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1. , .] In 8:8, 8:10 the Seer
witnesses the fall of a star; now he sees only a star lying where it fell (). Cf.
Isa. 14:12 ; Lc. 10:18
. As the sequel shews, this fallen Star represents a
person, possibly Satan, as a comparison of Lc. l.c. with Apoc. 12:9 may suggest. For a
personification of the stars comp. Jud. 5:20 ; for the
image of the fallen star see Enoch 88:1.
] is the usual equivalent in

the LXX. of ,
, whether in the sense of deep waters (Gen. 1:2, 7:11, Ps. 105.
(106.) 9, 106. (107.) 26), or in reference to the depths of the earth (Ps. 70. (71.) 21
; cf. Deut. 8:7). By an easy process of thought,
it is applied to Sheol: Job 41:22 f. ...
, Rom. 10:7
; . In Lc. 8:31 (
) a lower depth is sounded, and it is
this which is in view when is used in the Apoc. (9:1, 9:2, 9:11, 17:8, 20:1,
20:3). The Enochic literature has much to say of this abyss (Enoch 18. f., 21., 90.;
Slavonic Enoch, 28:3; cf. Charles, Eschatology, p. 198). The Apocalyptist represents it
as entered by a shaft or well (, cf. Jo. 4:11), the mouth of which is kept under lock
and key; the key is in the custody of an angel (20:1) or, as here appatently, of Satan, i.e.
he is authorised to open and shut the mouth of the abyss at his pleasure (for see
Mt. 16:19, Apoc. 1:18, 3:7; and on the idea, Slavonic Enoch, 42:1). This power however
is exercised only by Divine permission ( ), and behind it is the omnipotent
Hand which controls both the visible and the invisible order; cf. Prayer of Manasses 3
2. .] The Fallen Star-spirit unlocks the mouth of the Abyss,
and at once the sky is darkened by a volume of smoke which rises from it; cf. Gen.
19:28 , Exod. 19:18
. The suns face is hidden (Joel 2:20), and the atmosphere ( ,
the region of the clouds, cf. 2 Regn. 22:12, Ps. 17. (18.) 12, 1 Thess. 4:17 f.), the air
through which the birds fly (Sap. 5:11), and which men breathe (Sap. 15:15), and in
which evil spirits were thought to exercise a limited authority (Eph. 2:2
), is darkened by reason of (, cf. 8:11, 8:13) the smoke cloud
emitted from the well as from the chimney of a furnace. On see WH.2, Notes,
p. 178: the verb is used of an occultation of heavenly bodies in Job 3:9
3. .] The smoke wrought worse evil than the
darkening of the air; out of it came a swarm of hellish locusts; for see Mc. 1:6,
note. There may be a reference both to Exod. 10:13 ff. and to Joel 1:4 ff. But these
were entrusted with a power ( ) wholly unlike
WH. Westcott and Hort, N.T. in Greek second edition (1896).

