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CAPITULO III APLICACIONES DIVERSAS DE LA MAQUINA Y/O HERRAMIENTA Los ms principal s son!

" Perforacin de agujeros en las piezas# Los a$%& ros s 'ac n c%an(o 'a) *% a+rir roscas o in,ro(%cir & s- +%& s- ,ornillos ) r mac' s n pi .as *% p% ( n , n r /%ncion s aisla(os o ( con&%n,o#

" Avellanado de agujeros El a0 llana(or p rmi, al &ar los l m n,os ( %ni1n- ,al s como ,ornillos ) r mac' s c%)as ca+ .as ,i n n sa /orma

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Escariado de agujeros

Con 2s,a op raci1n- mpl an(o %na n% 0a ' rrami n,a llama(a scaria(or- cons $%imos *% los ori/icios m cani.a(os pr 0iam n, - , n$an la m (i(a 3ac,a# R cor( mos *% n l & rcicio *% , n mos n proc so ( /a+ricaci1n- , n4amos ,r s a$%& ros con %n (im ,ro ( 55#67mm- p ro l prop1si,o s *% la m (i(a /% s ( 58 mm 3ac,os#

CAPITULO IV Condicin de trabajo Perfil profesional de los operarios de taladradoras

No 3is, %na pro/ si1n ,2cnica sp ciali.a(a para l man &o ( ,ala(ra(oras- p% s,o *% son %nas m*%inas s ncillas ( man &ar ) con +r 0 s ins,r%ccion s (a(as a pi ( m*%ina s s%/ici n, para *% %na p rsona r sponsa+l la s pa man &ar# Sin m+ar$o ac,%alm n, m%c'as op racion s ( ,ala(ra(o s r ali.an n c n,ros ( m cani.a(o o ,ala(ra(oras ( con,rol n%m2rico )- ( +i(o al al,o cos, *% ,i n l ,i mpo ( m cani.a(o n s,as m*%inas- 'a si(o n c sario /ormar n% 0os ,2cnicos n llas- sp cialm n, pro$rama(or s ( con,rol n%m2rico#

Normas de seguridad 5 8 9 : 7 ; 6 < = 5 > U,ili.ar *%ipo ( s $%ri(a(! $a/as ( s $%ri(a(- car ,as- ,c# No %,ili.ar ropa 'ol$a(a o m%) s% l,a# S r comi n(an las man$as cor,as# U,ili.ar ropa ( al$o(1n# U,ili.ar cal.a(o ( s $%ri(a(# Man, n r l l%$ar si mpr limpio# Si s m cani.an pi .as p sa(as %,ili.ar polipas,os a( c%a(os para car$ar ) ( scar$ar las pi .as ( la m*%ina# Es pr / ri+l ll 0ar l p lo cor,o# Si s lar$o no ( + No 0 s,ir &o) r4a- como collar s o anillos# Si mpr s ( + n conoc r los con,rol s ) /%ncionami n,o ( la m*%ina# S ( + sa+ r como ( , n r s% op raci1n# Es m%) r com n(a+l ,ra+a&ar n %n r a +i n il%mina(a *% a)%( al op ra(or- p ro la il%minaci1n no ( + s r 3c si0a para *% no ca%s ( masia(o r splan(or# s,ar s% l,o sino r co$i(o#

ELEMENTOS DE PROTECCION DE?E TENER EL OPERARIO EN EL PROCESO DEL TALADRADO

CAPITULO V Forma de operacin

7#5# AGUJE EA EN !A "A!A#$ A Es %na op raci1n *% consis, n 'ac r a$%& ros por la acci1n ( ro,aci1n ) a0anc ( %na +roca s%& ,a n la ,ala(ra(ora @/i$%ra 5A# Los a$%& ros s 'ac n c%an(o 'a) *% a+rir roscas o in,ro(%cir & s- +%& s- ,ornillos ) r mac' s n pi .as *% p% ( n , n r /%ncion s aisla(os o ( con&%n,o#

Bi$%ra 5#

Proceso de ejecucin %er paso& $ran , O?SERVACION La s%& ,aci1n ( p n( ( la /orma ) ,amaCo ( la pi .a# S p% ( s%& ,ar n l ,ornillo ( la ,ala(ra(ora @/i$%ra :A o so+r la m sa con alica, s ( pr si1n- sar$ n,as- +ri(as ) o,ros @/i$%ra 8- 9- 7A# la pi .a ) s%& , la pi .a#

