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& Rome, Vol. 48, No.

2, October 2001 Greece

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CAPTURE OF ANIMALS ROMAN MILITARY


By CHRISTOPHER EPPLETT

BY THE

Although animal spectacles including venationes(wild beast-hunts) were among the most popular spectator events in ancient Rome, relatively little evidence survives concerning the actual infrastructure and organization behind them. The Romans were evidently not so interested in such apparently trivial and uninteresting matters as compared to the excitement of the games themselves. Modern scholars have, on the whole, followed this pattern, devoting far more attention to the animal spectacles staged in Rome and elsewhere than to the means by which the various animals participating in these events were captured and shipped to their ultimate destinations. In this study, however, I would like to focus on the epigraphic and papyrological evidence for the role of the Roman imperial army in obtaining the thousands of animals necessary for these spectacles.' The early beast-hunts of the later Republic appear to have been relatively impromptu affairs, with little of the infrastructure behind the subsequent imperial beast-hunts. The animals exhibited by Republican magistrates were evidently supplied predominantly by their powerful 'contacts' overseas as need required, rather than by established and regular exporters. For example, Sulla was supplied with 100 lions for his spectacle in Rome by his ally King Bocchus of Mauretania.2 Later dynasts like Pompey or Caesar may well have exacted animals as tribute from subject states or conquered foes.3 As the organization of the beast-hunts, like the gladiatorial games, became more formalized in the late Republic, supplying animals became the responsibility of the magistrates putting on a particular show. Therefore, in a well-known example, a candidate for the aedileship, Marcus Caelius Rufus, responsible for producing a venatio in Rome, wrote a series of annoying letters to Cicero requesting a supply of panthers when the latter was governor of Cilicia.4 Although it is likely that Roman troops stationed in provinces like Cilicia were used to capture animals, no specific evidence of such activity in the Republican
period survives.

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After the fall of the Republic, animal spectacles were brought under imperial control, as was much of the necessary infrastructure.S It is during the imperial period that we first find clear evidence of the Roman military's involvement in capturing and transporting exotic animals. A number of contemporary sources suggest that hunting indeed formed an important part of a soldier's duty. For example, the Cestes of Julius Africanus, written between 228 and 231, recommends the capture of wild animals by soldiers as a type of military exercise, giving detailed instructions for the capture of lions in the wild.6 Unfortunately the author does not give instructions concerning medical treatment for soldiers less adept at this exercise! A papyrus found in Egypt attests to the capture of animals for venationesby troops stationed there. It is of course not surprising that such evidence survives from Egypt, since this province was a prime source of arena animals such as hippopotami and crocodiles. The evidence in question consists of a letter dating to the late first or early second century written by a soldier of an auxiliary regiment stationed at Wadi Fawakhir:
Antonius Proculus to Valerianus. Write the note to say that from the month of Agrippina until now we have been hunting all species of wild animals and birds for a year under the orders of the prefects. We have given what we caught to Cerealis and he sent them and all the equipment to you ...7

The fact that Proculus and his colleagues were involved in hunting all sorts of animals for an entire year strongly suggests that they were capturing animals for animal spectacles, rather than for their fellowsoldiers to eat. The latter task would not require a wide variety of animals, since deer and boar appear to have been by far the two principal animals consumed by Roman soldiers.8 It is also unlikely that soldiers would have to report to their superiors about such a mundane activity as capturing game for their diet. The letter rather suggests that various units, at least in Egypt, were assigned by their superiors to capture wild animals, perhaps on a rotating basis, for the games and imperial vivaria (animal-enclosures). It is unclear whether or not these duties were assigned on an ad hocbasis, such as when a large venatio was upcoming in Rome, or were always assigned to at least one unit from year to year. The equipment mentioned in the letter appears to have been the cages, nets, and other necessary implements, which, interestingly enough, were evidently not owned by the unit, but only borrowed from their superiors. The

