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Grado de Ingeniera de Telecomunicacin

Tema 2. Semiconductores de potencia
Sevilla, Septiembre de 2012
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ndice
Introduccin
Diodo de potencia
Interruptores de potencia (tiristores, transistores
bipolares, MOSFETs, IGBTs)
Otros semiconductores de potencia WBG
Comparativa
Consideraciones prcticas de diseo
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Diodo de potencia
0
i
V
Curva caracterstica
ideal
i = I
S
!(e -1)
V
V
T

Ecuacin caracterstica
del diodo:
V
T
= k!T/q
donde:
I
S
= A!q!n
i
2
!(D
p
/(N
D
!L
p
)+D
n
/(N
A
!L
n
))
Curva caracterstica real
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Diodo de potencia
V
!
r
d
Modelo asinttico
ideal
0
i
V
V
!
Circuito equivalente asinttico
Curva caracterstica
asinttica.
Pendiente = 1/r
d

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estructura
La estructura de tres capas permite:
! En polarizacin inversa: la unin formada por las capas
p
+
n
-
al estar poco dopada soporta una tensin muy
elevada.
! En polarizacin directa: la circulacin de electrones
desde la capa n
+
inunda de electrones la capa n
-
con lo que
desde el punto de vista de la cada en conduccin es
equivalente a un diodo muy dopado.

n
-

p
+
p
+

p
+

n
+

SiO
2
SiO
2
Zona de deplexin
Anillo de guarda
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Carctersticas principales
Tipo de Diodo
Mx. tensin
de ruptura
Mxima
corriente
Cada en
conduccin
Velocidad de
conmutacin
Aplicaciones
Rectif. de alta
tensin
30kV ~500mA ~10V ~100nS
Circuitos de alta
tensin
Propsito
general
~5kV ~10kA 0.7 - 2.5 V ~25S Rectificadores 50 Hz
Rpidos (fast
recovery)
~3kV ~2kA 0.7 - 1.5 V <5S Circuitos conmutados
Diodos
Schottky
~100V ~300A 0.2 - 0.9 V ~30nS
Rectificadores de BT
y AF
Diodos Zener
de potencia
~300 V
(funciona en
ruptura)
~75 W - -
Referencias y fijacin
de tensiones
Principales caractersticas de los diodos de potencia
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Polarizacin inversa
Primer subndice Segundo subndice Tercer subndice
T=Dir. Polarizado y conduce W=De trabajo M=Valor Mximo
D=Dir. Polarizado y no conduce R=Repetitivo (AV)=Valor Medio
R=Inversamente Polarizado S=No Repetitivo (RMS)=Valor Eficaz
F=Directamente Polarizado
Subndices empleados por los fabricantes de semiconductores.

Tensin inversa de trabajo, VRWM : Mxima tensin inversa que puede
soportar de forma continuada sin peligro de avalancha.
Tensin inversa de pico repetitivo, VRRM : Mxima tensin inversa que
puede soportar por tiempo indefinido si la duracin del pico es inferior a 1ms y
su frecuencia de repeticin inferior a 100 Hz.
Tensin inversa de pico nico, VRSM : Mxima tensin inversa que puede
soportar por una sola vez cada 10 ms minutos si la duracin del pico es
inferior a 10 ms.
Tensin de ruptura, VBD : Valor de la tensin capaz de provocar la avalancha
aunque solo se aplique una vez por un tiempo superior a 10 ms.

Caractersticas de catlogo en polarizacin inversa
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Polarizacin directa

Caractersticas de catlogo en polarizacin directa

Corriente media nominal, IFW(AV) : Valor medio de la mxima
corriente de pulsos senoidales que es capaz de soportar el dispositivo
en forma continuada con la cpsula mantenida a una determinada
temperatura (tpicamente 100 C).

Corriente de pico repetitivo, IFRM : Corriente mxima que puede
ser soportada cada 20ms con duracin de pico 1ms.

Corriente de pico nico, IFSM : Corriente mxima que puede ser
soportada por una sola vez cada 10 ms minutos siempre que la
duracin del pico sea inferior a 10ms.

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Comportamiento ideal en conmutacin
Transicin de a a b, es
decir, de conduccin a
bloqueo (apagado)
a
b
V
1
V
2
R
i
V
+
-
i
V
t
t
V
1
/R
-V
2
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Comportamiento real en conmutacin
a
b
V
1
V
2
R
i
V
+
-
Transicin de a a b, es decir, de conduccin a bloqueo (apagado)
i
V
t
t
t
rr
V
1
/R
-V
2
/R
t
s
t
f
(i= -0,25!V
2
/R)
-V
2

t
s
= tiempo de almacenamiento
(storage time )
t
f
= tiempo de cada (fall time )
t
rr
= tiempo de recuperacin inversa
(reverse recovery time )
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Comportamiento real en conmutacin
a
b
V
1
V
2
R
i
V
+
-
i
t
d
= tiempo de retraso (delay time )
t
r
= tiempo de subida (rise time )
t
fr
= t
d
+ t
r
= tiempo de recuperacin directa (forward recovery time )
t
r
0,9!V
1
/R
t
d
0,1!V
1
/R
t
fr
Transicin de b a a, es decir, de bloqueo conduccin (encendido)
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Comportamiento real en conmutacin
El tiempo de recuperacin inversa es el mayor de
los dos tiempos de conmutacin y el responsable de
la mayor parte de las prdidas de conmutacin.

La carga almacenada que se elimina por arrastre es:


Aproximando el rea bajo la corriente a un tringulo
ser:


La derivada de la corriente durante t
a
depende del
circuito externo, y normalmente ser: t
a
>> t
b
es
decir: t
a
# t
rr
. Si se resuelve el circuito y se conoce
el valor de la derivada de i
D
:

se obtiene:



El valor de Q
rr
puede obtenerse del catlogo del
fabricante.

t
V
ON

t
t
rr

0.25I
rr

I
rr

v
D
i
D
I
F

Q
rr
(Carga
Almacenada)
V
R

t
a
t
b

di
D
/dt
Pico de tensin
debido a L di
D
/dt
L=bobina en serie
con D. (t
b
<<t
a
)
!
=
rr
t
f rr
dt i Q
0
rr
rr
rr rr
rr rr
I
Q
t Q
t I 2
2
! " !
Curvas de tensin y corriente del diodo
durante la conmutacin a corte.
rr
rr
a
rr D
t
I
t
I
dt
di
! =
dt
di
Q I
D
rr rr
2 !
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Comportamiento real en conmutacin
Los factores que influyen en el tiempo de recuperacin inversa son:

I
F
; cuanto mayor sea, mayor ser t
rr
. Esto se debe a que la carga
almacenada ser mayor.
V
R
; cuanto mayor sea, menor ser t
rr
. En este caso si la tensin inversa es
mayor se necesita menos tiempo para evacuar los portadores almacenados.
di
F
/dt; cuanto mayor sea, menor ser t
rr
. No obstante, el aumento de esta
pendiente aumentar el valor de la carga almacenada Q. Esto producir
mayores prdidas.
T; cuanto mayor sea la temperatura, aumentarn tanto Q como trr.

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Disipacin trmica
Bloqueo : Se suelen despreciar.
En Conmutacin. Son funcin de la
frecuencia de trabajo. (Adems de las
corrientes, tensiones y la forma como
evolucionan).
En Conduccin: Uso de catlogos

I
AV
P
D P
D
T
c
25C

125C

!

