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Introduction to Fluid Sampling & Analysis

Chris Batzer
Europe Learning Center November, 2009

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2009 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. (09-TS-0149 template) An asterisk is used throughout this presentation to denote a mark of Schlumberger. Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.

Course Objectives / Contents


Introduction to Fluid Sampling & Analysis
Why do we sample? Where does it fit in the big picture?

Introduction to PVT Measurements Introduction to PVT Sampling Sampling Technology / Equipment Summary of Wellsite Fluid Analyses

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Onshore Services
PVT Software PVT

Wellsite Services

PVT Equipment Products MDT Transfers Routine PVT


HP/HT IOR Solids

Chemistry & Trace Element Wellsite Analysis


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Cased Hole PVT Laboratory Analysis


Sampling & Analysis

Bottomhole Sampling Open Hole

Fluid Properties Consultancy

Surface Sampling Separator Isokinetic Dead Crude

Project Management EOS Modelling

Who are Oilphase?


1989 - Formed in Aberdeen servicing the North Sea 1996 - Acquired by Schlumberger SLBs previous PVT labs merged into Oilphase 2002 - Acquired DBR Group of Companies (mainly fluid analysis business, next slide) Major Technology Developments:
- 1989 Conventional and Single-phase Sample bottles - 1990 SRS Slickline conveyed Single-phase sampler - 1998 SPMC Single-phase sampling with Wirelines MDT - 1999 SCAR DST Sampler Carrier - 2003 PVT Express onsite PVT Analysis - 2006 CPS Compact Production Sampler - 2008 PhaseSampler Vx (MPFM) Sampling probe - 2009 RealView (OSDC)
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Who are DBR ?


Company formed by Dr. Donald B. Robinson in 1980 Located Edmonton & Houston (prior to acquisition)
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Well respected in Reservoir Fluid community Vast knowledge and experience (i.e. Peng-Robinson Equation) Services: studies - Laboratory PVT and advanced fluids /solids

- Manufacture HT/HP Mercury free PVT equipment - PVT software design - Research & Development

Our Vision - From Reservoir to Results


To be recognised as the market leader in reservoir fluid sampling
and analysis by offering outstanding service and differentiating technology
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To combine our phase behaviour and sampling skills to provide our clients with solutions where others offer data

Fluid Sampling & Analysis Training


Oilphase-DBR Field Specialists / Engineers are trained in : Open-Hole (WFT) Bottomhole Sampling Cased-Hole (DST) Bottomhole Sampling Surface and Wellhead Sampling Dangerous Goods (Air / Sea) Reservoir Fluid Phase Behaviour PVT Lab & Compositional Analysis PVT Express (wellsite analysis) H2S, CO2, Hg, Rn, etc. in Gas stream , , emulsions (H2O-in-oil) in Oil stream Water chemistry techniques (oil-in-H2O), anion/cation comp, cond., pH, etc.

Xpert Fluid Sampling

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Xpert Fluid Analysis

Xpert Wellsite Chemistry

Why Do We Sample?
Fluid property data is needed to: Help describe the reservoir Predict reservoir fluid behavior Assist in development planning Assess the environmental impact Evaluate economic potential
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The Big Picture


Obtaining accurate PVT and fluid property data an important component of well testing campaign Data must be representative of the reservoir fluid Quality of the data is highly dependent on the quality of the samples

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When Do We Need to Sample?


As early in the life of the reservoir as possible
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Before depletion below saturation pressure has occurred

Why? For oil gas breaks out For gas liquid drops out
* The GOR and compositions need to be representative of the true reservoir fluid.

What Type of Sample Do We Need?


A reservoir fluid sample that is representative of zone of interest.
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This means: A pressurized fluid Oil with all the gas in solution Gas with heavy ends in the vapor phase

Sample Quality
Sample Quality is dependent on:

The reservoir (timing)


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Well conditioning Sampling methods, equipment & operating procedures

Where Should We Sample From?

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Downhole, as close to the formation as possible, wherever reservoir and well conditions permit

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Introduction to PVT Measurements

What Is PVT Analysis?