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addressee of the letter, Valerianus, was apparently a higher government or military official responsible for distributing the equipment to troops assigned to capture animals, and then collecting any animals they subsequently caught. Perhaps there was both a vivarium and central hunting-equipment repository in Alexandria or another major Egyptian city, from which frontier hunts like that recorded in the letter could be organized. The capture of wild animals by Roman troops in Egypt, at a much later date, is also attested to by another letter found in the Fayum. The document, written in the mid-fourth century A.D., records the devastation of crops by a large herd of gazelles (SopKadSa)in the area. At the request of the affected farmers, a local priest wrote to the commander of a nearby detachment of cavalry, Abinnaeus, requesting the use of nets stored at regimental headquarters in order to get rid of the offending beasts. As Bomgardner suggests, the use of nets, rather than spears, indicates that the captured gazelles may have been intended for an upcoming venatio.9Another interesting aspect of this letter is the close cooperation between civilians and the military in capturing various animals for the games, which was evidently not an unusual occurrence.10 Epigraphic evidence also confirms the existence of specialist hunting soldiers in the Roman imperial army. An inscription from Rome dated
to 241 mentions the venatores immunes cum custode vivari, Pontius Verus

and Campanius Verax, both soldiers of the sixth praetorian cohort. The venatoresimmuneswere evidently soldiers who received exemption from certain routine duties in return for undertaking hunting trips. The inscription shows that soldiers could be assigned to the capture or maintenance of animals, and that certain of these soldiers, like Verus and Verax, were evidently promoted to a more supervisory role over Rome's vivarium, presumably because of their previous experience on
the frontiers as venatores immunes.11 Perhaps the praetorian venatores

immunes possessed some authority over their counterparts in the provinces, through whom they were able to procure animals. Another inscription that mentions such venatoresimmunescomes from the city of Montana in Moesia Inferior, a site in present-day Bulgaria. The inscription, dating to 155, mentions the venatoresimmunesJulius Longinus and Flavius Valerius of the Eleventh Legion, which was stationed at that time in Moesia.12 These soldiers may well have been involved in the animal-capturing expedition commemorated by another inscription from Montana dated eight years earlier. This inscription mentions Tiberius Claudius Ulpianus, tribune of the first Cilician

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cohort, as well as vexillations of the First Legion Italica, the Eleventh Legion Claudia, and the classisFlavia Moesia, all of whom were assigned by the governor of Moesia, Claudius Saturninus, to capture bears and bisons for an imperial beast-hunt. This hunt was probably the one put on by Antonius Pius in 148 to celebrate the 900th anniversary of Rome.'3 The fleet was presumably involved in shipping animals down to the mouth of the Danube, at which point larger vessels could transport them to Italy.'4 Bones of both bears and bisons found in the fortress at Montana suggest that the animals may have been kept at the site for some time before being shipped downriver. European bisons may have been a relatively new addition to the imperial venationes,since this inscription mentions these animals for the first time in extant Latin epigraphy.15 Another venator immunis from the Second Parthica Legion, Licinius Valentinus, is known from an inscription found at Albano, site of the legionary fortress.16 Since this legion was stationed near Rome, Licinius, assuming he was involved in animal-capture rather than food-hunting, may have captured animals such as boar in central Italy for games in the capital. Another possibility is that Licinius held the post of venatorin a frontier province before being transferred to Italy. An inscription from Britain attests to the existence of specialized hunters among the legionaries posted there. The inscription, found at Birdoswald on Hadrian's Wall, is dedicated to the god Silvanus by the venatoresBannieses from the camp or vicus of Banna.l7 Although it is theoretically possible that these hunters were involved merely in rounding up provisions, the dedication to Silvanus, as well as the proud use of the term venatorsuggests a more 'glorious' profession. The area beyond Hadrian's Wall would of course be a suitable area to hunt for animals such as the Caledonian bear mentioned by Martial.18 It is also possible that another inscription from northern Britain dedicated to Silvanus may relate to the capture of animals. The inscription records a dedication made by the prefect of the ala Sebosiana, Gaius Minicianus, for capturing a huge boar that had previously escaped other hunters ('. . . ob aprum eximiae formae captum quem
multi antecessores eius praedari non potuerant .
.').19 The fact that the

boar was not slaughtered suggests that it was not intended for the mess hall: it may instead have been sent to a local enclosure to await an upcoming venatio. If the boar had been hunted merely for sport, it again seems odd that it was not simply killed ratherthan captured. Perhaps the antecessores mentioned in the inscription were venatoresimmunes from

