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TASK 1 Theme : Teenage Pregnancy

Three Academic Papers Downloaded from the Internet 1. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses 2. Reducing Teenage Pregnancy 3. Teen Pregnancy Prevention i. List the various components of the three downloaded academic papers of a chosen theme, give examples.

a. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

Title Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses Introduction Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America‘s history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. Atrisk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career aspirations, and a life encircled by poverty…. Thesis Statement The country‘s adolescent pregnancy rate remains the highest among western industrialized nations, with 4 of every 10 pregnancies occurring in women younger than age 20 (Dangal, 2006; Farber, 2003; SmithBattle, 2003; Spear, 2004). Body Paragraph

Xie. & Cairns. 2004). However. She concluded the absence of a father was the primary factor in teen girls becoming pregnant. and until America‘s youth are able to fully understand the consequences of teenage pregnancy.. or love. prevention programs. 2001). and child sexual abuse have been associated with adolescent pregnancy (Farber. Concluding Sentence Typically. affection. and the negative effects of early motherhood on young females. It was also reported that adolescents whose parents communicated strong disapproval of sexual activity exhibited fewer risk-taking behaviors and were likely to delay sex until a later age (Manlove et al. . Supporting Ideas Rosen (1997) found a growing number of American adolescent females lived in relatively unstable family situations and many became sexually intimate for a short-term sense of comfort. 1997). and counseling services must be accessible for all adolescents (McCullough & Scherman. adolescent pregnancy. Characteristics such as family structure. or a lack of warmth. 2002). Stewart.Topic Sentence For years researchers have examined risk factors related to adolescent pregnancy. Cairns. McCullough & Scherman. interventions. Parental rejection. Concrete Evidence Hymowitz (1997) claimed parental influence was the most significant variable in adolescent pregnancy prevention. Americans have been reluctant to deal with issues regarding sexuality and reproductive health (Zero Population Growth. age at first intercourse. society must assume the responsibility of educating teens about sex.Tonelli. 1991. The challenge of reducing rates of teenage pregnancy remains. 1991. 2003. goals. also led adolescents to seek relationships outside the family to boost their self-esteem (McCullough & Scherman. 1991). 2003.

recognizing that evidence-based sex education programs were effective in promoting sexual health among teenagers. and youth development programs to improve the life options of impoverished teens.b. Body Paragraph Topic Sentence The United States needs a number of initiatives to reduce its teenage pregnancy rate and the negative outcomes that accompany it. it remains the highest among the most developed countries in the world. 2012). The bulk of the funds — $75 million — was set aside for replicating evidence-based programs that have been shown to reduce teen pregnancy and its underlying or . medically accurate sexuality education and information in the schools and in the media. Thesis Statement Approximately 67. improvements in funding for and access to family planning services. Reducing Teenage Pregnancy Title Reducing Teenage Pregnancy Introduction Although the rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is at its lowest level in nearly 40 years. Concrete Evidence In 2009. 2011). the Obama administration transferred funds from the Community-based Abstinence Education Program and budgeted $114.000 American teenagers — become pregnant each year (Kost and Henshaw.000 women aged 15–19 — nearly 750.5 million to support evidencebased sex education programs across the country.8 per 1. Supporting Ideas These initiatives should incorporate responsible. The majority of these pregnancies — 82 percent — are unintended (Finer & Zolna.

. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Title Making A Difference For At-Risk Populations Introduction Teen pregnancy prevention efforts. positive peer influences. however.associated risk factors. particularly for high risk youth. outreach. effective education. technical assistance.S. Concluding Sentence Recognition that sexual expression is a part and parcel of adolescent development will help guarantee teenagers the right to honest. and 2006 data indicate rates may again be rising. involvement with the criminal justice system. Lower teenage pregnancy rates will follow as a natural outcome. accurate information about sex and access to high-quality reproductive health services that will empower them to express their sexuality in safe and healthy ways. Healthy development for adolescents is related to family support. evaluation. are most effective if they are part of a youth development framework that addresses multiple risk factors. and an array of other issues. safe schools and communities. Further. teen pregnancy and birth rates are the highest of any western industrialized nation. 2010). Positive youth development programs—which promote healthy development for youth through greater community and adult support—address the full range of risks young people face and can best prevent unplanned pregnancies. a much steeper decline has occurred in teen pregnancy and birth rates among some demographics. U. or dropping out of school. c. and program support (Boonstra. Thesis Statement Teen pregnancy and birth rates in the United States have declined since 1991. The balance was set aside for developing promising strategies.