The study of reservoir fluid samples under varying conditions of Pressure(p), Volume(V) and Temperature(T)
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Temperature is normally held constant at reservoir temperature Pressure and Volume are varied Measurement of: - physical properties
- composition

p-V-T Diagram of a PURE Substance

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pVT Experiment (simple, un-natural synthetic mixture)

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CCE for Gas Condensate


(realistic view of a typical gas-condensate reservoir fluid)

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P1

P2 < P1

P3 < P2

P4 < P3

P5 < P4

P6 < P5

P-T Diagram of a Low Shrinkage Oil


Initial Reservoir Conditions (Pi, Ti) Bubble Point at Tres MPFM (Vx) Conditions

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Separator conditions Tank Conditions

Fluid Categories Table From McCain


Initial Producing GOR (scf/sbbl) Initial Stock Tank Liquid Gravity(API) Stock Tank Liquid Color Phase Change in Reservoir C7+ mol % Oil FVF at Pb

Black Oil Volatile Oil

Retrograde Gas

Wet Gas

Dry Gas

< 1750

1750 - 3200 3200 - 15000

> 15000

No liquid
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< 25

< 40

> 40

Up to 70

No liquid

Dark

Colored

Lightly colored Dew point

Water white No phase change <4

No liquid

Bubble point > 20 <2

Bubble point 20 12.5 >2

No phase change < 0.7

< 12.5

Process in the PVT Laboratory


PVT analysis is performed in a specialised laboratory and normally follows these general steps;
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Quality Check Recombination/Restoration Compositional Analysis PVT Analysis Viscosity Measurement Report generation and QC

Flowchart For Laboratory Process


BHS, WHS Surface liquid validation composition recombination reservoir fluid sample gas volatile oil CCE CVD CVD or DL lab separator tests DL black oil Surface gas
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Sample Validation (Quality Check)


Separator Samples
Gas Sample - Composition (including air content)
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- Opening pressure Oil Sample - Bubble Point - GOR - Composition - Opening pressure Oil and Gas composition are recombined mathematically (using the separator GOR) to give reservoir fluid composition (exceptions for saturated reservoirs). Note: If the samples contain water, this would be removed as part of the validation check.

Sample Validation (Quality Check)


Monophasic Samples
Bubble Point (Pb) - Compare to flowing or sampling pressure - 3 samples compared - Pb should be less than sampling pressure Opening Pressure - Compare to sample data sheet Sample Flash - GOR - Compositions - 3 samples compared
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Sampling Theory

Factors Affecting Technique Choice


Type of analysis to be conducted Volume required for analysis Quality of results required Type of fluid to be sampled Surface facilities & well completion Environmental Concerns

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What Type of Samples Do We Collect? (1/4)


Bottomhole Samples
Always first choice where reservoir and well conditions permit Uncontaminated fresh reservoir fluid collected close to the perforations Samples maintained above reservoir pressure
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What Type of Samples Do We Collect? (2/4)


Wellhead Samples
Possible when conditions allow: Psat < WHP at WHT Collected Upstream of the choke manifold Not suitable for Flow Assurance studies (wax/asphaltenes)
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What Type of Samples Do We Collect? (3/4)


Surface Recombination Samples

Matched sets of equilibrated separator gas and liquid


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- Captured at the same time - Usually taken as back-up PVT samples (under-saturated reservoirs) - Can be used as the main PVT samples (saturated reservoirs) Quality dependant on: Separator stability GOR accuracy Sampling technique

What Type of Samples Do We Collect? (4/4)


Dead Oil and Water

Collected at Stock Tank or atmospheric conditions

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Oil Samples captured from Gauge Tank or Oil line

Water samples captured from separator water line

Collected when large volumes are required

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Sampling & Analysis Technology

