace-
‘ment x increases linearly with time ¢. Therefore,
velocity 2 is a positive constant between t = 0 and
1=5's, Between = 5s and1= 15 s, displacement
remains constant. Therefore, velocity (2) is zero
between ¢= 5 s and r= 15s. Between t= 15 s and
1 = 20 5, displacement (x) decreases linearly with
time (1). Therefore, velocity (0) is constant but
negative between 1 = 15 s and r= 20s. Hence, the
correct choice is graph (d) in Fig. 2.4.
Draw a line (shown dotted in Fig. 2.19) perpen-
dicular to the Faxis.
This line cuts the graph at two points A and B
which means that the particle has two different
positions at x, and x, at the same time. This is not
possible.
Similarly graphs (b) and (c) in Fig. 2.3 are also not
possible. But graph (4) is possible. Hence graphs
(©) and (c) in Fig. 2.6 do not represent veloc-
ity-time graphs of the motion of the body.2.14 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE
Fig. 219
25, Since the initial velocity of the stone is zero, the
total time taken by the stone to hit the ground is
given by
1 th _ [xs
nar git or t= [2 = a
2a 0 ’ 10
During the first second, the stone falls a distance hy
given by
1 apet
n= guyp=£ a5
n> ws 5 Sm
During the first four seconds, the stone falls a dis-
tance h given by
he (4) =e = 80m
Distance hy through which the stone falls in the
last (i.e. fifth) second
= 125 -80.= 45 m. Now hyth, =
5/45 = 1/9. Hence the correct choice is (a
26. The maximum height h attained by the bullet is
given by
ww =-2gh orh=* (>
28
= 125 m. The total time taken by
50 x 50
2x10
the stone to attain this height is given by
= 5s. During the first second
(t= 1.5), the stone covers a distance h, given by
hy=w > 9? =50 x1 + 10x (1)? = 45 m
During the first four seconds (t = 45), the stone
orh
covers a height h given by
ha soxd—4 x 10% (4)? = 120 m
Distance travelled by the stone during the last
.e. fifth) second of its upward motion is hy = 125
= 120 = $ m. Hence hy/h = 45/5 = 9. Hence the
correct choice is (a).
27. The distance covered in the nth second is given by
szuta (a
» yeuea(sad
or 40=u42 x 1oru=
* w= 5+ 10 x (6-4)
54= 60 m.
Thus the correct choice is (b).
28. Now, 5,=u+a (n-4). ‘Therefore,
2
30 = 540 (3-4) which gives a= 10 ms,
2
2 neset(-) «om
and s,=5410(5-4) =50m
‘$= 5,4 55=40+4 50 = 90 m, Thus the cor-
rect choice is (c).
‘Thus the correct choice is (A).
4 =0, we have
1 a
5204 ae and s,= oe a
4+ sls, = 7/11, which is choice (4).
31. Since the initial velocity of the car is zero, its ve-
locity at the end of the first time interval f, is v= 0
+41, = ayf,. Ths is the initial velocity for the next
time interval fy. Since the final velocity is zero, we
have, from 0 = w+ at,
04, t-a,h usa,t)
Now, the distance covered in the first time interval
tis given by
2as, 20 sab (v v=a,t andu=0)
1
or yey aut @
‘The distance covered in the next time interval 1 is
given by
~testin- ah
O and w= a; now)
2482 Co ansan)
or aeitia
o gs pad w@32,
From (i) and (ii) we get “L
&
Thus we have 22 = 41 = 2 which is choice (a).
H a
total distance _ 5, +5;
Average speed = ola! distance _ 51 + 52,
me otal time tf) +f)
As shown above, + s3= 5 a+ 4 ant
() +6) Gh = yt)
panies)
a d=
cae (4 +4)
Hence the correct choice is (a).
‘The maximum speed v attained by the car = speed
itattains at the end of time interval t, during which
it is accelerated. As shown above, this speed is
D=ayt, = ayy.
1 1
dat=t ay,
zy ae
date
2a,
2
Now 5;
z
ond 5 yatta
3
sa
vn
o v= [ae 2.8]
ate,
Hence the correct choice is (a).
‘The distance s, covered by the car during the time
it is accelerated is given by 2@s, =v”, which gives
s,='/2a. The distance s, covered during the time
the car is decelerated is, similarly given by 5; =
v'2f Therefore, the total distance covered is
respons 2 (Led @
ROS Tae
If , isthe time of acceleration and r, that of decel-
cation, then 0 = at, = Bly of , = v/0. and t= v/B.
Therefore, the total time taken is
mivinol Lyd a
tentgev(Lyt Gi)
ptaeo(Lyt)
From (i) and (ii), the average speed of the car is
given by
35.
37.
41.
Motion in One Dimension 2.15
total distances _ 0
totaltime of 2
Hence the correct choice is (d).