that of the locust tribe, and akin to that of the common scorpion ( , in
contrast with ). The venomous stab of the scorpion is proverbial
in both O. and N.T.; see e.g. 3 Regn. 12:11 , Ezek. 2:6
, Lc. 11:12 ; The scorpion takes
its place with the snake and other creatures hostile to man, and with them symbolizes
the forces of spiritual evil which are active in the world: cf. Sir. 39:29 f.
, Lc. 10:19
4. .] Their mission, moreover, is not that
of the locust tribe; they are, in fact, prohibited from devouring herbage and stripping
trees; cf. Exod. 10:15 [ ]
, cf. Joel 2:3 . This had been
done sufficiently by the hail which followed the first Trumpet (8:7); the produce left by
the hail in Egypt was devoured by the locusts (Exod. l.c.), but the Apocalyptic locusts
are bent on another errand; men and not mere food stuffs are their goal. For see
6:11, note; on the future after , 3:9, note; and on =, 2:11, note.
=nor any; cf. Lc. 1:37 ... ; for after , see WM.
p. 602, note 3.
.] But only the men, etc.; for this use of cf. WM. p.
789. The power to hurt men is limited to a particular class of men ( . ;
on this use of see Lightfoot on Gal. 5:19 and Blass, Gr. p. 173, and cf. Apoc. 1:7,
2:24, 20:4), viz. to those whose foreheads have not been marked by the Seal of God (7:3
ff.). As Israel in Egypt escaped the plagues which punished their neighbours, so the new
Israel is exempted from the attack of the locusts of the Abyss.
5. .] I.e. the commission which they received ran
, . The wound inflicted by the scorpion is not
usually fatal, but it causes exquisite pain; and this is the point of resemblance between
the scorpion and the Apocalyptic locusts; it was no part of their mission to kill, but
rather to inflict suffering worse than death. , to apply the touchstone, is
used, from Thucydides downwards, of torture, and this is its meaning in the LXX. (1
Regn.1, Sap.4, Sir.1, 2 Macc.3, 4 Macc.20, a significant distribution); and in the N.T.
, describe acute pain whether physical (Mt. 8:6, Apoc. 12:2), or
mental (Mt. 8:29, 2 Pet. 2:8), or are employed metaphorically (Mt. 14:24, Mc. 6:48); in
the Apocalypse, written at a time of active persecution, the thought of punishment is
again uppermost (9:5, 11:10, 14:10 f., 18:7, 18:10, 18:15, 20:10; 12:2 is the only
] This limit of time has been supposed to be a reminiscence of the 150
days of the Flood (Gen. 7:24) or to refer to the duration of locust life. But the number
five is frequently used without any apparent purpose beyond that of giving definiteness
to a picture, e.g. Mt. 25:15 , Lc. 12:6, , ib. 52
, 14:19 , 16:28 , 1 Cor. 14:19 . If a
WM. Winer-Moulton, Grammar of N. T. Greek, 8th Engl. ed. (Edinburgh, 1877).

further reason is to be sought for its employment here, may point to the
incompleteness of the visitation; it lasted five-twelfths of the year, as tho plagues of c.
8. affected a third of nature. There is a progress in the visitations, but the end is not yet.
: cf. Achill. Tat. 2:7 ... . For
= see Num. 22:28, 2 Regn. 14:6, Mc. 14:47 (comp. with Mt. 26:51).
The ictus is inflicted by the scorpion-like tails ascribed to the locusts in v. 10; cf. Plin.
h. n. 2:25 semper cauda in ictu est, nulloque memento cessat ne quando desit
occasioni. The reading of has probably arisen from
written as ; see app. crit.
6. .] During those terrible months (cf.
Mc. 1:9, 13:19) men will prefer death to the agony of living. Cf. Job 3:21
., Jer. 8:3 : see
Apoc. 6:16, Orac. Sibyll. 2. 307 .
The thought was familiar to the Greek and Roman poets: Soph. Electr. 1007
, | . Ovid, Ib.
123 desit tibi copia mortis, | optatam fugiat vita coacta necem.
: such a death as they desire, a death which will end their sufferings, is
impossible; physical death is no remedy for the of an evil conscience. With
Alford aptly contrasts Phil. 1:23
; under such circumstances death is a gain, but it is not
sought, for life also has its compensations, in duty and in enjoyment. , ,
form a climax.
7 f. .] Hitherto only the powers of the locusts
have been in view; now they are described. Their shapes (, a word midway

between and , Lightfoot on Phil. 2:7, cf. Ezek. 1:16, 10:21=
1:23) were like horses caparisoned for battle. The description is borrowed from Joels
account of a locust swarm (2:4 f. ,
... ... ); a metaphor chosen partly
on account of their speed and compact array, but chiefly on account of a resemblance
which has been often observed between the head of a locust and the head of a horse
(Driver, ad loc., citing Theodoret:

