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Transparency for the Global Art Market Since 2004

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Introduction Executive Summary Key Art Industry Statistics Based on Skates Art Industry Scorecard Exhibit 1: Businesses in the Art Industry Exhibit 2: Skates Top 10 Art Industry Companies Auction House Business as a Leading Art Industry Activity

3 5 7 7 8 8 9 11 11 13 14 14 15 16 18 18



Art Dealers (Galleries) Make Up 18% of Art Industry Exhibit 3: Top 20 Art Dealers (Galleries) Mushrooming Art Fairs: Opportunity or Threat? Exhibit 4: Top 30 Art Fairs Worldwide Online Art Trading as the Fastest Growing Art Industry Business Exhibit 5: E-commerce Companies in Skates Art Industry Scorecard Exhibit 6: Top 10 E-Commerce Companies by Distribution Power Exhibit 7: Top 10 E-Commerce Companies by Artistic Merit Exhibit 8: Online Business Practice Penetration in Art Industry Space Information as Art Industry Currency Art and Finance: Solid Art Industry Collaboration Explored in Three Ways: Art Investment Funds, Art Lending and Art Banking New Inux of Art Investment Funds Expected Art Lending Activity Among Fastest Growing Businesses Art Banking: From Biggest Corporate Collections to Financial Services in Art Publicly Traded Companies in the Art Industry Exhibit 10: Listed (Investable) Universe of the Global Art Industry Exhibit 11: Skates Art Stock Index (Public Companies in the Global Art Industry) Exhibit 13: Skates Art Stocks Index vs. S&P 500, 2012 Luxury Groups and the Art Industry: Close Connection Paves the Way for Potential Synergy Exhibit 14: Leading Luxury Groups Exhibit 15: LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton Financial Performance Exhibit 16: Compagnie Financiere Richemont Financial Performance Exhibit 17: PPR Financial Performance Exhibit 18: Skates Art Stocks Index Share Price Performance vs LVMH, PPR, Richemont and S&P 500 Age of the Art Industry Exhibit 19: Art Industry Timeline Exhibit 20: Allocation of Companies by Years of Age

20 20 21 22 24 25 27

Exhibit 9: Top 10 Banks Involved in the Art Industry 24

Exhibit 12: Skates Art Stocks Index Performance 28 28 29 29 31 31

32 32 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 39

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Exhibit 21: Top 5 Oldest Companies in the Art Industry Methodology Disclaimer Scales of Skates Art Industry Scorecard Skates Art Industry Scorecard Points in Skates Art Industry Scorecard

Cover artwork: Animal Art, Natalia LL, provided courtesy of Art Vectors Collection owned by Tauris Holding AG based in Berlin.

Introduction Welcome to Skates Annual Art Investment Report for 2012! This year, our report will be published in three parts. Part 1, which was released on January 3, focuses on Skates Top 5000 ranking of the worlds most valuable works of art by public auction price. We examine the changes that took place in this premium segment by addressing market performance in comparison with 2011, specifically with regard to artist rankings, sales volume and value, repeat sales (i.e., investment performance), and general changes in the structure of the ranking. The current Part 2, released on February 4, 2013, addresses the global art industry. Analysis is focused on companies in the art industry (e.g., auction houses, dealers, ecommerce platforms, and media businesses), art investment funds, art financial services, and publicly traded art industry companies (i.e., the companies comprising Skates Art Stocks Index). It alsocoversmanyofthechallengesfacedbyartindustrycompanies. Part 3, which will be published in early February, covers Skates predictions for 20132015, including those related to the premium segment of the art market (Skates Top 5000) and theglobalartindustry. ***** Today, in the second decade of 21st century, the international art industry is undergoing extraordinary change. Artists are no longer in charge of establishing market trends. They rarely become tastemakers and have little control over prices for their works. Instead, it is art buyers who increasingly define how art develops. They are the creative force behind the art industry and its operatives. It is buyers who are encouraging established players to expandoverseastotapmarketswheredemandforartisgrowing.Buyersarepushingforthe conversion of brickandmortar stores into online businesses that offer ecommerce solutions.Theyhavebecomethereasonwhytheinsurance,logistics,marketing,storageand financial sectors are looking at art as a new source of revenue and are engaging art experts to establish a set of artrelated services within their respective business models. And more importantly, the growing and increasingly more sophisticated and diverse universe of art buyers makes it literally impossible to create marketable art using old clichs of beauty, taste and discovery of new ideas. Finding a creative and intellectual value proposition for a quickly expanding and evolving buy side is an unprecedented challenge facing todays talentedartists. Contemporary art buyers are not only carefully selective when it comes to their art purchases, but they also require highlevel services to help them manage the works they acquire and abundant information to help them refine their ideas regarding art collecting. The art industry is supported by a vast range of artrelated services offered by specialized companies aimed at meeting these needs of buyers. Importantly, this trend is seen both in themarketspremiumsegment, where buyers are preparedto spend fortunes to obtain the mostexclusiveworksofart,andinthelowertiermarket,wheremassaudiencesalsoseekto engage with art. Both sides of the art industry provide market players with a potentially deepsourceofrecurringprofitthatisnotfocusedsolelyonsellingart,butalsoonmanaging andenhancingthevalueofprivateartcollections. This report maps key players in the art market around the world using publicly available information and delivers a consistent and comprehensive picture of the current state and
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composition of the art industry. We seek to provide a valuable resource to art market participants and observers alike by creating a datadriven compilation of leading art businesses while taking into account current professional opinions about the development ofthefield. The report is based on a new rating system by SkatesSkates Art Industry Scorecard which ranks the leading businesses worldwide that comprise the global art industry. The rating methodology is based on five criteria that reflect the position of a company in the market: 1. Track record period of presence on the art market, reflecting a companys experience, expertise and sustainability, as well as its ability to overcome economic turbulenceandprojectapowerfulbusinessmodel 2. Global reach number of branches worldwide, showing a companys global presence,itsabilitytoadjustandscaleitsbusinessmodeltovariousmarkets,aswell asitsdesireandabilitytoexpandglobally 3. Role model contribution to the art industry, a factor that reflects the importance of the role played by the company in terms of the art industrys development, as well as whether it provides a transparent and effective platform and operates a businessmodelthatiswidelyseenasthebenchmarkforaspiringrivals 4. Name specifically as much as it stands for business reputation, suggesting that a company is engaged as a strong art market participant and is characterized by trustworthyandethicalactivity,aswellasavoidanceofcontroversialpractices 5. Digital strategy visibility on the art market through online and mobile media, reflecting a companys active position in the art world and attention by society, as wellasitstransparentwayofdoingbusiness The complete methodology used in constructing Skates Art Industry Scorecard is presented attheendofthisreport. On the basis of Skates Art Industry Scorecard, this report discusses key trends in the art industry. Starting with industry estimates, we move to key players involved in the auction anddealerbusinesses.Adescriptionofthegallerybusinesscontinueswithdetailedcoverage of art fairs worldwide. We also discuss the growing number of ecommerce players and information providers. Furthermore, we cover the financial side of the art industry, looking at three types of businesses using art assets, including art investment funds, lending activity andtheartbankingsegment.Additionally,weraisethetopicofartandluxurycollaboration, lookingatpotentialoptionsformutualbenefitinthesesectors. This report also addresses other critically important aspects of the art industry. Approximately 90% of art industry companies are held in private hands, meaning that their performance results are only known internally. Yet, to create a picture of art industry performance, Skates selects publicly traded companies of art industry and ranks them accordingtotheirfinancialresults.

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ExecutiveSummary Skates has analyzed the state of the global art industry and reached the following conclusions: 1) Art trading remains the most prolific and widespread business model in the art industry,withartauctionsmaintainingaclearadvantageoverotherformsoftheart trade, largelydueto the senseofexclusivity and urgency theycreate andthebetter pricediscoverytheycanoffertosellers. 2) As the largest and most visible sector of this increasingly complex global industry, thearttradeisundergoingamajorchange: a. In the premium segment, the competitive balance that is so much a part of thelongtermstatusquoisshiftingwithChristiesbecomingincreasinglythe more dominant player thanks to its commitment to innovation (including e commerce) and more delicate handling of private treaty sales resulting in fewer conflicts with primary dealers worldwide. We also seem to be observinganongoingmeltdownofPhillips,andthecontinuingdeparturesof its senior team members likely will make it increasingly difficult for the firmsshareholderstoreversethistrend. b. The quest for new art collectors and the growing working capital needs increasingly make it difficult, at times impossible, for art dealers to operate as a local enterprise. Those galleries that are undercapitalized, poor on risk management and unable to grow their trade to meet the tastes of international buyerswilleventually face a slow death. Thesuccessfulgallery now must possess recurring access to third party financing, the ability to operate internationally by attending multiple fairs and having points of presence in a few geographies, and a management team with a strong combinationofartisticandcommercialskills.Thischanginggalleryscenehas allowedtheearlyadoptersoftheglobalarttrade,likeGagosianandPace,to harvest benefits. It is also bringing new faces to the art trade who are keener to push consumergrade art and serve as specialty retailers. These developments may forever change the centuries old tradition of art dealing basedonsellingaccesstoaprivilegedclass. c. Despite the massive venture capital flowing into the online art trade over the last few years, the rate of adoption of the online trading model by collectors and consumers has been disappointingly slow. This creates the opportunityforconsolidationofonlinetradingaroundthebettercapitalized and technologically savvier rivals. Those highlighted in this report are as the Wikipedia of tradable art, paddle8 as the eBay of art trade and Saatchi Online as the Amazon of art trade, with incumbent artnet having perhaps a final year left to defend its early mover advantage in the online artauctionspace. 3) Thetradeshow/eventsmanagementbusiness,thesecondlargestsegmentoftheart industry in terms of revenue earned, is entering the final stage of a market consolidation. Following Art Basels expansion to Hong Kong and Friezes to New
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York, both completed last year, the worlds major art fair franchises now firmly occupytheirslotsintheglobalartcalendar(thegrandslamofthreeArtBaselshows, two Frieze shows and TEFAF with a growing importance of satellite shows). As a result, the remaining art fairs must fight to prove their raison detre to both market participants and their financial backers. Professional trade show operators like Merchandise Mart and Reed Exhibitions were the first to recognize the trend and started divestment of their art shows last year (Reed completed the sale of Viennafair). We anticipate that these divestments might trigger further consolidation in the art fair business, blocking out the entire global art fair calendar fornewentrantsandreducingallotherartfairstothestatusoflocalornicheevents ofsecondaryimportance. 4) As transparency and trade efficiency become buzz words for the art trade of today and contemporary art continues to emerge as the primary art market segment universally attractive to all groups of art buyers (while on the other hand segments like Old Masters are quickly becoming tiny niches with limited supply and elitist demand only), the business models built around information and innovation in specialty retail, cultural destination management and art education proliferate. Art industry enterprises operating in these fields remain small but offer perhaps the biggest shareholder value creation potential today Skates will be profiling these growthareasinaseparatereportlaterthisyear. Part 2 of Skates Annual Art Investment Report, which also serves as the first issue of the State of the Global Art Industry Report, maps the 100 largest art industry companies that together generate over USD 35 billion in annual sales and employ almost 50,000 people. With the entire industry being the size of a single Fortune 100 company, the art economy represents an incredible mismatchbetweenthecultural importance of and latent consumer demand for visual arts on the one hand and the existing size of commercial art enterprises on the other. As long as consumers around the world lean to more sophisticated and intellectualproducts,Skatesseesbrightprospectsfortheartindustryas entrepreneursand innovators continue to tweak old models and invent new business models to play on the increasingattractivenessoftheglobalartstoglobalconsumers. February4,2013 SkatesArtMarketResearch