Squaring both sides, we have
welded +9
Since displacement x changes with time 1, the body
‘cannot be at rest. The velocity of the body is given
by
de
va Ea 12 +8
Since the velocity v changes with time ¢, the body
is not in uniform motion; it is accelerated because
v increases with t. Hence the correct choice is (b).
We have seen that v = 12 + 81. Comparing it with 0
= u+ at we find that w = 12 ms“. Hence the correct
choice is (4).
Now v= 12+ 81. Comparing it with v =u + at, we
find that a= 8 ms~, Alternatively, acceleration a is
given by
dv
anZ®
dt
‘ora = 8 ms, Hence the correct choice is (d)..
ce the initial velocity is zero, the velocity at the
tend of the first time interval 1 is v = at. The dis-
tance covered during this time interval is 5,
a
= (12 + 81) =8
a )
t at®, Velocity v= at is the initial velocity for the
next time interval 1. Therefore, the distance trav-
celled in the next time interval ris
seated aPodar
2 2
‘Thus s2 = 3 5). Hence the correct choice is (c).
‘The distance over which the car can be stopped is
given by 2.as = 0° or a = v's. If v becomes nv,
the value a” of a to stop the car in the same distance
isa’ = (nv)?/2s = n*v*/2s. Thus a” = n"a. Hence the
correct choice is (c).
‘The first ball falls for f, = 4 s. During this time it
1 1
falls a distance A, x10 x (4)? = 80m.
st
2 2
‘The second ball falls for 4, = 3 s. During this time it
Lod P=
n= 7 shay x 10x Gy
45 m. Their separation h, — hz = 80 ~ 45 = 35 m.
Hence the correct choice is (¢).
‘The total time taken by the bullet to reach the high-
est point (where its velocity becomes zero) is given
by 0=u- gtort=ug = 50/10 = 5 s. The distance
it covers in the first I second of its upward motion
falls a distance216
41,
‘Course in Physics for IT-JEE
1
is hy = ut gh =S0x1- > x 10x gt,
andy ahs ut Se Suey & 288
Dividing the two equations, we have
“Fee
4. Bee
ya
which gives 1= Jif . Hence the correct choice is
©.
Velocity is
sat+2bt-3cP (i)
ax
Accelerationis a = “TS =2b— bet
Acceleration is zero at time # given by 0 = 2b 6ct
ote 2 Putting this value of # in Eq. (i).
b oe e
Wehave v=a+2h 5--3ex Sy =a+ 5
Thus, the correct choice is (c).
The velocity at a height A is given by v? =u? +2gh.
For downward motion, « = 0 and the value of g is
negative And h becomes more and more negative.
Hence 0? increases with A. Since the velocity
vector is directed downwards, v becomes more and
more negative. Since 7? o A, the graph of v versus
his parabolic, Hence graphs (c) and (d) are wrong.
For upward motion, v? = u? + 2gh. Here g is
directed downwards and h is positive. Conse-
quently, v? decreases with h. Since the direction of
the velocity vector is positive, v becomes less and
less positive. Here also the variation of v with h is
parabolic. Since 7 becomes less and less positive,
‘graph (b) is not correct. Hence the correct choice
is (a).
Let 1, be the time during which the car has an accel-
eration a, = 5 ms™ and f, be the time during which
the car has a deceleration a, = ~ 10 ms™. Since the
car starts from rest, the maximum speed attained
by the car v = 0+ ayf, = a;f;. For time interval, ty
this vis the initial speed and the final speed is zero.
Therefore, 0 = 0 aafy or Y= a ty, THUS a; f, = 03 fy
or tlt = aya, = 1O/S = 2 oF ty = 2p.
62. The distance moved in 4) = 4s is
s20xn+ dah
The distance moved in t, = 2s is
1
aem-ted
63, The shortest stopping distance x is given by
O-v=-2ax
Frus fora given valve of x
a
Hence, if v is douobled, x becomes 4 times.
64, Differentiating 2x" + 3x = ¢ with respect to t we
have
orx.
@
>. Therefore, 4x0 +30 = | or dx +3. =
V/o. Differentiating Eq. (i) with respect to time 1,
we have
ay @x idx
a(S) +4 p43 -0
or au" + dra +30 =0
: 2
ee geet’
area
dx
Now |
wa
2
where a= °F isthe acceleration Butdr-+3= Ue.
‘Using this in Eq. (ii) we get a =~ 40".
65. Given, x” =? + 2¢ + 3. Differentiating, we have
ds des
ame? or xfbartl
Differentiating again, we have
(4
at
w
2
Where a = & is the acceleration. Using (i) in (i)
we have
(+P +xresr
or P+Utl+tase Gi)
But it is given that x? = ? + 2s + 3. Using this in
Eq. (iii) we get a = 2.
uy (uP we wt Sut
66, - 2948) =(4) -(4) 2-2-4 2
i (3) (5) 9 3oi)
Divide (i) by (ii).