.] So far the picture might have been
that of an ordinary swarm of locusts: the next two features are peculiar to the locusts of
the Abyss. (1) They are crowned like conquerors (cf. 4:4, 14:14), as indeed they are so
long as their power lasts. (2) Their faces are strangely human, suggesting the
intelligence and capacity of man; their long hair resembles that of women (1 Cor.
11:15). Perhaps it is unnecessary to take here as=, though some
support for this view may be found in Esth. 4:10 ( ), and 1 Cor. 7:1
( ). may allude to the long antennae of
the locust tribe, or, as some suppose, to the long hair worn by the Parthians (Suet. Vesp.
20). The ancient commentators for the most part regard the reference to women as

symbolizing the abuse of the sexual relations; e.g. Bede, in capillis mulierum fluxos et
effeminatos mores. But it is safer not to press the details. As to the general sense, the
locusts of the Abyss may be the memories of the past brought home at times of Divine
visitation; they hurt by recalling forgotten sins; cf. 1 Kings 17:13.
. looks back to Joel 1:6 . For see WH.2,
Notes, p. 172.
9. . ] The sealy backs and flanks of the insects
resembled coats of mail, whether the scale-armour worn by Goliath (1 Regn. 17:5
; cf. Driver, ad loc., like the scales of a fish, plates overlapping
each other and allowing free movement), or a cuirass of metal plates across the chest
and long flexible bands of steel over the shoulders (Enc. Bibl. 1:606, and see Dean
Robinsons note on Eph. 6:14). points to the material of which such armour
was ordinarily made, and at the same time indicates the hopelessness of any effort to
destroy assailants who were so protected. The next feature is again from Joel (2:5
... ). In the
onrush of the locust-swarms the Prophet heard the din of war chariots; the Seer adds
, thinking of the pransings of their strong ones (Jud. 5:22)
as well as of the clatter of the chariots and the rumbling of their wheels (Jer. 29.=47:3);
comp. 4 Regn. 7:6
, . For the vast numbers of chariots
employed in ancient warfare cf. 1 Sam. 13:5 (30,000), 1 Chron. 19:7 (32,000); for the
phrase see 3 Regn. 12:24 b .
10. .] The body of the locust of the Abyss
ended in a flexible tail (Clem. Al. strom, 3:18 106 ...
) like the tail of the scorpion. =.
, as in Mt. 5:20 =. . (cf.
WM. pp. 307, 377). The tails were armed with stings, in which resided the power of the
locusts to hurt. is properly the goad used for oxen (Prov. 26:3, Acts 26:14), and
in a secondary sense the sting of the bee (4 Macc. 14:19 ...
) or other insect. With the symbolism cf. Hos. 13:14
, ; 1 Cor. 15:56 . : see v. 5,
11. .] In Prov. 24:62 (30:27) we read:
. If the Apocalyptist remembered this statement, he found an exception to
it in the locusts of the Abyss, which are in other respects quite abnormal; but for his
comparative independence of the LXX. we might have supposed him to have been
influenced by Amos 7:1 ,

for M.T. ( (

) . For their king the locusts of the
Abyss have the Angel who presides over it (v. 1), i.e. they obey his orders and do his
work. The Seer knows the name of this angel; it is in Hebrew (, as in Jo. 5:2,
19:13, 19:17, 19:20, 20:16, Apoc. 16:16) Abaddon, and in the Greek ,

Enc. T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (London, 1899


sc. =; for the latter see Jo. 19:20, Acts 21:37), , Destroyer;
g., Exterminans; the rendering in rests upon the false reading

(app. crit.). Abaddon, ,

, a word used almost exclusively in the Wisdom literature
(Job 26:6, 28:22, 31:12, Ps. 88:11, Prov. 15:11, 27:20) is represented in the LXX. (exc.
Job 31:12) by , meaning either destruction generally (Job 26:6, Esth. 8:6) or
destruction in Sheol. (Emek hammelek, f. 15. 3 infimus gehennae locus est Abaddon,
unde nemo emergit). Here Destruction in the deeper sense is personified, and
is therefore preferred to (cf. 1 Cor. 10:10 ); the
allusion to , suggested by some commentators, seems far-fetched, but it is not
in this book impossible. The personification of Abaddon is known to the Talmud; see
Shabb. f. 55 a, where six destroying Angels are mentioned, over whom preside