Single-phase Sampling
History Single-phase Reservoir Sampler (SRS) developed by Oilphase in 1989 Became the industry benchmark for Cased Hole Bottomhole Sampling
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Single-Phase Multi-sample Chamber (SPMC) developed in 1998 Industry first Single-phase Open-hole Bottomhole sampler Why? Temperature reduction from TRes to TAmb causes sample pressure to drop below PSat Pressure Drop below PSat causes compositional changes How does it work? Nitrogen charge increases sample pressure above PRes Pressure drops on return to surface but not below PRes

Single-phase Sampling

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Open Hole Sampling Equipment

MDT Communication With Reservoir

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Typical MDT Configurations


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SPMC - Single-phase Multi-sample Chamber


Single Phase sampler for MDT Nitrogen compensation Self Closing downhole Specifications: Sample Volume = 250 cc MWP = 20,000 psig MWT = 179C Sour Service

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Monophasic vs Conventional Technology


Monophasic
Singleingle-Phase Multiulti-Chamber: 250 cc Sample Volume 20,000 psi MWP / 400 degF MWT 350 degF Max transfer temp. Maintains sample above reservoir pressure using Nitrogen pressure compensation Transferred to Single-phase Sample Bottle for transportation

Conventional
MDT Petroleum Sample Receptacle:
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450 cc sample volume 20,000 psi MWP / 400 degF MWT 212 degF Max transfer temp. DOT Transportable

MDT Sample Transfer Equipment (MSTE)


Designed to Validate, Recombine and transfer Large Volume MDT Chambers Bubble Point Determination Suitable for 1 & 2 Gallon, MPSR, SPMC 20,000 psig MWP Heating up to 76C (170F) Synthetic Oil / Water / Nitrogen Systems

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MRSS Capabilities
Overall 5 OD 25,000 psig, 400F MSB 600 cc Sample Bottles 3 per module Transportable (UK, DOT, TC) and storable Single Phase Zero dead volume Self Closing Validation Cell 100 cc Onsite Validation PVT Express, OBM contamination
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MDT Sampler Comparison


MRSC 1 Gal Sample Pressure Volume Single Phase Heating Transportable Storable Dead Volume 20kpsi 3785cc N 76C N N Y MRMS MPSR 20kpsi 450cc N 100C Y N Y SPMC 20kpsi 250cc Y 200C N N Y MSB 25kpsi 600cc Y 200C Y Y N MRSS MSV 25kpsi 100cc Y 200C Y Y N
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Cased Hole Sampling Equipment

Typical Well Test Sequence


P
Ph Initial flow 5 min Initial S.I. 1 hr 1st flow, 32/64th Clean up (adj.choke) gradually to 64/64th Surface Sampling 2nd flow 64/64th Final S.I. For pressure Build-up Flow on 8/64th (BHS + SS) Kill well POOH
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Determination of the best choke (no depletion)

Fixed choke Thru separator Surface Sampling

At surface

Wireline/Slickline vs DST Conveyed Sampling

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SRS - Single-phase Reservoir Sampler


Downhole tool for Cased Hole sampling Nitrogen Compensation Conveyed by Slickline, Wireline, Sampler Carrier, etc.
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Specifications: Sample Volume = 600cc Length = 13ft 7 / 4.14m OD = 1.75 MWP = 15,000 psig MWT = 200C Sour Service

DRS - Digital Recording Sampler


Module added to a standard SRS Memory gauge installed to record internal pressure of SRS Allows accurate validation: - Sampling Time - P&T of sample from reservoir to sample bottle

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CPS - Compact Production Sampler


The CPS is electrically actuated and

can be integrated into any Schlumberger production logging operation. Specifications: Sample Volume = 100cc MWP = 10,000 psig MWT = 150C Sour Service

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DST Sampler Carrier - SCAR


DST Carrier for SRS & SLS Samplers activated by annulus pressure - Rupture Disc - IRIS: IFST-D & IFSM - each slot can run samplers or gauges SCAR-A = 7.75OD (2.25 ID) - 6 x SRS(600cc), 10,000 psi SCAR-B = 5.5OD (2.25 ID) - 8 x SLS(300cc), 15,000 psi SCAR-H = 7.75OD (3.5 ID, large bore) - 10 x SLS(300cc), 10,000 psi