67. We know that
or Pay hg
& 8
The roots of this quadratic equation are f, and 1).
. du
‘The sum of the roots is 1) +f) = —.
&
68. Product of roots is f, 4, = —
&
(69, The time 1, taken by the body to strike the inclined
plane is given by
‘The time f, taken by the body to reach the ground
after striking the plane is
ph
8
Toultime ret y= ae »
‘Time wil be maximum if =0,
aE: a,
$
Elbe py g dye
or EI q- Ay + =A a 0
—— = h
b=
=
“Ve
Effective retardation in water is gay =
For maximum depth, final velocity v = 0.
Find the maximum depth x from the relatin
Powe 2et
71. Ifhis the total distance travelled in n seconds, then
1 oe
hed gn
38
In the last second, i.e. (n ~ I)th second, the
distance fallen is A’ = gn’
Hence = gn?
72.
7.
4.
78.
16.
Motion in One Dimension 2.19
or -4n+2=0
The positive root of this equation gives the
required value of n.
not displacement _ AB
Average velocity = “EE 7
For the body of mass m,, we have
2
hee
28
For the body of mass m,, if S is the maximum.
distance travelled along the incline then
vw = ms
Now, when $ is maximum, 7
in 8= ~ g sin 30° = ~4,
sin @=~g sin ‘
= 0. Also a =
Given ¢ = Vx + 3. Squaring, we have
x=P-6r4+9 wo
dx_d
locity v= = (P6449) =21-6 Git
velocity v= Th = TP -61+9)=21-6 Gi)
Find 1 from Eq. (ii) when v = 0. Use this value of r
is Bg. @).
Given a=
kfo or & = — ko. Ths
vit de=—kdt
Integrating, we get 21
given initial condition (v
c= 2Vu. Thus, we have
1? = — kt + c. Using the
wat = 0), we get
2o¥? — ul?) =~ kt
Now, use t= Tand v = 0.
‘The slope of the line is m = & ms per second
and its intercept is = 5 ms". Using y = mx +¢, the
acceleration a (in ms™) as a function of time 1 is
given by
or
or o=f, (-Sr+5)ar
Sp
or va-S P+ Stek 1
np a
where k is the constant of integration. Since the
particle starts from rest, = 0 at 1=0. Using this in
(1) we ger k = 0. Hence2.20 Course in Physics for IMT-JEE
5
vest P4st @
It follows from the graph that the deceleration
becomes zero at 1 = 6 s. Hence, the speed of the
particle will be maximum at 1 =6 s. Putting 1 = 6 s
‘Thus the graph of a versus x is a straight line
2
having a positive slope = (4) and negative
%
imeroept = — 2. Hence the correct choice is (d).
in Eq. (2), we have
5 5 78. Given v = g Jy = 0" = kx, Differentiating, we
pan =~ Fy XO + 86 have
=~ 15+30=15 mst
Hence the correct choice is (b).
1. The slope of the given v versus.x graph is m
and intercept is ¢ = + vy. Hence varies =
(2]xev @
X =
where 0 y and x) are constants of motion. Differen-
tiating with respest to time 1, we have
=
=
or @
j =
Using Eq. (1) in Eq. (2), we get
0%) (_ 2
Qe |
(J v ‘Thus x « F. Hence the correct choice is (c)
or a=) 2) ye
xo) fo
SECTION II
Multiple Choice Questions with One or More Choices Correct
|. At time ¢ = 0, a bullet is fired vertically upwards
with a speed of 98 ms"!. At time t = 5 s (i.e. S
seconds later) a second bullet is fired vertically
‘upwards with the same speed. If the air resistance
is neglected, which of the following statements will
be true?
(a) The two bullets will be at the same height
above the ground at 1 = 12.5 s.
(b) The two bullets will reach back their starting
points at the same time.
(©) The two bullets will have the same speed at
1= 205.
(@) The two bullets will attain the same maxi-
‘mum height.
2. The ratios of the distances covered by a freely
falling particle, starting from rest, in the first,
second, third, ...... n seconds of its motion
(a) form an arithmetic progression
(b) form the series corresponding to the squares
of the first n natural numbers
(©) do not form any well defined series
(4) form a series corresponding to the differ-
ences of the squares of the successive natural
numbers
3. The displacement x of a particle varies with time
according tothe relation x = $-(1-€™). Then(a) Att = 1/b, the displacement of the particle is
nearly (2/3)(a/6)
(b) The velocity and acceleration of the particle
at = 0 are a and ~ ab respectively
(c) The particle cannot reach a point at a dis-
tance x‘from its starting position if x" > a/b
(d) The particle will come back to its starting
point as £9 ©
4. A bullet is fired vertically upwards. After 10
seconds it returns to the point of firing. Which
of the following statements are correct? Take
0 ms,
(a) The net displacement of the bullet in 10 s is
zero
(b) The total distance travelled by the bullet in
10 s is 250 m
(©) The rate of change of velocity with time is
constant throughout the motion of the bullet
(@) The bullet is fired at an initial velocity of
50 ms"! directed vertically upwards.
