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FA-HIEN'S OF RECORD BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS LEGGE .

HENRY FROWDE Oxford University Press Warehouse Amen Corner. .C. E.

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31. . THK DEVAS CELEBRATING THE ATTAINMENT OF THE BUDDHASHIP. Ch.VI.

LL.D.. M.V 3 A RECORD OF BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS BEING AS ACCOUNT BY THE CHINESE MONK FA-HIEN OF HIS TRAVELS IN INDIA (A. 399-414) AND CEYLON IN SEARCH OF THE BUDDHIST BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED WITH A COREAN RECENSION OF THE CHINESE TEXT BY JAMES LEGGE.A.D. PROFESSOR OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE ©rforD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1886 [ AH rights reserved ] .

PS ^r - .

number of the adherents of Buddhism . or some city more to the East in Ladak. When Buddhism first crossed that river 26 . 24 Darada. . . i CHAPTER From Ch'ang-gan to the Sandy Desert I. 16 CHAPTER IV. Through the Ts'ung or 'Onion' mountains to K'eeh-ch'a Skardo. Life of Fa-hien.CONTENTS. Image of MaitreyaBodhisattva. 9 CHAPTER On to Shen-shen and thence to Khoten II. VI. probably . The king's New monastery . Crossing of the Indus. . for the East CHAPTER VII. genuineness and integrity of the text of his narrative. III. ductions of the country V.21 Pro22 CHAPTER Great quinquennial assembly of monks. Processions of images. PREFACE INTRODUCTION. . Relics of Buddha. . . CHAPTER On TOWARDS North India. la CHAPTER Khoten.

S3 Buddha's preaching CHAPTER Sha-che.. MONASTERIES AND THEIR WAYS. and his 36 SHADOW CHAPTER XIV. TRACES OF 28 Buddha CHAPTER Soo-HO-TO. . Condition and customs of Central India of the monks. and monasteries . Other relics. CHAPTER XV. The four gre. viharas. or Canouge. 41 On to MathurA. 31 Legends of Buddha CHAPTER Taksha^ila. 47 Sanka^ya. Lo-e. XVIII. Death of Hwuy-ying • 53 CHAPTER Nagara. Sympathy of monks with the pilgrims CHAPTER XVI. Festival of Buddha's skull-bone. 40 Bhida. Crossing the Indus to the East Pohna. 54 Legend of Buddh. XIII. or Muttra. Buddha's ascent to and descent from the Trayastrim^as heaven.Vs Danta-kashtha ..\t topes CHAPTER XII. 30 Legend of Buddha CHAPTER Gandh. Purushapura. CHAPTER VIII. 32 Legends. OR UdVANA. Buddha's alms-bowl. and other legends CHAPTER Kanyakubja. Death of Hwuy-king in the Little Snowy mountains. WOO-CHANG.vi CONTENTS.\ra. XIX.. Prophecy about king Kanishka and HIS tope. IX. or Peshawur. X. XI. 42 CHAPTER XVII.

75 CHAPTER XXVII. and where he died . The tope called 'Weapons l. and its XXIII. or Patna. 68 tope CHAPTER Where Buddha XXIV. Dispensaries and hospitals 77 CHAPTER Rajagriha.\id down. Its desolation. Vai^alI. CHAPTER XX. 84 Suicide of a Bhikshu . His 82 reflections CHAPTER XXX. The Buddhist Brahman. Pataliputtra. King Anoka's spirit-built palace and halls. CHAPTER The THREE PREDECESSORS OF SAKVAMUNI XXI. Radhasami. Legends of Buddha's birth. XXVIII. Gridhra-kOta hill. it . 63 CHAPTER XXII.CONTENTS. 70 CHAPTER XXV. and legends. The Srataparna cave. New and Old.' The Council of 72 Vai^al! CHAPTER Remarkable death of Ananda XXVI. 64 Kapilavastu. in Magadha. finally renounced the world. Legends and incidents connected with 80 CHAPTER XXIX. . and other incidents in connexion with it CHAPTER Rama. KosALA AND SrAvastL The Jetavaxa vihara and other memorials axd LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. or cave of the First Council. Legends. Fa-hien passes a night on it. SYMPATHY OF THE MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS. IN vii PAGE 55 THE BUDDHASHIP .

where Ka§yapa Buddha's entire skeleton is . or Benares. Feats of Buddha. To Champa and YEARS. Fa-hien's labours in transcription of manuscripts. In Patna.111 Nanking. SaKYAMUNI'S attaining to the BUDDHASHIP . . On the way back to Patna. . CHAPTER XXXr. Bo tree. and his naraka . Mount Gurupada. 87 CHAPTER XXXn.Vs tooth lOI Cremation of an Arhat. XXXVIII. . Stay and labours there for three Takes ship to Singhala. Statue of Buddha in jade. Dakshina. 90 CHAPTER XXXni. Rise of the kingdom.viii CONTENTS. 92 CHAPTER XXXIV. 100 CHAPTER At Ceylon. Festival of Buddh. Legend of king A^oka in a former birth. VARANASt. and the pigeon monastery 96 CHAPTER XXXVI. After two years takes ship for China. 107 XL. or Ceylon TAsL^LiPTt. Topes and monasteries. PAGE GaYA. Disastrous passage to Java and thence to China arrives at Shan-tung and goes to . AND OTHER LEGENDS . . Conclusion or l'envoi by another writer . CHAPTER XXXIX. . and 98 Indian studies for three years CHAPTER XXXVII. ^akyamuni's 93 first doings after becoming Buddha CHAPTER XXXV. Sermon of a devotee CHAPTER .

Buddha just born. 88 The devas celebrating the attainment VII. 70 Buddha's death IX. 67 Buddha tossing the white elephant over the wall IV. with the nagas supplying water to wash him III. . . . Sketch map of Fa-hien's travels &c. To face p. To face p. . To face Introduction. Dream of Buddha's mother of his incarnation . To follow V\\ Division of Buddha's relics To followVWl . page i I. To face p. iy Buddhaship attained VI. .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. To face p. . To face the Title Buddha's dying instructions VIII. To face p. . . of the Buddhaship . 65 II. To face p. . . 66 Buddha in solitude and enduring austerities V.

.

Several times during ' my long residence in Hong Kong .' I endeavoured to read through the Narrative of Fa-hien but though interested with the bristled so constantly graphic details of much of the work. In the meantime I kept studying the subject of Buddhism from various sources. do so in the two copies of it which I had been able to procure. moreover. the difficulty occasioned by the Sanskrit words and names was removed. In the beginning of last year I made Fa-hien again the subject of lecture. and printed from blocks badly cut at first. on the Travels with my Davis Chinese scholar. here in Oxford. that Dr. I wrote out a translation in English my own satisfaction of nearly half the narrative. Eitel's ' my success was far from satisfactory. its columns now with his phonetic representations of Sanskrit words. * a 2 . for As we went on. ' When Buddhism appeared in 1870. and now with I his substitution for them of their meanings in Chinese characters. so much occupied with my own on the Confucian Classics. and in 1878 began to lecture. as to yield books the reverse of attractive in their appearance to the student. and special labours was. wrote out a till second translation. on poor paper. and so worn with use Handbook for the Student of Chinese . independent of the former. but the other difficulty remained and I was not able to look Nor had I much inducement to into the book again for several years. who was at the same time Boden Sanskrit scholar. The want of a good and clear text had been supplied by my friend.PREFACE. and pushed on I had completed the whole.

xji

PREFACE.

me from Japan a copy, the text of appended to the translation and notes, and of the nature of which some account is given in the Introduction (page 4), and towards
Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio, who sent to
is

which

the end of this Preface.