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Slim-Line Sampler (SLS)


Smaller ID version of the SRS tool to run inside the SCAR-B or SCAR-H to help maintain a concentric tubing ID. Sample Chamber = 300 cc Rupture disc or IRIS operated MWP = 15,000 psig MWT = 177 C OD = 1.2 inch Sour Service

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SCAR Applications
HP/HT wells, H2S wells and Deepwater To avoid a high-pressure Wireline rig-up, avoid the release of H2S during Wireline rig-up and avoid Wireline in the hole during an emergency subsea disconnection
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Heavy oil wells To avoid the difficulty of running samplers in high viscosity fluids Reservoirs close to saturation pressure To avoid costly wireline intervention where there is uncertainty about the well flowing conditions and consequently some risk of not collecting representative samples Sampling with well shut it Environmental Concerns Non-emission testing To avoid hydrocarbon flow to surface

SCAR Sampler Activation


Rupture Disc Trigger (RDT)
Applications Simple DST strings PVT sampling at a single flow rate or limited number intervals

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IRIS Fired Sample Module (IFSM)


Applications Casing pressure limitations PVT sampling at various flow rates Complex DSTs with numerous pressure-operated downhole tools

Typical IRIS Pressure Pulse Command


600

Pu lse a t su r fa ce

A p p lie d p um p p r e ssu r e (p si)


0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Tim e (m in ) Pu lse Do w n h o le
5000

Pr e ssu r e se e n b y to o l (p si)
4400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Tim e (m in )

Separator Sampling
Three(3) phase separation Phases in equilibrium at separator conditions (P&T) Oil & Gas recombined in PVT Lab at Sep. GOR

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Sampling Points
Oil Sample : Start of Oil line, upstream of the meters OR the manifold at the bottom of the oil-gas sight glass. Gas Sample : Highest point on gas line, closest to the outlet OR on the vertical section of gas line, w/ pitot tube inserted to the middle of the pipe.
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Gas Outlet Meter Run Orifice Plate Separator Demister

Oil Production Line Oil Dump Valve

Water Production Line

Water Dump Valve

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Sample Bottles

Conventional Sample Bottle (CSB)


Positive Displacement Operation Sample Agitation Ring Mercury (Hg) Free Valves Incorporated in End caps Minimal Dead Volume Used for Separator Oil Samples Specifications: Volume = 700 cc (600 cc max sample) MWP = 10,000 - 15,000 psig MWT = 200C Sour Service DOT & TC approved

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Single-phase Sample Bottle (SSB)


Same sample chamber as CSB Transport of Single Phase samples without pressure drop 60cc Nitrogen Gas Cap
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Specifications 700cc Sample Chamber (600cc max sample) 120cc Nitrogen Chamber MWP = 10,000 25,000 psig MWT = 200C Sour Service DOT & TC Approved

Gas Sample Bottle (GSB)


Manufactured by Luxfer Made from Aluminium Vacuumed to 1mbar Specifications: Volume = 20 Ltr MWP = 2,900 psi @ 60C Sour Service

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Dead Oil and Water Sampling


Only use UN approved drums, cans and bottles Oil Metal containers Water plastic or glass containers

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Transportation of Samples
Pressurised samples are only to be transported in Sample Bottles All bottles must have valid 5 year Pressure Certification All bottles must be approved for the country of destination and for the type of fluid e.g. DOT for USA TC for Canada ALL Dangerous Goods must be declared for Air, Sea and Land transport To ensure that all the transportation chain know what dangerous goods they are transporting So they know to properly load and handle them So they know what to do if an incident or accident occurs either in-flight, at sea or on the ground.

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Wellsite Analysis Services


pVT Analysis (PVT Express), see other presentations for more detail. OBM contamination (PVT Express, GC or FFA) H2S in Liquid and Gas (UOP 212-77) Mercury in gas (Sir Galahad) Radon in gas analysis Water Analysis (pH, Chloride, alkalinity, cations, anions, etc.)

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