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According to (Lim, 2006) the Northern Region is one of the four regions in Peninsular Malaysia, which include the states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and Perak. Regarding to economic development, Penang and Perak can be classified as middleincome states while Kedah and Perlis were being classified as low-income states. (Aslam & Hassan, 2003)

With a population of 1.77 million Penang is the leader in manufacturing activities and the growth centre for northern Malaysia. In 2007, 200 multinational corporations had large scale operations in Penang, making it the second growth centre in Malaysia, after the Klang valley. Furthermore, Penang’s position in northern Malaysia has been reinforced by the development started under the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) program. The program includes 21 districts in Penang island and the mainland, and the states of Kedah, Perlis, and northern Perak. The Northern Corridor Economic Region program aims to accelerate economic growth and elevate income levels in the north of Peninsular Malaysia. It is part of a national strategy focusing on regions which can benefit from land, labor an


natural resources, combining these with manufacturing experience and international linkages. The aim of the Northern Corridor Economic Region is to become a competitive, world-class sustainable economic region. It is expected that the Northern Corridor Economic Region would be a destination of choice for foreign and domestic businesses to invest

Women are the most vulnerable to the effects of external shocks in the form of commodity price collapse and changes in terms of trade and economic crisis. An immediate assessment of the immediate impact of the economic downturn on the labor market has been the marked increase in the retrenchment of workers. The slower GDP growth is expected to result in a significant decline in employment growth and loss of jobs. The level of employment is projected to decrease in all sectors except for the export-oriented industries. Malaysian women are highly important contributors to the country’s economic and social development. Their access to health and education and their participation in the economy have increased rapidly over the years. (Ahmad, 1998)



This research is about to conduct a statistical analysis of women participations and contributions in maritime industries of northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Currently, women represent an increasing share of the world's labor force. In maritime industry, it always associated with men; however, there is no doubt that women can gain the advantages when it comes to securing paid jobs in this industry.

Some factors such as wage differentials, occupational segregation, higher unemployment rates and the disproportionately high representation of women in the 2

informal and subsistence sectors serve to limit women's economic advancement. Furthermore, social and cultural attitudes, employment policies and a lack of options for balancing work and family responsibilities, or for controlling the timing and spacing of births, contribute further to inequality compare to the men in the labor market.


Problem statement

Apparently, women involvements in maritime industries in Malaysia are lower compare to the involvement of men in this sector. This research will apply a statistical method to understand the reason of this situation occurred and understand why the women choose maritime field as their career compared to other careers.

This research will also underline a several issues that related to women that need to be taken seriously to encourage women to work maritime industry, mostly to women as seafarers. The major issues that need to be taken seriously to encourage women to participate in maritime industry such as sexual harassment, maternity leave, gender inequality and working amenities and facilities.

This research also will understand the factors that contribute to women efforts in role their play in maritime industry. Compare to men, women also have their own perspective and credibility to play in development and progression of maritime industry.


iii. i.1. To analyze the ratio between women and men workers in the maritime companies of Northern Region of Malaysia.4 Research objective The main objective of the study is to conduct a research about women contribution and participation in Northern Region of Malaysia. the questionnaire will be designed to determine the women contribution and participation in this industry. The study aims to understand why the women in maritime industry in this region whether in the private and public sector choose to make maritime careers as their jobs.5 Research questions The research questions have outlined as below. To evaluate the factors that can increase the influences and contributions of women participation in maritime industry of Northern Region of Malaysia. Does the average number of women involved in the decision-making level differ from the average number of women involved in operational level in maritime company of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? 4 . This research has outlined THREE (3) objectives as objective research. 1. ii. The objectives stated as below. i. To find whether there is significant difference between average number of women involved in decision-making level and average number of women involved in operational level in maritime company of Northern Region of Malaysia. Moreover.

It is important by having these circumstance to analyze what the women has performed by entitled their contribution and participation in the maritime industry. It is important to recognize and analyze the importance of women contribution in the maritime industry. By that. 5 .6 Significant of study This research is intended to help women to be better in attributes of working contribution in maritime industry. It is significant to understand how they have participated and what field of work in the maritime industry which they usually involved. This research will give an initial image about women’s contribution and participation in the maritime industry of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. women have been significant of considering much values toward their participation in any industry.ii. which virtually can be more important of improving their quantities number when joining the maritime industry. What are the factors that can increase the influences and contributions in women participations in maritime industry of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? 1. it can be found whether there is significant average number of women involved in operational level and decision-making level in the maritime company. What is the ratio between men and women in maritime companies of the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? iii. Furthermore. As far as we concern. it can be seen about their participation and contribution towards the industry.

Bhd. Ipoh. These respondents will give the perception toward women in their companies. Kedah Lumut Maritime Terminal Sdn. (Shipbuilding/Ship Repair) Kuala Kedah. Kedah. It needs to be analyzed whether the ratio is becoming larger or becoming smaller according to the respond from randomly selected companies. Perak (Inland Port) Penang Port Commissioner. Perak Boustead Langkawi Sdn. – Lumut. iii. iv. and Perak. 1. which are included states of Perlis. Penang (Port Commissioner) ii. vi. Bhd. The five selected companies have been chosen as follow: i. Bhd. Boustead Naval Shipyard (Logistics) – Lumut. v.This research also important to determine the ratio between men and women work in maritime companies. (Shipbuilding/Ship Repair) – Langkawi. Penang. Perak (Sea Port) Ipoh Cargo Terminal Sdn.7 Scope of study The scope for our study is Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. FIVE (5) random companies need to be selected as respondents to the research. Asia Slipway & Engineering Sdn. Bhd. 6 . Kedah.

000 in number and only 2 per cent in South Asia/Middle East.8 Limitation of study This research study has been conducted upon the women occupations that worked on land based in maritime industry neither including the women who are currently working at sea nor seafarers. not only in Malaysia but also in whole world. The number women as seafarers in Malaysia estimated lower. For conducting this study. In addition. the researcher will only perform a research within 28 weeks to complete this research.00 for conducting this research within this period. According to (Zhao. 2004) women only make up 18-20 per cent of the total labor force on cruise ships around 20.1. 7 .000-23. the University will give RM250.