The

present work consists of three parts
;

:

the Translation of Fa-hien's

Narrative of his Travels

copious Notes

;

and the Chinese Text of

my

copy from Japan.
It is for the Translation that I
sible.

hold myself more especially responit

Portions of

it

were written out three times, and the whole of

twice.

While preparing
:

my own

version I

made

frequent reference to
'

previous translations those of M. Abel Remusat, Revu, complete, et augmente d eclaircissements nouveaux par MM. Klaproth et Landresse'
(Paris, 1836)
it,
;

of the Rev.
'

Samuel Beal (London,

1869),

and

his revision of
'

prefixed to his

Buddhist Records of the Western World
;

(Triibner's

Oriental Series, 1884)

and of Mr. Herbert A.

Giles, of

H. M.'s Consular

Service in China (1877).
'

To

these I have to

add a

series of articles

on

Fa-hsien and his English Translators,'
at

by Mr. T. Watters,
1880).

British

Consul

1-Chang (China Review, 1879,
I

Those

articles are

of the highest value, displaying accuracy of Chinese scholarship and an

extensive knowledge of Buddhism.

have regretted that Mr. Watters,

while reviewing others, did not himself write out and publish a version
of the whole of Fa-hien's narrative.
If he had done so, I should proon the whole, nothing more remained to be

bably have thought

that,

done

for the distinguished

Chinese pilgrim in the

way

of translation.

Mr. Watters had to judge of the comparative merits of the versions of
Beal and Giles, and pronounce on the

many points of contention between
renderings of
break.
It

them.

I

have endeavoured to eschew those matters, and have seldom

made remarks of a critical nature in defence of The Chinese narrative runs on without any who divided Remusat's translation into forty
is

my

own.

was Klaproth

chapters.
it

The

division

helpful to the reader,

and

I

have followed

excepting in three or

four instances.

In the reprinted Chinese text the chapters are separated

by a

circle

(O) in the column.
I

In transliterating the nam.es of Chinese characters

have generally

PREFACE.
now
in

xiii

followed the spelling of Morrison rather than the Pekinese, which

is

vogue.

We

cannot

tell

exactly what the pronunciation of them
;

was, about fifteen hundred years ago, in the time of Fa-hien

but the

southern mandarin must be a shade nearer to
the present day.

it

than that of Peking at

In transliterating the Indian names I have for the most part followed Dr. Eitel, with such modification as seemed good and in harmony with growing usage.

For the Notes
condensation.

I

can do
first

little

more than claim the merit of selection and them was
to explain

My

object in

what

in the text

required

explanation to an English reader.

All Chinese texts, and

One has to do them what many hundreds of the ablest scholars in Europe have done for the Greek and Latin Classics during several hundred years, and what the thousands of critics and commentators have been doing for our
Buddhist texts especially, are new to foreign students.
for

Sacred Scriptures for nearly eighteen centuries.
decessors in the field of Chinese literature into

There are few prewhose labours translators
I

of the present century can enter.
sufficient

This will be received,

hope, as a

apology
object

for the

minuteness and length of some of the notes.
to

A

second

in

them was

teach

myself

first,

and
I

then

others, something of the history

and doctrines of Buddhism.
in

have

thought that they might be learned better
narrative like that of Fa-hien than

connexion with a lively

argumentative books.

by reading didactic descriptions and Such has been my own experience. The books
for these notes

which
works.
Eitel,
'

I

have consulted

have been many, besides Chinese
full

My principal
'

help has been the

and masterly handbook of
Spence Hardy's
'

mentioned already, and often referred to as E. H.
(E. M.)

Eastern Monachism
in

and

'

Manual of Buddhism (M.

B.)

have

been constantly

hand, as well as

Rhys Davids' Buddhism, published by

the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, his Hibbert Lectures, and
his
I

Buddhist Suttas

in

the Sacred Books of the East, and other writings.

need not mention other authorities, having endeavoured always to

specify

them where

I

make

use of them.

My proximity and

access to

the Bodleian

Library and the Indian Institute have been of great

advantage.

xiv
I

PREFACE.
may
be allowed to say that, so
far as

my own

study of

it

has gone,

I

think there are
still

many

things in the vast field of Buddhistic literature

which

require to be carefully handled.

How

far,

for instance, are

we

entitled

to

regard the present Sutras as genuine and sufficiently

accurate copies of those which were accepted
Christian era
?

by the Councils

before our

Can anything be done
history,

to trace the rise of the legends
(as
it

and marvels of Sakyamuni's
seems to
us) as the

which were current so early

by similarities mann Oldenberg,
says that
'

time of Fa-hien, and which startle us so frequently between them and narratives in our Gospels ? Dr. Hercertainly a great authority on

Buddhistic subjects,

Buddha has not come down to us from ancient times, from the age of the Pali texts and, we can safely say, no such biography existed then' (' Buddha His Life, His Doctrine, His Order,' He has also (in the same work, pp. 99, as translated by Hoey, p. 78).
a biography of
;

416, 417)

that the

come to the conclusion that the hitherto unchallenged tradition Buddha was a king's son must be given up. The name,
'
'

'king's son' (in Chinese
requires to

^ ^),

always used of the Buddha, certainly
I

be understood

in the highest sense.

am

content myself to

wait for further information on these and other points, as the result of

prolonged and careful research.
Dr.
Notes, and

Rhys Davids has kindly read the proofs of the Translation and I most cordially thank him for doing so, for his many

valuable corrections in the Notes, and for other suggestions which I have received from him. I may not always think on various points exactly
as he does, but I
'

am

not more forward than he

is

to say with Horace,

Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri.'

I

have referred above, and also

in
I

the Introduction, to the Corean
received from Mr. Nanjio.
It
is

text of Fa-hien's narrative, which

on the whole so much superior to the better-known texts, that I determined to attempt to reproduce it at the end of the little volume, so
far as

our resources here in Oxford would permit.

To do

so has not

been an easy task.

The two

fonts of Chinese types in the Clarendon

Press were prepared primarily for printing the translation of our Sacred

PREFACE.
Scriptures,

XV
for printing also the

and then extended so as
;

to

be available

Confucian Classics

but a Buddhist work necessarily requires many-

types not found in them, while

many

other characters in the Corean

some are what Chinese dictionThat we have succeeded so well as we have done is owing chiefly to the intelligence, ingenuity, and untiring attention of Mr. J. C. Pembrey, the Oriental Reader.
recension are peculiar in their forms, and
aries

denominate

'

vulgar.'

The

pictures that have been introduced were taken from a superb

edition of a History of

Buddha, republished recently at Hang-chau
to the Rev. J.

in

Cheh-kiang, and profusely illustrated in the best style of Chinese
I

art.

am

indebted for the use of

it

H. Sedgwick, University

Chinese Scholar.

JAMES LEGGE.
Oxford
June,
:

I

.