and ,
; ib. f. 89. 1

. It is unnecessary to enquire whether
by Abaddon, the Destroyer, the Seer means Death or Satan; perhaps he does not
consciously identify the personality, which belongs to the scenery of the vision. The
Apollyon of Pilgrims Progress is a more fully developed conception, and indeed in all
but the name it is a creation of Bunyan. With the construction cf.
19:16 ... , ., and see WM. p. 226; on the form
see WH.2, Notes, p. 175 f.
12. .] Woe the first is gone past; behold, there come yet
two Woes after this, i.e., the sixth and seventh Trumpets have yet to be blown (cf. 8:13,
note). , which occurs again in 11:14 ( , ), is not
easy to explain: Blass (Gr. p. 32) seems to attribute the gender to the fact that the word
is here equivalent to , but it is simpler to regard the three Woes in the light
of female personages, the Erinnues or Eumenides of the Apocalypse, representing the
avenging powers evoked by the last three Trumpets. =, a Hebraism which the
LXX. takes over in Gen. 1:5, 1:8 : cf. Mc. 16:2 with
Mc. 16:9 , and see notes there. In the
personification seems to disappear, for the writer treats as a neuter. For as a
noun see Prov. 23:29, Ezek. 7:26, 1 Cor. 9:16.
13. .] The sixth trumpet-blast is followed by
a solitary voice , cf. 8:13 ) which seems to proceed from () the
horns of the Golden Altar mentioned in 8:3. The voice may be that of the Angel who
had been seen standing over the Altar with a golden censer; or it may represent the
prayers of the Saints, which now have the effect of a command issued to the Angel of
the sixth Trumpet. The general sense is the same in either case; the prayers of the
Church, which initiated the entire series of visitations connected with the Trumpets,
now bring about a greater catastrophe than the world has yet experienced.
. . (Exod. 27:1, 27:2) may be intended to point to the four corners of the earth (7:1)
from which prayer ascends; the single voice interprets the desire of the Holy Church
throughout all the world.
Vg. The Latin Vulgate.

14. , .] personifies the voice, as in

4:1; . . must be regarded as a parenthesis; the alternative of connecting the
words with . (thou that hast the trumpet, loose, etc.), is less in accordance
with the manner of the Apocalypse. Similar constructions occur in 4:1, 11:15.
.] Another quaternion (Acts
12:4) of angels; cf. 7:1 . Those in c. 7. restrain the winds of
heaven; these are themselves bound, for they are Angels of the Divine wrath which is
not to be executed before the predestined time; cf. Mt. 13:41. They are held in readiness
at the great river Euphrates; a phrase which sends the reader back to Gen. 15:18,
where the Land of promise is said to extend
, cf. Exod. 23:31 (LXX.), Deut. 1:7, 11:24, Josh. 1:4, 1
Kings 4:21, Ps. 82. The Euphrates was on the East the ideal limit of the land of Israel
(Driver on Gen. l.c.). Beyond it lay the great heathen kingdoms of the East, Babylonia
on the east bank of the river, the Assyrian Empire further to the N.E.; an invasion of
Israel by these nations is likened to an overflow of the Great River (Isa. 8:7
). Thus the idea presented by the angels of vengeance bound on the banks of
the Euphrates is that the day of vengeance was held back only till Gods time has come.
When at length they are loosed, the flood will burst its barriers, and ruin will follow.
The Euphrates is mentioned again in connexion with the Sixth Bowl (16:12, where see
note). The ancient Latin commentators explained the Euphrates mystically, e.g. Bede:
Euphrates qui fluvius est Babyloniae mundani regni potentiam indicat. Andreas
satisfies himself by saying ...
. It is possible that the Apocalyptist had in mind the unknown and at the
time greatly dreaded resources of the Parthian Empire.
15. .] is the correlative of , cf. Mt. 16:19,
18:18, Mc. 11:4 f., Lc. 13:16, 1 Cor. 7:27. The ministers of vengeance, now set free, at
once enter on the work for which they had been prepared in the Divine foreknowledge.
, who had been made ready; for this quasi-pluperfect sense of the part
see Jo. 2:9, Acts 18:2, Gal. 2:11, Heb. 2:9, and for of Divine preparation,
Mt. 25:34, 25:41, Mc. 10:40, Lc. 2:31, 1 Cor. 2:9, Apoc. 12:6, 16:12. . .;
the preparation had been made with a view to the result being attained at a definite time;
for this use of cf. v. 7, and 2 Tim. 2:20, and for a similar use of , Tit. 3:1, 1 Pet.
3:15, 2 Pet. 1:3. The four notes of time are under one article, since the occasion is one
and the same. The ascensive order ( ... ) is difficult to explain, but it
occurs also in the O.T. (e.g. Num. 1:1, Zech. 1:7, Hagg. 1:15), and probably has in this
place no special significance; perhaps it originated, as Primasius suggests, in the thought
that et horis gradatim dies et diebus menses et mensibus certum est annos impleri.
The hour and other times and seasons are not revealed till they may be gathered from
the event; cf. Mc. 13:32, Acts 1:7.
. If the fifth trumpet brought torture,
the sixth brings death. But again the destruction is partial only; two-thirds remain
unscathed, as in the lesser visitations heralded by the first four trumpets (8:7 ff.).