The educational system consists of six primary years. Penang hugely benefited from the Malaysian government program for industrial development.6 percent of girls attend compared to 83.2 Northern Region of Malaysia Besides. it guarantees the right of education to all. Women’ participation rate is slightly higher than that of boys at the primary level and the difference widens at the secondary level where 95. two lower secondary years and three upper secondary years. There are no restrictions on girl’s participation in the educational system.3 percent of boys. The outcomes of 8 . 2002) In Malaysia education.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. women make up for almost half of the total population of Malaysia. Fewer girls drop out compared to boys at both the primary and secondary levels. non-compulsory basic education. In view of the current concern and commitment of the Malaysian Government towards its development and in the spirit of sharing of information (Mat & Omar. being the centre of trade and services sector for the northern region.1 Introduction As in most countries around the world. which stressed import substitution industrialization. 2. and the government provides eleven years of free.

most of these industrial units depended on young women to assemble products and perform other non-skilful jobs in their factories. In essence. driven by the availabilities of easy-to-get jobs at Penang’s sparely factories in the states’ industrial free zone.3 Women and shipping In some countries. there was an astronomically increase on the number of women entering the workforce due to a dire economic need and the shortage of men in the workforce. in the 1930s and after the Second World War. In fact. the purpose of the research is to explore and understand the relationship between management practices and job satisfaction among middle level management at public institutions of higher learning in Northern Region. However. (Romle & Shamsudin. The increasing numbers of women in the workforce was associated with various historical factors and economical transformation. 2006) 2. growth. industrial free zone and create considerable job opportunities for many young adults especially women. the shipping industry offers a way out of poverty for many workers. Employment in the shipping industry provides access to foreign currency and a regular salary with a direct impact on the economic viability of seafarers and their extended families. 9 . the institutions could advocate the right practices among administrative officers. many young women migrated to the Island city to join the workforce. thereby re-echoing one of the characteristics of current global industrial trend since 1930s. However due to the several limitations. (England & Farkas. 1986) On top of that. There is no intrinsic reason why women should not participate in and benefit from employment within the shipping industry. For example.this vigorous and ambitious objective of Malaysian government ushered in massive industrial establishment.

with special emphasis on improving accessibility at all levels to potential women applicants. To break the cycle. adequate training has a critical role in the integration of women into all spheres of professional life. 2000) By bolstering women's education and participation in the economy.the shipping industry is traditionally regarded as an exclusively male preserve and only one or two percent of the global workforce of seafarers is women. 2. There may also be cultural resistance to women working outside the home. society as a whole will benefit. but the principal objections to employing women at sea appear to centre on the lack of adequate separate facilities for women on board and stringent physical requirements. (Tansey. 2000) She also stated the relevance of sea experience too many shore-based jobs means the resource of women with appropriate skills is limited and will continue to act as a long-term constraint on the representation of women in the maritime sector as a whole. (Tansey. Lower enrolment of girls in technical schools and universities may stem from these socio-cultural issues with a direct effect on their subsequent role in a country's commercial and economic structure. In addition. the perception that seafaring is a man's job can lead to lack of training and work-experience opportunities for women.4 Women in Maritime Industry Women's status in society and their participation in economic activities are strongly influenced by religious and traditional social issues and customary patterns of division of labor. 10 . compounded by employers' reluctance to appoint those women that are trained.

by focusing on equal access to training through both mainstream program and gender-specific projects: The IMO Women in Development (WID) Program was launched in 1989 with the following development objectives:    To integrate women into mainstream maritime activities. which has been taken up across the United Nations system. cross-sector element.This is the essence of the United Nations Women in Development initiative. the technical co-operation program as a whole is strengthened. 2. To improve women's access to maritime training and technology. 2000) By improving the access of women to all levels of training and employment in the maritime sector. (Tansey. and 11 . To increase the percentage of women at the senior management level within the maritime sector. The WID Program is incorporated into the technical co-operation program as a global.5 The IMO Women in Development Program The aim of the Women in Development program was to make this concept an integral part of IMO's technical co-operation program. initiated in 1966. which assists in the strengthening of national and regional maritime capacities through a variety of maritime-related projects. not least because women often represent an underused resource in many countries.

Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) 1978. the objective of the resolution 14 is to note the Long.and Medium-Term Plans for the Integration of Women in the Maritime Sector developed by the International Maritime Organization. the Conference was held at the Philippine International Convention Centre in Manila.6 Promotion of the participation of women in the maritime industry Pursuant to the request of Parties to the International Convention on Standards of Training. (Swarlow. Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers. 1978.1 The 2010 Manila Conference In 2010 Manila Conference. 2010) Under the International Convention on Standards of Training. the Conference has adopted the resolutions from Resolution 3 until Resolution 19.6. including access to employment. the Philippines. from 21 to 25 June 2010. (hereafter referred to as the 1978 STCW Convention) at the eighty-fourth session of the Maritime Safety Committee of the International Maritime Organization and subsequent decisions by the Council of the Organization at its one hundredth session and the Assembly of the Organization at its twenty-sixth session. To promote women's economic self-reliance. which includes Resolution 14: the promotion of the participation of women in the maritime industry. 2. 2. the Conference also noting the resolution concerning the promotion of opportunities for women seafarers 12 .

The STCW 1978 has invited all the governments under the Conference to give special consideration to securing equal access by men and women in all sectors of the maritime industry. 2010) The STCW 1978 expressing their support for the latter’s aims to promote the training of women in the maritime sector. The interference between governments and maritime industry is important to support the provision of on-the-job-training opportunities so that women may acquire the appropriate level of practical experience required to enhance professional maritime skills. at international level. 13 .adopted by the International Labor Conference of the International Labor Organization on 22 February 2006. the existing constraints. This involving the governments and the maritime industry to endeavor considering ways to identify and overcome. which is to promote gender equality and empower women. (Swarlow. They also considering highly desirable that both men and women have equal access opportunities to maritime training and to employment on board ship. so that women can participate fully and without hindrance in seafaring activities in order to facilitate effectively the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 3. and to highlight the role of women in the seafaring profession and to promote their greater participation in maritime training and at all levels in the maritime industry. such as the lack of facilities for women on board training vessels.

2 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Goal 3: To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000. The ratio between the enrolment rate of girls and that of boys grew from 91 in 1999 to 97 in 2010 for all developing regions. Poverty is a major barrier to secondary education. and participation in government. women’s share in paid jobs outside of the agricultural s ector increased only slightly from 35 per cent in 1990 to 40 per cent in 2010. The gender parity index value of 97 falls within the plus-or-minus 3-point margin of 100 per cent. 14 . women occupy only 25 per cent of senior management positions and. v. following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. work and economic assets. preferably by 2005. Gender inequality persists and women continue to face discrimination in access to education. Women are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employment. especially among older girls. viii. Violence against women continues to undermine efforts to reach all goals.2. vii. All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015. The world has achieved parity in primary education between girls and boys. vi. iv. the accepted measure for parity. 2010) Relating to the issues of women in gender equality and empower of women.6. Globally. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. Globally. ix. were on average paid 23 per cent less than men. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 ii. in 2008/2009. education remains elusive. iii. but for girls in some regions. the targets under Goal 3 are: i. (United Nation.