5. Two bodies of masses m, and m, are dropped from
heights fh, and hy respectively. They reach the
‘ground after time f, and fy and strike the ground
with speeds 0, and 0, respectively. Choose the
correct relation from the following:
fy mah
@ ra Se
2 Vk my
a. fly 2 _ [mah
oe he fe @ Be jee
on Ooi
6. Which of the velocity-time (0-1) graphs shown in
Fig. 2.20 can possibly represent one-dimensional
motion of a particle?
{
= —
) ©
° °
® = @ —
© @
Fig. 220
7. ‘Two balls of different masses are dropped from the
same point at the same time. If the air resistance is
neglected and the value of g remains constant,
which of the following statements are true?
10.
1.
). A particle initially
Motion in One Dimension 2.21
(a) The heavier ball reaches the ground before
the lighter one does.
(b) Both balls reach the ground at the same time
(©) The heavier ball hits the ground with a higher
speed
(d) Both balls reach the ground with the same
speed
. A body is dropped from the top of a tower of height
Ah, Its covers a distance h/3 in the last second of its
motion. If g = 10 ms, how long does it take to
reach the ground?
(a) (2 +y9)s
© G +68
(b) (2 V3 )s
) GB -J6)s
at ¢ = 0) located at x= 0
moves along the positive x-direction under the
action of a force. The velocity of the particle varies
with x as
vakve
where k is a constant, Then
(a) the displacement x varies with time ¢ as x =
ee
4
2
(b) the velocity v varies with time «as v = A.
a
(©) the acceleration ofthe pact is
(d) the distance s travelled by the particle in time
er
Tiss=
‘The motion of a body is given by
do
o, 78-37
where v is the velocity (in ms“) at time # (in see-
‘onds). The body is at rest at ¢ = 0. Then
(a) the velocity of the body when its accelevation
is zero is 2 ms”
(b) the initial acceleration of the body is 6 ms",
(c) the velocity of body when the acceleration is
half the initial value is 1 ms“.
(d) the body has a uniform acceleraion.
A stone falls freely from rest and the total distance
covered by it in the last second of its motion is
‘equal to the total distance covered by it in the first
three seconds of its motion. If ¢ = 10 ms,
(a) the stone remains in air for 5 s.
(b) the stone fell from a height of 125 m.
(c) the stone hits the ground with a speed of
30 ms,2.22 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE
(d) the acceleration of the stone during the last
3 seconds of its motion is three times that
during the first second.
12, From the top of a tower 40 m tall, a stone is pro-
jected vertically upwards with a speed of 10 ms
such that it falls in the sea below. If g = 10 ms™,
(a) the stone passes the point from where it was
projected after 2 s.
(b) the speed with which it passes the point of
projection is 10 ms“.
(c) the stone falls in the sea 4 5 after it was
projected.
(@) the stone hits the water with a speed of
30 ms".
13. A balloon is rising vertically upwards at a velocity
of 10 ms“. When it is at a height of 45 m from the
ground, a parachutist bails out from it. After 3 she
‘opens his parachute and decelerates at a constant
rate of 5 ms*, Take g = 10 ms.
(a) He was 15 m above the ground when he
‘opened his parachute.
(d) The velocity of the parachutist 3 s after he
bails out is 5 ms“ vertically upwards,
(c) He hits the ground with a speed of 10 ms“
(d) He hits the ground 5 s after his exit from the
balloon.
14. A particle moving in a straight line is subjected to a
‘constant reterdation a which varies with instanta-
neous velocity 0 as
a=-k
where & is a positive constant. If the initial velocity
of the particle is w at time r= 0, then
() the velocity at time #is given by 0 =u ~ at
() the velocity decreases exponentially with
time. .
(6) the velocity wil decrease to in time be
(4) the total distance covered by the particle
before coming t0 rest is wk.
15. A body moves from point A to point B with a
velocity #, and returns to point A with a velocity
3,. Then, over the entire journey
(a) the average speed i FO +m)
ig 2210
2mm
(©) the average speed is “=O
(©) the average velocity is zero.
(@) the average velocity is ; 7)
16. A body projected vertial upwards from the top of a
tower of height h with a speed u reaches the ground
after time f. If the body is projeced vertically
downwards from the top of the tower with the same
speed, it reaches the ground after time f. Then
(@ he pal? +2) (by he je tin
1
ath +h)
us fae) @u
ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS
1, The two bullets will attain the same height at time
f= seconds if 98 n= 3 9.8 xn? = 98 (n—5)~
; 9.8 (n ~ 5)? which gives n= 12.5 s, The time to
teach the highest point is given by 0= 98 ~9.8 ror
t= 10s. Thus the time of flight of the first bullet is
2x 10= 20 s while that of the second bullet is 20 +
25 s, Hence, the second builet will reach the
starting point $ seconds later than the first bullet.