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KeyArtIndustry yStatisticsBased B onSka atesArtIndu ustryScorecard Perh haps one of f the most powerful trends of the e last decad de the bra ain drain of f the educ cated elite from busines ss and financ ce tothe pro omised land of o theartind dustryis finally mak king an impa act on how the global art trade functions and d even the language it uses. u Driv ven by an inf flow of specialists from a variety of unrelated bu usinesses, who w are willin ng to apply their know wledge and expertise e tobenefit finan ncially from thebooming g art market t,the i emb braces a wid de range of all a possible services s nece essary to com mplement an art art industry purc chaseandon ngoingowne ershipofart. ledSkatesArt A IndustryScorecard, S th hetop100co ompaniesth hatcurrentlylead Wehavecompil y worldwide e. According g to our estimates, the e annual turnover of these t the art industry mpanies is approximatel ly USD 35.3 3 billion. In total, art industry com mpanies ope erate com arou und882offic cesworldwid deandcurrentlyemployover49,600 0people. t leading companies in the art industry and d establishin ng the rating g Art In researching the ustry Scoreca ard1, we hav ve identified 14 activities s that they currently c per rform, which h are Indu pres sentedinExh hibit1.Asof fJanuary201 13,themost tsuccessfulcompanies c in ntheartindu ustry are involved in auction a trading and art dealing d (and the worlds most succes ssful art indu ustry ms do both), while the most comm mon activities s are gallery y business, art market data firm anal lysis and art related eco ommerce. Ex xhibit 2 lists the t top 10 most m significa ant companies in theartindustry. . Exhi ibit1:Busin nessesinthe eArtIndustry y
AuctionHouse H A Dealer(Ga Art allery) Ecomm merce An nalytics,Resea archandData abase ArtLe ender Publi ishing media Onlinem ArtFund Collec ctionManage ement Insurance Collec ctionManage ement Ev ventsManage ement Educ cation Law 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 35 2 2 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 9 12 26 29

The ecompleteSk katesArtIndu ustryScorecar rdispresentedonpage34. . Skates, ,LLC,subsidia aryofNextEd ditionPartner rsGmbH Co opyright20 013Allright tsreserved7

Company Headquarters Business AuctionHouse andArt Dealer/Education/Art Lender/Ecommerce/ StorageandShipping AuctionHouseandArt Dealer/ArtLender/Storage andShipping AuctionHouseandArt Dealer AuctionHouseandLuxury GoodsRetailer Public/ Private Private Branches Yearsin Operation 246




2 3 4 5

Sotheby's Bonhams Dorotheum

NewYork London Vienna

Public Private Private

90 30 44

268 219 305

Getty Seattle PurePlayEcommerce Private 48 17 Images 6 MCHGroup Basel EventsManagement Public 13 96* 7 Taschen Kln Publishing Private 20 32 Gagosian 8 NewYork ArtDealer Private 12 33 Gallery 9 Phaidon London Publishing Private 6 89 10 Pace NewYork ArtDealer Private 8 52 RankedbypointsinSkatesArtIndustryScorecard *MCH Group was formed through merger of Messe Basel and Messe Zurich in 2001 and since thenhasbeenoperatingunderthecurrentname.

TheAuctionHouseBusinessasaLeadingArtIndustryActivity Exhibit 1 shows that the auction house remains the leading model in the art industry, with 29 companies showing the auction model as their core activity. Importantly, however, very few leading auction houses currently have the auction business as their sole area of activity and have instead chosen to diversify their business mix, including through development of privatesalesbusinesses.Theyhavethusbecomeartdealersintheirownright.Inadditionto serving as art auctions and dealers, these businesses also present themselves as financial service providers, ecommerce traders, educational institutions, as well as strong players in publishing and exhibition services and even name licensing agencies. Such business mix diversification allows big auction houses like Christies and Sothebys to hedge against factors they are unable to control, such as changes in customer demand, a shrinking supply of topquality works, and the issue of seasonality. The leading duopoly of auction houses that scored the highest points in the rating has significantly different business models. Christies, recently adopting ecommerce and showing strong results, currently presents the greatest diversity of businesses offered by an auction house. Going forward, Christies plans to stop operating its dealer subsidiary Haunch of Venison focusing instead on private salesactivity.2

K.Kazakina,ChristiestoShutN.Y.,LondonHaunchofVenisonGallery,Bloomberg,February3,2013 gallery.html Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved8

Unlike Christies, Sothebys is a publicly listed auction house; it is the largest and strongest publiccompanyintheartindustry.Sothebyspursuesarathertraditionalmodel,focusingon highervaluesalesthatcurrentlymight onlybeperformedsuccessfullythroughconventional auctionsalesorprivatetreaty. The top three leading auctions worldwide also include Bonhams, a company that along with Christies and Sothebys has managed to develop a wide international network of sales channelsbasedonexpertiseobtainedthroughoutyearsofmarketpresence. We note the absence of Phillips in this roster, which was largely damaged by shareholders who have been unable to add value to their venture. Also absent are Chinese auctions that, while commandingstaggeringtradingvolumes,remain fairlyopaque andpoorly understood operations.Itisalsoworthnotingthatthetop10globalartbusinessesareheadquarteredin New York, London and Germanspeaking Europe (three in each of those locations), which highlights the intellectual and commercial leadership those geographies command in comparison to France, Italy, Japan or any of the emerging markets, which are absent from thislist. ArtDealers(Galleries)MakeUp18%oftheArtIndustry Thesecondmostsignificantactivityintheartindustryistheartdealingbusiness.Amongthe 100 art industry companies that have entered the rating based on the set criteria, 26 are involvedinartdealing.ThemajorityofthesegalleriesdealinModernandContemporaryArt, andmostofthemhaveNewYorkastheirprimarylocation. Exhibit 3 lists the top 20 leading galleries worldwide that are presented in Skates Art Industry Scorecard. 3 None of the galleries officially reports the financial results of its operations, thus the rating attempts to create an alternative way to list galleries, combining fivecriteriaandassigningpointstoeachoftheunits.4 The leader in art dealing is Gagosian Gallery. On the global market for more than three decades, its founder and head, Larry Gagosian, has managed to establish a highly diverse network of branches around the world that represents around 70 artists and estates. Though the financial performance of Gagosian Gallery remains officially undisclosed, the assumptions on reported annual sales of approximately USD 1 billion enables the gallery to compete with the results of top auctions like Sothebys and Christies.5However, the gallerys prominence goes far beyond quantifiable measures. Reflecting the art market tendency to pay particular attention to intangible peculiarities, Gagosian Gallery embodies the complexity of estimating the value of power, reputation and subjective opinion of an established brand. Gagosian Gallery, in the face of its leader, has managed to establish a strong pier of success for artists careers, a source of detecting art tends and a benchmark
Exhibit3doesnotincludeauctionhousesthatareinvolvedinthedealeractivity. Thecompletemethodologyisdisclosedonpage32. 5 C.BurnsandR.Pryor,Grow,grow,GagosianTheArtMarketNewspaper,September12,2012.,+grow,+Gagosian%E2%80%A6/27143
4 3

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for measuring art market confidence. Along with decades of successful business, the reputation of Gagosian Gallery is occasionally overshadowed by lawsuits against the dealer orterminationofcontractswithleadingartists.Theincreasingnumberofrecenteventsthat have negatively influenced the image of Gagosian has resulted in discussions regarding a potential change of leadership positioning on the market that might take place in the near future.6 A combination of material achievement and art market authority has pushed Pace and Saatchi Gallery to the second and third spots in the ranking, respectively. In existence for almost two decades longer than Gagosian Gallery and with eight branches worldwide, Pace has also managed to establish one of the strongest portfolios of 72 significant artists.7 Saatchi Gallery, while less compatible in terms of global presence and years in operation, nevertheless holds one of the strongest votes on the contemporary art market. Having establishedSaatchiOnline,itisalsoapioneerinecommerce. Today, the art gallery business faces two significant pressures in addition to its chronic business model shortcomings such as dependency on key individuals, a need for working capital, and poor visibility for timing materially significant sales. First, to maintain their edge in an ultracompetitive business, galleries have to actively develop a continuously growing client network and search for additional sales channels. In particular, the current event driven art market requires art galleries to be represented at leading art fairs around the world, with galleries success defined by the status of the fairs in which they participate as well as the number of fairs in which they participate each year. Galleries no longer have the optionofremainingisolatedfromartfairs.Completeavoidancethreatenstheirvisibilityand reducesopportunitiesforsale. Second, art dealers currently face increasing competition from auction houses, whereas previously dealers were intermediaries between auction houses and buyers by playing the role of expert and advisor. In this era of increased transparency, galleries are the one sales venue that still holds the right not to publicly disclose the final prices of works sold. Compared to auction houses that must publish all sales results of public sessions, galleries benefitfromtheprivatenatureofdealsbydrawingbuyerswhoprefertokeeplowprofiles. At the same time, somewhat ironically, private treaty sales performed by auction houses have become one of their most profitable activities. In its recent financial disclosures8, Sothebys announced that the private treaty sale is one of its fastest growing business segments and one that the firm intends to strategically develop. This puts even more pressureongalleries.