180

!
=60
!
=120
!
=180
Las prdidas aumentan con

La intensidad directa.
La pendiente de la intensidad.
La frecuencia de conmutacin.
La tensin inversa aplicada.
La temperatura de la unin.
Curvas tpicas suministradas por un
fabricante para el clculo de las
prdidas en conduccin de un diodo

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Diodos schottky de potencia

n
-

p
+

p
+

n
+

Zona de deplexin
NODO
CTODO
SiO
2
SiO
2

V
BD

1/R
ON

i
D
V
!

v
D

1/R
ON

V
!

V
BD

Diodo Schottky
Diodo Normal
Uso en circuitos donde se precise:
Alta velocidad
Bajas tensiones
Potencias bajas
Por ej. Fuentes de alimentacin
conmutadas.
Caracterstica I-V de un diodo Schottky
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Tiristores
Tiristores
Los tiristores son interruptores electrnicos utilizados en
circuitos de potencia donde es necesario controlar la activacin
del interruptor.
Los tiristores son dispositivos de tres terminales (nodo, ctodo
y puerta) Dentro de la familia de tiristores se encuentran:
- Rectificador controlado de silicio (SCR) - El Triac
- Tiristor de bloqueo por puerta (GTO)
- Tiristor controlado por MOS (MCT)
Para que el SCR entre en conduccin hay que aplicar una corriente de puerta
cuando la tensin nodo ctodo sea positiva. Una vez que el dispositivo ha
entrado en conduccin, la seal de la puerta deja de ser necesaria para
mantener la corriente de nodo. El SCR continuara conduciendo mientras la
corriente de nodo siga siendo positiva y est por encima de un valor mnimo
denominado nivel de mantenimiento.
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Otros tiristores
TRIAC
El TRIAC es un tiristor capaz de conducir corriente en ambos
sentidos. El TRIAC es equivalente a dos SCR conectados en
antiparalelo.
MCT
Es un dispositivo funcionalmente equivalente al GTO, pero sin el
requisito de alta corriente de desactivacin de puerta. Est
formado por un SCR y dos transistores MOSFET. Un MOSFET activa
el SCR y el otro lo desactiva estableciendo la tensin puerta-
ctodo, apropiada.
Tiristor GTO
Al igual que el SCR, se activa al aplicar una corriente de puerta
de corta duracin cuando la tensin nodo-ctodo es positiva.
El GTO tambin puede desactivarse aplicando una corriente de
puerta negativa. La corriente de desactivacin debe ser muy
grande comparada con la corriente de activacin.
El GTO es apropiado para aplicaciones en las que es necesario
controlar tanto la activacin como la desactivacin del
interruptor.
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Caracterstica esttica ideal
Caracterstica Esttica del SCR
0
i
V
Curva caracterstica
ideal encendido
Curva caracterstica
ideal apagado
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Caracterstica esttica real

I
A

V
AK

V
B0

I
H

I
B0

V
RWM

V
H

I
G
=0
I
G2
> I
G1

V
B02
V
B01
<
<
Tensin de bloqueo
inverso
Zona de ruptura
Zona de conduccin
Tensin de bloqueo
directo
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Modelo equivalente a BJTs

n
2

G
p
1

A
K
p
2

J
1

J
2

J
3

n
1

a) SCR Simplificado

A
K
G
I
A
= I
E1

I
C1

I
G

I
B2

I
K
= -I
E2

T
1

T
2

I
B1

I
C2

c) Circuito Equivalente

K
G
A
p
1

p
2

n
1

n
2

p
2

n
1

J
2

J
3

J
1

J
2

b) SCR como dos Transistores
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Transistores bipolares (BJT)

1/R
d
V
CE
(V)
I
C
(A)
0
BV
SUS

BV
CE0
BV
CB0

I
C

I
E

B
C
E
I
B

I
B
=0
I
B1

I
B2

I
B3

I
B4

I
B5

Caracterstica de salida (I
C
frente a V
CE
) del transistor NPN de potencia, para
distintas corrientes de base, I
B5
>I
B4
>...I
B1
>0 y Esquema del BJT de tipo NPN.
Zona de
saturacin
Zona de
cuasisaturacin
Ruptura secundaria
Ruptura primaria
Activa
Corte
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Montaje Darlington

Base
Colector
Emisor
D
1
T
A
D
2
T
B
!=!
B
!
A
+!
B
+!
A


Montaje Darlington para Grandes
Corrientes.

El BJT de potencia normalmente tiene una baja.
Por ejemplo si =20 y va a conducir una corriente de 60A, la corriente de base
tendr que ser mayor que 3A para saturar el transistor.
Para lograr estas altas corriente de base se usa la configuracin DARLINGTON
donde la ganancia de corriente de la combinacin es aproximadamente igual al
producto de las ganancias individuales y puede reducir la corriente extrada del
circuito de polarizacin.
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Zona de operacin segura
a) FBSOA (f
1
<f
2
<f
3
) b) RBSOA (Trancisiones de menos de 1 s)

Zonas de Operacin Segura del Transistor Bipolar


V
CE

I
C
I
CM

!V
CE
0
dc
f
1
f
2

f
3

V
BEoff
=0
V
BEoff
<0
I
C
I
CM
V
CE
!
V
CE0
!
V
CB0
Lmite trmico
Avalancha
secundaria
Tensin de
ruptura
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MOSFET
El nombre hace mencin a la estructura interna: Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
Es un dispositivo unipolar: la conduccin slo es debida a un tipo de portador
Los usados en Electrnica de potencia son de tipo acumulacin
G
D
S
Canal N
D
G
S
Canal P
Los ms usados son los MOSFET de canal N
La conduccin es debida a los electrones y, por tanto, con mayor movilidad
=> menores resistencias de canal en conduccin
Conduccin por
electrones
Conduccin por
huecos
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Zona de funcionamiento
El MOSFET es un dispositivo controlado por tensin. Un tensin puerta-
fuente (V
GS
) lo suficiente grande (V
GS
> V
TH
) activar el dispositivo,
dando lugar a una pequea tensin drenador fuente (V
DS
).
En el estado de conduccin las variaciones de V
DS
son linealmente
proporcionales a I
D
, por tanto en estado de conduccin el MOSFET
puede modelarse como una resistencia denominada R
DS(ON)
.

b) Curva Caracterstica
V
BV
V
BD

V
DS

Ruptura
Ohmica
Saturacin
Corte
V
GS


Zona hmica, VGS- VT >VDS, ,




en esta zona el transistor se
considera un interruptor cerrado,
con una resistencia (para valores
muy pequeos de VDS):




Zona de ruptura, VDS > VBD.

( )
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
' ( ' (
!
"
#
$
%
&
( =
2
2
DS
DS T GS D
V
V V V
L
W
k i
( )
T GS
ON DS
V V
L
W
k
R
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
=
1
) (
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Transistor V MOS

G
D
n
+
n
+
p
p
Canal
n
n
+
e
-
e
-
S S
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Transistor D MOS
Seccin de un Transistor DMOS de
Enriquecimiento Canal n

Drenador
xido de puerta
Fuente Puerta
SiO
2

(sustrato)
(oblea)
L
canal
n
+
n
+
n
+
n
+

n
+

n
-

p
p
i
D
i
D
10
19
cm
-3
10
16
cm
-3
10
14

10
15
cm
-3
10
19
cm
-3
!"##$%& (" )&*
#"+($++* "+","&-*+
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Transistor TRENCH
Transistores MOS de potencia
modernos: Transistores con
Trinchera

S S
D
n-epitaxial
n
+
-oblea
G
Canal
p
p
n
+
n
+
SiO
2

G
n
+
n
+
p
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Ejemplos de transistores mosfet
120V 200A
120V 30A
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Consideraciones prcticas
G
D
S
D S G
+