.

but 1 of K'ieh-ch'a was probably am inclined to think that the place where the traveller crossed the Indus and entered it must have been farther east than . Takshaiili. having been de- termined by Cunningham and other Indian geographers and archiEologists. at %\ hich he touched or rested. but the Narrative does not record the fact of his doing so . but Greenough's 'Physical and Geological ' Sketch-Map of British India' shows Dardu Proper..' all lying on the east of the Indus. We must suppose that Fa-hien went on from Nan-king to Chang-an. Most of the Bannu have also Woo-e has been put down as in 43° 25' N. was no doubt on the west of the river. There after is no difficulty in laying it down he crossed the Indus from east to west into the Punjab. It should be written Takshasira. which he visited. and has accepted as the Taxila of in the Punjab. Skerch-Map. all the principal places. of which the Chinese phonetisation will allow. 138. 5' E. The point at which FS-hien recrossed the Indus into Udy4na on the west of it is unknown. exactly in the position where the Narrative would lead us to place it. 8l° 1 near Kutcha. will give the reader The accompanying a sufficiently accurate knowledge of F4-hien's route.NOTE ON THE SKETCH-MAP. taken in connexion with the notes on the different places in the Narrative. A doubt is intimated on page 24 as to the identification of T'o-leih with Darada. -see a note of Seal in his Arrian been incorrectly 'Buddhist Records of the Western World' i.Skardo. The country Ladak. or Kuldja. places from Ch'ang-an to been identified.

and a nearly later Memoirs of Eminent Monks. GENUINENESS AND INTEGRITY OF THE TEXT OF . however. 1403-1424). and an uncle. 519.INTRODUCTION. keeping him at ill. died before shedding their his father devoted when they him to the fell service of the Buddhist society. ' have read the accounts of him in the piled in A. and all in verisimilitude can be brought within His surname. LIFE OF FA-HIEN . urged him to renounce the monastic life. which the name of a large department in Shan-hsi.' by the third emperor of the Ming dynasty (a. was Kung^j and he was a native of Wilis still yang ^ all in P'ing-yang '^. still and had him entered as a Sramanera. HIS NARRATIVE I. is all them that has an appearance of brief compass. ' I did not quit the family in compliance with I I my father's wishes.' The uncle approved of his words and gave over .' comwork. The little fellow danger- ously and the father sent him to the monaster>% where he soon got he was ten years old. D. NUMBER OF THE ADHERENTS OF BUDDHISM. the 'Memoirs of Marvellous Monks. When . borrowed from the other. but because wished to be far from the dust and vulgar ways of This is why choose monkhood. but the boy life. considering the widowed solitariness and helplessness of the mother. his father died well and refused to return to his parents. they tell us. home in the family. is Nothing of great importance known about Fa-hien in addition I to what may be gathered from his own record of his travels. which. but first teeth. He had three brothers older than himself. D. replied. and return to her.

^

THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.
When
his

urging him.

mother also

died,

it

appeared how great had
but after her burial he

been the affection for her of his
returned to the monastery.

fine nature;

On
grain

one occasion he was cutting

rice

with a score or two of his fellowto take

disciples,

when some hungry
force.

thieves

came upon them
all
'

away

their

by

The

other Sramaneras

fled,

but our young hero
grain,

stood his ground, and said to the thieves,

If

you must have the

take what you please.

But, Sirs,

it

was your former neglect of charity
;

which brought you to your present state of destitution

and now,

you wish to rob others. I am afraid that you will have still greater poverty and distress
again,
;

in
I

the coming ages

am

sorry for

you
the
his

beforehand.'

With

these words he
left

followed his companions to the
all

monaster}', while

the thieves

the grain and went away,

monks, of

whom

there were several hundred, doing

homage

to

conduct and courage.

When
of the

he had finished

his noviciate

and taken on him the obligations
and soon
after,

full

Buddhist orders, his earnest courage, clear intelligence, and

strict regulation of his

demeanour were conspicuous
follows
to
this
is

;

he

undertook

his

journey to India in search of complete copies of the

Vinaya-pitaka.
travels in India

What

merely an account of
sea,

his

and return

China by

condensed from his own
that happened

narrative, with the addition of
to him,

on his

visit to

the Vulture Peak near

some marvellous incidents Rajagriha.

It is said in

the end that after his return to China, he went to the capital

(evidently Nanking),

and

there, along with the Indian

Sramana Buddhathat he wished to

bhadra, executed translations of some of the works which he had
obtained in India
;

and that before he had done
'

all

do

in this

way, he removed to King-chow
in the

(in

the present Hoo-pih),

and died
larger

monastery of

Sin, at the
It is

age of eighty-eight, to the

great sorrow of all

who knew him.

added that there

is

another

work giving an account of his travels in various countries. Such is all the information given about our author, beyond what he

'mm-

INTRODUCTION.
has himself told
trious in the
us.
'

3
'

Fa-hien was his clerical name, and means
Illustrious

Illus-

Law,' or
it

master of the Law.'

often precedes
niuni,
'

is

an abbreviation of the name of

The Shih which Buddha as Sakya-

the Sakya, mighty in Love, dwelling in Seclusion and Silence,'

and may be taken as equivalent to Buddhist. He is sometimes said to have belonged to 'the eastern Tsin dynasty' (a.d. 317-419), and sometimes to
'

the Sung,' that
If

is,

the
full

Sung dynasty

of the

House

of Liu (a.d.

420-478).
India

he became a

monk

at the age of twenty,
life

and went to
been divided

when he was

twenty-five, his long

may have

pretty equally between the two dynasties.
2.

If there

were ever another and larger account of Fa-hien's travels
is

than the narrative of which a translation
to be in existence.

now

given,

it

has long ceased

In the Catalogue of the imperial library of the
618), the

name Fa-hien occurs
it

four times.

Suy dynasty (A.D. 5H9Towards the end of the last

section of

translation at Kin-ling (another

(page 22), after a reference to his travels, his labours in name for Nanking), in conjunction with
In the second section, page 15,

Buddha-bhadra, are described.

we

find
it

'A Record
'

of Buddhistic

Kingdoms;'

—with

a note, saying that

was the work of 'the Sramana, Fa-hien;' and again, on page 13, we have Narrative of Fa-hien in two Books,' and Narrative of Fa-hien's
'

Travels in one Book.'

But

all

these three entries
first

may

possibly belong

to difTerent copies of the
in

same work, the

and the other two being

separate subdivisions of the Catalogue.

In the two Chinese copies of the narrative in
title is
'

my
;

possession the

Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms.'

In the Japanese or Corean twofold
first,
'

recension subjoined to this translation, the

title is

Narrative
'

of the Distinguished of Travels
in

Monk, Fa-hien and then, more at large, Incidents India, by the Sramana of the Eastern Tsin, Fa-hien,
;'

recorded by himself.'

There
the

is still

earlier attestation of the existence of

our

little

work than

Suy Catalogue.

The Catalogue Raisonne

of the imperial library
it

of the present dynasty (chap. 71) mentions two quotations from

Le

Tao-yiien, a geographical writer of the dynasty of the Northern

by Wei

b

2

4

THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.
them containing 89
'

(a.D. 386-584), one of

characters,

and the other 276;
appears.

both of them given as from the
In
all

Narrative of Fa-hien.'
that

catalogues subsequent to
its
is

of

Suy our work
is

The

evidence for
It

authenticity and
to

genuineness

all

that

could

be required.

clear

myself that the 'Record of Buddhistic

Kingdoms' and the 'Narrative of his Travels by Fa-hien' were desigsame work, and that it is doubtful whether any larger work on the same subject was ever current. With regard to
nations of one and the

my translation, it was published in Japan in had before him four recensions of the narrative; those of the Sung and Ming dynasties, with appendixes on the names of
the text subjoined to
1779.

The

editor

certain characters in

them

;

that of Japan

;

and that of Corea.