At r= 20s, the speed of the first bullet is 98 ms“
while that of the second bullet is 98 - 9.8 x 5
= 49 ms"! The maximum height attained by each
bullet is 490 m. Hence, height attained by each bul-
let is 490 m. Therefore the correct choices are (a)
and (d).
2, The distance covered in the nth second (with w = 0)
is given by
£ (= (@- 11 = Fen 1)
ase dane de 52 ds etc. Hence choices
(a) and (d) are correct.
3. Velocity of the particle is given by1
Hence choice (a) is correct. At = 0, the values 2
and a respectively are » = ae“ =a and @=— abe”
=~ ab, Hence choice (b) is also correct. The dis-
placement x is maximum when f 9 ©, 1.0. Xa, =
Glin - Hence choice (c) is also correct.
‘Thus the correct choices are (a), (b) and (c).
Since the bullet returns to its point of projection, its
net displacement is zero, which is choice (a). The
bullet takes 5 s to reach the maximum height.
Therefore, initial speed (u) of the bullet is
inal velocity = 0)
10x $ = 50 ms“ directed upwards which is
choice (d). The maximum height (A) attained by the
bullet is h = t ge $x 10 x (5° = 125 m.
Therefore, the total distance travelled by the bullet
in 10s = 125 + 125 = 250 m, which is choice (b).
For heights fi << radius of the earth, the magnitude
of g is constant, ic. the rate of change of velocity
is constant, which is choice (c). Thus, all four
choices are correct.
Since the initial velocity is zero, we have
1
hy =0x1,4 288
1 1+ 38
and y= OX +P ards
Therefore
4s ccs which is choice (a).
a Vb
Also, we have v, = 0 + gt, = gh, and v2 = sty
Therefore i sie Is. which is choice (e)
no
Hence the correct choices are (a) and (c).
. Draw a line perpendicular to r-axis. You will find
that in graphs (a) and (b) shown in Fig. 2.20, the
particle can have two different velocities at the
‘same time, which is impossible. Hence the correct
choices are graphs (c) and (d) in Fig. 2.20.
Since the time taken to reach the ground and the
speed with which a ball reaches the ground are in-
dependent of mass, choices (b) and (c) are correct.
The total time ¢ taken by the body to reach the
sround is given by hy => gP = 3 x 10x? =F,
‘The body moves for (t - 1) second before the
beginning of the last second. The velocity of the
body at an instant (t~ 1) second is » = g(t— 1) = 10
10.
Motion in One Dimension 2.23
(¢— 1). This is the initial velocity for the motion in
the last one second. The distance covered in this
‘one second is
y= 10G- Dx 1+ 5 x 10% (1)? = 100-1) +5
= 10r-5.
Iti given that hy = “ ‘Therefore
St
lor-5 = 50
3
or P-614+3=0
The two roots of this quadratic equation are ¢ =
(34V6) s. Hence the correct choices are (c)
and (4).
}. All four choices are correct.
Given v= kVx or Bets! or
xl? dr = kde. Integrating, we have 2x!” = kr+c
where ¢ is a constant of integration. Given that
x= 0 at f= 0. This gives c= 0.
which gives s =
Givena= @ =6-30 (1)
dt
(a) Velocity vp when acceleration a = 0 is obt-
ained from Eq(1) by putting a = 0, we get
6 — 30% = 0 or m% = 2 mst.
(b) At t= 0, the body is at rest, ic. v = 0 at
1= 0. Putting » = 0 in Eq.(1), initial accelera-
tion (a)) = 6 ms.
(©) Putting a= > = 3 ms” in Eq, (1), we have
3=6
Hence choices (a), (b) and (c) are correct. Choice
(@) is wrong because acceleration a change with
time because 0 changes with time.
-30 = v=lmst2.24 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
11. Let h, be the distance covered during the first
Let 1 be the time of flight. Then the velocity at
(t= 1) is g(t 1) and the distance covered in the
last one second is
- pena Dx d= bx?
y= gt- + = g@-%
=> neat D+ > = a- Fo
Given hy= hy, ic. Sena 1e5s
‘The héight H from which the stone falls is
1
x 10x (5)
1
Hans ae 2
125 m=9 H = 125m
‘The speed with which the stone hits the groun
-v=-gt=-10x5=-S0ms! => v=50ms!
Hence choices (a), (b) and (c) are correct. Choice
(@) is wrong because for bodies not too far away
from the earth, the acceleration due to gravity is
contant = 9.8 ms~.