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the ala Sebosiana or other units previously assigned by local authorities to capture the animal, which was evidently quite well known in the area because of its massive size.20 Some evidence also exists for military officials associated with the venationesin the eastern empire. An inscription found near Serdica in Thrace records an unnamed individual as a qtAocKV7vyos f3EvEtKtbaptog.21 If the epithet tAhoKvvrlyog does not merely refer to this individual's in fondness for the venationes the arena, or his passion for hunting in the field, it may allude to some duty he performed as beneficiariusin rounding up animals for the spectacles or supervising these activities. Some Roman soldiers were evidently assigned specific hunting duties. Specialized bear-hunters or ursarii are attested in numerous military inscriptions from different areas of the empire, including the German frontier.22The latter area appears to have been particularlyrich in bears in antiquity, judging by an inscription found near Trier dedicated to the bear-goddess Artio.23Le Roux quite reasonably suggests that soldiers may have specialized in the capture of different animals in different regions of the empire: apart from the ursarii hunting bears in the German provinces, we shall see that evidence exists for soldiers hunting the native lion population in the eastern empire.24At least some of the bears captured by the ursariimust have been destined for the venationes, judging from the numerous representations and mentions in the extant literary sources of bears in the beast-hunts.25 A third-century(?) inscription found at Xanten contains a dedication to the god Silvanus by Cessorinius Ammausius, ursariuslegionisXXX. Although Wiedemann suggests that Cessorinius was a venator in the arena, this individual may have been one of the venatores immunes assigned to capturing bears.26 An inscription from nearby Cologne also appears to attest to the activities of these specialist hunters, although it does not specifically mention them by name. The inscription, set up by the legio I Minerva, commemorates the capture of fifty bears within a six-month period by the centurion Tarquitius Restutus Pisauro.27 Von Domaszewski's surmise that these bears were only captured as a form of animal control after they had wandered into Roman territory from the forests of free Germany, because of a particularly harsh winter, is less than convincing.28 The centurion ursarius was more likely sent out, undoubtedly with assistants or soldiers from his own century, on a specific mission to capture bears for the venationes. The mention of a six-month period in the Cologne inscription suggests that specialized hunters within the legion

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may have been given quotas of animals to capture in a preset period; the legio I Minerva set up this inscription because Pisauro had substantially exceeded his quota by capturing fifty bears within the assigned six-month period. It is likely that such long hunting assignments were only meant to be pursued on a part-time basis: it is difficult to imagine Pisauro being granted leave from his duties as centurion for a half-year while he went off and hunted bears. Specialist lion-hunters may also have existed in the Roman army. Given the abundance of wildlife in the vicinity of Dura-Europos, as noted by Ammianus Marcellinus, personnel from its Roman garrison may have been assigned to hunt and capture various animals.29Several of the soldiers from the Twentieth Palmyran Cohort recorded in early third-century troop-rosters at Dura-Europos have the notation ad leones, which suggests that they were responsible either for hunting lions in the area or looking after captured lions in the fort and escorting them for a distance on their way west. The latter function is suggested by the fact that in the fifth century the duces limitis were assigned to providing animals for imperial venationes:this task may have earlierbeen one of the responsibilities of the dux ripcein Dura-Europos.30 Sozomen notes that in the late empire at least, soldiers could indeed be assigned to the care of lions in captivity.31It has been suggested that the notation ad leonesis a place-name ratherthan a troop assignment, which is possible; even if the suggestion is correct, however, this particularplace-name may well have been inspired by the activities (i.e. lion-hunting) of the soldiers stationed
there.32

