Está en la página 1de 19

ABSTRACT

Living languages never hold still, every language is the product of change and as long as it is spoken. One way languages change is through the influence of other languages. The English word (patio) for example, was not part of the English vocabulary. Now it is the addition of constitutes a change in our linguistic system. The addition of (patio) to the English vocabulary results from the influence of Spanish. This paper deals with a specific issue that is linguistics borrowing a very common linguistic phenomenon since in most languages, the vast majority of new words are in fact borrowings from other languages. This paper consist of five chapters , chapter one presents several definitions of borrowing and loanwords , chapter two points out to the reasons of borrowing and why do languages borrow from one another , chapter three tries to show the different types of borrowing and lexical borrowing as a topic for general linguistics and discuss the adaptation and integration of loan words and other topics , chapter four show the loan words in Arabic culture from the influence of Arabic loanwords on English and makes clear the factors which contributed to the rapid modernization of the Arabic language and some words that Arabic borrowed from other languages , chapter five present the Arabic loanwords in English language ,....etc. Finally this paper ends with a conclusion and bibliography for those who wish to take things further.

1

old English did not have the word (pork) this became an English word only after it was adopted from French (pig-pork) borrowed in the late of middle English period (Campbell 2004:63). (Haspelmath and Tadmor 2009:36). The word (loanword) is itself a caique of the German (lehnwort) while caique ia a loanword from French the term (borrow) and (loanword) although traditional. vocabulary. a word which originally was not part of the recipient language but was adopted from some other languages and made part of borrowed languages. this definition is uncontroversial. conflict with the ordinary meaning of those words because nothing is returned to the host language. Loanword: is a word borrowed from one language and incorporated into another. say that loanword is ( a word that at some point in the history of a language entered it is lexicon as a result of borrowing transfer or copy) .(1) Loanwords Loanword is a lexical item (a word) which has been borrowed from another language. but there are a number of things to note. Fortunately. 2 . for example.

This term has been used in two different senses: 1. (2) Borrowing As (Yule. As a general term for all kinds of transfer or copying processes. 2. According to (Crystal 2008:58) borrowing is a term used in comparative and historical linguistics to refer to a linguistic form taken over by one language or dialect from another. whether they are due to native speakers adopting elements from other languages into the recipient language. In this process there is a direct translation of the elements of words into the borrowing language.g. and lilac (Persian). The English language has adopted a vast number of loanwords from other languages including alcohol (Arabic). croissant (French). such borrowings are usually knows as (loanwords) e. To refer to the incorporation of foreign elements into the speaker of native language. Less commonly. Other languages of (Italian). Other languages of course borrow terms from English as can be observed in the Japanese rajio (radio). sounds and grammatical structures may be borrowed. A special type of borrowing is described as loan-translation. croissant (French). 1996: 65) states that borrowing is one of the most common sources of new words in English is the process simply labeled (borrowing) that is taking over of new words from other languages. ( restaurant. piano (Italian). 3 . chargin) which have been come into English from French and several types have been recognized. and lilac (Persian).

Another source for new words in our language especially in earlier periods is the acceptance of words from other languages. When some people travel for study. they can influence one another readily. they can speak foreign language. 4. 4 .Geographical closeness meaning that when two languages are close or near to each other. Among loanwords that have been acquired or have achieved prominence during the last decade are perestroika and glasnost from Russian. 3. there is a linguistic contact since the language is the medium through which people can say whatever they like.There is a constant need for synonyms of effective words they have lost their expressive force for example (WC) instead of (Loo). intifada. Words or expressions may also come from another national variety of English. http://havref.e. They are spread through the mass media and may be rapidly assimilated without people being aware of their origin. doc Some of these reasons are given below: 1. 2. and fatwa from Arabic.am/uploads/kursavin.Cultural influence: whenever there is a cultural contact. tourism or any other reason they borrow some words from the language of the country they are in. trade. Such casecan be finding between Arabic and Kurdish. American English in particular is a rich source of words and expressions for other varieties of English. and use them with their native language to show off i.

5 . places. they create an equivalent word to (computer) which is {hasub) but in many cases (hasub) is still ignorant and the word (computer) is retained in use. For example French was widely spread in the north part of Arab homeland (the north part of America). concepts.The lack of a native substitute or the ignorance of the native equivalent even if available. they are enable to such foreign terms.e.Immigration or regional domination: the domination of one country over another can lead to spreading the language of the dominators. Mississippi.The need of finding new words for new objects.5. commercial dominance etc.Translators poor knowledge of their native language some may transfer the foreign terms i. 7. For example. many place names on the north of American continent are taken from Indian languages. Michigan. Now days. This domination may be in the form of a military conquest. Chicago. etc. it is easier to borrow an existing word from another language than to make up one. 8. for example. the Arabs start using (computer) this word is kept in Arabic for a long time. 6.