8 9 : 7 Figura '# S%& ci1n ( pi .a con alica, ( pr si1n# Figura (# S%& ci1n ( pi .a con mano# @Ins $%ras )* Figura +* S%& ci1n n la pr nsa ( la ma*%ina# Figura ,# S%& ci1n n la +ri(a n calsos n 0 para pi .as cil4n(ricas#

Pr ca%ci1n! Para no p r/orar la m sa ( la ,ala(ra(ora- pon$a %n ,ro.o ( ma( ra n,r la pi .a ) la +as ( apo)o ( s,a# 'do paso! /i& la +roca n l man(ril @/i$%ra 7A

O?SERVACIONES 5# an, s ( /i&ar la +roca- compr% + - si ,i n l (im ,ro a( c%a(o ) si s,a +i n a/ila(a# 8# n l caso ( la +roca ( spi$as c1nicas- /4& lo (ir c,am n, al r+ol ( la ma*%ina# 9# para a$%& r ar c'apas ( l$a(as- s l ccion ) a/il la +roca# (er paso! r $%l la ro,aci1n ) l a0anc # +to paso! r $%l la pro/%n(i(a( ( p n ,raci1n ( la +roca#

aA apo) la p%n,a ( la +roca so+r la pi .a ) pr sion m (ian, la palanca ( a0anc @/i$%ra ;A +A $%i2 la ,% rca ( r $%laci1n 'as,a %na (is,ancia ( l ,op - i$%al a la pro/%n(i(a( ( p n ,raci1n- ms la al,%ra ( l cono ( la +roca# O?SERVACION C%an(o l a$%& ro s posan, - sa (is,ancia ( + , n r 8 o 9 mil4m ,ros ms para a$%& r ar la sali(a ( las +rocas# ,to paso! a$%& r # PRECACUCION LA ?ROCA Y LA PIEDA DE?EN ESTAR ?IEN SUEETAS a# +# c# (# apro3im la +roca o la pi .a accionan(o la palanca ( a0anc # C n,r la +roca n l p%n,o (on( s 0a a$%& r ar# Pon$a la ma*%ina n marc'a# Inici ) , rmin l a$%& ro#

O?SERVACIONES l r /ri$ ran, %,ili.a(o ( + s r a( c%a(o al ma, rial# l a0anc ( la +roca s r l n,o- c%an(o s apro3im posi+l s acci( n, s# A-E!!ANA C$N.C$ 5# 8# l /inal ( la p r/oraci1n- a /in ( 0i,ar

Es la op raci1n *% consis, n (ar /orma c1nica al 3,r mo ( %n a$%& ro %,ili.an(o la ,ala(ra(ora ) l a0 llana(or# El a0 llana(or p rmi, al &ar los l m n,os ( %ni1n- ,al s como ,ornillos ) r mac' s c%)as ca+ .as ,i n n sa /orma @/i$%ra 5A

%er paso! s%& ,o la pi .a# 'do paso! pr par la ma*%ina# a# s%& , l a0 llana(or n l man(ril por,a +rocas#

O?SERVACION La ' rrami n,a ( + , n r l mismo An$%lo *% la ca+ .a ( l ,ornillo o r mac' # +# R $%l la ro,aci1n (er paso! a0 llan l a$%& ro ( la pi .a!

a# r $%l la pro/%n(i(a( ( l a0 llana(o# +# C n,r la ' rrami n,a con l a$%& ro# O?SERVACIONES 5# la pro/%n(i(a( ( l a0 llana(o s p% ( ( , rminar r ali.an(o %na pr% +a n %n ma, rial apar, # 8# n a0 llana(os ( pr cisi1n s %,ili.a l a0 llana(or con $%4a @/i$%ra 8A

c# Pon$a la ma*%ina n marc'a# (# E& c%, l a0 llana(or @/i$%ra 9A

O?SERVACIONES 5# 8# l a0anc ( + s r l n,o# l r /ri$ ran, ( + s,ar ( ac% r(o con l ma, rial# l a0 llana(o con l ,ornillo a %,ili.ar o l cali+ra(or 0 rni r con monio#

+to paso! 0 ri/i*% CAPITULO VI

TIPOS DE MAQUINAS TALADRADORAS Las ma*%inas ,ala(ra(oras s p% ( n r %nir n s is $r%pos# ,ala(ra(oras s nsi,i0as ,ala(ra(oras ( col%mnas ,ala(ra(oras ra(ial s ,ala(ra(oras 'ori.on,al s ,ala(ra(oras ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s c n,ros ( m cani.a(o CNC Tala(ra(oras s nsi,i0as!