the manufacturing sector has recorded the highest growth rate during the last decade.x.7.4 percent (1995) of the workers being women.4 percent (1990) and 43.1 Economic Development of Female Employment Patterns by Sector A number of factors have contributed to the rapid absorption of women into the labor market.6 million new jobs between 1990 and 1994 and in 1994 alone provided employment to 1.9 million people.7 Women's Participation in Economic Development 2. Business ownership is concentrated in men’s hands throughout the developing world. Agriculture is no longer the major employer of women and the proportion of female labor in agriculture has declined as well – from 40 percent in 1970 to 30 percent in 1995. Malaysian women have been able to move into relatively better paying opportunities in other sectors. 1995) The growth of this sector has led to the mobilization of female labor and increase in employment. The financial services and the government are major employers of women and women account for about 60 percent of the total labor force in these sectors. with about 46. The rapid economic growth was due largely to important growth in the manufacturing and services sectors. The manufacturing sector has created about 0. where substantial and proportionally larger increase of female workers has been registered. and showed a decline in the female percentage of the total labor force in 1995. The proportion of females in the total labor in manufacturing peaked at nearly 50 percent in 1990. Kuala Lumpur. In Malaysia. among all sectors of the economy. This seems to result from a trend towards increasing technology-intensive new investments to the concomitant 15 . (Ministry of International Trade and Industry: Malaysia International Trade and Industry Report. 2.

but in the end less than 10 per cent in Europe.demand for skilled labor. to be on board a ship. Women do not dominate any particular segment in maritime. The importance of women in the industrial labor force in a developing country like Malaysia can be analyzed in relation to the new development in the world economies linked with export-oriented industrialization. the only way perhaps for a woman to take part in running a merchant vessel was through marriage or being the daughter of the captain. especially in the export-oriented zones is on the increase. over 90 percent 16 . The establishment of export-oriented zones in the 1970s had provided more employment opportunities in the manufacturing sector. thus expanding the demand for labor force in the industrial sector. Since the 1970s the influx of multinational companies into Malaysia. 14 per cent in the US and less than 6 per cent in Asia will be found in a management or board position. the electronics industry was not only the largest exporter of manufactured products but also the largest employer in the manufacturing sector. they are present in all segments related to shipping and allied services. especially the manufacturing sector. The first one is that in some countries half of the graduates are females. There is lack of awareness among women that this is a viable career path. Malaysian women have benefited more than men from such industrialization. This process has systematically linked the national to international markets. Likewise. Before 1900. It was the world wars (I&II) that brought in a significant difference in the lives of women seeking a career in shipping and allied industries. For example. There are several challenges before women in this industry. and more than 75 percent of its workforce consisted of women. It can be noted that the perceptions also barriers to women to enter this field. and provides early warning of the need to train female workers in sunset industries to prepare them for redeployment. Women have come a long way since those days when they were forced to disguise as men and assume fictitious names.

meticulous and good at multi-tasking. shippers. The maritime industry with its allied areas is no different. In particular.and about 85 percent of the workers respectively employed by the clothing and textile industries were mainly females. in the long run. This augurs well with the ever increasing demands that occur in the maritime industry more as one has to deal with lot of external factors like customs. increases in productivity raise real wages and allow our children to enjoy a higher standard of living. They are also more flexible and are organized. One calculation suggests that current output per person is about 10 percent higher than it would have been without the productivity acceleration. (Shaw. Women by nature are more profit conscious. accumulate greater wealth. (Shaw. 2005) The opportunity that risen for women in every field and more so when we have come a long way in terms of gender equality. 2005) 17 .8 Women Contribution in Economic Productivity This rise in productivity is quite large by historic standards and brings with it very significant positive implications for the economy. 2. regulators. And. unpredictability in weather etc on a day-today basis. increases in productivity mean larger potential increases in GDP without the same risk of inflation in an economy where productivity is lower. and pay for programs such as Social Security.

Second. both to women’s advancement and to firm productivity.2. Driven by an economic environment characterized by an accelerated pace of technological change and intense global competition. Social networks inside the firm have also been shown to be important. this apparent redefinition of the ideal suggests that women may now have a comparative advantage in key managerial skills that are associated with firm productivity. women are increasingly better educated than men. 68 percent of women who had recently completed high school were enrolled in an undergraduate degree granting institution in fall 2002. and women have always been good at building and maintaining these networks (Shaw. when the masculine approach was most valued. 2003) In the past. from one in which leaders sit atop a hierarchy and operate by setting objectives and rewarding those who are successful to one where leaders aim to encourage commitment and creativity and take on the role of a coach or teacher.9 million men. there are signs of a change in the ideal managerial style. First. (Eagly & Carli. however. directive) but higher ratings for non-masculine styles (interpersonally oriented. although lab experiments showed women to be more effective when the roles were defined as less masculine. compared to 62 percent of men. compared to 6.9 Women’s contribution at the Workplace The direct contribution has come about from their role as workers in the paid economy. participative). In surveys. women have a history of success as team players and problem-solvers. female managers receive lower ratings on masculine attributes and styles of leadership (task-oriented. (Shaw. And 9 million women were enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs in 2001. 2005) 18 . this meant that women faced a substantial uphill battle in being (and being perceived as) effective leaders. 2005) More recently.

Physical. and the economic changes associated with the increase in trend productivity suggest that it has become more valuable than ever to raise children who are problem-solvers and who can think for themselves. It is first and foremost a violation of human rights. Women are still disproportionately responsible for the valuable activity of caring for children. is exempt from the scourge of domestic violence. robbing a woman of the sanctity and security of her home.10 Violence Against Women Violence against women is a crime against humanity. whether growing crops.Women have also contributed indirectly to increases in productivity and longrun economic growth through unpaid work. early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation are human rights abuses that occur too frequently. And no society. trafficking of women and girls. Development programs that ignore repression and subjugation of women are doomed to failure. in too many communities. World Vision and other development agencies have long recognized that only with the active participation of women can development be sustainable. 2003) 19 . There is a substantial body of research suggesting that investing in children has a high rate of return. working as petty traders or serving as corporate executives. (Brandt. (Shaw. not even in “enlightened” Western Europe. Rape. both at home raising children and in their communities. (Brandt. Meeting the basic needs of children extends to economic production. 2005) 2. sexual and psychological abuses are an affront to the dignity and intrinsic worth of every individual. Women are the primary care givers of children. 2003) Violence against women is also a barrier to development.

2010) 20 .Police Reports Domestic Violence Rape 20 00 34 68 12 17 21 3 of 56 20 01 31 07 13 86 24 6 20 02 27 55 14 31 30 6 20 03 25 55 14 79 25 4 20 04 31 01 17 60 33 4 20 05 30 93 19 31 29 5 20 06 32 64 24 54 33 2 20 07 37 56 30 98 36 0 2008 2009 2010 3769 3643 3173 3409 3626 3595 unavail able Incest Abuse Domestic Workers Child Abuse Outrage of Modesty (Molestatio n) Sexual Harassmen t in 334 385 66 39 40 66 37 45 39 unavail unavail unavail able unavail able able able 14 6 15 0 12 3 11 9 14 8 18 9 14 1 19 6 203 257 12 34 13 93 15 22 13 99 16 61 17 46 13 49 22 43 2131 2110 2054 11 the 2 86 84 82 11 9 10 2 10 1 19 5 unavail unavail unavail able able able Workplace Source: Royal Malaysia Police and Ministry of Women. Family and Community Development Table 1: Statistics on Violence against Women in Malaysia (2000 .