E.Konigsberg,TheTrialsofArtSuperdealerLarryGagosian,Vulture,January20,2013, 7 8 Sotheby's 1H 2012 Results: Rapid Decline in Core Activity Forces Auction House to Refocus. Skates ArtMarketResearch,August9,2012. Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Rankin Scorecard 8 10 15 19 24 27 28 32 33 34 38 43 44 47 49 53 54 55 65 70 Company GagosianGallery Pace SaatchiGallery WhiteCubeGallery MarianGoodmanGallery GladstoneGallery MarlboroughGallery CastelliGallery GalerieThaddaeusRopac Hauser&Wirth MatthewMarksGallery Zwirner SonnabendGallery AcquavellaGalleries GalerieErnstHilger DeJonckheereGallery OperaGallery SeanKellyGallery Perrotin JohnnyVanHaeften Headquarters NewYork NewYork London London NewYork NewYork NewYork NewYork Salzburg London NewYork NewYork NewYork NewYork Vienna Paris Paris NewYork Paris London # Yearsin Dateof Branches Operation Inception 12 8 3 4 2 3 7 2 4 4 5 2 1 1 1 2 11 1 2 1 33 52 27 19 35 21 66 55 29 20 21 19 50 91 41 36 18 21 22 35 1979 1960 1985 1993 1977 1991 1946 1957 1983 1992 1991 1993 1962 1921 1971 1976 1994 1991 1990 1977

MushroomingArtFairs:OpportunityorThreat? A discussion of the current dealer business would not be complete without looking at the topic of art fairs. One of the most significant trends of 2012 has been the increasing attention toward the art fairs that have become a major focus of leading galleries around the world. Below we present key observations on art fair activity that inevitably influences theartindustry. Currentlythereare around200functioningart fairsworldwide. Someofthesehavebecome particularlyinfluentialontheglobalartscene(Exhibit3showsthetop30mostimportantart fairs worldwide). Fairs are selected according to four core criteria: year of establishment, number of participating galleries in 2012, number of visitors in 2012 and reputation, as measured by Skates experts in terms of the fairs ability to influence price levels for art and provide visibility for artists. Despite the abundance of other factors influencing a fairs positioning, Skates believes that these four data points are able to project the most objectivestatusofafairandreflectitscurrentpower. This group of fairs has managed to gain significant authority and power. While the art market represents a wide range of artrelated activities, elite art fairs have managed to win the status of the most popular event to attend. This shift happened largely due to the positioning of art fairs in a way that today attracts the widest audience range. Art fairs presentanopportunityforhighendcollectorstovisitforprivateviewingsandforartmarket
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professionals and art lovers to see art that might never be seen in public again. In addition, artfairs haverecently begun attracting visitorswho might notbe directly involved inthe art world or even express significant interest in art but are still willing to be associated with it. While the last group of visitors is not expected become major purchasers of art just yet, it doesrepresent an important target audience for anartfair.Agrowing numberof attendees boosts an art fairs status, influences the financial performance of the fair itself as well as that of the art industry in the city that hosts a fair. This doubleside outcome happens simultaneously: visual engagement in art increases awareness of galleries and the artists they represent while at the same time positively contributing to companies that provide servicesforthefair. The strong position of the art fair has made a significant impact on the gallery business. In the previous section we stated that galleries today have virtually lost their ability to remain isolatedfromartfairs.Ontheonehand,strengtheningtheartfairconceptfavorsthegallery businessduetothenatureoftheevent.Participationinfairsallowsgalleriestoexpandtheir clientele and partner coverage, meet new collectors from around the world and establish business contacts. Visiting art fairs has always been an important activity for devoted collectors, giving them a chance to see all works together that can be acquired on the market,buttodayartfairshavealsobecomepopulartraveldestinationsforwideraudiences. Astrongflagshipcityfairbecomesacenterpointforsatelliteevents,artrelatedconferences and corporate parties. Apart from obtaining the status of a mustvisit event, the art fair offers a convenient venue for art trading. Should there be an interest in an artwork, the fair also provides parties with time to negotiate purchase conditions and privately discuss price in an atmosphere of a collective trading platform. In an era of increasing transparency, this might become a priority for collectors who want to keep the details of the deal private, an optionthatisnotpossibleatpublicauctions. On the other hand, galleries that would rather avoid participating in art fairs today may no longerdosowithoutrepercussions.Whethercausedbyhighcompetitionamongentrantsor the inability of agalleryto devotesufficient financial orstaffresources forparticipation, the absence of visibility in leading art fairs may lead to several negative outcomes. First, non participating galleries face reputational risk in being seen as rejected by selection committees or less compatible in comparison to their peers. Second, they are losing a chancetowidentheircontactbaseandmeetpotentialnewclients. Even participation comes with a certain degree of risk, as there is no guarantee that the substantial resources required for participation in fairs will pay off, leaving galleries with a lack of capital for further functioning. Thus, while they provide a base for increasing the potential of galleries, art fairs might also put them in danger by the increasing role the fairs playasanartevent. Tobenefittheartindustryasawhole,artfairsshouldestablishthemselvesastrendsetters venuesformonitoringtopqualitymovementsanddevelopmentsinartforeverytimeperiod or price segment. Today there is already a group of such authoritative fairs, which is presented in Exhibit 4. The increasing number of new fairs is likely to lead to a constant
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naturalselectionofthemostreputablefairsineverymajorcityandforeveryartclass,which will eventually enable the development of the art industrys educational and business potential. Exhibit4:Top30ArtFairsWorldwide
Name Established Periodon the Market, 2012 42 25 16 38 19 10 31 9 45 36 5 30 18 6 21 11 0 17 4 9 13 5 15 1 0 9 7 10 4 13 Numberof Galleries, 2012 300 265 128 180 172 257 215 170 181 165 266 182 231 102 98 181 180 100 100 90 90 90 65 83 100 90 128 85 85 120 Reported Numberof Visitors, 2012 65,000 72,000 54,157 70,500 50,000 70,000 150,000 55,000 60,000 67,000 67,000 30,000 60,000 68,000 120,000 72,000 45,000 50,000 260,000 35,000 15,000 35,000 50,000 46,000 28,000 30,000 17,132 35,000 12,000 7,000 Reputation, 010 10 10 10 8 9 8 6 9 7 7 8 8 7 8 6 6 8 7 6 7 7 7 6 7 7 6 6 5 6 5 Score

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

ArtBasel TEFAF ParisPhoto FIAC Artissima ArtBaselMiami Beach ArcoMadrid FriezeLondon ArtCologne FieradiBologne ArtBaselHK ArtBrussels TheArmoryShow Contemporary Istanbul ArteBA,Buenos Aires KIAF,Koreaintern. artfair FriezeNewYork LAArtShow IndiaArtFair ZONAMACO,Mexico City ArtRotterdam TheAsiaPacific ContemporaryArt Fair ShanghaiArtFair ArtRio FriezeMasters FEMACOFeria MexicoArte Contemporaneo Viennafair(TheNew Contemporary) ScopeMiami VoltaNewYork AffordableArtFair Battersea

1970 1987 1996 1974 1993 2002 1981 2003 1967 1976 2007 1982 1994 2006 1991 2001 2012 1995 2008 2003 1999 2007 1997 2011 2012 2003 2005 2002 2008 1999

9.6 9.4 8.2 8.2 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.2 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.3 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.4

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OnlineArtTradingastheFastestGrowingArtIndustryBusiness A developing story of todays art industry lies in the massive venture capital and corporate investment flowing into emerging art ecommerce business models of every kind. Apart from established companies like Christies and Saatchi Gallery becoming involved in online trading, the art industry is seeing an inflow of new businesses willing to explore the virtual opportunitiesofsellingart. Skates has identified the leading ecommerce players in todays art industry. The top five spots in the rating are held by Christies (a traditional auction house that recently added onlineonly trading to its model), Getty Images (a photo bank), Saatchi Online (powered by the Londonbased Saatchi Gallery and quality venture capital backed), eBay (an online retailer that holds a significant share in the market for artrelated products), and artnet (an onlineauctionplatformandowneroftheeponymousdatabase). Exhibit5:ECommerceCompaniesinSkatesArtIndustryScorecard
Rankin Scorecard Company Headquarters Model Business AuctionHouse/ArtDealer (Gallery)/Education/Art Lender/Ecommerce/ StorageandShipping PurePlayEcommerce ArtDealer(Gallery)and PurePlayEcommerce AuctionHouse/E commerce PurePlayEcommerce Analytics,Researchand Database/Ecommerce AuctionHouse/E commerce Analytics,Researchand Database/Ecommerce Ecommerce/ArtDealer (Gallery) PurePlayEcommerce PurePlayEcommerce PurePlayEcommerce Public/ Private Number of Branches 63 48 3 5 2 3 5 1 32 1 1 1 Yearsin Operation

1 5 15 22 23 26 63 66 79 84 86 96

Christie's GettyImages SaatchiGallery9 Heritage Auctions eBayInc. artnet HeffelFineArt AuctionHouse Artprice YellowKorner Artfact LiveAuctioneers Paddle8

London Seattle London Dallas California Berlin Vancouver Lyon Paris Allston NewYork NewYork

Both Online Both Both Online Online Both Online Both Online Online Online

Private Private Private Private Public Public Private Public Private Private Private Private

246 17 27 36 17 23 34 15 6 23 10 1

Skates has also prepared an alternative way to classify ecommerce players. There are two ways to measure companies performance looking at their technical merit and artistic merit. Exhibit 6 below presents the top 10 businesses listed by their distribution power quantified with the number and frequency of online users visiting their websites. There are

EcommerceactivityofSaatchiGalleryisrepresentedbyaseparateunitSaatchiOnline. Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved14

three leaders when it comes to traffic focused on global art trading: eBay, Live Auctioneers andChristies. Skates has also applied a fairly subjective approach to alternatively grade art industry firms for theirartisticmeritin terms of providing online trading service and functionality and has analyzed online art trading offerings for four principal qualities: vetting for art offered (no fakes, accurate authentication, and limited counterparty risk), ease of use, transaction and shipmentcapabilitiesandtransactioncostsinvolved. Since2011,whenSkatespublishedecommerceresearchforthefirsttime,theindustryhas seenaslightshiftinpoweramongtheleadingecommercetraders.Themostsignificantnew player that adopted online trading in late 2011 is Christies. Having a strong platform and ability to handle costs, the company initially possessed a strong advantage compared to young companies that decided to engage in pure play ecommerce practice without an authoritative background. Christies is also the only company that officially disclosed the overall proceeds of its three sales since the launch of onlineonly sales. The total value of sales equaled USD 10.5 million, which was largely due to the results of the Collection of Elizabeth Taylor in December 2011. Since then Christies also held the Herms sale, SignatureCellarsand50YearsofJamesBondsalein2012. Among new entrants to the group of ecommerce traders classified by artistic merit are SaatchiOnlineand YellowKorner.Bothcompanies,apartfrompurecommercialinterest,are emphasizing additional purpose to their activities. Saatchi Online, backed up by the authoritative and influential name of Saatchi Gallery, plays a role in discovering new talent. Acting as a curator, it offers a collective platform for young artists to achieve broader awareness at the beginning of their artistic careers. YellowKorner, a network of photo galleries,alsoactsasadistributorofphotographicarttobroaderaudiences. One of the strongest future entrants to the list is Artsy. The longawaited platform that launchedin2012isattemptingtobecomeaprominentplayerforsharinganddiscoveringart thatcouldeventuallybetradedonline. Exhibit6:Top10ECommerceCompaniesbyDistributionPower
Company GlobalTrafficRank 18 3,505 10,489 18,086 19,509 21,930 23,634 30,689 32,453 87,247 TrafficRankin LocalCountry 6 1,786 2,841 10,723 9,448 5,395 2,517 11,554 18,541 5,421 Local Country USA USA USA USA USA USA France USA UK France