Tala(ro por,,il s nsi,i0o

Corr spon( n a s, $r%po las ,ala(ra(oras ( accionami n,o l2c,rico o n %m,ico ms p *% Cas# La ma)or4a ( llas son por,,il s ) p rmi, n r ali.ar a$%& ros ( p *% Co (im ,ro ) so+r ma, rial s +lan(os# Las ,ala(ra(oras s nsi,i0as por,,il s son m%) %sa(os n r as (om s,icas ) ( +ricola& # TALADRADOPRAS DE COLUNMAS

Es,as ma*%inas s carac, ri.an por la ro,aci1n ( %n '%sillo 0 r,ical n %na posici1n /i&a ) sopor,a(o por %n col%mna ( cons,r%cci1n- ,ipo c# Los compon n, s principal s ( la ma*%ina son los si$%i n, s! ?as ! s l arma.1n *% sopor,a la ma*%ina# Mo,or! s,as ma*%inas ll 0an incorpora(o %n mo,or l2c,rico ( po, ncia 0aria+l # Ca+ .al! s la par, ( la ma*%ina *% alo&a la ca&a ( 0 loci(a( s ) l m canismo ( a0anc ( l '%sillo# M canismo ( 0 loci(a( s! s l *% ,ransmi, al '%sillo l mo0imi n,o principal- proc ( n, ( %n mo,or l2c,rico o ( %na ,ransmisi1n# Con l o+& ,o ( po( r %,ili.ar (is,in,as 0 loci(a( s ( ro,aci1n- 0a (isp% s,o %n m canismo ( /orma ( pol as scalona(as o n$rana& s# Palanca s nsi,i0a! s la par, *% sir0 para pr sionar la ' rrami n,a# En ,ra+a&os *% r *%i r n ma)or s/% r.o- s %,ili.an %n m canismo ( n$rana& s *% r (%c l s/% r.o '%mano# La col%mna! s mi m+ro principal 0 r,ical so+r l *% 0an mon,a(o o,ros compon n, s ( la ma*%ina# Ha) col%mnas ( ,ipo ca&a- r (on(as o ,%+%lar s# Monio! sir0 para con,rolar la pro/%n(i(a( ( l ,ala(ra(o M sa! s,a mon,a(a n la col%mna ) s l p% ( l 0an,ar o +a&ar# El '%sillo! s l & principal (on( 0a coloca(o l por,a +rocas# Es %no ( los l m n,os ms impor,an, s ( la ,ala(ra(ora ) ( + s r ( ac ro ( +% na cali(a(# El & principal no ( + , n r 'ol$%ra n l s n,i(o ( s% & $ om2,rico @&% $o a3ialA- para 0i,ar *% s rompa la +roca al , rminar los a$%& ros- ni n l s n,i(o p rp n(ic%lar al & @&% $o ra(ialA- para 0i,ar *% s ( s0i2#

Bi$# @;#7A limi,aci1n ( l a0anc aA ,ornillo ( ,op # +A a0anc #

Bi$# @;#;A $%4a ( l '%sillo ( ,ala(rar# aA H%sillo# +A T% rca cA (A A /A $A Cas*%illo# Ro(ami n,o ( +olas# Palanca# R% (a ( n,a(a# Cr mall ra#

TIPOS DE TALADRADORAS DE COLUMNA

Ti n s% si,io $ n ralm n, so+r 5>mm ( (im ,ros#

l +anco ( ,ra+a&o ) s pr s,a para & c%ci1n a$%& ros 'as,a %nos (

Tala(ra(ora ( col%mna @col%mna ( ,ipo ca&aA

El +as,i(or- c% rpo o col%mna ( la ma*%ina s m%) r4$i(o ) por s,a ra.1n r s%l,a a( c%a(o la ma*%ina para ,ala(rar $ran( s a$%& ros# El a0anc 0i n r ali.a(o por l caro o ca+ .al por,a%,il *% s $%ia(o a lo lar$o ( la col%mna# Con s,o r s%l,a *% l co&in , principal ( l '%sillo s nc% n,ra si mpr n la pro3imi(a( ( l p%n,o n *% s r ali.a l ,ra+a&o- s ( cir- *% l '%sillo 0a +i n $%ia(o- incl%so c%an(o s & c%,an a$%& ros pro/%n(os# Tala(ra(ora ( ,orr ,a