where women helped cure fish and contributed much to the household income.9 per cent in 2004 to 6. such as tending the garden. Paper mills. Men became the major and often sole provider for the rest of the family. leaving women with few employment options outside the domestic and retail spheres. 2009) 21 . The number of women involved in decision making in top management positions in the public sector has increased from 18.1 per cent in 2008. it was almost exclusively in the lower paying domestic and retail spheres. This showed the government’s commitment to promote women’s advancement at the decision-making level and the participation of women at the decision-making level was still under represented with the percentage of women as members of the board of directors declining from 9.2. (Mohamad. land-based industries made it difficult for some women to contribute to their household’s income.8 percent in 2004 to 22. (Higgins. The growth of wage labor and accompanying shift away from the familybased salt fishery also devalued some subsistence work women traditionally performed. This was an effort to reduce the gender imbalance at the decision makinglevel. which served as a starting point in recognizing the significant contribution of women in the public sector.11 Women and Land-Based Industries The growth of land-based industries during the first half of the 20th century helped alter the traditional role of some women in Newfoundland and Labrador society. Unlike the salt-cod fishery. and mines hired almost exclusively male workers. This positive increase is an achievement in line with the policy introduced by the government in 2004 to have at least 30% women in decision making at all levels. logging operations. there was virtually no place for the female worker in the new forestry and mining industries. Although some women found work in industrial centers.8 percent in 2008. 2007) By excluding female labor.

However. Women on board ship tend to be found in catering and administrative services: the proportion of women crew on passenger ships and ferries is relatively high. Industry studies suggest that the technological revolution within the maritime sector is calling for a highly trained workforce.12 Women as seafarers The number of women going to sea is insignificant.a major supplier of seafarers to the world's merchant fleets . leaving the sector with an estimated shortfall of some 50. 2000) She also said. Socio-cultural factors are thought to be behind the extremely low proportion of women seafarers in some countries. 22 .only 225 women out of 230. women represent four to five percent of total workforce of seafarers while in Southeast Asia. it is clear that to achieve this there is a need for changes in attitude towards employing women as seafarers. All these women are hired as waitresses or utility personnel for luxury line operators. Radio-communications is another area employing women.25 million seafarers.000 seafarers appear on the national seaman's register for 1983-1990. Female seafarers are an under-utilized and underdeveloped resource that could provide part of the solution to the problem of crewing the world merchant fleet. in European Union fleets.000 officers in the year 2000. (Tansey. In the Philippines . Most women at sea are from developed countries. recruitment of women in the shipping sector generally and increased training opportunities for women. the proportion of women is less than 0. with women representing just one to two percent of the world's 1.5 percent.2.


Shore-based occupations

Women are involved across the spectrum of shore-based employment and account for 40 to 60 percent of staff in administration of national maritime affairs, including secretarial support staff, but the number of women in the higher managerial levels is still low. (Tansey, 2000)

There is also scope for increased representation of women in port services, maritime radio and electronics, marine pollution prevention control, naval architecture and marine biology.


Maritime Administration

Women have an important role to play in maritime administrations and already work at all levels of national ministries responsible for shipping and ports as well as other maritime authorities. However, some developing countries rely on expatriates to fill professional and senior positions in their maritime infrastructure and extending training to qualified women can help to reduce this dependency. (Tansey, 2000)

To promote women at the professional level of maritime administration, their access to appropriate education at the post-graduate level has to be improved. Special measures such as gender specific fellowships can be a useful tool for encouraging women candidates. In the sectors of ports and harbor administration, short training courses would be adequate for all levels of administration personnel. Practical steps need to be taken in a systematic manner to secure the participation of women in all branches of maritime administration and port activity. 23


Technical management of shipping companies

Women make up a significant proportion of shipping companies' staff but generally remain under-represented at managerial/decision-making levels.

Managerial posts which are occupied by women tend to be in financial, marketing and training rather than technical or operational divisions.

There are opportunities for women to serve in managerial capacity, for example as fleet managers, marine or engineering superintendents. Women should be encouraged to participate in technical training on every level including specialized short courses, correspondence courses and seminars.


Maritime training and education

There are over 90 maritime training institutions in more than 60 countries. Many admit only men or just a small number of women. Female lecturers are in a minority and tend to provide expertise in courses aimed at shore personnel, in maritime law and in general subjects such as English language, computer science, maritime and business studies and shipping management.

Studies suggest an implied need for an additional 170 maritime lecturers worldwide over the period 1990-2005 to service the needs of the merchant fleets registered under flags of developing countries. Most gaps will be in nautical studies and engineering, but lecturers are also needed in maritime law, economics and shipping insurance.


The availability of more opportunities for women could increase the selfsufficiency of developing countries in their supply of qualified maritime teachers while providing increased visibility of women as role models in a variety of key maritime professions.

Women should be encouraged to apply to the national institutions and to apply for training in technical subjects. At the same time, national and regional maritime training centers should be encouraged to admit women students with the requisite educational background.


Levels of Decision making

Strategic decision-making determines the objectives, resources and policies of the organization. A major problem at this level of decision making is predicting the future of the organization and its environment and matching the characteristics of the organization to the environment. This process generally involves a small group of high level managers who deal with complex, non-routine problems.

Decision making for management control is principally concerned with how efficiently and effectively resources are utilized and how well operational units are performing. Management control requires close interaction with those that are carrying out the tasks of the organization. It takes place within the context of broad policies and objectives set out by strategic decision making and the behaviorists have described, it requires an intimate knowledge of operational decision making and task completion. Knowledge based decision making deals with evaluating new ideas for products and services, ways to communicate new knowledge and ways to distribute information throughout the organization.


2.18 Operational Level in Management Managers at the operational level in a company occupy the lowest rung in the management hierarchy. The amount of time devoted to one of these functions varies according to management level. supervisors. These managers directly supervise employees and may be known as first-line or front-line managers. team leaders or team facilitators. organizing. controlling and planning. Determining which units in the organization will carry out the task. Supervisors also organize employees to cover work activities. Of all the management levels. Operational managers must gain employees' commitments to goals and plans. front-line supervisors spend the most time on the leadership function. To operational managers falls the responsibility of the day-to-day operations that directly affect a company's external customers. 26 . and ensure that work meets quality standards.Decision making for operational control determines how to carry out the specific tasks set forth by strategic and middle management decision makers. train and evaluate staff. including leading. For front-line managers. Managers at all levels of an organization must carry out certain functions. the work and to company-wide values. the emphasis is on leadership. This makes the operational management level crucial to the success of the strategic and competitive goals of an organization. establishing criteria for completion and resource utilization and evaluating outputs all require decisions about operational control.