He

wisely

adopted the Corean
in 1726, so far as I

text, published in

accordance with a royal rescript

can

make

out

;

but the different readings of the other

texts are all given in top-notes, instead of foot-notes as with us, this

being one of the points in which customs in the east and west go
contraries.

by
be

Very
'

occasionally, the editor indicates
'

by a

single character,
is

equivalent to
preferred.
text,

right

or

'

wrong,' which reading in his opinion

to

In the notes to the present republication of the Corean
for

S stands

Sung,
I

M

for

and

W

Ming, and J

for

Japanese

;

R

for right,

for

wrong.

have taken the trouble to give

all

the various

readings (amounting to

more than

300), partly as a curiosity

and to

make

my

text complete, and partly to

show how,

in

the transcription of

writings in whatever language, such variations are sure to occur,
'

maculae, quas aut incuria

fudit,

Aut humana parum

cavit natura,'

while on the whole they very slightly affect the meaning of the document.

The
good

editors of the

Catalogue Raisonne
central

intimate their doubts of the
It offends

taste

and

reliability of all Fa-hien's statements.

them

that he should call

India the 'Middle Kingdom,' and China,
'

which to them was the true and oaly Middle Kingdom, but
whereas the reader
Fa-hien
calls his

a Border

land;'^it offends them as the vaunting language of a Buddhist writer,
will see in the expressions

only an instance of what

'simple straightforwardness.'

INTRODUCTION.
As
an instance of his unreliability they
of Khoten, whereas
it till

5

refer to his

account of the
say, that the

Buddhism
if

is

well

known, they

Khoteners from ancient times
they could have been so
1

now have been Mohammedans;

—as

70 years before

222 years before the year of the Hegira!

Mohammed was born, and And this is criticism in China.
emperor
in

The Catalogue was ordered by

the

K'ien-lung

1722.

Between three and four hundred of the 'Great Scholars' of the empire were engaged on it in various departments, and thus egregiously ignorant did they

show themselves

of all

beyond the

limits of their

own
and

country, and even of the literature of that country

itself.

Much
legends

of
is

what Fa-hien

tells his

readers of Buddhist
;

miracles

indeed unreliable and grotesque

but we have from him the

truth as to what he
3.

saw and heard.
I

In concluding this introduction

wish to

call attention to

estimates of the

number

of Buddhists in the world which have

current, believing, as I do, that the smallest of
is

them

is

some become much above what

correct.
i.

In a note on the

first

page of
:

his

General Cunningham says

'The
14,

Christians

work on the Bhilsa Topes (1854), number about 270 millions;
follows
i,
:

the Buddhists about 222 millions,

170 millions, Japan 25,
total,
ii.

Anam
J.

who are distributed as Siam 3, Ava 8, Nepal
Hilaire's

— China
i

and Ceylon

222

millions.'

In his article on M.

Barthelemy Saint
'

'

Le Bouddha
vol.

et
i.

sa Religion,' republished in his
(1868), Professor

Chips from a German Workshop,'

Max

Miiller (p. 215) says,

'The young prince became
is

the founder of a religion which, after more than two thousand years,
still

by 455 millions of human beings,' and he appends the following note Though truth is not settled by majorities, it would be interesting to know which religion counts at the present moment the largest numbers of believers. Berghaus, in his " Physical Atlas," gives the
professed
: '

following division of the

human

race according to religion

:

"

Buddhists

31.2 per cent, Christians 30.7,

Heathens
Buddhists

8.7,

in

and Jews 0.3." China from the followers of Confucius and Laotse, the

Mohammedans 15.7, Brahmanists 13.4, As Berghaus does not distinguish the
first

' : The Buddhists and India nearly '^'>. Siam. Subtract Davids' (say) 414I millions of Chinese from his and there remain only 85^ millions for Buddhism.) Both these estimates are exceeded by Dr. According to him. himself. 374. and Jews to all these estimates. Kwo Sung-tao. Hindus to about 13. Buddhists to about 40. Of the to other countries. in begged him to write out for me the amount. p. It is the scale belongs really to Christianity.6 place on THE TRA VELS OF man FA. to about to 26 per cent of mankind. Mohammedans In regard to about 12^. as well as of their whole populations. there appear as amounting in all to 500 millions in 30 millions of Southern Buddhists. Rhys Davids in (intimating also the uncertainty of the statements. the highest estimates that have been But we have no Paris. visits a Tao-sse temple. in 1878. belongs. —perhaps he halved his estimate of the whole." vol. and that numbers are no evidence of truth) the introduction to his ' Manual of Buddhism. P^tersbourg. At an interview with the former Chinese ambassador. (Jains) . The emperor Fo in a ii.HIEN. of whom are assigned to Japan. Subtract Cunningham's 1 70 millions of Chinese from his total of 222. I do not know what total population Cunningham allowed for that country. and afterwards bows before an image of Buddhist chapel. but the greatness of the estimates turns upon the immense multitudes said to be in China. iii. W. Anam. nor on what principle he allotted 170 millions of it to Buddhism . whereas it Berghaus and Davids allotted to given of the people. Christians millions amount about \. as the difficult in China to say to what religion a profess same person may two or three. total of 500. with the . excepting in the cases of Ceylon and India . I certain information of the population of China. T. and 414. it will be observed that the immense numbers assigned to Buddhism are made out by the multitude of Chinese with which it is credited. and there remains only 52 millions of Buddhists.686. Ceylon.974 to the eighteen provinces of China proper. and 470 millions of Northern Buddhists. after sacrificing according to the ritual of Confucius. (" Melanges Asiatiques de St. numbers assigned I am in considerable doubt. Burma.

of open to influence all the people. . The mass them and the masses under . Eitel. If. But fairness requires us to add though the . their are preponderatingly Confucian and in the observance of ancestral worship. Buddhists or Taoists. judgment. how shall we proceed ? to apportion that is among Confucianists.INTRODUCTION. an over\vhelming majority are regular and assiduous. the emperor countenances both the . Taoists. an Event that History. authority for it. Buddhism and Taoism were both quoted from Professor as stated in the note Miiller. Among ' ' the strange principles period. in order to exalt the correct doctrine.' included. among ' the who have neither received the tonsure nor assumed the yellow Lecture to say Dr. and endeavoured by methods of conclusion the public. entrance into the circle of which with a few insignificant exceptions. of which Confucius was not the author but the prophet. the most remarkable feature of the religion proper of China from the earliest times. my own to arrive at a satisfactory I —without reaching a result which My can venture to lay before is impression has been that 400 millions hardly an exaggeration.' name for it is Ju Chiao. top.se superstitious fancies incline to Taoism. in concluding his discussion of this point in his in on Buddhism. 7 I and he assured me that it could not be done.' says : ' It is not too much most Chinese are theoretically Confucianists. in one of his which the emperor of the K'ang-hsi famous Sixteen Precepts. and to admit a considerable following of both people. have read probably almost everything that has been published on the subject. but emotionally that. But supposing that we had reliable returns of the whole population. and Buddhists Confucianism the orthodoxy of China. in as When I went out and a missionary among the Chinese people for about thirty years. exhorted his people to ' discountenance and put away. Taoist worship and the Buddhist. he does so for reasons of state — to please especially his Buddhistic subjects in Thibet and Mongolia. their monasteries sometimes occurred to me that only the inmates of as Buddhists and Taoists and the recluses of both systems should be enumerated but I was in the end constrained to widen that . 'the Doctrines held by the Learned is. The common Class. and not to offend the many it who.

and Mohammedanism. yet the people. . is to seem to be wise where we are deplorably ignorant and.' and would not care to contest his conclusion farther. have no respect for the Buddhist church.' and between my friend's 'but' and 'emotionally' I would introduce 'many are. as a whole. and fifth place. per-centage might tell A fractional more for one system than a very large integral one for another. It does seem to me preposterous to credit Buddhism with the whole of the vast population of China. by Taoism. the great majority of whom are Confucianists. Brahmanism. some distance off. To make a table of per-centages of mankind. moreover. our figures would merely show the outward adherence. Confucianism. is only entitled to occupy the ranking below Christianity.8 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. .' For the most' in the former of these two sentences I would substitute 'nearly all. if our means of information were much better than they are. instead of being the it most numerous of the religions (so called) of the world. less influenced mass of the people are more or by Buddhist ' doctrines. and assign to each system its proportion. and habitually sneer at Buddhist priests. My own of opinion is. and followed. that its adherents are that not so many as those even Mohammedanism.