prevention efforts must target those groups with the most room for improvement and that research indicates are at an increased risk for teen pregnancy. thus lessening long-term health expenditures.Body Paragraph Topic Sentence To prevent the recent spike in teen birth rates from becoming a sustained trend. The recent increase in teen pregnancy and birth rates in 2006 indicated that African-American teens were 2. This will help improve the quality of life of all American teens. Some progress has been made toward identifying at-risk populations and developing programs that address their specific needs. Supporting Ideas Race and socioeconomic issues play a role in the wide variation between racial groups in adolescent pregnancy rates. Latina teens have experienced the smallest decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates during the past few decades.4 times more likely and Hispanics were 3. but more remains to be done. there was a 40 percent decrease for African-American teenagers and a 34 percent decrease for white teenagers. they currently have the highest teen birth rate of any racial/ethnic group. Concrete Evidence When the teen pregnancy rate of women ages 15 to 19 plummeted across the nation between 1990 and 2002. and also will reduce both their and their children‘s reliance on publicly funded programs. Concluding Sentence A significant reduction in teen pregnancy and birth rates will improve the health of American teens. .3 times more likely than their white peers to become teen parents. but only a 19 percent dip for Hispanic teenagers.

less schooling and higher dropout rates. in the article ‗Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses (Desirae M. Firstly. we can see that written language is relatively more complex than spoken language. ―furthermore‘‘. However. Discuss on the language aspects of the academic papers. but instead were treated as part of broader social issues‖ appears to be in the present tense. Lastly. ―also‖. Jones. the language used here is also relatively more formal which means less colloquial words and expressions were used. sentence connectors. the sentence ―At risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications. for example.. formality. As we can see in these three academic papers. good vocabulary and many more. ―In addition‘. ―however‖. (about 250 -300 words – essay form) Based on the three academic papers that I had chosen. Domenico and Karen H. Other than that. and childcare is often overwhelming for female adolescent parents and consumes time and energy that they could otherwise spend on school. various language aspects were used such as complexity in sentences. ―intimate‖. based on these three academic papers. Example. and a life encircled by poverty‖ and ―Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America‘s history‖ is written in past tense. ―adolescent‖ etc. ―therefore‖. ―moreover‖. ―consequently‖ and many more. tenses. a good vocabulary is necessary in writing academic papers as it helps to express what the writer mean.ii. Written language has longer words. Furthermore. This enables the readers to find useful information in the papers. ―prominent‖. the sentence ―In previous centuries. adolescent pregnancy and the problems surrounding it were not specific to any age group. a job. most of its sentences were straight forward and they were facts instead of decorative words and expressions. lower career aspirations. sentence connectors were used in these three articles. we can also see that these three academic papers use the past tense and present tense accordingly. it is lexically more dense and has a more varied vocabulary. Examples of words used to assist understanding and in the topics discussed are ―intercourse‖. ―Balancing school.‖ Next. . 2007)‘. For example. depending on the content.