the work of teams and departmental activities. This accountability becomes the cornerstone for not only numerical enhancement of women’s presence 27 . when carried out. the present study was undertaken. Rights should be given to women. less power is given to women. On the one hand. as they have the right to take decisions regarding various items. a week or a month. (Jan & Akhtar. They emphasized that women’s political leadership and accountability are key cross-cutting issues. The plans of operational management cover short time periods such as a day. to make decisions regarding various aspects in the family and society. women’s political leadership allows them to set agendas and. in turn. in order to make women aware about their influence on society.19 Women as Decision-Maker Women play a great role in over all development and progress of the nation. translate the medium-term goals of middle management to short-term goals and plans that. So. For taking any decision. But their participation in different fields either directly or indirectly is still behind in many aspects. In most cases. 2005). Thus. which creates tactical goals and plans that must be realized in a year or less. women’s participation and representation in decision-making bodies involves their enhanced presence as well as their empowerment through such participation. on the other hand. lead to the realization of middle management’s objectives. the present study is under taken to highlight the areas where women lag behind in their decision making power. Plans involve the work of individual employees.Operational managers account to middle management. 2. 2008) According to (Haregwein. nation and for attaining their respectable status within the family. it is in such roles that they are made responsive to constituencies and publics. Operational management must. women are considered inferior to men. as that of the men. and their life is restricted within the four walls of the house.

and there is no evidence to support the contention that women are less efficient managerial leaders than men. district magnitude and expected party magnitude. particularly in countries in transition and post-conflict states need to be reviewed. Even so. (Wee. Apparently. such as the impact of proposed electoral systems. women need to be included in discussions on electoral system reform. 2012) 28 . legislative. Ibrahim.20 Women as Leader Women in managerial position appear to enjoy the leadership role. for provisions that may hinder women’s equal participation. In order to increase the number of women in decision making. problems can evolve from proportion of male and female subordinates who feel uneasy working for a female superior. and regulatory frameworks. and analyze the impact of the proposed changes on gender equality. 2. & Poerwowidadgo. and closed versus open lists. A recent study investigating responses of male and female managers in American state public human service organizations found a direct relationship between having been supervised by a woman and attitudes toward the motivation of women to manager.but also their ability to transform outcomes. political. Women also need to achieve gender parity in all decision-making bodies. such as rules requiring high numbers of signatures to register as a candidate or high monetary deposits that can be discriminatory against women candidates. the content and the ways in which policy actors make public policy. proportional representation. She also suggested that the existing constitutional. women can be labeled as ‘bossy’ whereas men are labeled as ‘leaders’. boundary delimitation. electoral thresholds. by establishing incremental time-bound targets for increasing women’s representation.

& Poerwowidadgo.The authors suggested that being in direct contact with a woman as superior may dispel traditional female role stereotypes such as women not being as career oriented as men. A women who remained in discriminating organizations. For the operational manager. lack of a global mind-set that understands the rewards of diversity and inclusivity. A supervisor fills an informational role by gathering and disseminating information and knowledge to subordinates and bosses. any doubts they have about working for her disappear.21 Important Roles of Women Women as managers of any level are expected to fill interpersonal. The decisional role involves making decisions and influencing the choices of others. Women must be especially prepared to influence others as a disturbance handler. dissatisfaction come from subordinates can be a source of stress for superiors and vice versa. leadership primarily fulfills the interpersonal role. (Wee. In order to overcome these matters. if a female manager is able to relay her success and confidence to her subordinates. Ibrahim. 2012) 2. Additionally. it need to provided the collective thinking from women executives to corporate and CEOs on how they need to build best practices for women in the 29 . Other decisions include how to allocate resources. lack of mentoring and training opportunities for women. and an aspiration-deficit among some women for leadership roles. this role requires the women to represent subordinates to middle management and other departments. lack of an eco-system that respects women in workplace as equals. including scheduling employees There are several complex issues at play in this domain: invisible barriers for women to move up the corporate ladder. informational and decisional roles in an organization. could develop feelings of resentment and became dysfunctional in terms of leadership and the service they provided for their subordinates and clients. The frustration or success of a superior is felt acutely by those below her. Certainly.

providing self-awareness of their roles and responsibilities navigating the corporate dynamics and male-networks. 2002) A woman can always create her own mentor by identifying an efficient leader and begin asking their opinion on particular matters. and transition from the best practices to the next practice in leadership. becoming front-line managers and seeking high visibility and rewards. has failed to achieve equity in achieving at higher levels. together with at least twenty six years of equal opportunities and latterly diversity issues. What you are doing is letting the person know an intelligent operator is being developed. 2009) 2. (Yearnshire.22 Time Management of Women Over the past few years women have been able to make a number of inroads in achieving management positions yet they continue to be underrepresented in organizations across the world. It also need to mentor women in mid-career and senior levels. without the adopted mentor doing too much. A woman can in an appropriate way. professionally liaise even taking into account rank differences. This is in the face of organizational policies. watching how they manage. balancing their home-office lives. (Shikari. at the same time delivering professional and effective work or assignments of interest. recognize the differential style of leadership that women can bring to business.workplace. Do not be frightened to give praise upwards without gushing or being sycophantic. which purport to actively identify women for top management roles. The slight improvements at middle management is still poor and even the recently touted business case of reducing birth-rates and skills shortage. for raising their aspiration levels. Even where women do achieve they tend to wait longer than male counterparts do. 30 .

government. They have a responsibility to their work or profession. data mining.. The methods that been chosen for conducting this research are multiple regressions line. SPSS is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social science. statistical analysis. and z-test for proportions. It is used by market researchers. and if they become involved in politics they are effectively taking on a third full-time job. marketing organizations and others (Bluman A. 2005) 2.The socio-economic position of women in societies negatively affects their participation. education researchers. Most societies fail to organize in a manner that enables both men and women with families to share these responsibilities. and the sexual division of labor in society also imposes burdens on women that are not normally faced by men.23 Method of research The method of research will be used in this research is Statistical Package for The Social Science also known as SPSS Software. particularly considering that child-rearing responsibilities tend to fall disproportionately on women. Women often face a triple burden when participating in politics. survey companies. SPSS is a computer program used for survey authoring and deployment. G. women earn less than men. health researchers. frame their 31 . and collaboration and deployment. contingency test. 2012). text analytics. 2. one-way analysis of variance. Typically. to their family.24 Conceptual of Framework Conceptual framework is a structured from a set of broad ideas and theories that help a researcher to properly identify the problem they are looking at. (Haregwein.

Most academic research uses a conceptual framework at the outset because it helps the researcher to clarify his research question and aims. (Smyth. • The number of women in maritime industry will increase in the future • More higher participation of women in operational level and decisionmaking level Expected Outcome Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework 32 . 2004) Effect • Men monopoly in maritime industry • The low number of women pursuing study related to maritime industry Causes • Number of women in maritime industry is low • Participation of women in decisionmaking level and operational level.questions and find suitable literature.

Furthermore. G.1 Introduction In this chapter. In research investigations involving several hundreds and even thousands of elements. data collection method and data analysis. events. will be discuss about the instruments or methods used to conduct the investigation of women behavior and participation in maritime industry of Northern Region of Malaysia. 2004). this research is directed to give a packed together answer to the research question.2 Population and Sample Population consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied. The reasons for using a sample. 3. This chapter consist of three part which are information about participant. (Bluman A.. rather than collecting data from the entire population. It also refers to the entire group of people. it 33 . or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate. are self-evident.CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.