P
-

Substrato
N
+
N
+

Precauciones en el uso de transistores MOSFET
El terminal puerta al aire es muy sensible a los ruidos
El xido se puede llegar a perforar por la electricidad esttica de los dedos. A
veces se integran diodos zener de proteccin
Existe un diodo parsito entre fuente y drenador en los MOSFET de
enriquecimiento

D
A

D
B

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Caracterstica tcnicas
1 -Mxima tensin drenador-fuente
2 -Mxima corriente de drenador
3 -Resistencia en conduccin
4 -Tensiones umbral y mximas de puerta
5 -Velocidad de conmutacin
Mxima tensin drenador-fuente
Corresponde a la tensin de ruptura de la unin que forman el substrato
(unido a la fuente) y el drenador.
Se mide con la puerta cortocircuitada a la fuente. Se especifica a qu
pequea circulacin de corriente corresponde (por ejemplo, 0,25 mA)
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Mxima corriente de drenador
El fabricante suministra dos valores (al menos):
- Corriente continua mxima I
D
- Corriente mxima pulsada I
DM
La corriente continua mxima I
D
depende de
la temperatura de la cpsula (mounting base
aqu)
A 100C, I
D
=23!0,7=16,1A
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Resistencia en conduccin
Es uno de los parmetro ms importante en un MOSFET
Cuanto menor sea, mejor es el dispositivo
Se representa por las letras R
DS(ON)
Para un dispositivo particular, crece con la temperatura
Para un dispositivo particular, decrece con la tensin de
puerta. Este decrecimiento tiene un lmite.
Drain-source On Resistance, R
DS(on)
(Ohms)

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Tensin umbral y mxima GS
La tensin puerta fuente debe alcanzar un valor umbral para que comience
a haber conduccin entre drenador y fuente
Los fabricantes definen la tensin umbral V
GS(TO)
como la tensin puerta-
fuente a la que la corriente de drenador es 0,25 mA, o 1 mA
Las tensiones umbrales suelen estar en el margen de 2-4 V
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Variacin de la tensin umbral con T
La tensin umbral cambia con la temperatura
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Mxima tensin puerta-fuente
La mxima tensin soportable entre puerta y fuente es tpicamente de 20V
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Velocidad de conmutacin
Los MOSFET de potencia son ms rpidos que otros dispositivos usados en electrnica
de potencia (tiristores, transistores bipolares, IGBT, etc.)
Los MOSFET de potencia son dispositivos de conduccin unipolar. En ellos, los niveles
de corriente conducida no estn asociados al aumento de la concentracin de portadores
minoritarios, que luego son difciles de eliminar para que el dispositivo deje de conducir
La limitacin en la rapidez est asociada a la carga de las capacidades parsitas del
dispositivo
Hay, esencialmente tres:
- C
gs
, capacidad de lineal
- C
ds
, capacidad de transicin C
ds
k/(V
DS
)
1/2

- C
dg
, capacidad Miller, no lineal, muy importante

S
D
G
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds

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Velocidad de conmutacin
Los fabricantes de MOSFET de potencia suministran informacin de tres capacidades
distintas de las anteriores, pero relacionadas con ellas:
- C
iss
= C
gs
+ C
gd
con V
ds
=0 ($ capacidad de entrada)
- C
rss
= C
dg
(capacidad Miller)
- C
oss
= C
ds
+ C
dg
($ capacidad de salida)
C
iss
C
oss
S
D
G
C
dg
C
gs
C
ds
S
D
G
S
D
G
D
GG
C
dg
C
dg
C
gs
C
gs
C
ds
C
ds
S
D
G
C
dg
C
gs
C
ds
S
D
G
S
D
G
D
GG
C
dg
C
dg
C
gs
C
gs
C
ds
C
ds
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Velocidad de conmutacin
C
iss
= C
gs
+ C
gd

C
rss
= C
dg

C
oss
= C
ds
+ C
dg
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Velocidad de conmutacin
V
1
R
C
Carga y descarga de un condensador desde una resistencia
La carga y la descarga de estas capacidades parsitas generan prdidas que
condicionan las mximas frecuencias de conmutacin de los MOSFET de potencia
En la carga de C:
- Energa perdida en R = 0,5CV
1
2

- Energa almacenada en C = 0,5CV
1
2

En la descarga de C:
- Energa perdida en R = 0,5CV
1
2


Energa total perdida: CV
1
2
= V
1
Q
CV1

Adems, en general estas capacidades parsitas retrasan las variaciones de
tensin, ocasionando en muchos circuitos convivencia entre tensin y corriente, lo
que implica prdidas en el proceso de conmutacin
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Velocidad de conmutacin
Anlisis de una conmutacin tpica en conversin de energa:
- Con carga inductiva
- Con diodo de enclavamiento
- Suponiendo diodo ideal
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds

V
1
R
V
2
I
L

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Velocidad de conmutacin
Situacin de partida:
- Transistor sin conducir (en bloqueo) y diodo en conduccin
- Por tanto:

" v
DG
= V
2
, v
DS
= V
2
y v
GS
= 0
" i
DT
= 0 y i
D
= I
L
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
+
-
v
DG
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds
V
1
R
V
2
I
L

i
DT
i
D
B
A
- En esa situacin, el interruptor
pasa de B a A
+
-
+
-
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Velocidad de conmutacin
i
DT
= 0 hasta que v
GS
= V
GS(TO)
v
DS
= V
2
hasta que i
DT
= I
L

+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
+
-
v
DG
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds
V
1
R
V
2
I
L

i
DT
i
D
B
A
V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
Pendiente determinada por R, C
gs
y por
C
dg
($V
2
)
+
-
+
-
+
-
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
La corriente que da V
1
a travs de R se emplea
fundamentalmente en descargar C
dg
!
prcticamente no circula corriente por C
gs
! v
GS

= Cte
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
+
-
v
DG
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds

V
1
R
V
2
I
L

i
DT
B
A
V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
+
-
+
-
+
-
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
C
gs
y C
dg
se continan
V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
+
-
v
DG
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds
V
1
R
V
2
I
L

i
DT
B
A
+
-
V
1
Constante de tiempo determinada por R, C
gs
y por
C
dg
($V
1
)
+
-
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
Valoracin de prdidas entre t
0
y t
2
:

- Hay que cargar C
gs
(grande) y descargar
C
dg
(pequea) V
M
voltios
- Hay convivencia tensin corriente entre
t
1
y t
2
i
DT
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds

V
2
+
-
+
-
+
-
$i
DT
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3

V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
V
1
V
M
P
VI
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
Valoracin de prdidas entre t
2
y t
3
:

- Hay que descargar C
ds
hasta 0 e invertir
la carga de C
dg
desde V
2
-V
M
hasta -V
M

- Hay convivencia tensin corriente entre t
2

y t
3
V
1
V
M
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3

V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
P
VI
i
DT
= I
L
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds
+
-
+
-
+
-
I
L
i
Cds
i
Cdg
+i
Cds
+I
L
i
Cdg
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
Valoracin de prdidas a partir de t
3
:

- Hay que acabar de cargar C
gs
y C
dg
hasta
V
1

- No hay convivencia tensin corriente salvo
la propia de las prdidas de conduccin

t
0
t
1
t
2
t
3

V
GS(TO)

v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

B%A
I
L
P
VI
V
1
V
M
i
DT
= I
L
+
-
v
DS
v
GS
+
-
C
dg

C
gs
C
ds
+
-
+
-
I
L
i
Cdg
$i
L
T
G E
Velocidad de conmutacin
Valoracin de la rapidez de un dispositivo por la
carga de puerta:
- La corriente que da la fuente V
1
es
aproximadamente constante entre t
0
y t
3
(comienzo
de una exponencial, con I
V1
V
1
/R)
- De t
0
a t
2
, la corriente I
V1
se ha encargado
esencialmente en cargar C
gs
. Se ha suministrado una
carga elctrica Q
gs