iii. with 4 of every 10 pregnancies occurring in women younger than age 20 (Dangal. 2004). 2006. then nine out of ten that child is sexually active too. According to the article ‗Teen Pregnancy Prevention. If a child hangs out with a group who is sexually active. Domenico and Karen H. 2007)‘. According to the article ‗Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses (Desirae M. with nearly one million teenage females becoming pregnant each year (Meade & Ickovics. Jones. 2005). 2003. adolescent pregnancy continues to be prevalent in the United States.Making A Difference For At-Risk Populations (National Conference of States Legislatures). Smith Battle. This pressure causes sexual intimacy for the opposite sex. Some of them even send their children to live with their grandparents or relatives. some countries even celebrate early teenage pregnancy. as it is a clear sign of fertility. there is the absent of parents in their children‘s life. One study found that almost one third of girls in foster care become pregnant at least once by age 17. When a teen feels that she has no one to talk to about sex. The busy and hectic life of parents also leads to the unhealthy activities that a child tend to be involve in. resulting in misinformation and possible teen pregnancy. Title : The Causes of Teenage Pregnancy and Ways To Overcome It Teenage Pregnancy is one of the most alarming issues in our world today. Many teenagers engage themselves in sexual intercourse with their partners just to be ―in‖ with their friends. teenage pregnancy occurs due to the following reasons: absent of parents and peer pressure. Most teenagers opt to have . Teen girls are more likely to get pregnant if they have limited or no guidance from their parents. a teenage girl being pregnant before adulthood is critically looked down upon with shame. Surprisingly. Spear. Write an academic paper in about 1000 words based on the chosen theme and include citation and references using APA system. Basically. she will more than likely turn to friends for direction on whether or not to have sex. The country‘s adolescent pregnancy rate remains the highest among western industrialized nations. 2003. Next. teen girls who live with non-parent relatives begin having intercourse at a younger age than those who have always lived with at least one biological parent. Farber. peer pressure is an early stage of pregnancies. Many parents have busy lives that prevent them from providing the guidance and support that their young teenagers need to make good decisions on issues such as sex. But moderately. First.

states that sex education is seen as one of the most important processes in reducing teenage pregnancy. lower risk sexual behavior through national media campaigns that have a high degree of influence with young women and men (Berne & Huberman.Making A Difference For At-Risk Populations (National Conference of States Legislatures). October 2012). the media also plays an important role in helping to prevent teenage pregnancies. Therefore. Germany. in which teenage birthrates are three to six and a half times lower than that of the U. and this is certainly the most important tool with some young people. and France. Research . they will tend to try out what they had seen. is necessary given the early ages at which young people are initiating intercourse — 6. Other than that.1 percent by grade 12 (CDC.sexual intercourse because they need to achieve the acceptance given by the ―circle of friends‖ especially teenage girls whose boyfriends are in a gang. according to the article ‗Reducing Teenage Pregnancy‘ (Katharine Dexter McCormick Library.S.8 percent by grade 10. education about safe sex could make the world of difference. October 2012)‘. Sex education that is responsible and medically accurate. This is because teenagers are very keen on trying new things. to prevent the rise in percentage of teenage pregnancies. The article ‗Reducing Teenage Pregnancy (Katharine Dexter McCormick Library Planned Parenthood Federation of America. 1995). reducing teen birth rates has been centered on education. In some countries. 1999). This kind of behavior may lead to unwanted teenage pregnancies. 2012). Developed countries such as the Netherlands. teenagers face too much peer pressure to start having sex at a very young adolescent age. and continues in an age-appropriate manner through the 12th grade. Therefore. According to the article ‗Teen Pregnancy Prevention.. begins in kindergarten.2 percent of students nationwide report having sex before the age of 13. movies also have to be filtered before they were shown on television. particularly those from ethnic minority backgrounds. the most successful programs aimed at reducing teenage pregnancy are those targeting younger adolescents who are not yet sexually experienced (Frost & Forrest. young women with gang-involved partners may feel social pressure to have a baby to increase their status within a relationship and see sexual decision making—including pregnancy and condom use—as up to men. For those with poor schooling and living in deprived areas. Besides. promote healthy. 43. In fact. Campaigns such as anti-Teenage Pregnancy and exposure of the usage of preventions such as condoms and various contraceptive methods through media can really make a lot of difference. and 63.