At this point one should note Davies' suggestion that the capture of animals carried out by ursarii and lion-hunters was primarily for the purpose of providing uniforms: signiferi, aquiliferi, imaginiferi, and cornicinesare known to have worn both bear and lion-skins as part of their uniforms.33According to Davies, if there were hunters in the army who specialized in capturing specific types of animals, one would expect to find such terms as luparius and leonarius in the extant sources.34 Davies' reasoning in this instance seems flawed in at least two respects. Wolves were evidently not commonly involved in Roman venationes,so we should not expect to find in any case luparii in the military. In addition, although leonarii are not mentioned in the extant sources, soldiers assigned ad leonesare, which would appear to be very nearly the same thing. The Dura-Europos troop roster records seven signiferiin the cohors XXPalmyrenorum for the year 219, and four for the year 222. The same

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number of troops assigned ad leonesis recorded for each of these years: in 219, five infantry and two horsemen participated in the hunt, while in 222 the hunting party consisted of three infantry and a single horseman.35Although both of these groups were quite small, over the course of a year it is possible they, along with any civilian assistants they may have had, could capture far more lions than the signiferiand the other officers of the cohort would need for their uniforms. Although it is possible that excess lion-skins could have been sent from Dura-Europos to other military detachments throughout the empire, it is more likely that live lions captured by hunters were sent to Rome and other larger centres for the venationes.After the lions had been slain their skins could be easily removed and then sent to military units throughout the empire. Since the meat of animals slain in the venationeswas distributed to the populace in Rome, it should not surprise us if the skins of dead animals were also used.36 A controversial inscription from North Africa may record the capture of lions by Roman troops. The inscription comes from Agueneb, located on the south flank of the Atlas mountains in present-day Algeria, and records the presence there in 174 of troops drawn from the cohors VI Commagenorumand the ala Flavia.37 These units in turn were normally attached to the legio III Augusta stationed in Lambaesis, some 400 kilometres east of where this inscription was found.38 The dedicator of the inscription, a centurion of the legion named Catulus, thanks the current governor of Numidia, Marcus Aemilius Macer, for obtaining his admission to the legionary ranks from his prior post of
cavalry decurion ('. . . eo die ex decurione sum promotus . . . Catulus

III Aug . .'). (centurio)[leg(ionis)] Catulus received this promotion because of the successful completion of a mission whose ultimate objective is uncertain. The assignment was obviously military in nature; for assisting him in this undertaking, Catulus thanks two decurions, a beneficiarius,a duplarius, and four A possible clue to the purpose of this mission is provided sesquiplicarii.
at line 12, which begins: '. .. laeones [in] diebus XLf. .'.

Picard restores the lost word starting with 'f as fecit, and conjectures that Catulus had lion statues made as offerings to the god Thasunus (Saturn), to whom the second part of the inscription is dedicated. To support this view, Picard cites other inscriptions in which the dedicator offers statues to Saturn: rock-carvings of lions found in the region of Agueneb, are also seen by Picard as 'lion-offerings' to the god.39 Picard surmises that Catulus and his comrades may have been involved in a

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punitive expedition against nomads from the Moroccan plateau south of the Atlas mountains, such as the Gaetuli.40 Other scholars, such as Mommsen and von Petrikovits, maintain that the inscription refers to an expedition undertaken by Roman troops to capture lions.41Mommsen, in CIL, restores the word beginning with 'f as ferii, thereby making the inscription refer to live, 'fierce' lions rather than statues of them. Picard's arguments for stating that the inscription records the dedication of lions sculptures to Saturn do appear rather weak; none of the other inscriptions he uses as supporting evidence for his theory actually mention the dedication of such lion statues to Saturn, and the local rock sculptures he suggests were such offerings may have been purely secular pieces of decorative artwork.The lion rock-carvings Picard cites as evidence for his interpretation may simply testify to the large population of lions to be found in the Atlas mountains in antiquity, which was seriously depleted by the Romans. Only a few of these animals remain in the region today.42 Although a Roman raid against Saharan nomads is certainly plausible, given the problems the latter often caused for the Roman administration in Africa, if the mission really was a punitive expedition against some troublesome tribesmen, it is curious that no legionary detachments were sent: only units of the cohors VI Commagenorum and the ala Flavia are recorded in the text. The expedition in question was in fact quite small in scale. In contrast to other inscriptions commemorating successful large-scale expeditions, so large that the dedicant cannot go into great detail about what units or officers may have participated, Catulus lists seven officers who assisted him (hi iuvantes) in this mission. Catulus may well have been more than just a participant in this expedition, perhaps its actual commander, who thoughtfully thanked all of the subordinate officers assigned to him on this mission. They were evidently sent with only a small body of troops, some of whom were possibly venatoresimmunes.43 Another group associated with the capture of animals may have been the vestigiatores, who, according to Varro, were trackers of wild animals.44 The Cestes of Julius Africanus apparently refers to such specialists in the army; in a section devoted to the proper technique of lion-capture to be used by the army, Africanus mentions that the animal's lair must first of all be located by the trackers specializing in large felines ('. .. . ot[ Tcv ahKtLLV LtXvEv7a . . .,).45 A sigillata fragment from the fort of Zugmantel in Germany's Taunus Mountains attests to the presence there of such vestigiatores. The fragment in question bears the potter's stamp DEXTER as well as the scratched inscription