Es,as m*%inas s carac, ri.an por %na ,orr ,a ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s# Las m*%inas ,ala(ra(oras ( ,orr ,a p rmi, n 0arias op racion s ( ,ala(ra(o n ( , rmina(a s c% ncia sin cam+iar ' rrami n,as o ( smon,ar la pi .a# Tala(ra(oras ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s

Los ,ala(ros ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s /acili,an la & c%ci1n ( %na s c% ncia /i&a ( las op racion s ( ,ala(ra(o por m (io ( l ( spla.ami n,o ( la pi .a ( s,aci1n n s,aci1n a lo lar$o ( la m sa# Las aplicacion s ms com%n s ( s, ,ipo ( m*%inas son para liminar l cam+io ( ' rrami n,as para %na s c% ncia ( op racion s# A%*% las m*%inas ,ala(ra(oras ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s ,o(a04a s /a+rican- s,n c (i n(o rpi(am n, s% pop%lari(a( a las m*%inas ,ala(ra(oras ( ,orr ,a#

Tala(ra(oras ( %ni1n %ni0 rsal

Las m*%inas ,ala(ra(oras ( %ni1n %ni0 rsal s carac, ri.an por s% $ran nFm ro ( '%sillos *% s p% ( n colocar n c%al*%i r posici1n ( n,ro ( l r a ( la m sa para ,ala(rar c%al*%i r plan,illa ( a$%& ros pr s l cciona(a# Una ( las ma)or s m*%inas ( %ni1n %ni0 rsal cons,r%i(as s mpl a para l ,ala(ra(o ( cam+io ) cr%c s ( 04as ( / rrocarril# Una 0 . *% s ins,ala %na m*%ina ( s, ,ipo- s p% ( 0ariar la plan,illa ( los a$%& ros a&%s,an(o los c n,ros ( '%sillos# Tala(ra(oras n l4n a

Ti n n %n ,ornillo sin/4n c n,ral o m canismo n spiral *% acciona ci r,o nFm ro ( '%sillos coloca(os n l4n a# Las ,ala(ra(oras n l4n a s (i/ r ncian ( las m*%inas ,ala(ra(oras ( '%sillos mFl,ipl s n *% ,o(os los '%sillos s m% 0 n por m (io ( %na sola /% n, ( /% r.a *% al mismo ,i mpo acciona los a0anc s# El spacio n,r '%sillos s 0aria+l # MAQUINAS TALADRADORAS RADIALES# Es,as ma*%inas s i( n,i/ican por l +ra.o ra(ial *% p rmi, la colocaci1n ( la ca+ .a a (is,in,as (is,ancias ( la col%mna ) a( ms la ro,aci1n ( la ca+ .a alr ( (or ( la col%mna# Es,as ma*%inas son m%) %,ili.a(as para ,ala(rar pi .as $ran( s ) p sa(as# Los compon n, s principal s son! La +as ! s la par, +sica ( apo)o para la ma*%ina ) *% ,am+i2n sopor,a la pi .a (%ran, la op raci1n# La col%mna! s %na pi .a ( /orma ,%+%lar sopor,a(a por la +as - ) *% $ira alr ( (or ( %na col%mna r4$i(a @,apaA mon,a(a so+r la +as #

El +ra.o! sopor,a l mo,or ) la ca+ .a- ) corr spon( a la ca&a ( n$rana& s ( la ma*%ina- s p% ( mo0 r 'acia arri+a ) 'acia a+a&o so+r la col%mna ) s%& ,ar a c%al*%i r al,%ra ( s a(a# La ca+ .a! con,i n ,o(os los n$rana& s para las 0 loci(a( s ) para los a0anc s# S p% ( mo0 r 'acia a( n,ro o 'acia /% ra ( l +ra.o#

Partes principales de la ma/uina taladradora radial TIPOS DE MAQUINAS TALADRADORAS RADIALES Tala(ra(oras ra(ial s ( '%sillo 'ori.on,al!