The respondent will need to answer the questionnaire and to collect by the researcher once it is finished. the population is the Northern Region of Malaysia that including state of Kedah. transportation. or examine every element. or test. manufacturing. The researcher will go direct to the company. this research involves large size of sampling as well as large geographical area. port authority. There is a data collection instruments were used which are survey questionnaire. The structured and unstructured questions will be used. Perlis. shipbuilding. Another advantages is surveys can be easily conducted and 34 . the instrument will be used is the survey questionnaire. or by electronic mail as to send the questionnaire. The reason why questionnaire is being used in this project because. ship-repair. 3.3 Data Collection Method The data collection method that used in this report was aimed to investigating the women contribution and participation in maritime industry. 3.would be practically impossible to collect data from. (Sekaran & Bougie. The method that will be used is randomly sampling. 2009) In this research. On the other hand. The companies will be selected randomly by their specific involvement in maritime industry. port agent. For examples.4 Design of Questionnaire To obtain the information. there is no need to spend much cost to make a survey. and Penang.

the questionnaire will evaluate the factors that can increase the influences and contributions in women participations in maritime industry of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. The survey questionnaires consist of eighteen questions. This is to analyze what and how many factors and reasons that contributing women to work in maritime company. Finally. 3. Secondly. this research intends to analyze the ratio between men and women in maritime companies.5 Survey Questionnaire The survey questions were used as a source of primary data to investigate the women contribution and participation in Northern Region of maritime industry. The question will be formed to find whether decision-making level consists of women is more than operation level or vice versa. Software that will be used in this research is IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Firstly. Tabulation and data entry can be most effective using with computer software packages. It is significantly to determine the ratio between both genders since the researcher needs to analyze whether the ratio is becoming larger or vice versa. The questionnaire was divided into three sections which based on the whole research objectives. the first section of questionnaire is to find the difference between average number of women involved in decision-making level and operational level. Questionnaire will be sent to random companies by a mail and directed to the company.analyze. 35 .

regarding into several section that can be analyzed. answering questions in five minutes. This analysis instrument will helps researcher to gather and compute the data for statistical analysis uses so the data can be analyzed and studied. 36 . in mutual circumstances. Average among of them.6 Respondents The population in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia consist any company who provide. conduct and relate to any type of maritime field. The questionnaire will serve only kind of topics. A detailed questionnaire was developed and organized to understand a women contribution and participation in maritime industry. 3. issues and questions regarding to the research objectives. From this step.3. the study will be carried out FIVE (5) randomly selected companies. TEN (10) companies have be chosen in order to gather information about this research. only FIVE (5) companies were willing to cooperate and be able to answer and respond for those questionnaires. For the sample of the population.7 Data analysis SPPS will be used to compute and analysis the data obtain from the random respondents. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) is a computer program used for statistical analysis. chosen by the method of random companies from Northern Region of Malaysia. Initially. they were invited for completing a questionnaire related to this research.

This test might be occurred when a before-and-after observations on the same subjects and comparison of two different methods of measurement or two different treatments where the measurements/treatments are applied to the same subjects 3. Pearson’s correlation coefficient is a standardized measure of the strength of relationship between two variables.7. the other changes in the same direction by the same amount). through 0 (as one variable changes the other doesn’t change at all).3 Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient is a measure of the strength of association or relationship between two variables. to +1 (as one variable changes. 3.3. the randomization is not essential here. one from each of the two populations being compared.7. the other changes in the opposite direction by the same amount).1 Paired Sample t-Test A paired t-test is used to compare two population means where you have two samples in which observations in one sample can be paired with observations in the other sample. 37 . If there are two independent samples and would use the unpaired form of the t-test.7.2 One-independent t-test The independent samples t-test is used when two separate sets of independent and identically distributed samples are obtained. It can take any value from −1 (as on variable changes.

3.8 Flow chart Start Gathering information and proposal preparation Prepare the collective data method Prepared the questionnaire Submit Draft Report Submission of Research Proposal Presentation Finish Figure 2: The Flowchart of Final Year Project 1 38 .

data processing. FYP 2 will contain all the research results which are the data collected.3. FYP 2 is conducted in the next semester which is semester 6 (January 2012) also within the duration 14 weeks. the result from analyses and the expected outcome from this research. FYP 1 is conducted in semester 5 (July 2012) within the duration is 14 weeks. The schedule for FYP 1 and FYP 2 as follow: 39 .9 Research Planning Research is conducted in two phases. FYP 1 is covered the proposal for the selected research. Final Year Project 1 (FYP 1) and Final Year Project 2 (FYP 2).

3.3.1 Final Year Project 1 Research Planning SEMESTER 5 (JULY 2012) (WEEK) NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ACTIVITIES Briefing the Final Year Project title Gather information Proposal preparation Prepared the collective data method Prepared the questionnaire Submitted draft Submission of research proposal Presentation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Table 4: Final Year Project 1 Research Planning 40 .

3.2 Final Year Project 2 Research Planning SEMESTER 5(JANUARI 2011) (WEEK) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Activity Prepare instrument Collecting data Process data Running method Result analysis Proposed result Report writing Final presentation Report submission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Table 5: Final Year Project 2 Research Planning 41 .3.

Therefore. there will be a transportation cost such as fuel and the toll cost when researcher is going to the respondents companies that are related with the marine industry where the estimated total amount is about RM50. For the estimation cost. To accomplish this research.00 RM 250.00 where it has been provided by the university. it is used for the stationary that are using while conduct this research making the report and log book.00 90.00 60. The estimated budget for this project is RM 250.00 50.3. Besides that. the researcher need to send out the questionnaire and set up the interview as the data collected method on this research.10 Budgeting Budget For Final Year Project No 1 2 3 4 Items Documentation Posting Printing Transportation Cost Total RM 50. the research for the documentation cost is about RM50 for the purpose such as A4 papers and filing the proposal. 42 .00 Table 6: Budgeting for Final Year Project The table shows that the estimated budgeting for this Final Year Project.

such as Lumut Maritime Terminal.CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4. To achieve this. it is need to be used Statistical Student Package Software (SPSS) as a medium to solve these questions. estimation working hours per week. Bhd. it is significant to determine and analyze the output of the data to meet the research questions and objectives. Based on the collected data.1 Introduction The objective of this chapter is to discuss the results that have been obtained from the research on women participation and contribution to the maritime industry in Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. salary per year and number of leave taking in recent year. It is significant to analyze the ratio between these genders because to determine which as gender has played more significant contributions to their companies in terms of number of services. Asian Slipway Kuala Kedah. Ipoh Cargo Terminal. Boustead Langkawi Sdn. 43 . This objective is to determine whether the interval number of women in maritime company of Northern Region of Malaysia. The research started by collecting data of respondents from various sources. and Penang Port Commissioner. There are three (3) objectives needs to be achieved and those questions needs to be answered and proven to show the significant of this research. As long as the questions concerned. Boustead Naval Shipyard. The second objective is to analyze the ratio between men and women in the maritime company. the first objective was to determine the range of women workers in maritime company.