industrial) causes. Written borrowings are often rather long and they are unknown to many people speaking the language.Extra.linguistic (economic.Linguistic causes. Political relations of speakers of the language with other countries refer to extra linguistic factors due to the great influence of the Roman civilization Latin was for a long time used in English as the language of learning and religion. 6 . cultural. Borrowing enter the language in two ways through (oral speech by immediate contact between people) and through (written speech by indirect contact through books). Many of these words are formed by combining Latin or Greek morphemes after the model of these languages or combining them to be looked scholarly. 2. (Shatawy 2007:10) Borrowed words enter the language as a result of influence of two main causes: 1. Consequently words from these languages found their ways into English as well as other European languages since the renaissance. The prestige factor: Latin and Greek had great prestige in the world of the scholarship during the middle ages. word borrowed orally are usually short and undergo more changes in the act of adopter.9.

i.We distinguish translation loans. graphic forms and their meaning. namely. phrase. borrowing proper and semantic loans. In discussing the possibility of borrowing various lexical items.. http://hayeref. collocations. while verbs and prepositions are less commonly borrowed. conjunction and prepositions stating the members of the former are more likely to be borrowed than those of the latter. it has been found out that nouns constitute the majority of borrowed words. etc.e the adaptation of elements such as single words. by one language from another. pronouns.g. translation loans are words and expressions formed from the material already existing in the language but according to patterns taken from another language by way of literal morpheme. Borrowing proper words are taken from another language with their sounds. such as nouns. e.am/uploads/hcrsayin. idioms. 7 . because it is difficult to assimilate then into another language. On the other hand.doc (1) Types of borrowing: (1. for morpheme translation.1) Lexical borrowing The most familiar result of linguistic contact is lexical borrowing. wall-newspaper. verbs and adjectives. the class of borrowing items sometimes depends on the nature of the sociolinguistics context where the borrowing takes place for instance the borrowing of adverbs and conjunctions is found more clearly in bilingual communities. Generally. structure and form as in the case of English and Arabic. especially when the source and the borrowing language differ in origin.

8 . When the Romance invaded England. whereas in French. it is a translation borrowing. The borrower of foreign words criticized for pronouncing a foreign language in accurately but in real borrowing. this is a borrowing but when the Germans translate ( e as er ). for example.(1. When the English use Latin roots from education. it is pronounced as mem meaning a complete dinner. though they did not make English a romance language.3) Direct borrowing: It is the commonest form of the borrowing. {due as ziech) and (ion as ung) to make up the word erziechung. power politics for German machtpolitik (1.2)Translation borrowing/calque: This type of borrowing is common in scientific terminology. Crystal (1985:40) defines as a term used in comparative and historical linguistics in which the morphemic constituents of the borrowed word or phrase are translate item by item equivalent morphemes in the new language. for example ( a menu) is spelt mainju: is a list of dishes. he is adopting words to his own phonemes trying to speak the language. thousands of the romance words were brought into the Anglo-Stock.

This process is known as phonetic substitution. For example.(1. even in it is native context For example.4) Syntactic borrowing: Changes in the syntax of a language also result from borrowing. in English sentence he will speak his French rouge with an English ( r ) in place of the French urular trill and an English (u w) in place of the French tense. Greek and Romanian are syntactically alike in that infinitival clauses are restricted in their use. (1. he may speak the foreign form in foreign phonetics. It can be noted than even if a language has borrowed extensively from other languages it will keep it is grammatical core as characteristic of it is language family. such as Albanian. which demonstrated its true affiliation. He also adds that the borrowed form is subject to the phonetic change that occurs after it is adoption which is distinct from phonetic substitution. the language of Balkan peninsula. non-diphthongal [u:].5) Cultural borrowing: Bloomfield (in Diannen 1967:289-290) says that any person has a good command of a foreign language. we may suppose that an old French from like vision vizfo:n was taken into middle English with some slight amount of no longer traceable phonetic substitution with on the first syllable. 9 . Bulgarian. for example. Grammar is more resistant to borrowing than lexicon and phonology. This change is less frequent because the syntactic system of any language has integrated series of rules and the modification of one rule could have drastic consequences elsewhere in the system.