El ,ala(ro ra(ial ( '%sillo 'ori.on,al s sp cialm n, apropia(o para ,ala(rar a$%& ros 'ori.on,al s n pi .as 0ol%minosas ) normalm n, s por,,il# Tala(ra(oras ra(ial s %ni0 rsal s!

Ti n n %na ca+ .a *% 0a /i&o n l 3,r mo ( l +ra.o ) *% p rmi, la colocaci1n %ni0 rsal ( l '%sillo para ,ala(rar a c%al*%i r n$%lo# Son m%) %,ili.a(as para ,ala(rar pi .as 3,r ma(am n, 0ol%minosas# MAQUINAS TALADRADORAS HORISONTALES

S carac, ri.a por , n r %n '%sillo 'ori.on,al /i&o a la ca+ .a m10il# La ma)or par, ( l ,ala(ra(o s 'ac 0 r,icalm n, por *% s pr / ri+l con,ar con la a)%(a ( la $ra0 (a( al 'ac r a0an.ar la +roca- p ro al$%nas 0 c s s imposi+l o incon0 ni n, colocar la pi .a para ,ala(rar 0 r,ical# En,onc s s mpl a l ,ala(ro 'ori.on,al# Es, (i+%&o n p rsp c,i0a m% s,ra %na ,4pica ma*%ina ,ala(ra(ora 'ori.on,al ( l ,ipo ( m sa *%ipa(a con m sa ro,a,oria# C n,ros ( m cani.a(os CNC!

Centro de mecanizado con almac0n de 1erramientas

La ins,alaci1n masi0a ( c n,ros ( m cani.a(o CNC n las in(%s,rias m ,alFr$icas 'a s%p% s,o %n $ran r 0%lsi0o n ,o(os los asp c,os ( l m cani.a(o ,ra(icional# Un c n,ro ( m cani.a(o 'a %ni(o n %na sola m*%ina ) n %n solo proc so ,ar as *% an, s s 'ac4an n 0arias m*%inas- ,ala(ra(oras- /r sa(oras- man(rina(oras- ,c- ) a( ms / c,Fa los (i/ r n, s m cani.a(os n %nos ,i mpos m4nimos an, s imp nsa+l s ( +i(o principalm n, a la ro+%s, . ( s,as m*%inas a la 0 loci(a( ( $iro ,an l 0a(a *% /%nciona l '%sillo ) a la cali(a( 3,raor(inaria ( las (i/ r n, s ' rrami n,as *% s %,ili.an# As4 *% %n c n,ro ( m cani.a(o incorpora %n almac2n ( ' rrami n,as ( (i/ r n, s op racion s *% s p% ( n / c,%ar n las (i/ r n, s caras ( las pi .as cF+icas- con lo *% con %na sola /i&aci1n ) manip%laci1n ( la pi .a s consi$% l m cani.a(o in, $ral ( las caras ( las pi .as- con lo *% l ,i mpo ,o,al ( m cani.a(o ) pr cisi1n *% s consi$% r s%l,a m%) 0alioso ( s( l p%n,o ( 0is,a ( los cos, s ( m cani.a(o- al cons $%ir ms rapi( . ) m nos pi .as ( / c,%osas#

ANE2$3 C$3"E3 #E! 4ECAN.5A#$ #E UNA P.E5A* En s, apar,a(o ( + mos ( , n r n c% n,a ,o(os los parm ,ros *% n,ran n la /a+ricaci1n ( %na pi .a- m*%ina o pro(%c,o- no s1lo los ,i mpos ( ,ra+a&o ( la m*%ina (%ran, la & c%ci1n ( las pi .as# T n mos o,ros cos, s los c%al s ( + mos ( , n r n c% n,a para calc%lar l cos, /inal ( l ,ra+a&o r ali.a(o- como son! " La ma, ria prima *% s mpl a para la /a+ricaci1n ( l pro(%c,o" La mano ( o+ra" Gas,os ( amor,i.aci1n ( ma*%inaria ) man, nimi n,o" ) Gas,os $ n ral s# El cos, ,o,al ( l ar,4c%lo- s la s%ma ( ,o(os los $as,os *% in, r0i n n n la /a+ricaci1n ( l ar,4c%locon, mplan(o ,o(as las /ac ,as- ms l mar$ n com rcial o + n /icio *% ( + ( , n r la mpr sa# Llamamos pr cio /inal al pr cio *% l cli n, pa$a c%an(o a(*%i r l ar,4c%lo ) s l conoc con l nom+r ( pr cio ( 0 n,a al pF+lico @P#V#P#A
Precio final 6 4ateria prima 7 4ano de obra 7 Gastos amortizacin 7 Gastos generales 7 4argen comercial*

