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# Hoare Logic

Hoare Logic
Kai Engelhardt

Revision: 1.1

Hoare Logic

## A Toy Language Syntax

Let us add assignments and guards as basic statements, and some form of loops (or recursion) to our imperative, sequential toy language. P Expr BoolExpr P ::= x := e | P ; P | P + P | | P e ::= 0 | 1 | . . . | x | . . . | e + e | e e | . . . ::= true | | | . . . | e < e | . . .

The above denitions are geared towards simplicity. When programming, we tend to use more familiar constructs such as while do P od for (; P ) ; and if then P else Q for (; P ) + (; Q ).

Hoare Logic

## The Types of Semantic Functions

We introduce a family of functions from syntactic entities (programs, arithmetic expressions, and Boolean expressions) to semantic entities. [[.]] : P P( ) E [[.]] : Expr V B [[.]] : BoolExpr P()

Hoare Logic

## A Denotational Semantics for P

Let s , t , x Var , e , f Expr , , BoolExpr , and P , Q P . Dene Q 0 = true and Q i +1 = Q i ; Q , for i N. (s , t ) [[x := e ]] i t = s [x E [[e ]]s ] (s , t ) [[P ; Q ]] i u ((s , u ) [[P ]] (u , t ) [[Q ]]) [[P + Q ]] = [[P ]] [[Q ]] (s , t ) [[]] i t = s s B [[]] [[P ]] =
def def

[[P i ]]
i N

where f [a b ] denotes the function that is the same as f , except for its value for the argument a, which is b .

Hoare Logic

## Denotational semantics for Expr and BoolExpr

E [[0]]s = 0(I) E [[x ]]s = s (x ) E [[e f ]]s = E [[e ]]s (I) E [[f ]]s B [[true]] = B [[ ]] = B [[]] B [[ ]]
def def def def

def

def def

def

## B [[]] = \ B [[]] s B [[e < f ]] i E [[e ]]s <(I) E [[f ]]s

In the above, Ive decorated some entities on the RHS with (I) to indicate that they are semantic objects rather than syntax even though they look the same as some syntactic entities on the LHS. For instance, the symbol on the left is part of the alphabet to form arithmetic expressions, and the symbol (I) represents the multiplication function known from maths.
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Hoare Logic

Predicates on states suce to express interesting properties of sequential programs. Hoare logic allows to formally derive properties from the program text. The Hoare triple {} P { } means: If program P is started in an initial state satisfying precondition and P terminates then the nal state satises postcondition . Example: {y = 22} x := y 17 {x = 5}

Hoare Logic

Syntax vs Semantics

On the syntactic level, we may axiomatize Hoare logic by giving a set of rules and axioms characterizing Hoare triples. On the semantic level, we may dene mathematically, what it means for a Hoare triple to be valid.

Hoare Logic

## Axioms and Rules

The assignment axiom: {[e /x ]} x := e {} where [e /x ] is with x substituted by e e.g. (x = 5)[y 17 /x ] is y 17 = 5 The guard axiom: { } { }
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ass

grd

Hoare Logic

## Axioms and Rules contd

The sequential composition rule: {} P { } , { } Q {} {} P ; Q {} The choice rule: {} P { } , {} Q { } {} P + Q { } The while rule: { } P { } { } while do P od { } The consequence rule: , {} S { } , { } S { } cons loop choice seq

Hoare Logic

## Trivial Example Proof

{y 17 = 5} x := y 17 {x = 5} {y = 22} x := y 17 {x = 5}

(1) (2)

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Hoare Logic

## Backing up with Semantics

To see whether our axiom and rules are any good, we need to give a formal interpretation to Hoare triples. {} P { } is valid if

the relational image of through P is contained in : { : B [[]] ((, ) [[P ]]) } B[[ ]]

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Hoare Logic

## Backing up with Semantics

To see whether our axiom and rules are any good, we need to give a formal interpretation to Hoare triples. {} P { } is valid if

the relational image of through P is contained in : { : B [[]] ((, ) [[P ]]) } B[[ ]]

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Hoare Logic

## Backing up with Semantics

To see whether our axiom and rules are any good, we need to give a formal interpretation to Hoare triples. {} P { } is valid if

the relational image of through P is contained in : { : B [[]] ((, ) [[P ]]) } B[[ ]]

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Hoare Logic

## Backing up with Semantics

To see whether our axiom and rules are any good, we need to give a formal interpretation to Hoare triples. {} P { } is valid if

the relational image of through P is contained in : { : B [[]] ((, ) [[P ]]) } B[[ ]]

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Hoare Logic

## Soundness and Completeness

Our proof system is sound (w.r.t. the semantics hinted at) because one can deduce only valid Hoare triples with it. Our proof system is complete (w.r.t. the semantics hinted at) if one can deduce all valid Hoare triples with it.
NB: As soon as we have (Peano) arithmetic over integers available in our assertion language, our system can hardly be complete. All one may hope for is relative completeness in the sense of Cook, i.e., completeness using an oracle for theorems from arithmetic. All this should be taught but isnt.

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