1 eBayInc. 2 GettyImages 3 LiveAuctioneers 4 Christie's 5 artnet 6 HeritageAuctions 7 Artprice 8 Artfact 9 SaatchiOnline 10 YellowKorner

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name Christie's eBayInc. artnet SaatchiOnline YellowKorner Artspace Heffel Artprice LiveAuctioneers Paddle8 Vetting 10 9 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Transaction Capabilities andShipping 9 9 7 7 7 6 8 6 7 6 Transaction Costs 6 9 5 8 8 8 7 8 6 7 Easeof Use 9 9 6 8 8 9 6 7 7 7 Score 9.125 9.000 7.625 7.250 7.250 7.125 7.125 6.875 6.875 6.750

The abundance of companies that have attracted substantial financial resources to explore andbenefitfromtechnologyadvancesandestablishecommerceplatformshasmadeonline activity among the most significant trends of 2012. Rachel Pownall, a leading scholar of art financeandprofessoratMaastrichtUniversity,seesthisasapositivetrend: The development of online trading platforms and the ability to view and buy art in a truly global market has also opened up many opportunities to collectors (and investors)fromallcornersoftheworldtoparticipateintheartmarket. Yet, online art selling is still a very young practice that so far has not managed to present a successful model. Ecommerce requires a completely different approach than traditional brickandmortartrading.Whilethelowerpricedworksarebetterpositionedforonlinesales giventheminimaltransactioncostsandpaperwork,premiumsegmentartismostfrequently presentedattraditionalauctionsandgalleries. Theonlychanceecommercehasofcompetingwithbrickandmortarmodelsthereforeisto turnoversignificantvolumesofart.However,toachieveit,companiesmustestablishahigh qualitysupplyofartfromconstantandreliablesources.Furthermore,onlineartretailersare alsohighlyjudgedaccordingtocriteriasuchashavingwebsitesthatalloweasy andpleasant navigation, provide opportunities for visitors to examine all necessary qualities of the artworks presented, and pay attention to consumer services such as shipping and security. All things taken into account, a client base would be created only given the strong reputation andtheawarenessofthecompany.Thus,beforeonlinetraderswouldbe ableto benefit from technology opportunities presented by the art trade, substantial investment of timeandfinancialresourcesinthemodelwouldberequired. The timing of ecommerce trading is also controversial. Art collectors still tend to require personal engagement and inspection of art before purchase, regardless of medium or price level. At the same time, as a decline in the lowerend market is expected, online trading might become a salvation option for this segment. Capital Group, one of the leading

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financial service providers in the art industry, claims that this market is vulnerable to premiumart: There remains no strong market for middletiered art collectors are focusing on eitheremergingorbluechiptrophyart.Asthemiddlemarketcontinuestostagnate, an influx of new wealth and foreign institutional buyers only increases the competitiveness in the trophyart sector leading to a continued divide within the art marketasawhole. GurrJohns,arespectedLondonbasedartadvisoryandappraiser,alsoclaims: Unexceptional items have become harder and harder to sell, which makes it difficult tosucceedanywherebutatthetopofthemarket. Rdiger Weng, head of the Krefeld, Germanybased publicly traded dealer Weng Fine Art (WFA), presents another view. He sees the lower and middleend market as a source of opportunity: The most liquid market is the middle market, because you have the largest number of buyers and a good amount of salable material there. And it is the middle market where you find the best margins, the least risks and the most potential. We didnt see the middle market as being difficult. All that it needs is an eye for what collectorsmightlike. Thus, opinions of art market experts differ on the state of the lowerend market. Nevertheless, whether it is weak and needs alternative ways to reinvent itself or is strong and presents opportunities, online trading offers the potential for exploration. Given the obstacles to ecommerce mentioned earlier, however, it has yet to create a successful operational model. As of 2012, the majority of art industry companies still remain brick and mortar businesses. Among art industry companies that entered the rating, 65% of them do not perform their core activities online. The year 2013 is likely to bring more new attempts at online trading to the market, but actual strength will be gained by companies that have already managed to establish themselves in traditional art selling businesses and obtained substantialpowertodiversifyintothiscostly,riskyandyettobetackledbusinessmodel.

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Exhi ibit8:Online eBusinessPractice P Pene etrationinArt A IndustrySpace S

Combination 15% Online e 15% Brickandmortar 70% %

Info ormationasArt A IndustryCurrency Information pro oviders have e become one o of the most m important particip pants in the e art indu ustry. Leadin ng providers are primarily involved in publishing g, data and analytics, media m and education. Below we discuss the e companie es that appe ear in Skate es Art Indu ustry Scor recarddueto otheirsucce essfulmarket tperformanc ce. The top three publishing p co ompanies ar re Taschen, Umberto Allemandi A & C, and Phai idon. Tasc chen and Phaidon serv ve mainly education e markets, m pos sitioning the emselves as the num mberoneartpublishersby b presenting gtopquality yseriesofbo ookscoverin ngarthistory yand artis st biographie es. Umberto o Allemandi & Co, on th he other han nd, is more diversified. Also heav vily involved d in producin ng of art books, it holds s various newspaper pro oducts, inclu uding Anto ologiadiBell leArti,IlGio ornaledellAr rte,IlGiornaledellArchit tettura.Thecompanysmain m art i information asset prese ented for wo orldwide aud diences is Th he Art News spaper, a lea ading mon nthly publica ation on the art market. The newspa aper, which provides p online news as well as hard h copies for f subscribe ers, is integrated into a network of six s newspap pers dedicate ed to vario ous artrelat tedtopics, th hemostrece entofwhich is The ArtNewspaper N itself adapted d and tran nslated for publication in Russia. Another A sig gnificant art market pu ublisher is Brant B Publications. Ba ased in New York, it ma anages four leading art magazines: Interview, Art A in Ame erica,Moder rnandTheMagazine M Ant tiques. A se econd significant information source e is online media m busine esses whose activity includes shar ring informa ation and ne ews on the art market, as well as s magazine publication. The lead dersinthisar reaareLouis seBlouinMe edia,ArtDail lyandA&FMarkets. M Lou uiseBlouinMedia M repr resentsthemost m elabora atestructure ethatcombinesonlinemedia m andpu ublishingactivity. The company is s in charge of the lead ding Artinfo online new ws portal, th he Louise Bl louin Foun ndationwh hich serves as a netwo ork, educati ion and sha aring platfor rmand sev veral influ uentialmaga azines,includ dingArt+AuctionandMo odernPainter rs.
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Other media businesses serve as platforms where specialists and art lovers are able to exchange information about art and artrelated subjects. These include Artslant, Pictify, ArtStack, Arthood and Fluxguide. All of these companies are currently in the initial stages of operation,andonly a fewofthemhavemanagedtogetintoour artindustryrating.Theyall require additional work to build their online visual elements, attract audiences and improve informationsourcing.Onlywithtimewillwebeabletoassesstheirviability. Art education is also experiencing increasing attention from art market participants. Today three leading players offer comprehensive degrees in art education: Sothebys Institute of Art (operated independently from the auction house), Christies Education and Drouot Formation. The London branch of Sothebys Institute of Art is accredited by Manchester University, while the New York branch is accredited by the Regents of the State of New York. They provide students with the following education options: Master's degrees, semester study, summerstudy,day/eveningcourses,executiveeducation,artfaircoursesandonlinecourses. SothebysInstituteofArtrecentlysuspendeditsSingaporebranch. Christies Education, accreditedbythe Universityof Glasgow,hasthreebranches in London, New York and Hong Kong that provide students with comprehensive Masters degrees optionsandasetofshortcourses. The third art education provider today is Drouot Formation, which offers training for art professionals. Drouot Patrimoine, a holding company of Drouot Formation, is an elaborate structure that has various businesses, including Gazette Drouot, Htel Drouot, which rents out venues to independent auction organizers, Drouot Montmartrea second trading venueandDrouotEnchre,whichprovideslogisticsandorganizingservices. The positive outcome for the art industry with respect to this trend is obvious: art players will increasinglyhavethe chancetoestablish andconstantlyupdate educationprograms for a narrow group of young people who will later be hired to work at art industry companies. By the time they graduate, they will have obtained the necessary knowledge to work in this area,abroadnetworkand,asaresult,willbemorelikelytobeofferedrelevantartindustry positions. Judging by the increasing number of applications submitted to all educational institutions, as well as the growing number of educational options offered to the public, Skates expects more experienced art players to add similar programs into their regular businessmix. Last but not least, an important piece of the art information puzzle is made up of data and analytics providers. In total there are 18 companies in the rating that are involved in this activity, making it the third most popular area in the art industry. The leading players in this,ArtTacticandInvaluable(U.K.),ArtEconomics (Ireland), Artprice (France), and Beautiful Asset Advisors (U.S.). These companies all have