2. By determining this objective.The third objective to meet is to specify the influences and contribution towards their participation in maritime company.2 Findings and Analysis 4.1 Number of Respondent As been mentioned early in this chapter. 4. it can be determined some specific factors and predictors of women efforts and contributions which needed to increase their work performance and quality in the maritime company. there SIX (6) companies that participated in this research and the total number of respondents is 55 and can be classified into gender as figure below: Figure 333: 44 .

2 Research Question 1 Does the average number of women involved in the decision-making level differ from the average number of women involved in operational level in maritime company of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? α = 0. µ1 = average number of women in decision making µ2 = average number of women in operational level 45 .05 H0: µ1 = µ2 H1: µ1 >µ2 (claim) Where. that represent 22 male and 32 female and 1 missing value due to only one respondent did not thick type of gender’s box. 4.The figure shows the number of total respondents which are 55 people.2.

Therefore. reject the null hypothesis.3 Research Question 2: What is the ratio between men and women in maritime companies of the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? To find the ratio of two independent samples of men and women. 4.P=0. the decision-making level significantly difference from the average number of women involved in operational level in maritime company of Northern Region of Malaysia.05. It can be concluded that the number of women involved in decision-making level is higher because women are more interested in making their career in decision-making level of management rather than operational level of management. it needs to use the Independent Sample T-Test to determine the sum of ranks between these two genders.135>0.2. and their working hours in week. Ratio between men and women in terms of estimation working hours per week The ratio between male and female (mean) 46 .

and the ratio is 55.25 ≈ 4:6 47 . and can be simplified to about 56:50 for men compare to women.= 55. It means that men have more estimation working hours per week than women.182>0.82:49.82:49. reject the null hypothesis.81.78:6. Therefore. It is proven that men have put more time and willing to do more extra hours compare to women.81 ≈ 56:50 The mean in the table above shown that the number of female has more estimation working hours per week compare to men. H0: μMen = μWomen (The means are equal) H1: μMen ≠ μWomen (The means are not equal) P=0.05. the estimation hours for women significantly difference from the estimation hours for men Ratio between men and women in terms of number of years of service in the maritime company The ratio between male and female (mean) = 3.

The mean in the table above shown that the number of female has more number of years of service in the company compare to men. H0: μM = μW (The means are equal) H1: μM ≠ μW (The means are not equal P=0. and the ratio is 3. the number of years of service of women is not significantly difference from the number of years of service of men. Ratio between men and women in terms of the number of days taking for leaving in recent year The ratio between male and female (mean) 48 . and can be simplified to about 5:11 for men compare to women. Significantly. Therefore. do not reject the null hypothesis.25.05.006<0.78:6. It means that women have work and also can stay longer in the maritime company compare to men. men does not stay longer in the company and more willing to change the atmosphere to earn more salary and promotion while women has proven to have more loyalty in working with the company.

do not reject the null hypothesis.05.94:15:38. and the ratio is 16. H0: μM = μW (The means are equal) H1: μM ≠ μW (The means are not equal) P=0. It means that men have more number of taking leave compare to women. and can be simplified to about 17:15 for men compare to women.= 16.38 ≈ 17:15 The mean in the table above shown that the number of men has more number of leaving in recent year compare to women. Women are more acceptable to take more leave than men because commonly women have some internal issues according to their health and body conditions but in this case proven that men are taking more leave during working days.94:15. Therefore.010<0. 49 . the day for leave in recent year for women is not significantly difference from the days for leave in recent year for men.

we can see there are three diagonal variances correlate between each other. this is because there are complex interrelationships between variables.2. alongside the salary. We can say that as the number of working hours per increase. -0.01 level.175 and +0.Testing the Significance of Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients for Non Parametric From the correlations matrix table. 4.4 Research Question 3 What are the factors that increase women influences and contributions in their participations in maritime industry of Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia? Correlation test are used to analyze data for “The influences and contribution of women in the Organization of maritime industry 50 .645 and significant at the 0. The correlation of estimation working hours per week and salary per year has strongly positive relationship.005. +0. The correlation between years of service in the company and salary per year. and years of service in the company and estimation working hours per week has shown weak negative and positive relationship between each others.

Performance These variables obtained by selecting the highest two mean between the predictors then the correlations between the predictors were testing against each other.154 and significant at the 0. 51 . It means these two dependent variables have small effect to each other. The correlation of decision making and performance has weakly positive relationship.Dependent variables = Decision making.01 level. +0.

as at 2011. Family and Community Development Ministry's secretary-general Datuk Dr Noorul Ainur Mohd Nur. As the result. according to Women. which was below average of other East Asia and Pacific countries.9 percent. The World Development Report 2012 on Gender Equality and Development says improving women's access to jobs and economic opportunities could significantly boost productivity in the region. According to the World Bank Report. Some maritime companies circulated there are no women involving in their operational level in companies. Women participation in Northern Region of Malaysia is still considerably low compare to other industries. this could lead to lack of confidence and gender inequality by participating in maritime industries. 52 .2 Conclusion Malaysia is expected to have 55 percent of women in its labor force by 2015.CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 4. the female labor force participation rate in Malaysia was 47. Most of women have been found are more interesting to make money by joining decision-making level rather operational level.

But women also have high number of taking number of leave according to the outcome. The role of women in the development of the maritime industry is very important in many aspects. their monthly period. and some related family issues. women has more accurate number of estimation working hours per week and more number of years of services compare to their gender counterparts. It can be said that men are more vulnerable of changing their jobs or moving to another company. As mentioned. leadership. The contribution of women is billed in the realization of Malaysia's economic development in the future.On the other hand. women are influenced by internal and external criteria of making decision-making. These criteria will improve the women contribution and influence toward their participation in maritime company. In addition. women should be more involved in to remove factors that cause lack of involvement of women in this field. Which proven that women are taking their jobs more seriously than women compare to men. This logically means women are more exposed of acceptable number of excuses such as maternity issue. Contribution of women in this sector is very helpful in terms of the internal decision-making where it became an area of interest to women to venture into it. Women today are pillars of development various fields. It is hoped that this study will be used as stepping stone for women to be more open in 53 . Women considerably importance values in diversifying the results to help improve the quality of the maritime company in Malaysia. including the field of maritime employment. role. children care. extra hours work and ability. the values to increase the contribution and influence of women in the maritime sector are influence of various factors. Therefore.