COSTO DE UNA TALADRADORA DE SO?REMESA TALADRO DE 58 VELOCIDADES 88>V POHER TOOL

Cos,o! I 77>#>> Con(ici1n! n% 0o V n( (or! ?CTOOLS Con man(ril ( 'as,a 5;mm con m sa r $%la+l

n al,%ra#

Economa del mecanizado

Gr/ico apro3ima(o n scalas lo$ar4,micas ( l cos, ( m cani.aci1n n /%nci1n ( l nFm ro ( pi .as a m cani.ar por lo, # M*%inas ( con,rol n%m2rico# M*%inas sp cial s o ( ,rans/ r ncia @transfertA#

M*%inas ,ra(icional s#

Los cos, s ( pro(%cci1n ( %na s ri ( pi .as n %na m*%ina"' rrami n,a s (i0i( n n %nos cos, s /i&os ) %nos cos, s por %ni(a( ( pro(%cci1n#

C@nA J Cf@nA K co L n

Don( C (n) s l cos, ( pro(%cci1n ( %na s ri ( n pi .as- Cf (n) s l cos, no pro(%c,i0o ( l proc so para n pi .as- co s l cos, %ni,ario ( op raci1n ) n s l nFm ro ( pi .as pro(%ci(o# El 0alor ( s,as 0aria+l s ( p n( ( l nFm ro ( pi .as ( la s ri # A, n(i n(o a los ,i mpos ( l proc so- l cos, ( pro(%cci1n p% ( anali.ars m (ian, la si$%i n, 3pr si1n!

Don( Ch s l cos, 'orario- incl%) n(o l cos, ( la mano ( o+ra (ir c,a- amor,i.aci1n ( ins,alacion s- man, nimi n,o- ,cM tnp s l ,i mpo no pro(%c,i0o- *% incl%) los ,i mpos ( pr paraci1n ( la m*%ina @,i mpo ( /as AM top s l ,i mpo ( op raci1n- Cf s l cos, ( los /ilos ( cor, - *% s l cos, ( las pla*%i,as n caso ( %,ili.ar pla*%i,as in, rcam+ia+l s- o l cos, ( ,o(a la ' rrami n,a n l caso ( ' rrami n,as n, ri.asM trf s l ,i mpo ( r posici1n ( los /ilos ( cor, M tm s l ,i mpo ( m cani.a(o- s ( cir- l ,i mpo (%ran, l c%al la ' rrami n,a s, cor,an(oM ) T s la (%raci1n o tiempo de vida ( la ' rrami n,a# El cos, 'orario s r ma)or c%an,o ma)or s a l cos, ( amor,i.aci1n ( la m*%ina ) la cali/icaci1n ( la mano ( o+ra# Los proc sos *% %,ili.an m*%inas"' rrami n,a ( con,rol n%m2rico ,i n n %n cos, 'orario s%p rior a los proc sos *% %,ili.an m*%inas con0 ncional s- p ro in/ rior a los proc sos *% %,ili.an m*%inas sp cial s- como las m*%inas ( ,rans/ r ncia @transfertA# En l mismo s n,i(o- los ,i mpos ( pr paraci1n para %n lo, son ma)or s n %na m*%ina ( con,rol n%m2rico *% n %na m*%ina con0 ncional- p% s s n c si,a pr parar la pro$ramaci1n ( con,rol n%m2rico ( las op racion s ( l proc so# Los ,i mpos ( op raci1n son m nor s n %na m*%ina ( con,rol n%m2rico *% n %na m*%ina con0 ncional- por lo c%al- a par,ir ( ci r,o nFm ro ( pi .as n %n lo, - l m cani.a(o s ms con1mico %,ili.an(o l con,rol n%m2rico# Sin m+ar$o- para lo, s $ran( s- l proc so s ms con1mico %,ili.an(o m*%inas sp cial s- como las m*%inas ( ,rans/ r ncia#