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particular areas of art market expertise and provide relevant information and forecasting, althoughthetoolstheyusetomeasurethemarketlimiteachofthem. ArtandFinance:SolidArtIndustryCollaborationExploredinThreeWays:ArtInvestment Funds,ArtLendingandArtBanking The turn of the 21st century signified an important change that has occurred on the global art marketthe emergence of an approach toward art heritage. Today, people are less intrigued by the visual qualities of an artwork and are instead occupied by how much it would sell for at an auction and the contribution of an artist to the development of art history.Artistspricerecordsandthenumberoftransactionsattopqualitysellingplatforms are monitored. Instead of defining and inaugurating new art movements, people forecast andmonitormarkettrends. The concept of art as an asset has become so widely accepted that today acquisition of art objects for financial purposes is considered just as reasonable as for aesthetic ones. Abbey House, a Polish group whose various art businesses include a recently launched art investmentfund,states: The main opportunity of the current art industry is the downturn in traditional financial markets. The art market gains from investors who are looking for alternatives. This situation could be fully exploited by developing art banking and furtherbuildingtheawarenessofartasanassetclass. The current art industry contains three types of institutions that look at art from a financial perspective: art funds, art lenders and banks. All of these businesses, however, stress the importance of taking artworks aesthetic qualities into consideration to achieve positive results. Elite Advisers, a Luxembourgbased company that has been active on the market since2007andisscheduledtolaunchanartfundin2013,claims: The concept of art investment is broader and allows for avoidance of some of the drawbacks of traditional financial products, such as their extreme complexity and intangibility. Elite Advisers suggest investing in tangible, easytograsp assets, such as wine, diamonds, precious stones, watches, art and vintage cars objects that are of great interest to investors and a source of real pleasure. This is a completely different approach to finance, focusing on tangibility and simplicity without sacrificingperformance. NewInfluxofArtInvestmentFundsExpected Art investment funds have been struggling to generate profits for many years, yet the lucky few that manage to operate effectively continue to inspire newcomers with impressive returns, encouraging them to search for even more sophisticated and wellthought ways of creatingartassetportfolios.
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TherecentlypublishedArt&Finance2011reportbyDeloitteandArtTacticnotesthatwithin the last decade the global art fund market has gone through three cycles of development. The first stage lasted from 2000 to 2005, when certain strong players managed to establish effective entities. The next stage lasted until 2008, when emerging markets also sought to test the ability of art to produce returns. Finally, after the passing of the financial crisis, the artfundsmarketenteredathirdstage. In2011,theglobalinvestmentfundmarketwasestimatedatUSD960million,withsome44 entities operating in counties such as the United States, Singapore, Switzerland and Luxembourg; 21 of these are based in China.10Skates Art Industry Scorecard contains five art funds currently functioning on the premium level: The Fine Art Fund, Art Photography Fund,EliteAdvisers,ArtemundiGlobalFundandAbbeyHouseArtFund. Art Vantage, the youngest art fund that was launched in March 2012 by highly experienced art market player Serge Tiroche, claims that successful functioning of the art investment segmentdemandseffortonseveralfronts: educatingfinancialmarketsaboutartinvestment greater regulation, transparency and the creation of governing bodies and industry boardsestablishingstandards,grantinglicensesandcertificatesforbestpractice bridgingthe gap between financial investmentsand artinvestments,creating awin win for financial investors and all art market participants (artists, dealers, galleries, fund managers, curators, museums, the public). An investment with social, political andenvironmentalbenefits There are other active funds on the market, including Dionysos Art Fund and Atlanta Art, whichdonotappearintheratingduetolesscompatiblequalities,however. In the near future, Skates expects more strong players to enter the art fund segment: Elite Advisers and the Art Collection Fund, both of which will be based in Luxembourg, Arenatis FundtobelaunchedinParisandArtVectorsCollectionFund. ArtLendingActivityamongFastestGrowingBusinesses A second collaboration between the worlds of art and finance lies in the possibility of using art as collateral. Lending activity is offered by three parties: the duopoly of the Sothebys and Christies auction houses, global banks that will be covered in greater detail later in this report and financial companies that specialize in lending services. The rating includes five companies based in New York that are ready to provide loans backed by art assets: Art CapitalGroup,PlatinumArt,ArtFinancePartners,ArtAssureandMontageFinance.

ArtandFinanceReport2011.CreatedbyDeloitteandArtTacticinDecember2011. Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved21

Since Citibank Art Advisory pioneered the art lending business nearly 30 years ago, this activity has been long struggling to gain international acceptance. Leading financial institutions remain reluctant to introduce such lending into their regular offerings given the risks that accompany art assets, including risks of title and authenticity, low liquidity and controversyovervalueestablishment. The art market trends over the last year have positively influenced certain market players and pushed them to embrace growing demand for this service. In its financial disclosure for the first six months of 2012, Sothebys announced that its financial segment was one of the leadinggrowthareasofitsbusinessmodel,achievinga34%increaseinrevenues.11 Skates sees the trend of companies becoming less riskaverse, providing borrowers with higher ratios. This will also happen due to increased involvement on the part of investors in theartindustrywhowillbemorewillingtounlocktheliquidsideofartassets. ArtBanking:FromBiggestCorporateCollectionstoFinancialServicesinArt The overview of collaboration between the worlds of art and finance in the art industry wouldnotbecompletewithoutmentioningbanksasoneofthestrongestparticipants.After researching the involvement of banks worldwide, Skates has identified three main streams ofactivitythatbankscurrentlyperformaspartoftheirregularoffering: advisoryservices loanssecuredbyartassets collectionofartworks Some banks, realizing the inevitability of including artrelated services such as advisory or financial support into their business mix, prefer not to deal with this controversial and risky subject directly and decide instead to outsource the activity to dedicated specialists. For instance, the Londonbased Art Fund Group has more than 11 years of experience investing in art and appears to be one of the most popular partners of banks around the world: Emirates National Bank of Dubai and Banco Santander are among the Funds advisory clients. Another group of banks has chosen to work with 1858 Ltd for advisory assistance. The company has entered partnership agreements with Societe Generale Private Banking and HSBCPrivateBank. Despite these partnerships, however, the majority of banks that are involved in the art market offer their own services to clients, realizing the advantage with respect to their competitors. Below we list the banks that are currently making the most significant contribution to the development of the art industry. Among the current leaders in advisory
Sotheby's1H2012Results:RapidDeclineinCoreActivityForcesAuctionHousetoRefocus, SkatesMarketNotes,August9,2012, Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved22

services are Deutsche Bank, UBS, Citi, Emigrant Bank and ABN AMRO Bank N.V. Among these, the strongest players could be considered those that also provide financial services (i.e., loans against art as collateral). As reported by Art and Finance Report 2011,12all of them offer financial services with the exception of UBS, which has announced that it provides its clients this service via Emigrant Bank Fine Art Finance.13By offering these services to their clients, banks are able to both pushforward in the current art industry by maintainingloyalclientsandattractingnewbusiness. But the most beloved type of art involvement by banks today appears to be art collecting. The private collections assembled by Deutsche Bank, UBS and JP Morgan are so sizable that they are considered to be the largest collections of artworks in the world, with 60,000, 35,000, and 30,000 works in possession, respectively. With such a large number of artworks they can easily compete with cultural institutions worldwide. By way of comparison, the NationalGalleryCollectionofLondoncontainssome2,300artworks.Evenbanksthemselves sometimes partly convert into galleries, announcing viewing times for audiences interested inpopularartists. DeutscheBankstressesthatitsmotivationbehindartacquisitionispurelyaestheticandthat it has no hidden agenda to sell works later and benefit from them as investments. In this sense, banks, like museums, seek to preserve cultural traditions and avoid the topic of deaccessioning. Both banks and museums try to make reasonable decisions regarding the price of objects, although banks, like other private collectors, have more financial freedom than very budgetrestricted museums. This situation is reminiscent of the historical auction bidding wars between Sir Charles Eastlake, the first director of the National Gallery, and Sir Richard Wallace, a private collector, for the most desired works of the 19th century. The latter always won these battles. Should banks concentrate even more on collection and exhibitionactivities,they wouldrepresentaseriousthreattothetraditionalmuseummodel thatrequiressufficientfinancialresources. Whilecollectingartworksonitsowncanhardlybeassociatedwithartindustryinvolvement, Skates nevertheless sees a significant number of ways in which banks contribute to the development of the art industry. First, they are a major consumer of artrelated services, such as insurance, logistics and research. Whether they use these services for their own collection, or, like Credit Suisse or Erste Bank, sponsor art events, major banks use the best premium level of collateral services to guarantee that events taking place under the banks name run smoothly. Furthermore, banks are one of the few institutions that can generously offer their possessions on loan for exhibitions without an exchange deal for other artworks, compensationorexternalsponsorship.ArecentprogramlaunchedbyBankofAmericagives cultural institutions free access to the banks collection. Thus, even avoiding a business oriented approach to art, banks still support the art industry establishment by building significantcorporatecollections.
12 13

ArtandFinanceReport2011,DeloitteandArtTactic,December2011 Reuters,MorebrokersletclientsborrowagainsttheirBruegels,28thAugust2012, Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved23

# 1 2 3 Name Deutsche Bank UniCredit UBS JPMorgan Chase& Co Bankof America Location Frankfurt Milano Zurich ArtBusiness Collection/ Advisory/ FinancialServices Collection/LoanProgram Advisory/Collection Collection/Financial Services Collection/Conservation / LoanProgram/Financial services Advisory/Collection/ FinancialServices Collection /Loan Program/ArtistAward Collection /Loan Program/ArtistAward/ Restoration Advisory/ FinancialServices Advisory/ FinancialServices SizeofArt Collection 60,000 60,000 35,000 InceptionDate 1870 1473 1998(SBGand SBVmerger) 1799 Art Involvement 1979 Undisclosed 1970







circa2008 (Program)

ABN AMRO BankN.V. Credit Suisse BNLBNP Paribas Group CitiArt Advisory Emigrant BankFine Art Finance



2010(ABN AMROand FortisBank merger) 1856


















PubliclyTradedCompaniesintheArtIndustry Of the companies that makeup the art industry, 87% are still privately held, according to SkatesArtIndustryScorecard.Amongthepubliclytradedcompanies,wehavechosenthose that constitute Skates Art Stocks Index. The list of these companies is presented below and is accompanied by a comparative analysis of their revenues, profits and market capitalization.

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Exhi ibit10:Listed(Investable)UniverseoftheGloba alArtIndust try

Public P 13%

Priv vate 87 7%

Theleadingpub bliclytradedart a industry companyisSothebys. S Not N onlyisittheleaderin nthe auct tion segment, it also lea ads in all oth her areas it represents, heading Ska ates Art Indu ustry Scor recard. The auction a house is active in four vario ous businesses: auction activity, a financial serv vices, dealer and private e treaty sale es. In announcing its mo ost recent H1 H 2012 financial resu ults, Sotheby ys expressed a bright forecast f rega arding futur re performan nce. Despite e the decl lineinitscor reactivity,itstillseesthe estrongpotentialofthe eartmarketandcontinuesto focu usonprivate esalesandfin nancialservices,aswella asdevelopin ngofitspresenceinAsia.14

The second large est company is MCH Grou up, the leading entity in Skates S Art In ndustry Score ecard that tisinvolvedin neventsman nagement.Th hecompanys sprimarybus sinessisowningandoper rating large e exhibition complexes c in n Switzerland d, but by virt tue of owning g the Art Bas sel fairs franchise MCH H Group is th he largest list ted art fair operator. MCH H Groups main projects are Art Basel and Art B Basel Miami Beach, which h are key art t fairs of a glo obal scale tha at cover thre ee key geogra aphic 15 regio ons. Even th hough MCH Group G ranks only 10th among a global exhibition companies c , it is defin nitely the leading art industry ex xhibition manager. The companys strong fina ancial perf formance is proof p of its effective e business model. During the first half of 20 012 the company 16 sawan18%incre easeinopera atingincome and57%growthinprofit. . Thre ee other su uccessful publicly traded d companie es represent ting collectib bles are Sta anley 17 Gibb bons, Collec ctors Univer rse and Noble Investm ments. Offe ering service es for collec ctors 14 S Sotheby's 1H 2012 2 Results: Sothebys Q3 3 2012 Result ts: Ongoing Co ore Activity Downturn Offs set by
Priva ate Sales and Finance Services, Skates Mar rket Notes, Skates Art t Stocks Re eview Nove ember/Decem mber,2012, ates_Art_Stoc cks_Review_N Nov_Dec_2012 2.pdf. 15 P Pilot Rating of Exhibition Companies, http://w www.exhibitio expofacts/lea ading exhibitioncompaniesworld1