12. Let us assign a positive sign to quantities directed
in th upward directon and a negative sign to those
directed downwards. Now, the net displacement of
the stone = final position — initial position = 40 m
directed downwards, Thus 5 = ~ 40 m. The initial
velocity is directed upwards. Therefore, w
+10 ms"!, The acceleration due to gravity is
directed downwards. Hence g = — 10 ms~*, Using
these values in the relation s = ur +g, we get
= 40 10r+ 5 (10)? = 10r— 5?
or P-21-8=0 or (1+ 2Kr-4)=
which gives t=—2s ord s. Since the negative sign
of fis not possible, the correct answer is 4 5.
Its clear that the net displacement of the stone in
coming back to the pointfrom where it was pro-
jected is zero, i.e. s = 0. Thus we have
O= 100+ 5 (10)?
which gives t= 0 or 2
the correct answer is 2 5,
ince t= O is not possible
‘The final velocity of the stone is given by
-v=utg
= 10+ (-10)x4=~ 30 ms*
= p= 30ms!
Hence all four choices are correct.
13. When the parachutist bails out, he shares the velo-
city of the balloon and has an upward velocity of
10 ms w= +10 ms, Also g = -10 ms
(acting downwards). The displacement in t= 3 sis
given by
1
sutt — gh
5 78
£1034 5 x10) (37 =-15 m
Since the displacement is negative, it is directed
downwards. So the height from the ground when
he opened his parachute = 45 ~ 15 = 30 m.
In time 3 s, the balloon has risen through 30 m (as
the velocity of the balloon is 10 ms“ upwards).
Hence the parachutist is now 30 + 15 = 45 m away
from the balloon. The velocity of the parachutist
3 s after he bails out is
veutg
0 + (-10) x 3 = -20 ms"!
(Girected downwards)
At t= 3s, his initial velocity is u = -20 ms" and to
hit the ground, his displacement s = -30 m (see
solution of Q.18). Now a = +5 ms™ (directed
upwards). The time taken to hit the ground is given
by
ae ze or -30=-208+ he
or P-81+12=0 or (r-6\t-2)=0
which gives ¢= 6s or 2s. If t= 6s, then the velo-
city with which he hits the ground is v = w+ ar =
20 +5 x 6= 10 ms“, This is positive, ic, v is
directed upwards, which is not possible. Thus the
correct answer is = 2 s, in which case, the velo-
city with which he hits the ground is
v= -20+5x2=-10 ms!
which is negative as it should be.
‘The total time the parachutist takes (after his exit
from the balloon) to hit the ground is = 3 s+ 2s
=Ss.
Hence the correct choices are (c) and (d).
14. © oko
a= we,(2) =-k
= veue™ wo
‘Thus choice (a) is wrong and choice (b) is correct.
It follows from Eq. (1) that
by
5 imtime r given
8 ane
2
= pret => 2s" = logd2)=kt
= ra PED) , 0668
Hence choice (c) is wrong.
From Eg.(1) we have
Swe"
ar
= fave fact ar
» 0
= renee te
= xexy- fet
Now x = 0 at r= 0 which gives x = Hence
x= fu-e% (2)
It follows from Eq.(1) that » = 0 at 1 = 2, Hence
distance travelled by the particle before coming to
Motion in One Dimension 2.25
rest is obtained from Eq.(2) by putting r = =,
which gives x = wk. Hence the correct choices are
(b) and (4).
15. Let s = distance between points A and B. It isthe
time taken to go from A to B and f, the time taken
to return from B to A, then
qvtge
2
Total distance travelled.
‘Total time taken
_ tts 2p
Lyf M+)
my
Since the net displacement is zero as the body re-
turns to the strating point, the average velocity = 0.
Hence the correct choices are (b) and (c).
16, The net displacement in both cases is ~h (verti-
cally) downwards. For the body projected upwards,
initial velocity is +u and for the body projected
+. Average speed =
downwards, the initial velocity is -u. Hence, we
have (since a = ~ g in both cases)
L
wheut- an aw
and wha Fath 2)
Equations (1) and (2) give w= fee = 1) and
hh= 5 et Thus the correct choices ae (b) and ().
SI
ECTION III
Multiple Choice Question Based on Passage
‘Questions 1 to 4 are based on the following passage
Passage I
It must be clearly understood that distance is not the
same as displacement. Distance is a scalar quantity and is
‘given by the total length of the path travelled by the body
in a certain interval of of time. Displacement is a vector
quantity and is given by the shortest distance (in a
specified direction) between the initial and the final
positions of the body. The direction of the displacement
vector is from the initial position (starting point) to the
final position (end point) of the motion. Speed is a scalar
quantity. The average speed is defined as
pax {otal distance travelled
‘otal time taken
Velocity is a vector quantity. The average velocity is
defind as
5 = Ret displacement
time taken
‘The direction of the velocity vector is the same as that of
the displacement vector. Acceleration is defined as the
rate of change of velocity and it is a vector quantity.2.26 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
1. A cyclist starts from centre O of a circular track of
radius r= | km, reaches edge P of the track and
then cycles along the circumference and stops at
point Q as shown in Fig. 2.21. the displacement of
the cyclist is Q
wf'-4) Z.,
(b) r c
()r (1 +
oe fg 2
SOLUTION
1, Net displacement is OQ = shortest distance be-
tween the starting point O and end point Q = 1 km
=r. Therefore, the correct choice (b).
sty = isPlacement _1km 4
2. Average velocity = = 7 6km
6
Hence the correct choice is (4).