prevention component. 2000). campaigns held must not only target teenage girls but also teenage boys. Next. 2002). . Because young men who have unprotected intercourse also tend to engage in other risk behaviors such as fighting. 2004). states that young men are often overlooked as a group that plays an important role in reducing teenage pregnancy. drinking alcohol. The article ‗Reducing Teenage Pregnancy‘ (Katharine Dexter McCormick Library.. parents too play an important role in this matter.. A national survey found that 13 percent of sexually experienced teenage men had been involved in a pregnancy in 2002 (NCPTUP. Sexuality educators and reproductive health care providers must therefore present pregnancy prevention as the job of both partners to foster responsible sexual choices among young men and women. Morals and values need to be ingrained before children are influenced by their peers. a teenager will be able to know what is right and what is wrong and this enables them to grow up healthily and live a happier life. carrying a gun or other weapon. Preventing teen pregnancy needs to start at home.. smoking cigarettes. According to the article ‗Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses (Desirae M. October 2012). Young men too have responsibility in making their partner pregnant. we often blame the girls for being pregnant and tend to overlook the guys in this matter. She concluded the absence of a father was the primary factor in teen girls becoming pregnant. Hymowitz (1997) claimed parental influence was the most significant variable in adolescent pregnancy prevention. and using drugs (Lindberg et al. Next.clearly shows that television portrayals contribute to sexual socialization — watching programs high in sexual content has been correlated with the early initiation of adolescent sexual intercourse (Collins et al. Parents can‘t escape the responsibility that they have to their potential children. 2007)‘. attempting suicide. Domenico and Karen H. programs designed to address these behaviors should optimally include a pregnancy. It was also reported that adolescents whose parents communicated strong disapproval of sexual activity exhibited fewer risktaking behaviors and were likely to delay sex until a later age (Manlove et al. 2006). With guidance from parents. Jones. and should spend time nurturing their children instead of letting them growing up alone and mixing with wrong company of friends which is the main reason of the increase of teenage pregnancy rates. Hence.

Causes and Responses. Not only teenagers themselves play an important role in preventing this issue from becoming worse. Reducing Teenage Pregnancy. Katherin Dexter McCormick Library. parents and the government should also take appropriate actions in handling this issue. R. Ed. (Fall 2007).D. Langham. (Aug 16. . Y. Jones. Number 1. Volume 30. Ph. Teen Pregnancy Prevention-Making a Differnece for At-Risk Populations. teen pregnancy is an important issue all over the country and it is an ongoing problem that must be dealt with because teenage pregnancy can ruin a teen‘s life and also the life of an infant. 2013). Adolescent Pregnancy In America. Mellanby et al.D.D. Domenico. Planned Parenthood. (2009). and Karen H.As a conclusion. National Conference of State Legislatures. V A H Pearson. What Are The Causes Of Teenage Pregnancy?. (October 2012). References A R Mellanby. 77 (5): 459 Desirae M. Preventing Teenage Pregnancy‖. J H Tripp. Ph.

Learning English is a very challenging process. In my opinion. learning English is very challenging but it can be fun at times. she even sits beside me to hear my reading and correct my pronunciation of words. it is an important language because we use this language to communication with other country's people. During my schooling days. Nowadays. It is the most widely used second language in the world. Mastering English is very important as English language has become the language of international communication. Canada. I am able to understand and differentiate the function of each grammar categories clearly. It gave me a strong foundation in English Language to start off before I enter primary school. Ireland. Sometimes. to really master English Language. At home. verb. Many people think that English is a boring subject but neither did they know that English has various expects that make it interesting. various methods were used to make learning English fun. I love listening to my English teacher recite the poems in our textbooks and explaining the meaning of each row of poems. English is our communication language. When I was a child. This method really helps in building my vocabulary. Only after I enter Teacher‘s Training College.TASK 2 Reflection English is the principal language of many countries such as Great Britain. my mum often encouraged me to read English storybooks such as ‗Peter and Jane‘ and ‗Enid Blyton books‘. I‘m quite interested in learning English Literature such as poems. My mum‘s effort and guidance really helped me a lot. Australia and many more. . Hence. Lastly. The words used in the poems were so beautiful and meaningful. when I‘m in secondary school. I was told to jot down words that I do not understand so that I can ask her the meaning of the words later. I seldom have any problems when it comes to speaking and writing in English. adverb and etc as my English teacher only explain it to me briefly without focusing much on it. short stories and novels. How do I which I am able to write my own poem someday. However. I do find the grammar a little confusing especially when I‘m asked to group the words given into noun. one has to be cultivated from young. Next.