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vesstigiatorum.This group was active in at least the second half of the second century, since that is the period when the potter Dexter produced his wares. As Egger states, the vestigiatoresat Zugmantel undoubtedly assisted venatoresimmunesalso stationed there in procuring as many animals as possible for the local governor's vivarium.46 The Taunus region in northern Germany is likely to have been rich in wild animals, such as bears and boars. Given the presence of vestigiatoresat Zugmantel, it does not appear unreasonable to assume that specialist hunters such as ursarii were posted there as well. A bear-trap found at the fort supports this conjecture.47 Conversely, Wahl has suggested that the single vestigiator pottery fragment from Zugmantel, along with what he sees as a lack of evidence for a vivarium at the site, may indicate that the vestigiatoreswere not actually posted at Zugmantel, but merely passed through there on the and venatoresin the army may course of their rounds: both vestigiatores have travelled around to various forts during their hunting expeditions, rather than operate from a single base. Such a theory would also explain the inscription set up at Birdoswald on Hadrian's Wall by venatoresfrom another nearby garrison.48 A first- or second-century papyrus fragment, whose place of origin is unfortunately unknown, also attests to the presence of vestigiatoresin Roman Egypt.
'MapKos Ka'Tafrlvat
oJt-LEpOV
To

'IovuAhL

-tln a3eAX(C

xaiPEiv.

KaAChs 7TO?7UEls

is

T7jV

avptovv

LOLv o
[siC].

Ko0[LtaTo(v)

Kal raxEcwS
7rtTaKKIOV

aLv7fLdvat.
IS

E7Tre7tJd sOL KaL Eppcaaot.'

ta TOV OUeoaTyadTropo

dAAa dmrtes

r-TV avptov.

The document consists of a letter to a brother, in which a oveUTLyaTcWp is mentioned. Although there is no firm evidence that the brothers in the letter were members of the army, the vestigiatorwas likely a soldier. The use of a Latin term transliterated into Greek (ovecrLtydaopos) for this person, instead of e.g. t'vevr7s, suggests that the word was a military designation, not civilian. The two brothers in this letter were evidently acting as intermediaries in shipping the vestigiator's captured quarry to points and persons unknown. Mention is made of receiving supplies (KoG'aTov), presumably
for a trip either on the Nile or the Mediterranean ('. .. .Karaf7jvat
Kat
raXucos avr7LvaL . . .'). The letter also records a receipt and other necessaries(?), evidently passed on from the vestigiatorto the brothers

ro ove-rttairopoS ('. . . 8tad

. ..

AAha ErrtEs . ..

TOTTL7TaKKLOV . ..).