Torre de perforacin pozos petrolferos

Bi$%ra N Dia$rama simpli/ica(o ( %na ,orr ( p r/oraci1n ) s% /%ncionami n,o#

El *%ipami n,o asocia(o a %na ,orr ( p r/oraci1n ( p n( al m nos las si$%i n, s par, s!

n par, ( l ,ipo ( ,orr p ro incl%)

5#"Tan*% ( lo(o o Pil ,a 8#"A$i,a(or s ( arcilla 9#"l4n a ( s%cci1n ( la +om+a ( lo(o :#"?om+a ( lo(o 7#"Mo,or ;#" Man$% ra ( la +om+a 6#"Carr , ( l apar &o <#"CaC r4a ( lo(o =#"Man$% ro, 5>#"OOGoos "n cPQQ 55#"Apar &o 58#"Ca+l ( l apar &o 59#"OOCroRn +locPQQ 5:#"Es,r%c,%ra 57#"Piso ( l n$anc'a(or 5;#",iros @9 +arras ( = m ,ros por ca(a ,iro s lo %s%alA 56#"OORacPQQ 5<#"Con 3i1n ( lo(o $ira,oria @ n *%ipos mo( rnos s r mpla.a por l STop Dri0 SA 5=#"+arra ( p r/oraci1n @ro,a &%n,o con la M sa a%n*% p% ( mo0 rs 'acia arri+a ) a+a&o li+r m n, A 8>#"M sa ro,a,i0a @Acciona la +arra ( p r/oraci1nA 85#"Piso ( p r/oraci1n 88#"? ll nippl 89#"Vl0%la @?OPA An%lar 8:#"Vl0%la @?OPsA Ci $a ) ( caC r4a 87#" Sar,a ( p r/oraci1n 8;#"Tr2pano 86#"Ca+ .a ( l OOCasin$QQ 8<#"L4n a ( r ,orno ( lo(o
TREPANOS DE BILO DE DIAMANTES

Este trpano tiene aletas de carburo de tungsteno con pequesimos diamantes incrustados, que le permiten perforar rocas muy duras. Cuando se desgasta el carburo de tungsteno de la superficie de corte, los diamantes gastados caen y dejan paso a otros nuevos.

Es, ,r2pano p r/ora rocas (%ras con (iaman, s na,%ral s incr%s,a(os n /orma %ni/orm so+r las al ,as ( car+%ro ( ,%n$s, no

"r0panos para perforar pozos petrol8feros de diamante

Las ,orr s ( p r/oraci1n son %,ili.a(as para r ali.ar p r/oracion s ( n,r <>> ) ;>>> m ,ros ( pro/%n(i(a( n l s% lo ,an,o ( po.os ( $as- a$%a o p ,r1l o- como as4 ,am+i2n po.os ( 3ploraci1n para anali.ar la $ olo$4a ) +%scar n% 0os )acimi n,os# Incl%si0 s %,ili.an para r ali.ar p r/oracion s ( prosp cci1n o 3plo,aci1n n min r4a c%an(o la pro/%n(i(a( ( l )acimi n,o s%p ra los 57>>m +a&o l ni0 l ( , rr no# C%an(o las p r/oracion s s r ali.an n l mar s,as ,orr s s,n mon,a(as so+r +arca.as con pa,as o +%*% s con con,rol ac,i0o ( s% posici1n r sp c,o ( l /on(o ( l mar ) s ( nominan Pla,a/ormas p ,rol4/ ras# Para p r/orar l po.o! La +roca ( p r/oraci1n- mp%&a(a por l p so ( la sar,a ) las +ri(as so+r lla- pr siona con,ra l s% lo# S +om+ a lo(o ( p r/oraci1n @Tm%(UA ( n,ro ( l caCo ( p r/oraci1n- *% r ,orna por l 3, rior ( l mismo- p rmi,i n(o la r /ri$ raci1n ) l%+ricaci1n ( la +roca al mismo ,i mpo *% a)%(a a l 0ar la roca moli(a# El ma, rial *% r s%l,a ( la p r/oraci1n s mp%&a(o a la s%p r/ici por l lo(o ( p r/oraci1n*% l% $o ( s r /il,ra(o ( imp%r .as ) scom+ros s r +om+ a(o al po.o# R s%l,a m%) impor,an, 0i$ilar posi+l s anormali(a( s n l /l%i(o ( r ,orno- para 0i,ar $olp s ( ari , pro(%ci(os c%an(o la pr si1n so+r la +roca a%m n,a o (ismin%) +r%scam n, # La l4n a o sar,a ( p r/oraci1n s alar$a $ra(%alm n, incorporan(o ca(a 5> m %n n% 0o ,ramo ( caCo n la s%p r/ici # Las %nion s n,r s $m n,os pr s n,an ( s( (os &%n,as para caCos ( m nor (im ,ro- 'as,a c%a,ro n los ma)or s# To(o l proc so s +asa n %na ,orr ( p r/oraci1n *% con,i n ,o(o l *%ipami n,o n c sario para +om+ ar l /l%4(o ( p r/oraci1n- +a&ar ) l 0ar la l4n a- con,rolar las pr sion s +a&o ,i rra# E3,ra r las rocas ( l /l%4(o- ) $ n rar in si,% la n r$4a n c saria para la op raci1n# 9 C.C!$ #E! !$#$