- De t
2
a t
3
, la corriente I
v1
se ha encargado en
invertir la carga de C
dg
. Se ha suministrado una carga
elctrica Q
dg

- Hasta que V
GS
= V
1
se sigue suministrando carga.
Q
g
es el valor total (incluyendo Q
gs
y Q
dg
)
- Para un determinado sistema de gobierno (V
1
y R),
cuanto menores sean Q
gs
, Q
dg
y Q
g
ms rpido ser el
transistor
- Obviamente t
2
-t
0
Q
gs
R/V
1
, t
3
-t
2
Q
dg
R/V
1
y P
V1
=
V
1
Q
g
f
S
, siendo f
S
la frecuencia de conmutacin
v
GS

i
V1

t
0
t
2
t
3

V
1
i
V1

R
Q
gs

Q
dg

Q
g
T
G E
Conmutacin con carga resistica
Otro tipo de informacin suministrada por los fabricantes: conmutacin con
carga resistiva
V
DS
V
GS

10%
90%
t
r
t
d on
t
f
t
d off

t
d on
: retraso de encendido
t
r
: tiempo de subida
t
d off
: retraso de apagado
t
f
: tiempo de bajada
+
-
v
DS
i
DT

+
-
v
GS
G
D
S
+
R
G
R
D
T
G E
Prdidas en un mosfet de potencia
v
DS

i
DT

v
GS

P
VI
P
cond
= R
DS(on)
i
DT(rms)
2

W
on

W
off

P
conm
= f
S
(w
on
+ w
off
)

Prdidas en
conduccin
Prdidas en
conmutacin
T
G E
Zona de operacin segura

BV
DSS
=500V V
DS
10V
0.1A
I
D
=5A
I
DM
=10A
DC
100ms
10ms
1ms
0.1ms
10s
SOA
(DC)
Lmite de
potencia a
T
c
=25C
Zona de Operacin Segura (SOA) en un MOSFET de
Potencia (i
D
y V
DS
en escala logartmica)
Lmite debido a
R
DS
Tiempo para
onda cuadrada
con D=1%
T
G E
Otros dispositivos WBG
Los semiconductores de Si estn limitados a operar con temperaturas de
unin por debajo de los 200
o
C
Los dispositivos de Si no son adecuados para altas frecuencias.
Los dispositivos de WBG pueden evitar estos lmites de temperatura y de
frecuencia.
Las tecnologas ms maduras actualmente son los dispositivos SiC y GaN
Qu son WBG?
Por qu WBG?
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms
istics (high-voltage blocking capability, high-temperature
operation and high switching frequencies), and real com-
mercial availability of the starting material (wafers) and
maturity of their technological processes. Table 1 sum-
marizes the main material parameters of WBG semicon-
ductors candidates to replace Si in the next generation of
power devices. GaN and especially SiC process technolo-
gies are by far more mature and, therefore, more attrac-
tive from the device manufacturers perspective, especially
for high power and high temperature electronics (HTE).
GaN can offer better high-frequency and high-voltage per-
formances, but the lack of good quality bulk substrates
is a disadvantage for vertical devices. Nevertheless, GaN
presents a lower thermal conductivity than SiC. At present,
SiC is considered to have the best trade-off between prop-
erties and commercial maturity with considerable potential
for both HTE and high power devices. However, the indus-
trial interest for GaN power devices is increasing recently.
For this reason, SiC and GaN are the more attractive can-
didates to replace Si in these applications. In fact, some
SiC devices, such as Schottky diodes, are already compet-
ing in the semiconductor market with Si power diodes. On
the other hand, GaN allows forming hetero-junctions (In-
AlGaN alloys) and can be growth either on SiC or Si sub-
strates. Currently, it is a sort of competition between SiC
and GaN in a battle of performance versus cost. Neverthe-
less, scientic and industrial actors agree in considering
that both will nd their respective application elds with a
tremendous potential market.
Table 1. Physical properties of various semiconductors for
power devices



However, many of the material advantages still remain
not fully exploited due to specic material quality, technol-
ogy limitations, non optimized device designs and reliabil-
ity issues. In particular, WBG surface electrical properties
are only partially understood. Traps, dislocations, interface
states, micropipes, microcraks, etc. still should be mini-
mized. The role and control of residual strains need new
research efforts; the contact resistivity of the metal/WBG-
semiconductor has to be signicantly reduced; device reli-
ability is in its infancy, etc. It is worth mentioning that dia-
mond exhibits the best properties of all the WBG semicon-
ductors. Nevertheless, there are critical problems related
with the crystal growth (small areas single crystal wafers),
both p-type and n-type dopings and processing. Therefore,
there is not a diamond power device in the market and it is
not expected in the next decade.
SiCpower devices recently reported in literature include
high-voltage and high-temperature diodes, junction con-
trolled devices (like JFETs), MOSFETs and MESFETs.
Those based on GaN include diodes, HEMTs and MOS-
FETs; and advanced research on novel devices concerning
low-losses digital switches based on SiCand GaNis also of
main concern. These novel devices represent a real break-
through in power devices. Furthermore, the development
of modelling and electro-thermal characterization tools for
these power devices, and the design of their packaging,
drivers and controllers need a great research effort and they
represent a world-class innovation.
2 SIC POWER DEVICES
Si has long been the dominant semiconductor material
for high-voltage applications. The situation has changed
due to the signicant achievements in SiC bulk material
growth, and in SiC process technology. The progress in
SiC wafers quality is reected in the achievement of very
low micropipe density (0.75 cm
2
for a 75 mm wafer),
which provides the basis for a high fabricating process
yield of large area SiC power devices. 100 mm SiC wafers
are already in the market and it is expected that 150 mm
SiC wafers will be available in a near future [1]. It has been
shown that active regions of SiC-based devices overlying
micropipe defects in the substrate fail to operate. There-
fore, one of the major concerns has been reducing the mi-
cropipe density in SiCsubstrates, which has been driven by
the phenomenological understanding of the mechanisms
that are responsible for pipe formation during SiC crystal
growth. The understanding of such mechanisms has led the
identication and removal of most of these defects. How-
ever, other defects, such as basal plane dislocations, are
still under investigation causing poor reliability in bipolar
devices. In conclusion, the most challenging approach is
to grow low-doped epitaxial layers while maintaining fea-
tures such as purity, surface smoothness and growth rate
(epilayer thickness). Besides, minority carrier lifetime in
thick epilayers appears to be long enough for conductiv-
ity modulation, as inferred from high-voltage (19 kV) re-
ported diodes [2].
Many high-voltage experimental SiC-based two-
terminal rectiers and three-terminal switches have been
demonstrated. 4H-SiC unipolar devices are expected to
replace Si bipolar rectiers in the 600-6500 V range,
and power switches higher than 1.2 kV in the future [3].
Generally speaking, there are three types of power recti-
ers: 1) Schottky Barrier Diodes (SBD) with extremely
108 AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116
Propiedades fsicas de varios semiconductores para dispositivos de potencia
T
G E
Rectificadores SiC
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms
Fig. 1. Cross-section of 4H-SiC 3.3 kV Schottky, JBS and
PiN diodes [5]
high switching speed and low on-state losses, but lower
blocking voltage and high leakage current; 2) PiN diodes
with high-voltage operation and low leakage current, but
showing reverse recovery charging during switching; and
3) Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with Schottky-
like on-state and switching characteristics, and PiN-like
off-state characteristics. Figure 1 shows the cross-sections
of the three SiC rectiers. Schottky and PiN diodes are
the two basic types of power rectiers. However, hybrid
rectiers such as JBS rectiers, which combine the best
features of each type, are particularly attractive. SiC
SBDs are commercially available since 2001. The most
remarkable advantage of SiC SBDs is the continuing
increase in the blocking voltage and conduction current
ratings. They range from the initial 300 V, 10 A and 600
V, 6 A to the actual 600 V, 20 A and 1.2/1.7 kV. With the
latest ratings, it is foreseen that these diodes may replace
Si bipolar diodes in medium power motor drive modules.
Power Factor Correction and High-Voltage Secondary
Side Rectication are applications of 600 V SiC SBDs [4].
Besides, it is expected that SBDs can be advantageously
applied for blocking voltages up to 3.5 kV. Large area
3.3 kV SBDs have been fabricated with high-temperature
operation [5] that are able to supply forward currents in the
range of 20 A. In comparison with Si counterpart, a 10
increase in voltage blocking is possible with the same SiC
drift layer thickness. The main difference to ultra fast Si
PiN diodes lies on the absence of reverse recovery charge
in SBDs. Therefore, SiC SBDs are well suited for high
switching speed applications. 1.2 kV SiC SBDs match
perfectly as freewheeling diodes with Si IGBTs. Figure 2
displays the reverse recovery of the three SiC rectiers at
25