16. .] The work of the destroying angels is

done by the vast forces under their command. This new feature is introduced with
strange abruptness, as if the Seer in his eagerness to describe it had forgotten to prepare
the reader by some such connecting clause as
, or (as in 19:14) .
The hosts (for see Judith 11:8, 4 Macc. 5:1, Mt. 22:7, Lc. 23:11, Apoc.
9:16, 19:14, 19:19) consisted of cavalry (cf. Herod. 7:87 ...
), and the number, which was stated in the Seers
hearing (cf. 7:4), was =200,000,000. The figures rest ultimately

on Ps. 68:18: the chariots of God are ,

( (
( LXX. ,
); cf. Deut. 33:2, Dan. 7:10, Apoc. 5:11 note. (not ), cf.
(Esth. 1:7), (2 Macc. 5:24, 8:9), (Mc. 5:13). These vast
numbers forbid us to seek a literal fulfilment, and the description which follows
supports this conclusion. On with the acc. see Blass, Gr. p. 103.
: cf. c. 7:4 . . .
17. .] A mixed construction which blends .
... with . ... . The sentence is further complicated by the
introduction of a second object, the riders , cf. 6:4, 19:11,
19:18 ff.); it is not clear whether refers to , or to ., or to
both. On the whole it is best perhaps to limit the participial clause to the riders; the
horses are described in the sequel. The riders were armed in cuirasses whose colour
suggested fire, smoke, and brimstone. is properly of fire, while (6:4,
12:3) is flame-coloured: cf. Sir. 48:9 [] ...
, with 4 Regn. 2:11 . The defensive armour of
the warriors seemed to consist of fire; cf. Ps. 103 (104.) 4 ...
. , of which in Apoc. 21:20 is a precious stone

(cf. i.e. ), but in the LXX. stands for a dye (blue,
A.V., R.V.) which is combined with purple (Exod. 25:4, 27:16), fine linen (Exod. 26:1),
and gold (Exod. 28:8, Isa. 3:23)the equivalent of
, probably the shell-fish
helix ianthina, which yielded the famous Tyrian dye. The of classical Greek
was a vegetable, perhaps the dark blue-flowering iris. Here is doubtless
meant to describe the blue smoke of a sulphurous flame (cf. infra,
). The Latin version used by Primasins strangely rendered . by spineas,
spineas significans vitas, as Primasins explains; but the rendering doubtless originated
in a confusion between and . With the colour of flame and
smoke the cuirasses shewed also the pale yellow of brimstone. is . . in
Biblical Greek, but not unknown to postclassical writers. The description as a whole
recalls the fate of the Cities of the Plain; Gen. 19:24, 19:28
(cf. Jude 7, 2 Pet. 2:6).
. .] Cf. v. 8
. The horses in the vision seemed to unite the majestic mien of the lion
with the swiftness of their own kind. Like their riders they were armed with fire, smoke,