OR RECORD OF BUDDHISTIC KINGDOMS. FROM CH"aNG-GAN TO THE SANDY DESERT. maintained a semititle independence of Tsin. 399. 399 to 414.d. a powerful prince. 399. of Shen-se. out on his pilgrimage in a. how Fa-hien came to say that Ke-hae was the period The second year of the period. with many other minor ones. It is not possible at this distance of time to explain. had been the capital of the empire Han (b. he entered into an engagement with Hwuy-king.d. as . if it could be explained. the cycle — name of which was Ke-liae. the second year. ^ their rulers sometimes even assuming the of emperor. CHAPTER I. . He adopted Hwang-che for the style of his reign in 399. Deploring the mutilated and imperfect state of the collection of the Books of Discipline.d. In the of the period Memoirs of Eminent Monks it is said that our author started in Lung-gan of the eastern Tsin. Fa-hien had been living in Ch'ang-gan^. which was a. ' the third year . The empire of the eastern its subsequently was that of Suy (a. in the second year of the period Hwang-che. which. instead of ' It seems most reasonable to suppose that he set '. 589-618). and Ch'ang-gan was the capital of the principal of the three Ts'in kingdoms. might easily creep into the text. Tsin.c.THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. and the cyclical name of that year was Kang-tsze. 202-A. Hwang-che embraced from a. the first. Tao-ching.D. had capital at or near Nan-king.d. 24). being the greater portion of the reign of Yao Hing of the After Ts'in. being the Ke-hde year of the cycle ^. towards the close of which Fa-hien lived. ^ Ch'ang-gan is still the name as it of the principal district (and It its city) first in the department of Se-gan.

Kan-sQh.lo THE TRAVELS OF FA. The 'southern Leang' arose in 397 under a T'lih-fah Wij-kii. Rhys Davids and discussions. to India Hwuy-ying. they passed through Lung^. 49). However be. they went forward to the kingdom of Now-t'an*. Dr.^). requiring all ecclesiastics to spend the rainy season monastery in for the devotional exercises. who was very prosperous in 398. or varshavasana (Pali. works on discipline. they bear much more this the relation to " dharma " which " by-law ' " bears to " law " than that which " metaphysics " bears to " physics (Hibbert was about the vinaya works that Fd-hien was chiefly concerned. 163) says: — 'One . He was succeeded in 388 by his brother. and works on metaphysics sdtra. p. and reached ' These. and took the title of king of Ts'in. somewhere in the present department of Lan-chow. who was succeeded . there were five (usurping) Leang sovereignties in the western part of die empire in the (^ ^j. Chinese Buddhists naturally substituted the hot season rainy (from the i6th day of the 5th to the 15th day of the 9th Chinese month). vass). the K'een-kwei of the text. of the most ancient institutions in a of Buddhist discipline. like Fa-hien itself.HIEN. laws or rules. vinaya. ' according to Eitel to be called doctrinal aphorisms statements. where they stopped for the summer retreat^. in the extreme w-est of Shen-se. The first king was Kwo-jin. are all what we or might call ' clerical ' names. When that was over. abhidharma. ° Under varshas Spence Hardy. ' objects to the designation of metaphysics as used of the abhidharma works. or saying that ' king (*^). it ' ' ' was of northern or barbarous origin. with the surname of K'eih-fuh.' Lectures. Fa-hien would find him at his capital. 1 50). and received his appoint- ment from the sovereign of the chief Ts'in kingdom in 385. He wanted a good code of the rules for the government of the Order in all its internal and external relations. that they should go the Disciplinary Rules ^. containing. purporting :' from Buddha himself). * K'een-kwei His family was the second king of the Western Ts'in. or canon consists of three collections. and seek for After starting from Ch'ang-gan. from the tribe of the Seen-pe. in Chinese. vassa Eitel (p. and Hwuy-wei^. The name remains in Lung Chow. ^ Lung embraced the western part of Shen-se and the eastern part of Kan-siih. crossed the mountain of Yang-low. The name Leang remains department of Leang-chow in the northern part of Kan-siih. appellations given to the parties as ' monks sramanas. and came to the kingdom of K'een-kwei*. and texts. ' and lun (g^). (or The Buddhist tripitaka (p.' ^ During the troubled period of the Tsin dynasty. leuh (.

Le-luh-koo and he again by his brother. in a. How he is represented as being so may be accounted for in various ways. probably. probably. 417. col.) is still the name of one of the two districts constituting the department of Gan-se. and going on to T'unhwang^. C 2 . . Kan-suh. Here they met with Che-yen. and not far from the Great Wall. halted there for some days more than a month. 94° 50' E. who was not yet king therefore when Fa-hien and his friends reached . especially to founders and patrons of monasteries. Its king at this time was. who translated various Sanskrit works on names. and about 40 from north to south. we do not know. the Now-t'an of the 402. is the name for religious charity. p. Sang-shao. of which ' it is not necessary to write. and a danapati is 'one who practises dana Chang-)ih a long It is and thereby crosses all (^) the sea of misery. the or means of attaining to nirvana. way north and west from Lan-chow. in text. the emporium of Chang-yih\ king. they passed the summer retreat (of that year)'' together. Of these pilgrims with Pao-yun. Their company. ii There they found the country so much Its disturbed that travelling on the roads was impossible for them. He died in 449. left We are now ° T'un-hwang (lat. is still the name of a district in Kan-chow department.' It is given as ' a tide of honour to who support ' the cause of Buddhism by their clerical acts of charit}-. Who this envoy was. however. resuming after it their travelling. (the chief town) in the frontier territory of defence extending for about 80 le from east to west. Twan-yeh of 'the northern Leang. his capital. and acted the part of their danapati". * This was the second summer since the pilgrims therefore. 39° 40' N. of which See Nanjio's Catalogue Ch'ang-gan. d. having separated (for a time) from Pao-yun and his associates. kept them (in his capital). after which Fa-hien and his four friends started first in the suite of an envoy ^. and where he was going. The text will not admit of any other translation. only one seems to be now existing. 29. the most distinguished was his return from India. of the Tripitaka. as bound on the same journey with themselves. and in pleasant association with them. beyond the termination of the Great Wall.CH'AXG-GAN TO THE SANDF DESERT. in 399 by a brother. the most western of the prefectures of ^ Kan-suh . 400.' — see Eitel. Pao-yun. Ion. was very attentive to them. and Sang-king-^.' ^ Dana first of the six par ami t as. increased as it had been. Hwuy-keen.