C and 300

C.
The high thermal conductivity of SiC is also a great ad-
vantage in comparison with Si and GaAs diodes since it al-
lows to operate at higher current density ratings as well as
to minimize the size of the cooling systems. Commercial
SiC SBDs are expected to continue increasing in voltage
and current ratings that currently is 1.2 kV [6, 7]. Inneon
has presented what they call "The latest SiC Generation:
Fig. 2. Turn-off current waveforms for the 3.3 kV SiC
diodes at 25

C and 300

C with inductive load


thinQ!
TM
3G" [7] aimed at improving the surge current ca-
pability and the avalanche ruggedness with a positive tem-
perature coefcient. It is a 600 V SiC merged pn/Schottky
structure, i.e., a SiC JBS diode. Due to their aforemen-
tioned reliability problems, there is no bipolar diode avail-
able in the market. Nevertheless, SiC state-of-the-art PiN
diodes include that reported by Cree [8] with a forward
voltage of 3.2 V at 180 A (100 A/cm
2
), capable of block-
ing 4.5 kV with a reverse leakage current of 1 A.
SiC power switches in the 600 V range have two strong
Si competitors: the power MOSFET (including CoolMOS
and other advanced trench devices) and the IGBT. Nev-
ertheless, SiC is better suited for switches operating at
high-voltage and especially at high-temperature. A low
on-resistance SiC switch able to operate at high junction
temperatures has clear advantages in comparison to its Si
counterparts. In addition, there is an increasing demand
of SiC high-voltage controlled switches, which opens the
possibility of facing new application elds. Concerning the
blocking voltage range from 1.2 kV to 1.8 kV, the Si MOS-
FET is not a realistic option and the Si IGBT shows high
dynamic losses when requiring fast switching. SiC JFET
may be an excellent alternative since this switch shows
an ultra low specic on-resistance and is also able to op-
erate at high temperatures and high frequencies. Inneon
has developed a 1.5 kV, 0.5 on-resistance hybrid switch
made up of a 1.5 kV vertical SiC normally-on JFET and
a 60 V Si MOSFET in cascode conguration [9]. This
switch is aimed at resonant converters and power supplies.
A 3mm4.1mm 1.8 kV SiC JFET die has been proposed
[10] with a current capability of 15 A at an on-state volt-
age drop of just 2 V. The technology is said to be viable at
voltages of up to 4.5 kV. Nevertheless, this hybrid switch
cannot operate at high-temperature, and newSiCnormally-
off JFETs have been developed to overcome this problem
[11].The normally-off operation of these devices is due to
the high built-in voltage of SiC pn junctions. Nevertheless,
AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116 109
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms
Fig. 1. Cross-section of 4H-SiC 3.3 kV Schottky, JBS and
PiN diodes [5]
high switching speed and low on-state losses, but lower
blocking voltage and high leakage current; 2) PiN diodes
with high-voltage operation and low leakage current, but
showing reverse recovery charging during switching; and
3) Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with Schottky-
like on-state and switching characteristics, and PiN-like
off-state characteristics. Figure 1 shows the cross-sections
of the three SiC rectiers. Schottky and PiN diodes are
the two basic types of power rectiers. However, hybrid
rectiers such as JBS rectiers, which combine the best
features of each type, are particularly attractive. SiC
SBDs are commercially available since 2001. The most
remarkable advantage of SiC SBDs is the continuing
increase in the blocking voltage and conduction current
ratings. They range from the initial 300 V, 10 A and 600
V, 6 A to the actual 600 V, 20 A and 1.2/1.7 kV. With the
latest ratings, it is foreseen that these diodes may replace
Si bipolar diodes in medium power motor drive modules.
Power Factor Correction and High-Voltage Secondary
Side Rectication are applications of 600 V SiC SBDs [4].
Besides, it is expected that SBDs can be advantageously
applied for blocking voltages up to 3.5 kV. Large area
3.3 kV SBDs have been fabricated with high-temperature
operation [5] that are able to supply forward currents in the
range of 20 A. In comparison with Si counterpart, a 10
increase in voltage blocking is possible with the same SiC
drift layer thickness. The main difference to ultra fast Si
PiN diodes lies on the absence of reverse recovery charge
in SBDs. Therefore, SiC SBDs are well suited for high
switching speed applications. 1.2 kV SiC SBDs match
perfectly as freewheeling diodes with Si IGBTs. Figure 2
displays the reverse recovery of the three SiC rectiers at
25

C and 300

C.
The high thermal conductivity of SiC is also a great ad-
vantage in comparison with Si and GaAs diodes since it al-
lows to operate at higher current density ratings as well as
to minimize the size of the cooling systems. Commercial
SiC SBDs are expected to continue increasing in voltage
and current ratings that currently is 1.2 kV [6, 7]. Inneon
has presented what they call "The latest SiC Generation:
Fig. 2. Turn-off current waveforms for the 3.3 kV SiC
diodes at 25