They

were presumably instructed to pass on the receipt to the vestigiator's

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superiors after the animals they transported had reached their intended destination.50 Although the identity of the animals implied by the papyrus cannot be determined, it seems plausible, given that an army vestigiatorwas involved in the transaction, that wild animals were being requisitioned for official purposes, perhaps for an upcoming venatio. After various animals had been captured, they would have to be kept in animal-enclosures (vivaria), before being shipped to their ultimate destinations. An inscription found in Germany suggests that units of the Roman army may have maintained their own vivaria. The inscription comes from Cologne, and concerns a dedication to Diana from a certain Aulus Titius Severus, centurion of the Sixth Legion, who '. .. idemque vivarium saepsit'.51Although, as Toynbee states, this vivarium could theoretically have been for 'commissariat use', the dedication to the goddess of hunting and wild animals Diana, as well as the evident pride of the soldier in enclosing this structure, suggest a more important purpose for this building.52 Cologne's central position on the Rhine would make it an ideal 'collecting point' for animals captured in and beyond the two German provinces before their shipment elsewhere, especially since it was the headquarters of the classis Germanicaafter 89 A.D.53 Interestingly enough, the individual mentioned in the inscription shares the rank of centurion with other soldiers involved in the rounding up of animals for the games, such as the custodesvivarii of the Praetorian Guard in Rome; although the number of inscriptions concerning military hunting on the frontiers is limited, the majority of them indeed name such officers. If the evidence from these few inscriptions is valid, centurions were considered to be the ideal officers for supervising the relatively small groups of soldiers involved in such hunting expeditions.54 Archaeological evidence found at Zugmantel and Dambach suggests that these two sites may have also had their own enclosures for captured animals.55The circular enclosure excavated at the Lunt fort in England has also been interpreted, among other possibilities, as an animal-pen of some sort.56Jennison's suggestion that frontier forts with amphitheatres may well have all possessed their own vivaria for captured animals may be something of an exaggeration, but certainly a substantial number of military animal-enclosures must have existed in frontier provinces throughout the empire in order to keep the various imperial and local
venationes well supplied.57

Other evidence suggests that some cities in the empire may have possessed animal-enclosures administered by Roman troops, much like

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the vivarium of the Praetorian Guard in Rome. The existence of at least an amphitheatrumcastrensein Carthage is suggested by the account of Perpetua's martyrdom in the early third century, which refers to the event as a munus castrense.More specifically, the chronicle of Prosper
Tiro records that Perpetua and Felicitas were '. . . in castris bestiis

deputatae.'58 Presumably, if troops in Carthage administered this spectacle, they may well have also looked after the animals employed in such an event. Sozomen records a certain Arcasius, of Persian stock, who during the reign of Licinius(?) served in the Roman military as keeper of

the imperiallions ('.

.. .(TpaTtwTov

. . 07poKoLov

T()V fIaCLtAtKWV AEO'VTCV

.. .).59 The lions under the care of Arsacius were presumably kept in an

imperial vivarium similar to that known at Rome. The foregoing evidence, although not abundant, gives a good impression of the important role Roman troops played in the preparations for imperial animal-spectacles. Venatoresand vestigiatorescould be assigned to capture the various beasts used in these events, while other members of the military were involved in supervising them once they had been caught. The epigraphical evidence for this activity, stretching from northern Britain to the Euphrates river, suggests just how widespread the capture of animals was. Given the thousands of wild animals said to have been slaughtered in imperial venationes,as well as those used for other purposes by the Romans, this should hardly
surprise us.
NOTES 1. Different versions of this paper were presented at the 1999 Classical Association of Canada conference at Laval University, as well as the 2000 UNC-Duke Graduate Student conference, 'The Animal in Antiquity', held at the University of North Carolina. I would like to thank the participants at both conferences for their helpful criticism and comments. I would also like to thank faculty members of the Department of Classics, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies at the University of British Columbia who read the paper and offered helpful suggestions. 2. Seneca, De Brevitate Vitae 13.6: Pliny, HN 8.20: J. M. C. Toynbee, Animals in Roman Life and Art (Baltimore, 1996), 17. 3. F. Bertandy, 'Remarques sur le commerce des betes sauvages entre l'Afrique du Nord et l'Italie', MEFRA 99 (1987), 229. 4. Cic. Fam. 2.11.2; 8.6.5; 8.8.10; 8.9.3: Att. 6.1.21: Toynbee (n. 2), 20. 5. Note, for example, the procuratorad elephantosin charge of the imperial elephant herd at Laurentum in the Julio-Claudian period: See ILS 1578: Toynbee (n. 2), 47. 6. Julius Africanus, Cestes 14: H. I. Marrou, 'Sur deux mosaiques de la villa romaine de Piazza et de pastrisque(Rome, Armerina', Christiana Tempora: melangesd'histoire,d'archeologie, d'epigraphie 1978), 273-4. Various pieces of artistic evidence also confirm the role of the Roman army in capturing wild animals, the most famous being the 'Great Hunt' mosaic from the villa at Piazza Armerina. 7. R. Davies, Service in the Roman Army (Edinburgh, 1989), 193. 8. Davies (n. 7), 193.