M MCH Group Expects Upswi ing with Stron ng Portfolio of o Three Lead ding Art Fairs and Major Lu uxury

Good dsShow,Ska atesMarketNotes N ,Novem mber16,2012, ,http://skatep at=176 17 C Comparative analysis a of thr ree companie es by Skates: Numismatic and a Philatelic Players in th he Art Indu ustry:Opportu unitiesandChallenges,Ska atesArtStock ksReview,Sep ptember2012 2, ates_Art_Stoc cks_Review_S Sep_2012.pdf Skates, ,LLC,subsidia aryofNextEd ditionPartner rsGmbH Co opyright20 013Allrights sreserved 25

involved in numismatic and philately activities, these companies occupy a narrow but very thriving business niche. The quality management that is reflected in the financial performanceofthesecompanieshasrecentlyencouragedthemtomakesignificantchanges. Collectors Universe, the largest of the three, is currently expanding into Asia to explore this market and benefit from its strong collecting culture.18Stanley Gibbons, apart from opening an office in Hong Kong, is also actively exploring ecommerce.19Noble Investments has announcedtheacquisitionofTheFineArtAuctionGroup(TFAAG).20 Artprice and artnet are both involved in the ecommerce business, offering research and analysis and managing auction price databases. These firms are quite different in terms of their financial performance, however. Artprices financial reporting focuses mainly on the overall growth of the art market and future forecasts of success without detailed explanation of the companys current position. artnet, on the other hand, presents an accurateandthoroughfinancialdisclosure,althoughitiscurrentlyfacingdifficulties.artnets inabilitytostrengthenitsonlineauctionsegmentisnegativelyreflectedonitsbalancesheet. At the same time, other segments of artnets business mix are also struggling to generate profit, which recently resulted in the closure of artnet Magazine, known as one of the leadersinonlinenewsonthe artmarketas wellastheprimarymarketingsourceofartnets Gallerysegment.Asof2012,artnethasnotmanagedtoannounceaclearplanforimproving its financial situation, instead continuing to project risky performance in its latest Q3 2012 financialdisclosure.21 The three most recently added companiesWeng Fine Art (WFA), Abbey House and Art&BusinessMagazinearealsonotablestoriesofnewartindustrytrends.WFAhasbeenon themarketfor18years.Lastyearitwentpublic,thusbreakingtheruleoflimitedtransparency inartdealing.Sincefloatation,thecompanyssharepricehasdemonstratedsignificantgrowth (up by more than 100%).22Abbey House, a young Polish company, also represents a very differentmodelfromtheothercompaniesonthemarket.Apartfromtheauctionbusiness,the group owns a price database of all auction sales in Poland, manages an art investment fund, promotescontemporaryPolishartistsandrunstheonlyartmagazineinPolandthatalsowent

CollectorsUniverse:NewCEORobertDeusterAppointedAmidUncertainty.SkatesMarketNotes, SkatesArtStocksReview,November/December2012, 19 StanleyGibbons:OngoingDevelopmentandLocalEventsOffsetStampMarketDownturn,Skates MarketNotes,SkatesArtStocksReview,September2012, 20 Noble Leads Consolidation in the UK Collectibles Market, Skates Market Notes, December 21, 2012, 21 artnet in Free Fall Losses Continue, Just 703,000 in Cash Left to Go, Skates Market Notes, August3,2012.SkatesArtMarketResearch,November19,2012, 22 Inspired by Strong Performance, WFA Prepares to Launch eCommerce Platform, Skates Market Notes,SkatesArtStocksReview,June2012, Skates,LLC,subsidiaryofNextEditionPartnersGmbH Copyright2013Allrightsreserved26

public and was added to Skates Art Stocks Index as of October 2012.23The company offers financialsupportto artists,whoarecommittedtoprovideAbbeywiththeir artthatis actively promoted by Abbey. Such a business model is still rare in the current art industry the only officialplayerwithsimilarstrategyistheLondonbasedgalleryAllVisualArts. The final company we would like to address in this section is Mallett. This companys recent performance shows significant struggle, a fact made even worse by the overall drop in the decorative art market. Its 2011 annual performance, however, shows that the company made a profit for the first time in four years and entered the Asian market with its first exhibitionatFineArtAsia. Exhibit11:SkatesArtStockIndex(PublicCompaniesintheGlobalArtIndustry)
Sothebys MCHGroup Artprice StanleyGibbons CollectorsUniverse,Inc WengFineArt SeoulAuction ShinwaArtAuction NobleInvestments ArtVivant artnet AbbeyHouse Mallett Art&BusinessMagazine Note YearEnded30th June,2011 YearEnded31st March,2011 YearEnded31st August,2011 YearEnded31st March,2011 1HResults,2012 Revenues, mlnUSD 408 285.87 3.08 14.7 23.54 6.43 4.35 11.05 15.14 9.36 0.9 10.1 NetIncome, mlnUSD 74 42.45 0.05 2.53 0.05 1.74 0.91 3.16 1.73 1.47 0.66 0.14 AnnualResults,2011 Revenues, mlnUSD 832 348.13 6.95 55.19 44.40 8.63 11.96 10.53 19.63 66.21 17.65 1.4 19.63 NetIncome, mlnUSD 171 22.25 0.13 6.34 5.10 1.06 4.63 1.53 3.56 3.33 0.40 2.4 0.77


Abbey House: Rapid Growth Continues as Company Prepares to List Art&Business Magazine, SkatesMarketNotes,July10,2012,

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Name Listing/ Currency NYSE/ USD Paris/EUR Frankfurt/ EUR NASDAQ/USD London/GPB Tokyo/JPY Seoul/ WON Tokyo/JPY London/ GBP Zurich/CHF Warsaw/PLN London/GBP Frankfurt/EUR Warsaw/PLN Dec2012 Performance 16.5% 13.2% 15.3% 2.0% 0.9% 1.9% 1.8% 9.7% 4.9% 8.5% 30.5% 8.2% 2.7% 27.3% 13.2% YTD2012 Performance 17.8% 38.5% 33.6% 31.2% 8.4% 13.7% 13.0% 19.8% 50.0% 47.1% 52.7% 25.9% 279.3% 23.1% 2.5%

MarketCapas ofDec302012, USDmln 2277.49 260.38 19.45 81.10 16.73 40.36 46.90 18.64 96.26 358.42 24.78 50.21 47.33 3.35 3341.41 52wkHigh, USD 41.24 85.29 8.27 17.48 1.38 2.91 3.43 503.40 3.91 63.31 5.29 3.31 23.96 0.77 225.7 52wkLow, USD 27.43 23.68 3.44 9.25 1.14 2.30 2.30 260.88 2.59 38.53 1.40 2.64 4.15 0.26 150.3

Priceasof Dec312012, USD 33.62 40.71 3.50 10.03 1.21 2.61 2.77 321.32 3.81 59.67 2.27 3.23 17.21 0.33 173.1

Sothebys Artprice artnet Collectors Universe Mallett ArtVivant SeoulAuctions ShinwaArt Auction Stanley Gibbons MCHGroup AbbeyHouse Noble Investments WengFineArt Art&Business Magazine SkatesArt StocksIndex Skate's InvestableArt StocksIndex







AllValuesareinUSD Source:SkatesArtMarketResearch

130 120 110 100 90 80 70



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LuxuryGroupsandtheArtIndustry:CloseConnectionPavestheWayforPotentialSynergy The following section is dedicated to one of the most interesting stories todaythe collaboration between the art and luxury segments. Luxury goods giants are well known for theirinterestinartandconstantlyaddartrelatedelementstotheircoreactivity.Theleader of this activity is Louis Vuitton. Not only does the company collaborate with artists, but it also decorates its stores around the world with art. The most recent example was the Yayoi Kusama collection, which Louis Vuitton stores incorporated in store windows. The artists style dot installations were reminiscent of her recently completed Tate Modern retrospective. Selected leading brands are not only attempting to turn their luxury stores into galleries, but they also combine artistic elements with branded items, which results in strongersalesincomparisontotheirrivalswhorelysolelyontheirbrandnames. Today,duringtheslowdownoftheluxurygoodsmarket,Skatesseesthisopportunityasthe numberonesolutiontokeepcompaniesinthisindustryonthepathtogrowth. Exhibit14:LeadingLuxuryGroups
LVMH Richemont PPR MarketCap(EURbln) 71.11 32.55 20.61 Brands Over60 19 18 CEO BernardArnault JonathanRupert FranoisHenriPinault DateofInception 1987 1988 1963