from the legend that in one of the storms 360 within the were buried space of twenty-four hours. able and kindly in his He was appointed governor or prefect of T'un-hwang by the king of the northern Leang. the chief It town thus comprises some twenty-three degrees of it longitude in length. and he thinks of the crossing it as of crossing a stream but they had to traverse ' government. and from three its to ten degrees of latitude in breadth. 23. It was a great task which the pilgrims had now before them.' till he died in 417. Though you look all round most earnestly to find where you can cross. ' ." with sands. 80. ' ' . about b. to cross this desert. (Travellers) who encounter them perish all to a man.100 miles in idea greatest length. travelling for seventeen days. Le Hao'. CHAPTER After II. a distance le. Wylie in the logical Institute. In some places is arable. Mr. ^ An account 96th of the is given of the kingdom of Shen-shen in the Books of the first Han dynasty. down to its becoming a dependency of China.' See also Gilmour's Among the Mongols. Dr. : Smith says of Khoten.' in 400 and there he sustained himself. we may calculate of about 1500 (the pilgrims) reached the kingdom of Shen-shen^. in which there are manyevil demons and hot winds. There is not a bird to be seen in the air above. ON TO SHEN-SHEN AND THENCE TO KHOTEN. 5. you know not where to make your choice. to within six miles of Ilchi. the prefect of T'un-hwang. it from east to west. all ' vast billows of shifting is regarded.' p. The greater portion of that ' is now accessible to the English reader in a translation by Mr. The name of river in the Chinese misleads the reader. Porter ' It extends from the eastern frontier of Mongolia. ' ' .' chap. Some its may be formed cities of the terror with which this " Sea of Sand. Wylie says: — 'Although Journal of the Anthropo- we may not . a man of learning. — In his 'Vocabulary of Proper Names. ' . nor an animal on the ground below. being about 2.13 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 1880.' August. a Le Hao was a native of Lung-se. the only mark and indication being the dry bones of the dead (left upon the sand)-. ^ The river of sand the great desert of Kobi or Gobi having various other names. had supplied them with the means of crossing the desert (before them). becoming by and by duke of western Leang. c. south-westward to the further frontier of Turkestan.

the third constituent of the or the Buddhist by to at least four members. and has no services of sacrifice or ' prayer in its worship. a deification of the order. us to know that the capital city was not from Lob or Lop Nor. The in only difficulty in the use of monks ' is caused by the members of the sect Japan which. The clothes of common *. no soul ' . which It is sufficient for not transcribe. H. calling ruled shall it. from the great d)'nasty which had first and last. its ministers. as being south of and not far I from need far lake Lob. and may be considered as synonymous with the name sramana.. or bhikshu sahgha. his native country. and empowered to hear confession. yet we have to give sufiBcient indications an approximate idea of its position.' but intending its thereby only the kingdom of Ts'in. which immediately claim our attention. for between four and ' five centuries. admit persons to holy orders. which denotes to grant absolution. monks The name will is used by our author of the collectively or individually as belonging to the class. having capital. country rugged and the hilly. since the middle of the fifteenth century. 117). The king professed (our) Law. an assembly of monks. and there might be in the country more than four thousand monks^. 38° E. be able to identify Shen-shen with certainty.' believers. constituted secondly.' He then goes into an exhibition of those indications. Sang and sang-kea first. (E. in * So I prefer to translate Even in Christianity. Han people are coarse. man. He and his companions must have gone more than twenty-five miles a day in seventeen days. has abolished the prohibition against marrying on the part of dress. beyond the character 'j'^ (sang) rather than the priestly privilege which belongs to by all 'priests. 13 with a thin and barren soil. I object to the ministers of any denomination or church calling themselves or ' being called priests or bhikshus of in and much more is the name inapplicable to the sramanas Buddhism which acknowledges no God in the universe.TO SHEX-SHEN AND THEXCE TO KHOTEN. represent the Sanskrit and other prohibitions in diet and sahgha. into which estimated its in Ion. territory of Ts'in or Ch'in. he speaks of the Ch'ang-gan. the Tarim flows. . Fa-hien distance to be 1500 le from T'un-hwang. as China. Buddhistic Trinity. we immediately see. — was the only difference seen among them. and like those worn in our land of some wearing felt and others coarse serge or cloth of hair this . as described in the first note on the last chapter. ' to accomplish the journey This is the name which Fa-hien always it uses when he would speak of Occasionally. communio sanctorum. p. . &c. as a whole.

as the in the former chapter and chuh being pronounced.. however. Sha-man). and the absence of speculative mysticism - and India quietism. 45. in Chinese. in Fa-hien's time as tuk. secondly. and the former more loosely. in all the kingdoms through which they went on their way from this to the west. (left) their families. was used to designate the different phases of development through as which the Buddhist dogma passed. and. be changed into Thien-tuk. In this also there were more this ' Meaning the ' small vehicle. —T'een-chuh (^ ^ How to here the same ). only that the latter do so more So (the travellers) found it exactly. ' and quieted their hearts from all intrusion of desire and It is employed. (The monks). came space to explain. as those who have separated themselves ' (^ ^ ' ' from lust. all practise the rules of India*. H.' just as the Mohammedans call Arabia the Heavenly region ~)]\ and the court of China itself is called 'the Celestial ' (5^^^). the earliest name it for India. Tartar or Mongolian. 151-2. as a general designation of Buddhistic monks. hinayana. Woo-e has not been identified.e. Shin-tuk or duk=Scinde. fifteen days walking to the north-west bringing them to the country of Woo-e '. and madhyamayana. Samana. proceeded on their journey. and calling it the Heavenly Tuk. in Buddhism the Afterwards triyana.' * ° E.' There are i. and other kingdoms (in that region). pro- bably. far Walters place it (' China Review. The common people of were all students of the hinayana^. or between and . the term to the shores of nirvana. The name for throughout the book. pp. only that each had its own peculiar barbarous speech ^. or 'three different means of salvation. would take too much ' I believe it was done by the Buddhists. 131. or sea of transmigration. ^raman may in English take the place of 6 ra man a (Pali. as a general name for ascetics of all denominadons. or conveyance. wishing to give a good auspicious name to the fatherland of their Law. pp.14 \\\\o THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.' corresponding to the of it known 'The hinayana is the mahayana. are the preponderance of active moral asceticism. first. and 117. of conveyance across the samsara. who had (given up the worldly life) and quitted their families. the name for Buddhist monks. first of the three degrees of saintship. H.' viii. and then Indian language. 115) says: that ' \\'e cannot be wrong if we in Kharaschar. 130.. Characteristics the simplest vehicle of salvation. were all students of Indian books and the Here they stayed for about a month. as well as the ^ramans^.' is E.

Hwuy-keen. as the I was once indebted of le maitre d'hotellerie in a Roman Catholic abbey. Whom they had behind them at T'un-hwang. and his name. must have been a country of considerable in size to have so many monks ' in This means one sense China. managed to go straight forward in a south-west direction. They were strict in their rules. maitre d'hotellerie^.' It it. and here they were rejoined by Pao-yun and his friends ^. It seems clear that only one person spoken of as assisting the travellers. The difficulties Kutscha. but Fa-hien. the district around the modern Turfan or Tangut. lord's grandson.TO SHEN-SHEN AND THENCE TO KHOTEN. The Kung-sun that follows his surname indicates the old times of the Chow he was descended from some feudal lord in We know indeed of no ruling house which dynasty. however. perhaps only of that from the capital of which he had himself ^ ' This sentence altogether first is difEcuk to construe. of the end of that time) the people of priety Woo-e neglected the duties of pro- and righteousness. . and treated the strangers in so niggardly a manner that Che-j^en. as appears a few sentences farther on. The ^^ ^. Fa-hien and the rest. myself to the kind help of such an officer at a monastery in Canton province. shows. = overseer. was Foo Kung-sun. corresponding. very all all 15 students of the hinayana. that its had the surname of Foo. and Walters. The country of the Ouighurs. was only j thinking of the three Ts'in states of which have spoken in a previous note set out. instead of the in the Corean text. so that sramans from the territory of Ts'in^ were Fa-hien. but factorily accounted for. than four thousand monks. and so retain the left memory of the rank of their ancestor. which immediately follows the surname Foo (^J^). ^ The Buddhistic name for him is ud de si k a. (At unprepared for their regulations. I in his use of the name. and duke or ' * adoption by the grandson of a ruler can be satis- his posterity continued to call themselves Kung-sun. They found the country uninhabited as they went along. hoping to obtain there the means of continuing their journey. through the management Foo Kung-sun. and Hwuy-wei went back towards Kao-ch'ang*. I\Ir. through the liberality of Foo Kung-sun. in the in it. China Review. was able to remain (with his company in the monastery where they were received) for more than two months.' was the to disentangle more than one knot is I am obliged to adopt the reading of 'iFr S :^ ^^ in the Chinese editions. to that must be taken as the name of his office.