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9. D. L. Bomgardner, 'The Trade in Wild Animals for Roman Spectacles: A Green Perspective', Anthropozoologica(1992), 163: H. Bell, V. Martin, et al., The AbinnaeusArchive:Papers of a Roman Officerin the Reign of ConstantiusII (Oxford, 1962), 44-6, n. 6. 10. Another letter from the Abinnaeus archive [Bell et al. (n. 9), 81-3, n. 31] also suggests such close cooperation. A certain Thareotes, evidently a civilian, wrote to Abinnaeus, informing him that he would be bringing hunters to make nets in March. In preparation for their arrival,Abinnaeus was to make ready the cords of hemp. 11. CIL 6, 130: P. Sabbatini Tumolesi, Epigrafia anfiteatrale dell'OccidenteRomano: I. Roma (Rome, 1988), 26. 12. CIL 3, 7449: V. Velkov and G. Alexandrov, '"Venatio Caesariana":Eine neue Inschrift aus Montana (Moesia Inferior)', Chiron 18 (1988), 274-5. 13. Velkov and Alexandrov (n. 12), 271-3. 14. Velkov and Alexandrov (n. 12), 274. It has been suggested [O. Bounegru and M. Zahariade, Les ForcesNavales du Bas Danube et de la Mer Noire aux Ier-VIe Siecles (Oxford, 1996), 42] that the animals would be transported to Rome across the Adriatic but, despite being shorter, this route would of necessity involve some overland travel, which the Romans would be likely to avoid if at all possible. 15. Velkov and Alexandrov (n. 12), 274-5. 16. AE (1975), 160. 17. ILS 3548. 18. Spect. 7, 3. It has been suggested that the circular enclosure at the Lunt fort, possibly a vivarium, may have been used to hold captive bears. Bears in the past may have been relatively numerous in the area of the Lunt, as judged, for instance, by the bear on Coventry's coat-of-arms: private communication, M. Rylatt, Site Director, Lunt Roman Fort. 19. ILS 3625. The use of the term praedari indicates that the boar was captured, rather than killed: see P. Le Roux, 'Le amphitheatre et le soldat sous l'Empire romain', Spectacula 1 (1990), 210-11. 20. However, see Davies (n. 7), 193, who thinks the boar was hunted merely for sport. 21. I. Robert, Les Gladiateursdans l'Orient Grec (Amsterdam, 1971), 322-3. 22. Velkov and Alexandrov (n. 12), 273-4. 23. 0. Kleeman 'Eine neuenteckte Barenjagdschale', BJ 163 (1963), 206. 24. Le Roux (n. 19), 211. 25. cf. Le Roux (n. 19), 211. and Gladiators(New York, 1995), 45. 26. AE (1901), 72; T. Wiedemann, Emperors 27. CIL 13, 8174: Kleeman (n. 23), 206. 28. Kleeman (n. 23), 206. 29. M. I. Rostovtzeff, Excavations at Dura Europos III: The Palace of the Dux Ripae and the Dolicheneum(New Haven, 1952), 47-8: For the lion killed at the ruins of Dura, see Amm. Marc. 23, 5, 7. 30. C. B .Welles et al., The Excavations at Dura Europos:Final Report V, Part I (New Haven, 1959), 41: Rostovtzeff (n. 29), 48-9: for the duces limitis see Cod. Theod. 15, 11, 1-2. 31. Sozom. Hist. Eccl. 4, 16, 6. 32. Davies (n. 7), 249, n. 104. 33. Davies (n. 7), 170. 34. Davies (n. 7), 280, n. 92. 35. Davies (n. 7), 44, 170. 36. For the distribution of 'arena meat' in Rome, see D. Kyle, Spectaclesof Death in AncientRome (London, 1998), 189-94. 37. CIL 8, 21567: C. Picard, CastellumDimmidi (Paris, 1944), 58-9. 38. A. Schulten, 'Legio III Augusta', RE 12.2 (Stuttgart, 1925), 1497: Picard (n. 37), 59-60. 39. Picard (n. 37), 58, n. 47. 40. Picard (n. 37), 60. 41. H. von Petrikovits, 'Die Spezialgebaude r6mischer Legionslager', Das r6mischeRheinland: Forschungenseit 1945 (Cologne, 1960), 241. archdologische 42. J. D. Hughes, Pan's Travail: Environmental Problems of the Ancient Greeks and Romans (Baltimore, 1996), 106. 43. Since some immunesin the Roman army appear to have received higher than normal pay, the