3. Distance travelled = OP + PQ (along the arc)
Question 5 to 7 are based on the following passage.
Passage I
Ball A is rolled along the positive x-direction with a speed
of 5 ms"! towards a bigger ball B 20 m away. After
collision with ball B, ball A retraces the path and reaches
its starting point with a speed of 4 ms".
5. The average velocity of ball A during the time
interval from 0 t0 4 s is
(a) 5 ms“ along positive x-direction.
(b) 5 ms“ along negative x-direction.
(©) ms” along negative x-direction.
2
9
14
o> ms" along positive x-direction,
SOLUTIONS
5. Time taken by ball A to reach ball B is
20
eZ a4s
Daring the time interval 0 to 4s, the net displace-
‘ment of ball A = 20 m along positive x-direction
Therefore, the velocity of ball A during 0 to
4s = 5 ms" along positive x- direction, which is
choice (a).
2. In QI above the magnitude of the velocity in
km bof the cyclist is
(a) 123 (b) 120
©) 30 @ 60
3. In Q.1 the distance travelled by the cyclist is ap-
proximately
(@) 2 km (b) 2.01 km
(©) 2.05 kn () km
4. In Q.1, the average speed (in km h”) of the cyclist
is
(a) 12.3 (b) 6.15
©) 60 (@) 120
2m _f{1+7)- #4)
22H r+ Fetal t+ 3 +205 km
Hence the correct choice is (c).
4, Average speed =
distance
Thus the correct choice is (a)
6. The average valocity of ball A during the time
interval 0 10 9 s is
{a) 4.5 ms” along positive x-direction.
(b) 4.5 ms" along negative x-direction.
0
(©) sy ms" along negative x-direction,
(@) zero
7. The average velocity of ball A during the time in-
terval 0 t0 6 s is
(a) 2 ms" along positive x-direction.
(b) 2 ms" along negative x-direction.
4
(©) J ms" along positive x-direction
4
OF ms" along negative x-direction.
6. Time taken by ball A to retrace its path and reach
the starting point after collision with ball B is
20
he Pass
Therefore, the net displacement in time
interval 0 to 9 s = 0 Hence velocity = 0, which is
choice (d).7. During the time interval 0 to 6 s, ball A covers a
distance of 20 m along positive x-direction up to
ball B (which takes 4 8) and in the next 2 s, it cov-
ers a distance of 4 ms” x 2 s = 8 m along the
negative x-direction. Therefore,
Net displacement of A from 0 to 6s = 20-8 =
Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following passage
Passage II
‘The speed-time graph of the motion of a body is shown in
Fig. 2.22.
2
‘Speed (ms)
c
67
‘Tune (8) ——~
Fig. 222
SOLUTION
8. Acceleration during last 2 second = slope of line Be
o-
“7-5
‘Thus the correct choice is (c).
9. Distance travelled in last two seconds
= area of triangle BCD
x BD x DC
1
= 3x 20x2=20m
Total distance travelled = area of trapesium OABC
‘Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following passage
Passage (IV)
A particle initially (ie. at time t = 0) moving with a
velocity u is subjected to a retarding force, as a result of
which it decelerates at a rate
a=-kvo
where D is the instantaneous velocity and k is a positive
constant.
11. The particle comes to rest in a time
10.
10.
12.
Motion in One Dimension 2.27
12 m along positive x-direction. Hence, average
velocity of A during 0 and 6 s is
2
s
Thus the correct choice is (a).
2 ms" along positive x-direction
The accelerations of the body during the last 2
second is
@ 2 ms? (b) 2 ms
(c) -10 ms* (d) zero
. The ratio of distance travelled by the body during
the last 2 seconds to the total distance travelled by
itis
1 2
@ 5 ®) 5
1 4
©3 WM
The average speed of the car during the whole
journey is
(a) 10 mst (b) 20 ms
a 2st
©) Fas (a) jms
1
(AB + OC) x AE
1
= 72+7)x%0=9m
Hence the correct choice is (b).