The budget would also be used for the Single Mothers Skills Incubator Programme (I-KIT) in entrepreneurship. 54 .choosing a job in the maritime field and more competitive with men. By implementing the rules. so that we as Malaysians can contribute to the economic development of our country in the future. the ship is no longer bonding with the Government rules and will create a certain atmosphere that can lead a number of disadvantages to the women onboard. In maritime industry. and will include all programs that feature the participation of women in all decision-making level. Malaysian government also need to set several ground rules when women working onboard ship. As the ship lies far from the land. women will feel more safe and comfortable to work onboard ship. This is because the number of women in maritime industry still low compares to other industries and for years this industry been monopoly by men generally. women participation is still being recognized. 5.2 Recommendation As been expanded in Malaysian 2013 Budget. about RM50 million allocations for women will be used to train women as company board members to help achieve the government’s target of having at least 30 percent women at the decision-making level. by stimulating a several academic and non-academic programs to increase their interest to participate in maritime in the industry.

For the recommendation for this research. Some companies would choose to neglect and reluctant to involve in the research. Women now should and be always treated equal to the men. working from home and providing childcare centers at workplaces. This will benefit the maritime sector itself as it has been supported by gender equality and development. which included flexible working hours.As far as we concern. and should implement a various programs to achieve the target. most maritime companies in Northern Region. maritime companies should be opened to involve in more respective manner in students research about their companies. 55 . not willing at all to co-operate in the student research and not benefit the research overall. Generally. the implementation of the rules will create a numerous change of perceptions on working in maritime industry. This perspective should be changed in the future to allow more accurate data can be collected and measured should the companies enabling themselves to participate in future research.

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APPENDIX A: RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire is regarding the research on the Statistical Analysis on Women Contribution and Participation in Maritime Industry at Northern Region of Malaysia where by the evaluation of analysis can increase the performance of women in Marine Industry 60 .

edu. ………………………………………… Mohd Muhaimin bin Abdul Halim Student Final Year Project (UniKL MIMET) Handphone : 019 – 553 4507 Email: maxsevenhead@gmail. Your cooperation is fully appreciated.unikl.FINAL YEAR PROJECT UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF MARINE ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY (UniKL MIMET) JALAN PANTAI REMIS. Ab Rahman Supervisor / Lecturer of UniKL MIMET) Phone : 05-6909054 Email: fauziahabra@mimet. There are FOUR (4) sections on this questionnaire based on this research: Section A: General information of respondent Section B: The range of woman’s workers in the management hierarchy Section C: The ratio between men & women in maritime companies Section D: The influences and contribution of women towards in the organization of maritime industry The purpose of this research is to apply statistical method and acknowledge the women contribution and participation in maritime organization based on male and female respondents. 32200 LUMUT PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN TITLE: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON WOMEN CONTRIBUTION AND PARTICIPATION IN MARITIME INDUSTRY AT NORTHERN REGION OF MALAYSIA Dear respected Sir/ . Thank ………………………………………… Mdm. This questionnaire is designed to be applied for the Final Year Project (FYP) research concerning the women contribution and participation in your company. Fauziah Bt.

..Section A: General information of respondent Question 1: What is your type of gender? Male Female Question 2: What is your age in this year? Below 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 Above 40 Question 3: What is your type of race? Malay Chinese India Others (please state) ……………………………………………………………………………... Question 4: What is your type of religion? Islam Buddhist Hindu Christian Others (please state) ……………………………………………………………………………..

Question 5: What is the highest qualification of education that you hold? SPM STPM/Diploma Bachelor Master/PhD Other (please specify) ……………………………………………………………………………… Question 6: Is it your highest qualification related to marine industry? Yes No Question 7: What is your expertise and specialty in this organization? Engineering Construction Management Others (please specify ……………………………………………………………………………... Question 8: What is your fixed working hour? Less than 8 hours + OT 8 hours + 4 hours OT 8 hours without OT More than 8 hours + OT .

..Question 9: Which department you currently working? Accounting/Financial Human Resource Operation Technical/Engineering Others (please specify) ……………………………………………………………………………. ... Question 10: What is company’s services offer for the maritime industry? Construction/Engineering Logistics Port Authority Ship repair/Shipbuilding Others (please specify) …………………………………………………………………………….

Section B: The range of woman’s workers in the management hierarchy Question 1: Which of the following occupation groups that best describe the most of women group job at present? Top manager & senior administrator (e. managing director. accountant. clerk. secretary.g. project leader) Other occupations (e.g. operator. division manager. chief executive officer) Middle managers (e. assistant) Question 2: What is the range number of female worker in your department/management level? 0–5 6 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 More than 20 Question 3: What is the range number of women workers in terms of age in your department/management level? 21-30 31-40 More than 40 .g. President.

Question 4: What is the average number of women workers which involved in the operational level? 0-10 11-20 More than 20 Question 5: What is the average number of women workers which are involved in the decision making level? 0-10 11-20 More than 20 Question 6: What is the average number of women workers in terms of age which involved in the operational level? 21-30 31-40 More than 40 Question 7: What is the average number of women workers in terms of age which are involved in the decision making level? 21-30 31-40 More than 40 .

Question 8: At what age do you think women are suitable to enter the decision making level in a company? 21-30 31-40 More than 40 Question 9: Describe the level of importance of women workers in the company? High Low Not Sure Question 10: Which level in the management level do you think will suits women workers best in the company? Operational level Decision making level Not Sure .

is it done at this workplace Only by men Mainly by men Equally by men and women Mainly by women Only by women .Section C: The ratio between men & women in maritime companies Question 1: What is your estimation for working hours per week? (Including overtime) ____________________________________________________________________ Question 2: Basically. how long (in years) you have been work in this company? ____________________________________________________________________ Question 3: Basically. how much salary you get per year? ____________________________________________________________________ Question 4: How many days do you take for leave in recent year? (Including MC’s) ____________________________________________________________________ Question 5: Thinking about the type of work you personally do.

are the female workers are being treated equally and fairly like men? Yes No Not sure Question 7: How much percentage for men and women employee in this company? 70% men and 30% women 50% men and 50% women 70% women and 30% men Question 8: How do you rank your overall work performance compare to your gender counterparts? Top 15% Above average Average Below average Bottom 15% Question 9: What do you think about the performances about women and men? Men > Women (Men better woman) Women > Men (Women better men) .Question 6: Based on your opinion.

in scale between 1 to 10? (1 = Poor.Question 10: How do you rate the gender counterpart’s performance in your company. 10 = Excellence) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .

1 2 3 4 5 3. Women make judgment and decision based on their knowledge and skills 1 2 3 4 5 2. Women need men to be their leader in the organization of maritime industry. Women manage to give their utmost abilities to perform their jobs. Women are generally stereotype toward in making decision. Women can be a leader in maritime industry and can be a role model for the public.Section D: The influences and contributions of women towards in the organization of maritime industry Instruction: Please circle once for each of the following questions below 1 Very disagree 2 Disagree 3 Not sure 4 Agree 5 Very Agree 1. 1 2 3 4 5 7. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Women play a vital role in development of maritime industry. 1 2 3 4 5 4. 1 2 3 4 5 . Women found themselves available and interest to make extra hours work. 1 2 3 4 5 6.

Women like to take leave during working days. 1 2 3 4 5 . 1 2 3 4 5 9. Women play a minor role in the development of maritime industry.8. Women share little values of their work in the organization of maritime industry. 1 2 3 4 5 10.