C and 300

C with inductive load


thinQ!
TM
3G" [7] aimed at improving the surge current ca-
pability and the avalanche ruggedness with a positive tem-
perature coefcient. It is a 600 V SiC merged pn/Schottky
structure, i.e., a SiC JBS diode. Due to their aforemen-
tioned reliability problems, there is no bipolar diode avail-
able in the market. Nevertheless, SiC state-of-the-art PiN
diodes include that reported by Cree [8] with a forward
voltage of 3.2 V at 180 A (100 A/cm
2
), capable of block-
ing 4.5 kV with a reverse leakage current of 1 A.
SiC power switches in the 600 V range have two strong
Si competitors: the power MOSFET (including CoolMOS
and other advanced trench devices) and the IGBT. Nev-
ertheless, SiC is better suited for switches operating at
high-voltage and especially at high-temperature. A low
on-resistance SiC switch able to operate at high junction
temperatures has clear advantages in comparison to its Si
counterparts. In addition, there is an increasing demand
of SiC high-voltage controlled switches, which opens the
possibility of facing new application elds. Concerning the
blocking voltage range from 1.2 kV to 1.8 kV, the Si MOS-
FET is not a realistic option and the Si IGBT shows high
dynamic losses when requiring fast switching. SiC JFET
may be an excellent alternative since this switch shows
an ultra low specic on-resistance and is also able to op-
erate at high temperatures and high frequencies. Inneon
has developed a 1.5 kV, 0.5 on-resistance hybrid switch
made up of a 1.5 kV vertical SiC normally-on JFET and
a 60 V Si MOSFET in cascode conguration [9]. This
switch is aimed at resonant converters and power supplies.
A 3mm4.1mm 1.8 kV SiC JFET die has been proposed
[10] with a current capability of 15 A at an on-state volt-
age drop of just 2 V. The technology is said to be viable at
voltages of up to 4.5 kV. Nevertheless, this hybrid switch
cannot operate at high-temperature, and newSiCnormally-
off JFETs have been developed to overcome this problem
[11].The normally-off operation of these devices is due to
the high built-in voltage of SiC pn junctions. Nevertheless,
AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116 109
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms
Fig. 1. Cross-section of 4H-SiC 3.3 kV Schottky, JBS and
PiN diodes [5]
high switching speed and low on-state losses, but lower
blocking voltage and high leakage current; 2) PiN diodes
with high-voltage operation and low leakage current, but
showing reverse recovery charging during switching; and
3) Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with Schottky-
like on-state and switching characteristics, and PiN-like
off-state characteristics. Figure 1 shows the cross-sections
of the three SiC rectiers. Schottky and PiN diodes are
the two basic types of power rectiers. However, hybrid
rectiers such as JBS rectiers, which combine the best
features of each type, are particularly attractive. SiC
SBDs are commercially available since 2001. The most
remarkable advantage of SiC SBDs is the continuing
increase in the blocking voltage and conduction current
ratings. They range from the initial 300 V, 10 A and 600
V, 6 A to the actual 600 V, 20 A and 1.2/1.7 kV. With the
latest ratings, it is foreseen that these diodes may replace
Si bipolar diodes in medium power motor drive modules.
Power Factor Correction and High-Voltage Secondary
Side Rectication are applications of 600 V SiC SBDs [4].
Besides, it is expected that SBDs can be advantageously
applied for blocking voltages up to 3.5 kV. Large area
3.3 kV SBDs have been fabricated with high-temperature
operation [5] that are able to supply forward currents in the
range of 20 A. In comparison with Si counterpart, a 10
increase in voltage blocking is possible with the same SiC
drift layer thickness. The main difference to ultra fast Si
PiN diodes lies on the absence of reverse recovery charge
in SBDs. Therefore, SiC SBDs are well suited for high
switching speed applications. 1.2 kV SiC SBDs match
perfectly as freewheeling diodes with Si IGBTs. Figure 2
displays the reverse recovery of the three SiC rectiers at
25

C and 300

C.
The high thermal conductivity of SiC is also a great ad-
vantage in comparison with Si and GaAs diodes since it al-
lows to operate at higher current density ratings as well as
to minimize the size of the cooling systems. Commercial
SiC SBDs are expected to continue increasing in voltage
and current ratings that currently is 1.2 kV [6, 7]. Inneon
has presented what they call "The latest SiC Generation:
Fig. 2. Turn-off current waveforms for the 3.3 kV SiC
diodes at 25

C and 300

C with inductive load


thinQ!
TM
3G" [7] aimed at improving the surge current ca-
pability and the avalanche ruggedness with a positive tem-
perature coefcient. It is a 600 V SiC merged pn/Schottky
structure, i.e., a SiC JBS diode. Due to their aforemen-
tioned reliability problems, there is no bipolar diode avail-
able in the market. Nevertheless, SiC state-of-the-art PiN
diodes include that reported by Cree [8] with a forward
voltage of 3.2 V at 180 A (100 A/cm
2
), capable of block-
ing 4.5 kV with a reverse leakage current of 1 A.
SiC power switches in the 600 V range have two strong
Si competitors: the power MOSFET (including CoolMOS
and other advanced trench devices) and the IGBT. Nev-
ertheless, SiC is better suited for switches operating at
high-voltage and especially at high-temperature. A low
on-resistance SiC switch able to operate at high junction
temperatures has clear advantages in comparison to its Si
counterparts. In addition, there is an increasing demand
of SiC high-voltage controlled switches, which opens the
possibility of facing new application elds. Concerning the
blocking voltage range from 1.2 kV to 1.8 kV, the Si MOS-
FET is not a realistic option and the Si IGBT shows high
dynamic losses when requiring fast switching. SiC JFET
may be an excellent alternative since this switch shows
an ultra low specic on-resistance and is also able to op-
erate at high temperatures and high frequencies. Inneon
has developed a 1.5 kV, 0.5 on-resistance hybrid switch
made up of a 1.5 kV vertical SiC normally-on JFET and
a 60 V Si MOSFET in cascode conguration [9]. This
switch is aimed at resonant converters and power supplies.
A 3mm4.1mm 1.8 kV SiC JFET die has been proposed
[10] with a current capability of 15 A at an on-state volt-
age drop of just 2 V. The technology is said to be viable at
voltages of up to 4.5 kV. Nevertheless, this hybrid switch
cannot operate at high-temperature, and newSiCnormally-
off JFETs have been developed to overcome this problem
[11].The normally-off operation of these devices is due to
the high built-in voltage of SiC pn junctions. Nevertheless,
AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116 109
1) Diodos Schottky Barrier (SBD) pueden alcanzar una altsima
frecuencia de conmutacin y muy bajas prdidas en conduccin
pero tiene baja tensin de bloqueo y alta corriente inversa.
2) Diodos PiN alcanzan alta tensin inversa y baja corriente inversa
pero presentan problema de carga durante la recuperacin inversa.
3) Diodos Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) presentan caractersticas
similares al Schottky respecto a cada directa baja y alta frecuencia
y similares al PiN en cuanto a estado de bloqueo con alta tensin de
bloqueo y baja corriente inversa.
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms
Fig. 1. Cross-section of 4H-SiC 3.3 kV Schottky, JBS and
PiN diodes [5]
high switching speed and low on-state losses, but lower
blocking voltage and high leakage current; 2) PiN diodes
with high-voltage operation and low leakage current, but
showing reverse recovery charging during switching; and
3) Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes with Schottky-
like on-state and switching characteristics, and PiN-like
off-state characteristics. Figure 1 shows the cross-sections
of the three SiC rectiers. Schottky and PiN diodes are
the two basic types of power rectiers. However, hybrid
rectiers such as JBS rectiers, which combine the best
features of each type, are particularly attractive. SiC
SBDs are commercially available since 2001. The most
remarkable advantage of SiC SBDs is the continuing
increase in the blocking voltage and conduction current
ratings. They range from the initial 300 V, 10 A and 600
V, 6 A to the actual 600 V, 20 A and 1.2/1.7 kV. With the
latest ratings, it is foreseen that these diodes may replace
Si bipolar diodes in medium power motor drive modules.
Power Factor Correction and High-Voltage Secondary
Side Rectication are applications of 600 V SiC SBDs [4].
Besides, it is expected that SBDs can be advantageously
applied for blocking voltages up to 3.5 kV. Large area
3.3 kV SBDs have been fabricated with high-temperature
operation [5] that are able to supply forward currents in the
range of 20 A. In comparison with Si counterpart, a 10
increase in voltage blocking is possible with the same SiC
drift layer thickness. The main difference to ultra fast Si
PiN diodes lies on the absence of reverse recovery charge
in SBDs. Therefore, SiC SBDs are well suited for high
switching speed applications. 1.2 kV SiC SBDs match
perfectly as freewheeling diodes with Si IGBTs. Figure 2
displays the reverse recovery of the three SiC rectiers at
25