La ma)or par, ( l lo(o *% s %,ili.a n %na p r/oraci1n circ%la n %n ciclo con,in%o! 5# El lo(o s m .cla ) s $%ar(a n l /oso ( lo(o# 8# Una +om+a 3,ra l lo(o ( l /oso ) lo n04a a ,ra02s ( l c n,ro '% co ( la ,%+ r4a ( p r/oraci1n (ir c,o 'acia l po.o# 9# El lo(o sal a ,ra02s ( la ,%+ r4a ( p r/oraci1n- ( s( l /on(o ( l po.o (on( l ,r2pano ( p r/oraci1n ,ri,%ra la roca# :# En,onc s l lo(o comi n.a l 0ia& ( r $r so a la s%p r/ici - arras,ran(o los /ra$m n,os ( roca( nomina(os ( ,ri,os- *% s 'an ( spr n(i(o ( la /ormaci1n por acci1n ( l ,r2pano# 7# El lo(o s%+ a ,ra02s ( l n%lo- l spacio *% 3is, n,r la ,%+ r4a ( p r/oraci1n ) las par ( s ( l po.o# El (im ,ro ,4pico ( %na ,%+ r4a ( p r/oraci1n s ( apro3ima(am n, : p%l$a(as @5> c n,4m ,rosA# En l /on(o ( %na 3ca0aci1n pro/%n(a- l po.o p% ( ll $ar a , n r < p%l$a(as @8> c n,4m ,rosA ( (im ,ro# ;# En la s%p r/ici - l lo(o 0ia&a a ,ra02s ( la l4n a ( r ,orno ( lo(o- %na ,%+ r4a *% con(%c a la .aran(a 0i+ra,oria# 6# Las .aran(as 0i+ra,orias son %na s ri ( r &illas ( m ,al *% 0i+ran ) s %,ili.an para s parar l lo(o ( los ( ,ri,os# El lo(o ca a ,ra02s ( las r &illas ) r $r sa al /oso ( lo(o# <# Los ( ,ri,os ( las rocas s ( sli.an por la ( sli.a(ora ( ( ,ri,os *% s ncar$a ( ( s c'arlos# S $Fn los /ac,or s m (ioam+i n,al s ) o,ras consi( racion s- los ( ,ri,os ( + rn la0ars an, s ( ( s c'ars # Al$%nos ( los ( ,ri,os son 3amina(os por $ 1lo$os *% +%scan in(icios so+r *%2 s lo *% s, s%c (i n(o n la pro/%n(i(a( ( l po.o#

C$N3U!"A :.:!.$G AF.CA LI?ROS#

" ALREDEDOR DE LAS MAQUINAS VHERRAMIENTAS- , rc ra (ici1n GERLING - (i,orial r 0 r, # " HERRAMIENTAS MAQUINAS TRA?AEOS- Hal, r +ar,sc'- (i,orial G or$ R s, rmann# " MECANICO AEUSTADOR @TALADRADORASA# SENATI# INTERNET# " ',,p!// s#RiPip (ia#or$/RiPi/? r+i*%4 " ',,p!//',ml#rincon( l0a$o#com/la",ala(ra(ora#',ml