being able to to transport himself and all mankind ' to nirvana. Chinese Turkestan. and held the cotton office all till he was murdered by Yakoob Beg.1 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. Key-note of the " Hibbert Lectures. ii) the fol- against Chinese rule in 1862. PROCESSIONS OF IMAGES. its The music inhabitants for their profess our ^. 178). from Davids' fifth this text : Hibbert Lecture ' (p. as well as in give here. is in an extensive plain on the Khoten river. for more than 300 miles from east to west. farther on in chapters xvi other passages. After the Tungani insurrection lowing description of large district —A as Khoten. the Mufti Haji Habeeboolla Khoten. is III. with a numerous and flourishing population. Throughout the ' Yu-teen is better known it : ' on the south-west of the desert of Gobi. in lat. The town of the same name. 14. from the common store*. a time the conqueror of stuffs. . See Davids on the 254. copper. Law. embracing all the country south of Oksu and Yarkand. was made governor of who became for Khoten produces fine linen and jade ornaments. and Ion. may be compared Great Vehicle. They all receive their food most of whom are students of the mahayana''.. and join religious enjoyment The monks amount to several myriads. state of a Bodhisattva. all Yu-TEEN together in a pleasant and prosperous kingdom. but in the course of a month and five days they succeeded in reaching Yu-teen \ CHAPTER KHOTEN. which they encountered in crossing the streams and on their route. Mahayana see note its i on It is a later form of the Buddhist doctrine. Smith gives (p. THE KING'S NEW MONASTERY. grain. As the point is important. * Fa-hien supplies sufficient information of how the common the monasteries were provided. for This fondness music among p. taken from The Book of the Great Decease.' The name is in Sanskrit is Kustana ^ (E. P. 80° 35' E. were unparalleled in human experience. I will and xxxix. 60). some of the words of the dying Buddha. along the northern base of the Kwun-lun mount ins. the second phase of development corresponding to the who. 37° N. and fruits." store or funds of a huge vehicle. Dr." as illustrating the statement in — ' So . H. and the sufferings which they endured. p.. p. now called Ilchi. the Khoteners mentioned by Hsiian Ch'wang and ^ others.

p. monastery. such things as they to the receive in accordance with the just provisions of the order. as a model for topes in future. so long may the brethren be expected not to The Chinese ^^ (t'ah. stupa or Pali well in — made by Cunningham and other Indian antiquarians.' originally denoting only transferred to the whole of the premises ' ' here. as used by Fa-hien. but what could there be in the Triratna topes of chapter xvi? here is The meaning much disputed. but to prosper. — Sahgharama. t'ap). speech. but the largest of them those of Khoten. and who are provided with whatever else they require. They make (in monks from all quarters ^. They were intended his chiefly to contain relics of relics ^ Buddha and famous masters of Law . both in public and private . means ' rich in cows. H. 118). brought from much smaller than 'the smallest' of There are several topes now in Buddha Gaya. Attached to and the others comfortably. was often varied .' but that the monasteries were made with many guest-chambers or spare rooms. I suppose. and were solid. of the there are three thousand monks. no doubt. who long as the brethren shall persevere in kindness of action.. with the upright and holy..MONASTERIES OF KHOTEN.' They were usually in the form of bell-shaped series domes. varying in number. * called Gomati ^. and thought among the saints. in a monastery it mahayana school. of rings.' ^ . 17 country' the houses of the people stand apart like (separate) stars.. or rather more -. In the thirteenth chapter there ' is an account of one all built under the superintendence of Buddha himself. is. ' The author does not mean to say that the monk's apartments were made square.' d .. surmounted by a long tapering pinnacle formed with a But their form. just as we have is in China pagodas of different shapes. of these may the monasteries) rooms for The lord of the country lodged Fa-hien their and supplied wants. The smallest be twenty cubits high. a phonetisation of the Sanskrit translating to use for the structures familiar thupa. and it is described by him the name of topes. 'gardens Gomati. and each family has a small tope ^ reared in front of its door. in Cantonese. and share in common . the name of this the siurounding park. the use of which is given to travelling monks who may arrive. but afterwards (E. down even mere contents of a begging bowl decline. so long as they shaU di\ide without all partiality. ^ The Sanskrit term for a monastery is used of the assembly. the Indian Institute at Oxford.

xt appears here for . not counting the smaller ones. rubies. more correct. ' There may have been. K'eeh-ch'a has not been clearly identified. Hwuy-king. Beginning on the first day of the fourth month. remained behind for three months. and Hwuy-tah set out in advance towards the country of K'eeh-ch'a . The monks Gomati At monastery. R^musat made Eitel. unless name be an te. rock crystal. Over the city gate they pitch a large tent. all and held in greatest reverence by the king. as Giles so. with their ladies brilliantly *. There are in . 'undefiled' or 'pure. ' it. The seven precious were grandly displayed about it. Iskardu Beal makes it Kartchou that . arrayed take up their residence of the (for the time). being mahayana students. making a grand display in the lanes and byways. Tao-ching.1 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. lapis lazuli. the Kasioi of Ptolemy. they are not allowed to call out (to the sound is attendants) for it. they made a four-wheeled image car. country four ^ great monasteries. wishing to see the procession of images. grandly adorned in all posthis sible ways.' the Chinese copies of the have . silver. their demeanour take their seats in regular order. by the sound of a bell.' I think was Ladak. says. . Hwuy-tah. in which the king and queen. but only make signs with their hands. No heard from their alms-bowls and other utensils. Klaproth. and Khas'a. probably. and they all are called to their meals the refectory. ' Instead of four.' it ' Giles it makes ^ the menials that attend on the monks. well- known first place in time. ' fourteen but the Corean reading * is.but Fa-hien and the others. gold. which looked ^ like the great hall (of a substances monastery) moving along. or some alias. with silken streamers and ^ A denomination for the monks as vimala. When any of these pure men ^ require food. diamonds . it it Cashmere . they sweep and water the streets inside the city. maids of honour ' but the character does not say ° The Sapta-ratna. ' an ancient tribe on the ' the Paropamisus. took precedence of in the procession. more than thirty cubits high.' but I have not met with in that application. maintaining a perfect silence. When they enter is marked by a reverent gravity. the others a distance of three or four le from the city.