C and 300

C.
The high thermal conductivity of SiC is also a great ad-
vantage in comparison with Si and GaAs diodes since it al-
lows to operate at higher current density ratings as well as
to minimize the size of the cooling systems. Commercial
SiC SBDs are expected to continue increasing in voltage
and current ratings that currently is 1.2 kV [6, 7]. Inneon
has presented what they call "The latest SiC Generation:
Fig. 2. Turn-off current waveforms for the 3.3 kV SiC
diodes at 25

C and 300

C with inductive load


thinQ!
TM
3G" [7] aimed at improving the surge current ca-
pability and the avalanche ruggedness with a positive tem-
perature coefcient. It is a 600 V SiC merged pn/Schottky
structure, i.e., a SiC JBS diode. Due to their aforemen-
tioned reliability problems, there is no bipolar diode avail-
able in the market. Nevertheless, SiC state-of-the-art PiN
diodes include that reported by Cree [8] with a forward
voltage of 3.2 V at 180 A (100 A/cm
2
), capable of block-
ing 4.5 kV with a reverse leakage current of 1 A.
SiC power switches in the 600 V range have two strong
Si competitors: the power MOSFET (including CoolMOS
and other advanced trench devices) and the IGBT. Nev-
ertheless, SiC is better suited for switches operating at
high-voltage and especially at high-temperature. A low
on-resistance SiC switch able to operate at high junction
temperatures has clear advantages in comparison to its Si
counterparts. In addition, there is an increasing demand
of SiC high-voltage controlled switches, which opens the
possibility of facing new application elds. Concerning the
blocking voltage range from 1.2 kV to 1.8 kV, the Si MOS-
FET is not a realistic option and the Si IGBT shows high
dynamic losses when requiring fast switching. SiC JFET
may be an excellent alternative since this switch shows
an ultra low specic on-resistance and is also able to op-
erate at high temperatures and high frequencies. Inneon
has developed a 1.5 kV, 0.5 on-resistance hybrid switch
made up of a 1.5 kV vertical SiC normally-on JFET and
a 60 V Si MOSFET in cascode conguration [9]. This
switch is aimed at resonant converters and power supplies.
A 3mm4.1mm 1.8 kV SiC JFET die has been proposed
[10] with a current capability of 15 A at an on-state volt-
age drop of just 2 V. The technology is said to be viable at
voltages of up to 4.5 kV. Nevertheless, this hybrid switch
cannot operate at high-temperature, and newSiCnormally-
off JFETs have been developed to overcome this problem
[11].The normally-off operation of these devices is due to
the high built-in voltage of SiC pn junctions. Nevertheless,
AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116 109
T
G E
Dispositivos GaN
Los transistores GaN soporta una alta intensidad de campo elctrico y
tiene una muy alta movilidad de electrones con una razonable
conductividad trmica. Adems, tiene una alta discontinuidad de
bandas de conduccin entre GaN y AlGaN y, la presencia de campos,
permite un alto confinamiento de la concentracin del gas de electrones
en dos dimensiones (2D).
Recientemente, los transistores
GaN de alta movilidad electrnica,
High Electron Mobility Transistors
(HEMTs), empiezan a tener un gran
inters por tener una baja
resistencia ON y soportar altas
tensiones de ruptura. Los GaN
HEMTs tendrn gran aplicaciones
de dispositivos microondas y en
fuentes de alimentacin.
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Power Electronics J. Milln, P. Godignon, A. Prez-Toms

Fig. 6. Schematic cross-section of a p-type gate HEMT
new power semiconductor materials will allow increasing
the efciency of the electric energy transformations for a
more rational use of electric energy, thus reducing carbon
footprint. The most promising WBG semiconductor mate-
rials for this new generation of power semiconductor de-
vices are SiC and the GaN.
SiC Schottky and JBS diodes are commercially avail-
able up to 1.2 kV. PiN diodes will be only relevant for
breakdown voltages over 3 kV. PiN diodes with outstand-
ing blocking capability up to 20 kV have been demon-
strated. However, they still need to overcome a reliabil-
ity problem (forward voltage drift) before commercialisa-
tion. Recent results in this sense are encouraging. Regard-
ing SiC switches, despite the successful demonstration of
the cascode pair consisting of a high-voltage, normally-
on SiC JFET and a low-voltage Si MOSFET, more reli-
able normally-off SiC switches are expected although im-
provements in process technology are still needed. The po-
tential candidates are the SiC MOSFET (<5 kV) and the
SiC IGBT (>5 kV). Also, even though BJTs/Darlingtons
are promising they also suffer from reliability problems
similar to PiN junction rectiers. In any case, a normally
off SiC power MOSFET in the breakdown voltage range
of 0.6-1.2 kV is available in the market. SiC n-channel
power switches (the n-MOSFET and the n-IGBT) capa-
ble of blocking 10 kV have been demonstrated recently.
In this case, their gate properties are similar to existing Si
power switches thereby simplifying their insertion into ex-
isting power systems. It is also expected that the blocking
capability of these n-channel power switches will increase
up to 20-30 kV in a future, widening the application eld
of SiC power switches. Other topics linked to the back-end
process, such as passivation, are of crucial relevance since
they can affect the efciency of the edge termination. Suit-
able high k-dielectrics can play a main role. Moreover, the
high operating temperature of SiC power devices (demon-
strated over 500

C) will certainly contribute to the market


growth and industrial utilization. It will be necessary, how-
ever, to develop packages able to withstand high operat-
ing temperatures in the range of 300

C. Finally, reliability
analysis of these WBG power devices is at is very early
stage (especially for GaN devices).
GaN devices are already commercialised in the photon-
ics area but it is in an embryonic state regarding power
applications. Due to the fact that GaN can be grown on
Si substrates, there is a part of the scientic community
that supports the idea that GaN can deliver the SiC per-
formance with the Si cost. However, it is also wide spread
the view that GaN devices must be implemented on SiC in
order to get competitive devices, hence annulling the cost
argument. Commercial power 0.6-1.2 kV GaN Schottky
diodes will be available in the market in a very near future.
One of the most interesting properties of GaN for power
application is the high electron mobility of the 2DEG
gas formed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures offering high
electron mobilities (1200 cm
2
/Vs). The material and de-
vice properties (breakdown eld, mobility and speed) of
GaN HEMTs lend themselves to high-power switching
applications, with a projected 100 performance advan-
tage (V
2
BR
/R
ON
) over silicon power devices. The combi-
nation of high-speed and low-loss switching performance
enabled by GaNdevices is particularly suited for an emerg-
ing type of switching power supplies with ultra-high band-
width (in the MHz range). The breakdown capability of
GaN HEMTS is approaching 10 kV and power converters
have been already demonstrated. However, HEMT devices
are generally normally-on devices and it is extremely dif-
cult to convince power systems designers and nal users
to use these normally-on switches. For high-voltage power
switching applications, GaN MOSFET has the advantages
of normally-off operation without current collapse prob-
lematic. However, GaN MOSFET currently exhibits -and
probably it will be an unsolved major problem as in the
case of SiC- modest inversion channel mobility (below
200 cm
2
/Vs) due to the presence of interface states, sur-
face roughness and other scattering mechanisms. A way
to around this could be the incorporation of AlGaN/GaN
hetero-structure into the RESURF region of GaN MOS-
FETs. A hybrid MOS-HEMT has the advantage of both
the MOS gate control and the high mobility 2DEG in Al-
GaN/GaN drift region. This hybrid MOS-HEMT has a
tremendous potential to be the GaN power switch.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of
Science and Innovation under the projects Advanced
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Rational Use
of Energy, RUE, Consolider-Ingenio Project (CSD 2009-
00046) TRENCH-SIC (TEC2011-22607) and THER-
MOS (TEC2008-05577).
AUTOMATIKA 53(2012) 2, 107116 113
T
G E
Comparativa y aplicaciones
!"!#
Wide Band Gap: Wide Range of Applications
Power devices
(> 600V)
- High electric field
- Wide band gap
RF devices
High carrier saturation
velocity
MEMS
- High Young modulus
- Hardness
Chemical sensors Inertness
Bio-sensors
- Biocompability
- Transparency
Why WBG Semiconductors ?
Dispositivos de potencia (> 600V)
Alta densidad de campo
elctrico
Alta banda de gap de
energa
Dispositios de RF
Alta velocidad conmutacin
MEMS
Alto mdulo de Young
Dureza
Sensores qumicos
Materiales inertes
Bio-sensores
Biocompatibilidad
Transparencia
T
G E
Comparativa y aplicaciones
!"#$
Why WBG Semiconductors ?
WBG
Silicon
Limit
Power Devices
T
G E
Diseo trmico
Puede observarse que un dispositivo
funcionando a 75C durar unas
cuatro veces ms que si trabaja a su
temperatura mxima, por tanto es
muy importante mantener la
temperatura del cristal controlada,
an en las condiciones ms
desfavorables (Mximas disipacin
de potencia y temperatura del
medio ambiente)
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Temperatura en la unin T
j
C
V
i
d
a