The idea of a relationship between art and luxury comes from the very top management at these companies; CEOs at the leading luxury brands are known as the ultimate art lovers. Bernard Arnault, head of LVMH, who is known for his rich collection of contemporary art, plans to inaugurate an art foundation in Paris. FranoisHenri Pinault, head of PPR, is also active in the arts field, having his father as a great example. The head of Compagnie Financiere Richemont, Jonathan Rupert, is the outlier who has yet to publicly profess a love of art. Richemond, however, has been leading Foundation Cartier since 1984 as a center for contemporaryart. The three largest luxury groups have managed to build over $1 trillion in market capitalizationa figure that will not be achieved by the art market anytime soon. These brandsrecognizetheneedtomakeartapartoftheirluxurygoodssalesstrategy. What makes art so attractive for luxury brands that are already established, and can this synergy provide any benefit to both sides? Before answering this question, it is worth taking alookatthecurrentstateofluxurygroupsfinancialperformance. Thesalesofluxurybrandsarestillhighatthetoplevel,butlookingdeeper,itbecomesclear that revenue growth is slowing (see tables below). As a result, in 2011, these companies experienced a substantial decline in profit growth compared to 2010. LVMH reported EUR 3 billion in income for 2011, a figure that remained stable since last year. While performance in 2012 was more successfula 12% increase in profits and 19% in revenues compared to
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2011it still has not reached the level of growth presented in 2010. Richemont, after publishing an 80% growth in profits in 2011, failed to sustain this rate in 2012; the rate was approximately half as strong in comparison. The company with the lowest profit volatility is PPR, which achieved EUR 1 billion in income for the past four years despite the recession. It haseverychanceofachievingthisresultin2012aswell. Looking at slowing interest among buyers, luxury brands are concerned about ways to hold onto wealthy clientele. Many have determined that there is no better way to do so than to bringintelligent,aestheticandeternalelementstoutilitygoodssuchasbagsandaccessories. Contemporary artists, searching for new sources of revenue in the current art market, do not mind becoming brands themselves. Damien Hirst, the leader in this area, has already established a chain of stores called Other Criteria, selling dotted prints and tshirts. Such attemptsbyartiststowinontheirownareultimatelydoomed,however,andartistshaveto admit that they are not capable of succeeding in the commodities sector without the hand of more experienced manufacturers who have been creating quality pieces for generations. Thebesttheycanhopeforistocontributeideasandvisualaspectsthatwouldmakealready exquisite yet practical luxury goods into products of artistic creation. This synergy is exactly what could benefit both sides; luxury brands keep loyal customers while artists obtain additionalsourcesofgrowthandmaterialincome. Collaborationbetweenluxurybrandsandartiststhatresultinartisticallydesignedgoodsisthe first opportunity for both parties to achieve ongoing prosperity. A second hypothesis that Skates claims as a longterm possibility is the diversification of luxury goods companies into art dealers. In Skates Semiannual Report we made the case for this evolution, stating that players in the luxury segment are better prepared to enter the art trading segment than anyoneelsegiventheirrichexperienceinthepremiummarketandtheirfocusontopclientele. Todaywearenotawareofany luxurygoodscompanytrading in art,butweseeevidenceof thiscomingintoviewinthenearfutureforseveralreasons.Thecurrentartmarketislargely dependent on tastemakers, i.e., the leading collectors or dealers who would present the most desired pieces to the market. History already knows cases of luxury brand representatives influencing the provenance and hence the prices of artworks they have possessed.In2009,ChristiespresentedtheartcollectionassembledbyYvesSaintLaurent,a threeday sale of more than 700 works that exceeded expectations and brought a total of USD 390 million. There is no doubt that the fashion designer played an enormous role in determiningthedemandforworksupforauction. Contemporary fashion designers of luxury brands are also heavily involved in art collecting. The Prada Group, which announced growth in revenue and profits during the third quarter of 2012, including in its Asian segment, is heavily involved in promoting art through the Fondazione Prada. The art collection of the Fondazione Prada was exhibited in 2011 in Venice during the Venice Biennale, along with Francoise Pinaults vast collection. Another Italian luxury company, Max Mara Group, has also been involved in the art world since the brandsfounderAchilleMaramottistartedthecollectionnearlythirtyyearsago.Highlighting
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its isolation from the fashion brand, this collection of mostly Italian contemporary art is exhibitedinavastbuildinglocatedinReggioEmilia.TheMaramottiCollectionisalsoactively involved in promoting female artists, having established the Max Mara Art Prize in collaboration with Whitechapel Gallery. The winners of the Max Mara prize are obtaining significant visibility and achieving immediate appreciation of their works. The market has already seen the influence of Max Mara touch, as galleries are more willing to accept works byArtPrizeawardedartistsandpromotethemasrisingstars. The synergy between the worlds of art and luxury goods is already undeniable. At present, premium provenance is actively sought by galleries and auction houses interested in single ownercollectionsheldbybrandednames.Anditisonlyamatteroftimebeforetheprimary dictatoroftaste,theluxurysegment,willtaketheleadandembracetheartdealingbusiness. Exhibit15:LVMHMoetHennessyLouisVuittonFinancialPerformance
EUR,mln 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 TotalRevenue 28,103 23,659 20,320 17,053 17,193 GrowthRate,% 19% 16.4% 19.2% 0.5% NetProfit 3,424 3,065 3,032 1,755 2,026 GrowthRate,% 12% 1% 73% 13%


EUR,mln 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 TotalRevenue 8,867 6,892 5,176 5,148 5,290 GrowthRate,% 28.7% 33.2% 0.5% 2.7% NetProfit 1,540 1,079 600 1,076 1,564 GrowthRate,% 42.7% 79.8% 44.2% 31.2%


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EUR,mln 1H2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 TotalRevenue 6,328 12,227 11,007 13,584 17,207 GrowthRate,% 16.7%(Comparedtothe sameperiodlastyear) 11.1% 19.0% 21.1% NetProfit 542 1,046 1,015 995 1,039 GrowthRate,% 20.4%(comparedtothe sameperiodlastyear) 3.1% 2% 4.2%


Exhibit18:SkatesArtStocksIndexSharePricePerformancevsLVMH,PPR,Richemontand S&P500
170 150 130 110 90 70 50 30 10






AgeoftheArtIndustry While some art companieshavebeenonthemarket forseveralcenturies, in generalthe art industry is considered quite young given that the majority of players started to appear only 40 years ago. In the Art Industry Timeline presented below it is evident that major development started in the late 1960s. Before that, we see only a few players who were activeonthemarket. Theoldestartmarketbusinessmodelisauctiontrading.Among artindustrycompaniesthat have entered Skates Art Industry Scorecard, the oldest five are auction houses. Exhibit 19 shows that these are Stockholms Auktionsverk, Dorotheum, Sothebys, Christies and Bonhams,whichwereestablishedin1674,1707,1744,1766and1793,respectively.
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ibit19:ArtIn ndustryTimeline Exhi

10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0


6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 Yea ar 1900 1 19 950 200 00

Exhi ibit20:AllocationofCo ompaniesbyYearsofAge e

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 oneyear 23 orless 45 68 912 1318 1925 2650 51100 more e than10 00

Pe eriodontheMarket M

Exhi ibit21:Top5OldestCom mpaniesintheArtIndus stry

1 2 3 4 5 Sectors/Com mpany StockholmsAuktionsver rk Dorotheum m Sotheby's Christie's Bonhams D of Date Inc ception 1674 1707 1744 1766 1793 Period P onthe e Market 338 305 268 246 219 Rating g 7.0 9.2 10.0 9.8 9.4

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Methodology Skates Art Industry Scorecard is a ranking created by Skates Art Market Research (Skates). Skates parent company, Next Edition Partners GmbH, is the majority owner of theViennafair. Skatesestablishedtheratingsmethodologyaccordingtotheprinciplesdescribedbelow. The companies chosen for the rating participate in the art industry through a major part of their activities or have a department dedicated to artrelated services. If a company performsitscoreactivityinthe artindustrybuthasseveralunrelated businesses,wedonot takeaccountoftheunrelateddivisions(e.g.,arealestatedivision).Ifabusinesshasastrong holding company that also performs activities in artrelated areas, we include the parent company(e.g.,EuroasiaandUmbertoAllemandi&C).Occasionallywemaydecidetoinclude a unit on its own without the parent company due to the standalone significance of such a unit(e.g.,ChristiesorReedExhibitions). We also include companies that provide products and services (like publishing activities, media businesses, logistics, storage, insurance and marketing of arts) that complement or fortifytheartindustrysestablishmentandinfrastructure. Thechosencompaniesareratedaccordingtothefollowingcriteria: 1. Track record period of presence in the art market, reflecting a companys experience, expertise and sustainability, as well as its ability to overcome economic turbulenceandprojectapowerfulbusinessmodel 2. Global reach number of branches worldwide, showing a companys global presence,itsabilitytoadjustandscaleitsbusinessmodeltovariousmarkets,aswell asitsdesireandabilitytoexpandglobally 3. Role model contribution to the art industry, a factor that reflects the importance of the role played by the company in terms of the art industrys development, as well as whether it provides a transparent and effective platform and operates a businessmodelthatiswidelyseenasthebenchmarkforaspiringrivals 4. Name/reputation/brand specifically as much as it stands for business reputation, suggesting that a company is engaged as a strong art market participant and is characterized by trustworthy and ethical activity, as well as avoidance of controversialpractices 5. Digital strategy visibility on the art market through online and mobile media, reflecting a companys active position in the art world and the attention it has earned,aswellasitstransparentwayofdoingbusiness To find indicators (e.g., date of establishment, number of branches, and visibility), we used publiclyavailablesources.Weare alsogratefultocompaniesthathaveprovideduswiththe required information and assisted us on reflecting the current state of their business in the eventitwasnotfullydisclosedtothepublic. Occasionally,wesawaseparatechancetoratecompaniesusingalternativewaystoidentify their standing in the art industry. Among the alternative ways we have classified publicly tradedcompaniesandluxurygroupsbytheirfinancialperformance,ecommercecompanies by frequency of visitors, banks by the size of art collections and art fairs by number of participatinggalleries,visitorsanddateofestablishment.
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Disclaimer Skates Art Industry Scorecard is not a commercial product. Skates collects and assembles the information comprising the Art Industry Scorecard for archival and informational purposes.TheArtIndustryScorecardisfreelyavailabletovisitorstotheSkatePresswebsite ( as long asthe visitorcompletes a simpleregistration form. No fee is chargedtoaccessandviewtheArtIndustryScorecard. SkatespreparedtheArtIndustryScorecardingoodfaith.Skatesmakesnorepresentations as to the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information in the Art Industry Scorecard and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this informationoranylosses,injuries,ordamagesarisingfromitsdisplayoruse.Allinformation is provided on an asis basis. Skates makes no commitment to update or correct any informationthatappearsinSkatesArtIndustryScorecard. Skates specifically disclaims all warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, the warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and noninfringement with respect to the information, graphics and materials contained in Skates Art Industry Scorecard. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, in no event shall Skates be liable for any direct, special, incidental, indirect, or consequential damages whatsoever arising out of informationinSkatesArtIndustryScorecard. ScalesofSkatesArtIndustryScorecard
PeriodontheMarket Min 0 2 4 6 9 13 19 26 51 101 Max 1 3 5 8 12 18 25 50 100 1to10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NumberofBranches Min 1 2 3 4 6 9 13 19 26 51 Max 1 2 3 5 8 12 18 25 50 1to10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NumberofResultsinGoogle. UpdatedLastYear Min Max 0 100 101 1,000 1,001 5,000 5,001 10,000 10,001 25,000 25,001 50,000 50,001 100,000 100,001 500,000 500,001 1,000,000 1,000,001 1to10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Number of Branches Numberof Google Resultsper Year






Public/ Private

Dateof Inception







3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Bonhams Dorotheum GettyImages MCHGroup Taschen GagosianGallery Phaidon Pace Phillips ReedExhibitions WithersWordwide Collectors Universe SaatchiGallery StanleyGibbons Euroasia Hiscox WhiteCube Gallery Umberto Allemandi&C ChinaGuardian AuctionsCo HeritageAuctions EbayInc. MarianGoodman Gallery TheFineArtFund artnet GladstoneGallery Marlborough Gallery SeoulAuction Stockholms Auktionsverk
24 25 25 24

London Vienna Seattle Basel Kln NewYork London NewYork NewYork Surrey London California London London Geneve Bermuda London Turin Beijing Dallas California NewYork London Berlin NewYork NewYork Seoul Stockholm