and brimstone; but while these formed the cuirasses of the horsemen, they proceeded
from the lion-like jaws of the horses, which thus seemed to breathe threatening and
slaughter (Acts 9:1). Cf. Job 41:10 f.
... ; and see Apoc. 11:5,
and Slavonic Enoch 1:5 fire came forth from their lips. See also the description of the
Chaldean cavalry in Hab. 1:8 ff.: possibly the Parthian cavalry are in the mind of the
18. .] which in classical
Greek scarcely goes beyond its etymological meaning, is used in the LXX. for the
plagues of Egypt (Exod. 11:1 ff., cf. Num. 25:8 ff.), and this sense reappears
frequently in the Apocalypse (9:18, 9:20, 11:6, 13:3, 13:12, 13:14, 15:1, 15:6, 15:8,
16:9, 16:21, 18:4, 18:8, 21:9, 22:18). The thought of the Egyptian plagues has been in
the mind of the writer for some time, and he now uses the familiar LXX. word. The
three plagues are the fire, smoke, and brimstone which proceed from the horses; the
repeated article ( ... ... ) indicates that they are regarded as distinct agencies.
, , arising from, springing out of, are here, as often in the N. T., practically
indistinguishable; see Blass, Gr. p. 124 f. For , see 22:1; on
see 2:13, note.
19. ... ] Their power (2:26, 6:8) resides in mouth
and tail (cf. v. 10); if the one discharges fiery and noisome vapours, the other is armed
with the poison of the snake. With , cf. v. 10
(note). As a picture ... is intolerable, but, it serves to
enhance the horror of the situation.
20. .] The two-thirds who escaped both the mouths
and the tails of the horses might have been expected to take warning by the fate of their
fellows, and to become servants of God and of Christ; but so far from doing this, they
did not even () repent of their idolatries. For , not even, see Mc. 6:31, 1 Cor.
3:3, 4:3 ( ); for , Apoc. 2:21.
(Prim. wrongly factotum suorum malorum, Vg. de operibus manuum suarum) their
idols, an O.T. phrase=,
( ( ( (

, cf. e.g. Deut. 4:28
, , , Ps. 134. (135.) 15
, , Jer. 1:16
. That this is the true
interpretation of the phrase here is clear from what follows.
.] Repentance would have led them to abandon the
worship of unclean spirits and of the idols which represented them. Both in the O. and
N. T. the heathen worship is regarded as paid to demons: cf. Deut. 32:17 (where see
Drivers note), Ps. 15. (16.) 37 ... (1 ,(, (

( Cor. 10:20
[ ],

. Cf. Ps. 95. (96.) 5 (, ( (

). Of the two
Hebrew words, the latter represents the deities of heathendom as non-existent, while the
former points to the older belief that they were demigods, evil genii, or the like. In the
Gospels the are identified with (cf. Mc. 5:2

=Mt. 8:27 =Lc. 8:29 ),

and this view was probably in the mind of St Paul and the Apocalyptist; it found its
justification in the impurities associated with the Greek legends and the immorality too
often promoted by the temples and their priesthood.
.] Christianity rigorously maintained the old Hebrew
protest against idol-worship. Though an idol is nothing in the world"(1 Cor. 8:4), has
in itself no spiritual significance, yet it is a visible symbol of revolt from the Living
God, and the is excluded from the Divine Kingdom (1 Cor. 6:9). The
Seer goes to the O.T. for words to convey his scorn for this debasing worship: cf. Ps.
113:12 ff. (115:4) ,
. ,
... , Dan. 5:23, Th.

, , . The
theme is worked out usque ad nauseam in the Epistle of Jeremiah; see also Enoch 99:7,
Orac. Sibyll. 5:80ff.
21. .] A further indictment as against
the pagan world, closely connected with the first. They were no less unwilling to repent
of their immoralities than of their idolatries. Murders, sorceries, fornication, thefts,
appear in company in not a few lists of the vices of the time: cf. Mc. 7:21 ,
, (where see note), Gal. 5:20 ... , , Apoc.
21:8 , 22:15 ...
. In three out of these contexts, it will
be observed, idolatry is placed in close connexion with vice and crime. On
see Lightfoots note on Gal. l.c., and cf. Exod. 7:22, 8:18 (14), 4 Regn. 9:22, Mal. 3:5,
Isa. 47:9, 47:12, Dan. 2:2.
Primitive Christianity was a protest, not only against polytheism, but against the
moral condition of the pagan world. The Seer voices this protest, and enforces it with a
terrific description of the vengeance which threatened the world unless it should repent.
Cf. Eph. 5:6 .