In particular language with gender and inflection classes need to assign each word to a gender and inflection class. The first is through the influence of borrowed words. which carry with them some foreign characteristics. For example. so that English in animate genderless nouns are Loanword adaptation is sometimes indispensable for the word to be usable in the recipient language. but it does occur. There are two mechanisms that make the phonology of one language affect that of another. if English borrow many words with nasal vowels from French and if these words are used constantly by English speakers. so that it can occur in systematic patterns which require gender agreement or certain inflected forms. then a distinction between oral and nasal vowels.6) Phonological borrowing: Phonological borrowing is rather difficult to recognize. Russian lacks affront rounded vowel. morphological and syntactic properties in the donor language that do not fit into the system of the recipient language. so that French word like resume rezyme summary are problematic and French words are either masculine or feminine. For example. similarly. (Shatawy 2007: 16) (2)Adaptation and integration of loan words: The source words of loanwords often have phonological.(1. 10 . loanwords from Arabic have to be adapted orthographically in English because otherwise they would not be readable.

so that now these phonological patterns are integral parts of the Japanese sound system. which occur only in borrowed words. the vast majority of loanwords are associated with a source word.If a large number of loan words come from a single donor language patterns will be imported along with the words. Linguists identify words as loanwords if they have a shape and meaning that is very similar to the shape and meaning of a word from another language from which it could have been taken. (Haspelmath and Tadmor 2009 : 42) (3) Recognizing loanwords. For example. (Thurgood 1999:11) notes that many loanwords from Mon-Khmer languages into chamic language can be recognized by their loan phonemes. In general. In the world loanword database. If the word is phonological aberrant in a way that would be explicable by a borrowing history of the word. Japanese borrowed many Chinese words that ended up with long vowels and diphthongs. (Haspelmath and Tadmor 2009 :144) 11 . a word can only be recognized with certainty as donor language can be identified. sounds. and if the similarities have no plausible alternative/ explanation. We have found a pair similar words in two languages that are not genealogically related and are certain that borrowing must be involved it is often still unclear what the borrowing direction was.

(5. but undergo a spelling change to represent the orthography of the adopting language.3) Changes in pronunciation In cases where the new word has a very unusual sound. as in this example. with words like gem (game).2)Changes is spelling Words taken into different languages are sometimes spelled as in the original language Sometimes adopted words retain original (or near-original) pronunciation. the pronunciation is frequently radically changed. Conversely. this is particularly noted in words from South Asian and Southeast Asian languages. such as Jerriais. 12 . Some languages. cwl(cool).(5) changes after borrowing. but means mobile phone and thus a noun. in rarely used in German. Welsh is a language where this is done with some consistency.1)Changes in meaning Words are occasionally imported with a different meaning than that in the source language. which is a adaptation of the English adjective "handy". (5. The French expression "cul de sac" (meaning "dead end" or "no through road") is used in English as is. have a tendency to apply historical sound-shift patterns to newly introduced words. and ded-gifawe (dead giveaway). a process sometimes referred to by the archetypal name of the law of Hobson-Johson. (5. with the same meaning but a spelling pronunciation: the (l) is mute in French but enunciated in English. Among the best known examples of this is the German word Handy.

which has an enormous number of foreign adoptions . As a result. Long before the advent of Islam. that is a language that has not been influenced by another language at certain point of it is history. It is almost impossible to find a pure language. This phenomenon seems to be universal. wikipedia. http://en. when die Quran was revealed it contained many of these words which appear to have been completely assimilated into the Arabic lexicon. seemingly at random. Classical Arabic was influenced by languages such as Greek. lexical borrowing from one language to another takes place. Persian. Latin. Language is the vehicle of culture and the medium of culture — transmission. Arabic loanwords have influenced hundreds of languages. and in return Arabic has been influenced by many other languages. This is often the case in the names of small businesses. 13 . and Aramaic.Most languages modify foreign words to fit native pronunciation patterns. and used in totally inexplicable contexts. An excellent example is Japanese. ore/wiki/Loanword (i) The influence of Arabic loanwords on English. In other cases words are copied. Human cultures are mutually influenced. A word is the basic unit of language. this lead some early Arabic an Muslim scholars to reject the idea that there were loans in Quran.

As a result. Arabic has borrowed more word. (Bakalk 1984:72) (2) The factors which contributed to the rapid modernization of the Arabic language. even though it be like Arabic by another one. and expression from Different languages with which it came into contact Words such as fatsafu (philosophy) and musiqa (music) are from the Greek language.Word such as Sayan Satm and Stat from latin starta mearnng (way). When they want to Arabize foreign words they assimilate them into the structure of Arabic words in the same manner that they assimilate their letters to Arabic letters. Often they change the condition of a word from what it was in the foreign language. One of the most important factors which contributed to the rapid modernization of the Arabic language was the assimilation of a great number of 14 . Furthermore. because of it is long history. sometimes assimilating them into the structure of their words and sometimes not. are though. they change the vocalization and the position of argumentative letters without reaching by it the Arabic word structure. by assimilating to Arabic letters such as are not Arabic and replacing a letter. to be borrowed. The cousin of the prophet Ibn Abbas (7 century) is considered the first arab philologist to become aware of foreign words in the Arabic language. there is attributed to him and his school the singling out of a series of Quran words as being of foreign origin. His primary concern with the Quran led him inquire into the etymologies it is vocabulary. The Arab change those foreign words which are absolutely jncongruous with their own.