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BY THE ROMAN

MILITARY

duplarius and/or the sesquiplicariimentioned in the inscription could theoretically have been specialist venatoresimmunes:see Y. Le Bohec, The ImperialRoman Army (London, 1994), 47. 44. Varro, Ling. 5.94. Vestigiatores were also active in the civilian sphere: see R. Egger, 'Aus romischen Grabinschriften', Sitzungsberichtder isterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaft252.3 (1967), 19-20. 45. Julius Africanus, Cestes 14: Marrou (n. 6), 273-4. 46. Egger (n. 44), 20. 47. Davies (n. 7), 280, n. 92. 48. J. Wahl, 'Gladiatorenhelm-Beschlage vom Limes', Germania55 (1977), 128-9. 49. E. KieBling, Sammelbuch Urkundenaus Agypten 6:2 (Wiesbaden, 1960), n. 9272. griechischer 50. Davies (n. 7), 155-6. 51. IL 3265. 52. Toynbee (n. 2), 345-6, n. 30. Recent research suggests that game such as bear and boar did not constitute a large part of the average Roman soldier's diet, again suggesting that vivaria such as that in Cologne were not primarily connected with the army's food supply: see, for example, M. Junkelmann,Panis Militaris (Mainz, 1997), 164-5; J. Peters, Rimische Tierhaltung und Tierzucht (Rahden, 1998), 288. 53. C. M. Ternes, Rimisches Deutschland(Stuttgart, 1986), 235. 54. Wahl (n. 48), 129. Another inscription from the Antonine period [AE (1973), 39] records a centurion who '. .. habuit uiuar[ium et curam?]supra iumenta [Caesaris]'. 55. Davies (n. 7), 286, n. 43. 56. N. C. W. Bateman, 'The London Amphitheatre: Excavations 1987-1996', Britannia 28 (1997), 75. 57. G. Jennison, Animalsfor Show and Pleasurein Ancient Rome (Manchester, 1937), 141. 58. Passio Perpetuae 7.9: MGH: Chronica Minora 1.434, n. 757: D. L. Bomgardner, 'The Carthage Amphitheatre: A Reappraisal', AJA 93 (1989), 89, n. 21. 59. Sozom. Hist. Eccl. 4.16.6.

NOTES

ON CONTRIBUTORS

P. J. RHODES: Professor of Ancient History at Durham University. CLAIRE TAYLOR: postgraduate student, Trinity Hall, Cambridge. JUDITH TACON: after finishing an M.Phil. course in Cambridge is now working as an accountant in London. FRISBEE C. C. SHEFFIELD: (till October) postdoctoral research fellow at Bristol University; (from October) research fellow, Girton College, Cambridge. CHRISTOPHER EPPLETT: teaches Greek and Roman history in the Department of History at the University of Lethbridge.