Brick Brick Online Brick Both Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Brick Both Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Both Online Brick Brick Online Brick Brick Both Brick

AuctionHouse/Art Dealer (Gallery)/Education/Art Lender/Ecommerce/ StorageandShipping AuctionHouse/Art Dealer(Gallery)/Art Lender/Storageand Shipping AuctionHouse/Art Dealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Ecommerce EventsManagement Publishing ArtDealer(Gallery) Publishing ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse EventsManagement Law AuctionHouse ArtDealer(Gallery)/E commerce AuctionHouse StorageandShipping Insurance ArtDealer(Gallery) Publishing/Online media AuctionHouse AuctionHouse/E commerce Ecommerce ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtFund Analytics,Researchand Database/Ecommerce ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse AuctionHouse









Private Private Private Public Private Private Private Private Private Public Private Public Private Public Private Public Private Private Private Private Public Private Private Public Private Private Public Private

88 44 48 13 20 12 6 8 8 34 10 3 3 6 6 28 4 6 7 5 2 2 5 3 3 7 5 2

1793 1707 1995 1916 1980 1979 1923 1960 1796 1966 1896 1986 1985 1856 1859 1946 1993 1983 1993 1976 1995 1977 2001 1989 1991 1946 1998 1674

300,000 63,100 688,000,000 150,000 3,020,000 220,000 195,000 983,000 69,800 200,000 108,000 879,000 552,000 186,000 66,100 168,000 1,360,000 9,200 165,000 1,450,000 54,400,000 128,000 10,700,000 386,000 227,000 315,000 172,000 26,700

ReedElsevierGroupplcdivision IncludesSaatchiOnline

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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

AXAArt CastelliGallery GalerieThaddaeus Ropac Hauser&Wirth Mallett NationaleSuisse Deloitte Luxembourg MatthewMarks Gallery BeijingPoly International AuctionCo DrouotPatrimoine GurrJohns LouiseBlouin Media Zwirner SonnabendGallery TajanAuction House WinstonArtGroup Acquavella Galleries ArtCapitalGroup GalerieErnst Hilger Saffronart BrantPublications BeautifulAsset Advisors DeJonckheere Gallery OperaGallery SeanKellyGallery BeijingCouncil International AuctionCo CoeurdAlene Aris ArtAssure ArtFinance Partners CadoganTate GalerieKornfeld HeffelFineArt AuctionHouse KollerAuktionen Perrotin Artprice Invaluable Piasa RavenelArtGroup

London NewYork Salzburg London London Basel Luxembourg NewYork Shanghai

Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Brick

Insurance ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Insurance Consulting ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Auction House/Publishing/Educ ation Consulting Online media/Publishing ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Consulting/Collection Management ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtLender ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Publishing/Online media Analytics,Researchand Database ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse AuctionHouse Insurance ArtLender ArtLender StorageandShipping AuctionHouse AuctionHouse/E commerce AuctionHouse ArtDealer(Gallery) Analytics,Researchand Database/Ecommerce Analytics,Researchand Database AuctionHouse AuctionHouse

Private Private Private Private Public Private Private Private Private

3 2 4 4 3 1 1 5 5

1962 1957 1983 1992 1865 1883 1950 1991 2005

1,090,000 160,000 27,200 51,000 1,050,000 2,070,000 94,200 215,000 167,000

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

Paris London NewYork NewYork NewYork Paris NewYork NewYork NewYork Vienna Mumbai NewYork NewYork Paris Paris NewYork Shanghai Idaho NewYork NewYork NewYork London Bern Vancouver Zurich Paris Lyon Newport Paris HongKong

Both Brick Both Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Brick Both Online Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Brick Online Online Brick Brick

Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Public Private Private Private

1 3 8 2 1 5 5 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 11 1 4 3 8 1 1 5 2 5 2 2 1 3 1 3

1852 1914 2001 1993 1962 1966 2010 1921 2000 1971 2000 1984 2002 1976 1994 1991 2005 1987 2006 2010 2005 2005 1919 1978 1974 1990 1997 1986 1996 1999

13,300 1,990 74,300 60,000 37,000 12,800 1,510,000 5,600 120,000,000 10,500 62,200 65,500 40,300 8,070 19,400,000 600,000 82,200 29,700 208,000 5,390,000 837,000 23,400 9,210 3,920 12,300 19,100 216,000 96,500 61,100 18,600

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70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

JohnnyVan Haeften VillaGrisebach Auktionen Artifax ArtVivant GallerySystems Artcurial MontageFinance NobleInvestments WFA YellowKorner PlatinumArt ShinwaArtAuction ArtMarket Research ArtPhotography Fund Artfact Liveauctioneers Seymours ArtTactic

London Berlin Epsom Tokyo NewYork Paris NewYork London Krefeld Paris NewYork Tokyo London Cayman Islands Allston Berlin NewYork London London

Brick Brick Brick Both Brick Brick Brick Brick Both Both Brick Brick Online Brick Online Online Online Brick Online

ArtDealer(Gallery) AuctionHouse Collection Management ArtDealer(Gallery) Collection Management AuctionHouse ArtLender AuctionHouse ArtDealer(Gallery) Ecommerce ArtLender AuctionHouse Analytics,Researchand Database ArtFund Ecommerce Analytics,Researchand Database Ecommerce Consulting Analytics,Researchand Database Auction House/Publishing/Art Dealer(Gallery)/Art Fund/Analytics, ResearchandDatabase Onlinemedia Consulting ArtFund/Consulting AuctionHouse AuctionHouse Analytics,Researchand Database Ecommerce Onlinemedia Onlinemedia ArtFund Collection Management

Private Private Private Public Private Private Private Public Public Private Private Public Private Private Private Private Private Private Private

1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1977 1986 1987 1984 1981 2001 2010 2003 1994 2006 1992 1989 1985 2008 1989 2001 2002 2000 2001

3,700 2,480 4,920 58,900 3,810 17,800 627,000 411,000 22,100 18,400 17,900 2,570 90,200 233,000 45,000 37,400 996,000 18,600 8,620








90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

ArtDaily Artvest EliteAdvisers LeslieHindman Auctioneers McDougalls ArtEconomics Paddle8 NextEdition Partners A&FMarkets ArtemundiGlobal Fund Collectrium

London NewYork Luxembourg Chicago London Ireland NewYork Vienna Paris Cayman Islands NewYork

Online Brick Brick Online Both Brick Online Brick Online Brick Brick

Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Public Private Private Private

1 1 1 5 4 1 1 2 1 3 1

1996 2009 2007 1982 2004 2005 2011 2012 2010 2010 2010

140,000 22,000 120,000 24,000 18,600 466 22,400 217,000 81,000 391 1,980

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Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
26 27

Company Christie's Sotheby's Bonhams Dorotheum GettyImages MCHGroup Taschen GagosianGallery Phaidon Pace Phillips 26 ReedExhibitions WithersWordwide CollectorsUniverse 27 SaatchiGallery StanleyGibbons Euroasia Hiscox WhiteCubeGallery UmbertoAllemandi&C ChinaGuardianAuctionsCo HeritageAuctions EbayInc. MarianGoodmanGallery TheFineArtFund artnet GladstoneGallery MarlboroughGallery SeoulAuction StockholmsAuktionsverk AXAArt CastelliGallery GalerieThaddaeusRopac Hauser&Wirth Mallett NationaleSuisse DeloitteLuxembourg MatthewMarksGallery BeijingPolyInternational AuctionCo DrouotPatrimoine GurrJohns LouiseBlouinMedia Zwirner SonnabendGallery TajanAuctionHouse WinstonArtGroup AcquavellaGalleries ArtCapitalGroup GalerieErnstHilger Saffronart BrantPublications BeautifulAssetAdvisors DeJonckheereGallery OperaGallery SeanKellyGallery ReedElsevierGroupplcdivision IncludesSaatchiOnline

Number of Branches 10 10 10 9 9 7 8 6 5 5 5 9 6 3 3 5 5 9 4 5 5 4 2 2 4 3 3 5 4 2 3 2 4 4 3 1 1 4 4 1 3 5 2 1 4 4 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 6 1

Yearsin Operation 10 10 10 10 6 9 8 8 9 9 10 8 10 8 8 10 10 9 7 8 7 8 6 8 5 7 7 9 6 10 8 9 8 7 10 10 9 7 4 10 9 5 7 8 8 2 9 5 8 5 8 5 8 6 7

Contributionto ArtIndustry Development 10 10 10 10 9 10 8 10 8 8 9 7 6 9 9 7 8 3 8 10 9 7 9 9 8 10 10 7 8 8 5 8 8 7 6 5 8 7 8 8 9 7 8 9 7 7 9 7 9 7 7 9 8 5 7

Visibility 10.0 10.0 8.0 7.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 7.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 8.0 10.0 4.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 7.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 3.0 7.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 10.0 4.0 10.0 5.0 7.0 7.0 6.0 4.0 10.0 9.0

Reputation 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 10 8 8 7 9 9 9 8 7 8 8 10 7 7 9 9 9 8 8 6 9 9 8 7 8 9 5 8 9 7 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 9 9 8 8 9 9 4 7

Rating 10.0 10.0 9.6 9.2 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

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56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

BeijingCouncilInternational AuctionCo CoeurdAlene Aris ArtAssure ArtFinancePartners CadoganTate GalerieKornfeld HeffelFineArtAuction House KollerAuktionen Perrotin Artprice Invaluable Piasa RavenelArtGroup JohnnyVanHaeften VillaGrisebachAuktionen Artifax ArtVivant GallerySystems Artcurial MontageFinance NobleInvestments WFA YellowKorner PlatinumArt ShinwaArtAuction ArtMarketResearch ArtPhotographyFund Artfact Liveauctioneers Seymours ArtTactic AbbeyHouse ArtDaily Artvest EliteAdvisers LeslieHindmanAuctioneers McDougalls ArtEconomics Paddle8 NextEditionPartners A&FMarkets ArtemundiGlobalFund Collectrium

4 3 5 1 1 4 2 4 2 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 1 1 2 1 3 1

4 7 4 2 4 4 9 8 8 7 6 8 6 6 8 8 7 8 8 5 2 5 6 4 7 7 8 3 7 5 5 5 5 2 6 2 3 8 4 4 1 1 2 2 2

8 7 5 8 7 8 7 7 7 8 7 5 6 7 8 8 6 6 7 8 8 6 8 5 6 8 5 6 5 7 5 6 8 7 5 8 5 4 6 9 8 6 6 7 8

7.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 9.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 7.0 3.0 5.0 9.0 8.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.0 7.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 5.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 8.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 8.0 7.0 2.0 3.0

7 7 8 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 6 9 9 8 8 8 5 8 8 5 8 7 7 6 9 8 7 5 9 8 4 6 9 9 6 6 8 8

6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.4

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