total distance travelled
Avera SPeed = ca ime taken
Le
187
vu
© »
(©) 2kvw @) ku
‘The distance covered by the particle before coming
to rest is
on ay
@ () 24
a 2
© w
2k 3k2.28 Course in Physics for ITT-JEE
SOLUTION
11. Given a=—ko'? or
| Squaring, we have
Thus = y-idv=-kdt |
Integrating,we have
fede =~ kf de
or 2? =-k+e “
where c is the constant of integration. Given that at
1=0, D=u. Using this in (i) we get 2u'= c, Using
this value of c in (i),
z
«
Ble
Therefore, au -teu’? BE
* dt 4
wehave 2(0¥2 — y!2) =r w Integrating from = 0 tor = we have
Let rbe the time taken by the particle to come to ke? AlE
rest. Then, v = 0 at ¢= r. Using this in (ii), we get #3 +]
a yl
20-0 ki = i
x Foor t= AP Gi) or Lyte yep Pa
Hence the correct choice is (a). hd on
12, To find the distance s covered in this time, we use ‘Substituting the value of ¢ from (ii) in iv), we get
Eq. (i) to get a tu? 4p? gy? uw?
ya. wa kt + or se
vit = wn -F z 12k 3k
SECTION IV
Matching
1. Match the graphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) shown in Fig. 2.23 with the types of motions (p), (q), (F) and (s) that they
represent.
Tm Time — Time Time >
@ © © o
Fig. 2.23
(p) Motion with non-uniform acceleration (+) Motion having a constant retardation
(q) Motion of a body covering equal distances (8) Uniformly accelerated motion,
in equal intervals of time
ANSWER
1 @>@ O70
() > (s) @ >)‘Motion in One Dimension 2.29
2. Figure 2.24 shows the displacement-time (x ~f) graph of the motion of a body.
E
¢
>.
a
—=
Fig. 224
Column I Column It
(a) AB (p) The body is a rest
(b) BC (q) The body is not accelerating
(©) @ (t) The velocioty is decreasing with time
(@) DE (s) The velocity is increasing with time.
ANSWER
2@>@ ©>@)
(b) + (s) Mo
Explanation: The slope of x ~ 1 graph gives the velocity of the body. In AB, the slope is constant. In BC, the slope is
increasing with time. In CD, the slope is zero and in DE the slope is decreasing with time.
3. The displacement x of a particle moving along the x-direction varies with time ¢ according to the relation.
xeath—cF
where a, b and ¢ are constants of motion.
Column Cotumn It
(a) Displacement when velocity = 0 (p) ( = Te)
(b) Acceleration when velocity = 0 (q) 2c
(c) Initial displacement a
2
(d) Average velocity during the 4th second (s) a+
SOLUTION
Displacement x = a + bt ~ ct”
xat@=
Velocity
vedare 2
2e
Acceleration = 2 = -2c (which is constant)
@) > 6)
() > @)2.30 Course in Physics for IIT-JEE
SECTION V
Assertion-Reason Type Questions
In the following questions, Statement-I (Assertion) is
followed by Statement-2 (Reason). Each question has the A body moving along a curve with a constant speed
following four options out of which only ONE choice is may have a zero acceleration.
correct. 3. Statement-1
Statement-2
(a) Statement-1 is true, Statement-? is true and State-
ment-2 is the correct explanation for Statement-1
(b) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is true but State-
ment-2 is NOT the correct explanation for State-
ment
(c) Statement-1 is true, Statement-2 is flase.
(A) Statement-1 is false, Statement-2 is true.
1, Statement-1
‘A body moving in a straight line may have non-
zero acceleration at an instant when its speed is
zero.
Statement-2
If a body is thrown vertically upwards, its speed at
the instant when it reaches the highest point is zero
but its acceleration is 9.8 ms.
2. Statement-1
‘A body moving in a straight line with a constant
speed must have a zero acceleration.
SOLUTIONS
1. The correct choice is (b).
2. The correct choice is (c). The velocity of a body
moving along a curve continuously changes
because its direction of motion is changing. Hence
a body moving along a curve with a constant speed
has acceleration called centripetal acceleration.
The correct choice is (a). The effective accelera-
tion due to gravity in a meduim is given by
wntlnd)
4
‘A wooden ball and a stee! ball of the same mass,
released from the same height in air, do not reach
the ground at the same time.
Statement-2
‘The apparent weight of a body in a meduim depends
on the density of the body relative to that of the
meduim.
Statement-1
If the displacement-time graph of the motion of a
body is a straight line parallel to the time axis, then
it follows that the body is at rest.
Statement-2
Velocity is equal to the rate of change of displace-
ment.
Statement-1
If the voelocity-time graph of the motion of a body
is a curve, then the body is either uniformly accel-
erated or uniformly retarded.
Statement-2
The slope of the velocity-time graph gives the
acceleration.
where p = density of the medium and o= density
of the body.
‘The correct choice is (a). If the displacement-time
graph is paralfel to the time axis, then, rate of
change of displacement is zero.
‘The correct choice is (d). If the velocity-time graph
isa curve, the slope of the graph is not constant.ENCES
*

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