Está en la página 1de 2

The epidermis can have stomatal, an openings through which plant exchanges gas with the atmosphere.

These openings are surrounded by specialized cells called occlusive which change size and shape, modifying the diameter of the stomatal opening and thereby regulate the gas exchange.

The epidermis is coated with a film of wax called the cuticle, is waterproof, and its function is to reduce evaporative water loss through the plant surface. If it undergoes secondary growth rather than epidermis will have periderm, the tissue composed of cells almost completely waterproof (especially corky tissue or cork) who die when mature.
The epidermis is the superficial protective layer of the skin. Derived from ectoderm, the epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness from 0.007 to 0.12 mm. All but the deepest layers are composed of dead cells. Either four or five layers may be present, depending on where the epidermis is located (figs. 2.1 and 2.2). The epidermis of the palms and soles has five layers because these areas are exposed to the most friction. In all other areas of the body, the epidermis has only four layers

..The epidermis is highly keratinized, mostly dead, stratified squamous epithelium.

Often a secondary covering called the periderm forms on small woody stems and many non woody plants, which is composed of cork (phellem), the cork cambium (phellogen), and the phelloderm. The periderm forms from the phellogen which serves as a lateral meristem. The periderm replaces the epidermis, and acts as a protective covering like the epidermis. Mature phellem cells have suberin in their walls to protect the stem from desiccation and pathogen attack. Older phellem cells are dead, as is the case with woody stems. The skin on the potato tuber (which is an underground stem) constitutes the cork [9][10] of the periderm. In woody plants the epidermis of newly grown stems is replaced by the periderm later in the year. As the stems grow a layer of cells form under the epidermis, called the cork cambium, these cells produce cork cells that turn into cork. A limited number of cell layers may form interior to the cork cambium, called the phelloderm. As the stem grows, the cork cambium produces new layers of cork which are impermeable to gases and water and the cells outside of the periderm, namely the epidermis, cortex and older secondary [11] phloem die. Within the periderm are lenticels, which form during the production of the first periderm layer. Since there are living cells within the cambium layers that need to exchange gases during metabolism, these lenticels, because they have numerous intercellular spaces, allow gaseous exchange with the outside atmosphere. As the bark develops, new lenticels are formed within the cracks of the cork layers.