The process of this assimilation into Arabic is called {taarib) or Arabization as a solution to the urgent need for adequate modern terms in science. It established later that arabization neither contaminates nor degrades the language. The total elimination of loan words cannot be achieved by any natural language. The study of the Arabic spoken or written vocabulary shows that the extent of this influences is enormous in terms of the linguistic elements. The introductions of modern loanwords into Arabic enrich the language as it provides it with words or concepts which are lacking in the language or its users. Turkish and Portuguese). Certainly. naturally loanwords can go out of use -then they are no longer required in the vocabulary of society.words from modern language are (French. modern technology and the speed of modernization and development require a vocabulary which develops with equal speed. Spanish. Italian. (Bakalla 1984i75) 15 . English. Loan words in spokenArabic are more numerous than in written Arabic.

with the same meaning but a spelling pronunciation: the (l) is mute in French but enunciated in English. An excellent example is Japanese. and ded-gifawe (dead giveaway). have a tendency to apply historical sound-shift patterns to newly introduced words Most languages modify foreign words to fit native pronunciation patterns.3) Changes in pronunciation In cases where the new word has a very unusual sound. seemingly at random. which has an enormous number of foreign adoptions . but undergo a spelling change to represent the orthography of the adopting language. The French expression "cul de sac" (meaning "dead end" or "no through road") is used in English as is. This is often the case in the names of small businesses. (5. Welsh is a language where this is done with some consistency.(5. as in this example. and used in totally inexplicable contexts. the pronunciation is frequently radically changed. a process sometimes referred to by the archetypal name of the law of Hobson-Johson. cwl(cool).2)Changes is spelling Words taken into different languages are sometimes spelled as in the original language Sometimes adopted words retain original (or near-original) pronunciation. ore/wiki/Loanword 16 . this is particularly noted in words from South Asian and Southeast Asian languages. Some languages. In other cases words are copied. wikipedia. with words like gem (game). http://en. such as Jerriais.

and expression from Different languages with which it came into contact Words such as fatsafu (philosophy) and musiqa (music) are from the Greek language. This phenomenon seems to be universal. As a result. that is a language that has not been influenced by another language at certain point of it is history. lexical borrowing from one language to another takes place. Word such as Sayan Satm and Stat from latin starta mearnng (way). are though. Arabic has borrowed more word. The cousin of the prophet Ibn Abbas (7 century) is considered the first arab philologist to become aware of foreign words in the Arabic language. Language is the vehicle of culture and the medium of culture — transmission. It is almost impossible to find a pure language. to be borrowed. A word is the basic unit of language. because of it is long history. when die Quran was revealed it contained many of these words which appear to have been completely assimilated into the Arabic lexicon. Latin. As a result. there is attributed to him and his school the singling out of a series of 17 . Classical Arabic was influenced by languages such as Greek. Long before the advent of Islam. Human cultures are mutually influenced. and Aramaic. and in return Arabic has been influenced by many other languages. Arabic loanwords have influenced hundreds of languages. this lead some early Arabic an Muslim scholars to reject the idea that there were loans in Quran.(ii) The influence of Arabic loanwords on English. Persian. His primary concern with the Quran led him inquire into the etymologies it is vocabulary.

Turkish and Portuguese). English. sometimes assimilating them into the structure of their words and sometimes not. (Bakalk 1984:72) (2) The factors which contributed to the rapid modernization of the Arabic language. Furthermore. by assimilating to Arabic letters such as are not Arabic and replacing a letter. One of the most important factors which contributed to the rapid modernization of the Arabic language was the assimilation of a great number of words from modern language are (French. Spanish. The study of the Arabic spoken or written vocabulary shows that the extent of this influences is enormous in terms of the linguistic elements. even though it be like Arabic by another one.Quran words as being of foreign origin. they change the vocalization and the position of argumentative letters without reaching by it the Arabic word structure. Italian. The Arab change those foreign words which are absolutely jncongruous with their own. The introductions of modern loanwords into Arabic enrich the language as it provides it with words or concepts which are lacking in the 18 . Often they change the condition of a word from what it was in the foreign language. When they want to Arabize foreign words they assimilate them into the structure of Arabic words in the same manner that they assimilate their letters to Arabic letters.

Certainly. The total elimination of loan words cannot be achieved by any natural language. naturally loanwords can go out of use -then they are no longer required in the vocabulary of society. It established later that arabization neither contaminates nor degrades the language. Loan words in spokenArabic are more numerous than in written Arabic. (Bakalla 1984:75) 19 . The process of this assimilation into Arabic is called {taarib) or Arabization as a solution to the urgent need for adequate modern terms in science. modern technology and the speed of modernization and development require a vocabulary which develops with equal speed.language or its users.