e
s
p
e
r
a
d
a

r
e
s
p
e
c
t
o

a

l
a
v
i
d
a

m
e
d
i
a

a

7
5

C
T
j
=75C
1
2
3
T
jMax
=
125C
Problema a resolver: Al circular corrientes por los dispositivos y conmutar entre
corte y saturacin se producen unas prdidas de potencia en forma de calor en el
dispositivo. Si este calor no es extrado del interior del dispositivo, provocar una
subida de la temperatura del semiconductor.
La temperatura en el cristal de silicio no puede superar un valor mximo,
(normalmente T
jmax
=125C), ya que:

& Empeoran las caractersticas funcionales del dispositivo.
& La vida media esperada disminuye al aumentar la temperatura.
T
G E
Diseo trmico
Modelo Multicapa de un Semiconductor
Montado sobre un Disipador para analizar la
Transferencia de Calor desde el Silicio hacia
el Ambiente
R
'ja
= R
'jc
+ R
'cs
+ R
'sa

Semiconductor T
j
Encapsulado T
c

Aislamiento Elctrico
Disipador T
s

Temperatura Ambiente T
a

donde:
R
'jc
es la resistencia trmica debida
a mecanismos de transferencia de
calor por conduccin entre el silicio
y el encapsulado del dispositivo.
R
'cs
es la resistencia trmica debida
a mecanismos de transferencia de
calor por conduccin entre el
encapsulado del dispositivo y el
disipador.
R
'sa
es la resistencia trmica debida
a mecanismos de transferencia de
calor por conveccin y radiacin
entre el disipador y el ambiente.
Estos mecanismos, aunque ms
complejos, como ya hemos visto, se
pueden modelar de forma
aproximada mediante una
resistencia trmica.

T
G E
Diseo trmico
Magnitud Elctrica Magnitud Trmica
Diferencia de
Potenciales
Diferencia de
Temperaturas

Intensidad Potencia
Resistencia Elctrica Resistencia Trmica



T
j
= P
D
(R
'jc
+ R
'cs
+ R
'sa
)+ T
a

dnde:

T
j
es la temperatura de la
unin del semiconductor.
Ta es la temperatura
ambiente del medio exterior.

Estos clculos no son exactos,
debido a que las resistencias
trmicas varan con:
La Temperatura.
Contacto trmico entre
cpsula y radiador
(Montaje).
Dispersiones de
fabricacin.
Efectos transitorios.
Circuito Equivalente Basado en Resistencias Trmicas
T
j
R!
jc
R!
cs
R!
sa
P
D
P
D
+
T
c
+
T
s
+
T
a
+
j c s a
Se puede hacer una analoga con los circuitos elctricos
T
G E
Diseo trmico
a) Sistema Trmico Simple Consistente
en una Masa a Temperatura inicial TS a
la cual se le suministra un escaln de
potencia PD, estando en contacto con
un Disipador a Temperatura TS. La
temperatura final alcanzada es T1.

b) Modelo equivalente elctrico utilizado
para modelar comportamientos
transitorios de un sistema trmico.

T
1

T
s

a)
P
D
T
s
C
!
b)
P
D

R
!
T
1

"
!
=C
!
R
!

La evolucin en el tiempo de la temperatura cuando se aplica un cambio brusco
(escaln) de la potencia disipada ser:



En rgimen permanente coincide con lo estudiado anteriormente para el caso
esttico:
) 1 ( ) (
/
1
!
"
!
t
D S
e R P T t T
#
# = #
!
R P T t T
D S
= " # = ) (
1
T
G E
Diseo trmico
Para una masa de cierto tamao se tendr una distribucin continua de
temperaturas. Para calcular la evolucin de la temperatura se aproxima el
material en varios trozos en los que se supone que la temperatura es constante.
La temperatura final en un nodo debe coincidir con la obtenida con el modelo
esttico
T
5
T
4
T
3
T
2
T
1
T
S
P
D

T
5

T
1
T
2 T
3 T
4
T
S
C
2
C
1
C
3
C
4 C
5
P
D
R!5,4

R!4,3

R!3,2

R!2,1

R!1,S

a) Sistema trmico aproximado por
cinco trozos.
b) Modelo Elctrico Equivalente

T
G E
Diseo trmico
Definimos la impedancia
transitoria como:






P
D
P
o
0
t
T
n
T
fn
t
a) Escaln de Potencia
b) Evolucin de la Temperatura
en el trozo n
0
T
0n
) 1 ( ) (
/
0 0
!
"
!
t
n n
e R P T t T
#
# = #

Z
!
Z
!
0
t
0
) 1 ( Z ) ( Z
/
0
!
"
! !
t
e t
#
# =

0 0
0
) ( ) (
) (
P
t T
P
T t T
t Z
n
!
=
"
=
#
Respuesta Transitoria de la Temperatura en el Nodo n Frente a un Cambio en
escaln en la Potencia Disipada.
T
G E
Diseo trmico
Los fabricantes suelen dar
curvas en las que se
representa la impedancia
trmica transitoria para un
dispositivo al que se aplica
una potencia disipada tipo
escaln u ondas cuadradas
peridicas, por ejemplo:
Puede observarse que para
valores altos de D y bajos
de t
1
(=altas frecuencias),
las curvas se vuelven
horizontales, es decir, la
inercia trmica hace que la
temperatura de la unin no
vare y por tanto estas
curvas no son necesarias.
En general, para
frecuencias mayores de
3kHz es suficiente trabajar
con la caracterstica
esttica.

D=
0.5
10
-5
1 10
0.01
0.1
1
10
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
i
a

T

r
m
i
c
a

T
r
a
n
s
i
t
o
r
i
a
U
n
i

n
-
C

p
s
u
l
a


Z
t
h
J
C

(

C
/
W
)
10
-4
10
-3
Notas:
1-D=t
1
/T
2-T
jMax
=T
C
+P
DMax
Z
thJC
10
-2
10
-1
0.2
0.1
Pulso nico, T=
!
0.05
0.02
0.01
t
1
(seg)
t
1
T
P
D
Curvas de la Impedancia Trmica Transitoria del transistor MOSFET IRF
330 donde la Impedancia Trmica Transitoria est parametrizada en
funcin del ciclo de trabajo del MOSFET
T
G E
Gracias por la atencin