The palace. ail brilliantly carved in gold and silver. the queen and the brilliant ladies with her in the gallery above scattered far and wide all kinds of flowers. . and extended over three reigns. The carriages of the monasteries were all different. or Brahmanic gods. which floated about and fell promiscuously to the ground. Seven or eight le to the west of the city there is what is called the New monastery. a Being who •will in some future birth as a man (not necessarily or usually the next) attain The name does not include those Buddhas who have not yet to Buddhahood. and then scattered the flowers and burnt the incense. carrying in his hands flowers and incense. and with bare feet. doubt that of Sakyamuni himself Bodhisattva is one whose essence has become intelligence. while devas ' were made to follow in waiting. In this way everything was done to promote the dignity of the occasion. abbreviated form P'u-sa used in China any idol or image here the name has proper signification. the king put off his crown of state. and each one had its own day for the procession. vol. p. or all The more usage shows that the antagonism between it Buddhism and Brahmanism. and with two rows of attending followers. xi. It may be 250 cubits in height. and hanging in the air. he did homage at its feet. or Heaven. But in Chinese the character called thien with Ti and Shang Ti.PROCESSIONS OF IMAGES. changed his dress for a fresh suit. See Sacred Books of the East (Davids' Buddhist Suttas). canopies hanging all 19 image' stood in the middle of the car. after which the king and queen returned to the around. . and ended on the fourteenth. (chief) . (The ceremony) began on the first day of the fourth month. rich in elegant King's or emeralds. 249. its The its S}Tnbol of the is state is an elephant fording a for Popularly. the building of which took eighty years. with his head and face (bowed to the ground). ' No ' A attained to river. parinirvana. and is interchanged meaning God.'or simply 'the thien' taken as plural. ^^ ^^1 'all the thien. With the Buddhists it denotes the devas the inhabitants of the six devalokas. and agate. and d 2 still between and Confucianism. went out at the gate to meet the image and. with two Bodhisattvas ^ in attendance on it. When (the car) was a hundred paces from the gate. When the image was entering the gate. (^^) denotes heaven.

and one hesitate between that view and the one There occurs here the binomial phrase kung-yang of the most port in the ^^). and forming together the connecting links between the more northern T'een-shan and It the Kwun-lun mountains on the north of Thibet. monastery). the apartments for the monks the are imposingly and elegantly decorated. in There are five principal kinds of meditation. ('flt . kings in ^ Of whatever things of highest value and preciousness the six countries on the east of the (Ts'ung) range of mountains are possessed. would be ' difficult to name the six countries which Fa-hien had in mind. monasteries. no place in the Buddhist churches the offering of flowers before the sacred tree or image of the Buddha takes the place Buddhism does not acknowledge the countries where Buddhists live. This seems to be the meaning here. can take place best in the open air. beyond the power of words to express. they contribute the greater portion (to this ^. but generally of in the all Buddhistic worship. and windows being all overlaid with gold-leaf. in- cluding the Karakorum. under a simple roof of trees or palms. which is common way of throughout the narrative.' But ' oratory ' gives the idea of a small apartment. members of scheme for the order from want. ' Onion ' range. the beams. efficacy of prayers. venetianed doors. and in the warm the occasional reading of the law. which Buddhism takes the place of prayer. whereas the large ' hall. which was a lofty and spacious apartment or name monks here leads the mind to think of a splendidly fitted up. using but a small portion of them themselves ^ Giles and Williams I call this ' the oratory of Buddha. covered above with gold and silver. Besides this.ao THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. and Buddhism. pillars. if I may use that term connexion. Let Manual There is 168-170): — 'The me here quote two or three sentences from Davids' are secured .' . called also the Belurtagh mountains. or preaching of the word. by moonlight. and finished throughout with a combination of all the precious substances. My first impression of it was that the author meant to say that the contributions which they received were spent by the monks mainly on I still and only to a small extent for themselves in the version.' refectory to the once accompanied the of a large monastery from their Hall of Buddha. Behind the tope there has been built a Hall of Buddha \ of the utmost magnificence and beauty. the buildings. (pp. '^ The Ts'ung. carving and inlaid work. and is used not only of sup- substantial contributions given to monks. in public. of worship.

' a man of the Tao. Its king was a strenuous follower of our Law *. and reached the country of Yu-hwuy^. which falls into the Indus.' or faith of Buddha. but inwardly as his wa)s. which it took them twenty-five days to reach ^. Sang-shao.. denoting the possession the of power of energy. and proceeded towards Kophene ^. Fa-hien and the others went forward to the kingdom of Tsze-hoh. however.200 le from Ch'ang-gan. ONION MOUNTAINS TO K'EEH-CH'a PROBABLY SKARDO. was north-west from Khoten. and denotes the man who is not a Buddhist manifest in outwardly only. well. from the west. ' is ' described here by a Buddhistic phrase.' p. 78. H. As it took Fa-hien ' it. where they ' This Tartar is called a ^ ^. after passing Peshawur. and then went south for four days. when they found themselves among the Ts'ung-Iing mountains. Nor has Yu-hwuy been clearly identified. It occurs several times in the sequel. whose faith is always making itself The name may be used of followers of other systems of faith besides Buddhism. . followed a Tartar follower of the who was an earnest Law '. mostly students of the mahayana. of the text . at Attock. may be the Kophene we do not know that Sang-shao and his guide got so far west. in the 96th Book of the Records. p. Beal thinks it was Yarkand. CHAPTER THROUGH THE TS'UNG OR ' IV. 70). which. Evidently it was directly south from . 135) rather Tashkurgan in Sirikul for it. The king vuyabala. it must have been at least 150 miles from Khoten. says that they set out from ' but The text only Khoten towards ' it. Here (the travellers) abode fifteen days. was the whole or part of the present Cabulistan.' Tsze-hoh has not been identified. persevering exertion 1 — one of the five moral powers ' (E. first Han It where its capital is said to be 12. by himself alone. OR SOME CITY MORE TO THE EAST IN LADAK. and had (around him) more than a thousand monks. approves the suggestion of twenty-five days to reach * ' Watters ('China Review. - See the account of the kingdom of Kophene. The city of Cabul. the capital of Afghanistan. The name of Cophene is connected with the river Kophes. supposed to be the same as the present Cabul river. ' When the processions of images in the fourth month were over. p.TO K'EEH-CH'A.

indicating their approach to India. the king requests the presence of the Sramans from all quarters (of his kingdom). of bringing the pilgrims across the Indus. When clean mats have been spread. He describes the assembly as for an ecclesiastical conference. Watters approves of Klaproth's determination of K'eehSkardo. or third month. 1 Who See had preceded them from Khoten. and therefore * not particularly mentioned. 18. p. (The assembly takes place). ' See p. this was over. V. but it There are difficulties in connexion with the has the advantage. i68. if not three. second. for the most part in the spring.' . the different phraseology. The passage might be accomplished with ease at this point of is the river's course. ' ' Eitel. quiet without any mention of the season. in Chinese. CHAPTER GREAT QUINQUENNIAL ASSEMBLY OF MONKS. be held. E. years had in elapsed since they ° left Ch'ang-gan. Watters hazards the conjecture that was the Aktasch of our present maps. They come (as if) in clouds and when they are all assembled. that is. Two. halted and kept their retreat When among the hills ^ for twenty-five days. to my mind very great. PRODUCTIONS OF THE COUNTRY.aa THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. It happened that the king of the country was then holding the pancha parishad. 8. Silken streamers and canopies are hung out in it. ' This was the retreat already twice ' mentioned as kept by the pilgrims rest. the great quinquennial assembly^. p. reading Are we now with them ([Jj). this is to . and they are all seated. p. their place of session is grandly decorated. H. there rejoining Hwuy-king^ and his two companions. ^. RELICS OF BUDDHA. the king and his ministers present their offerings according to rule and law. ch'a to be Iskardu or view.' in the summer. and it among the 'Onion' mountains. they went on and got to K'eeh-ch'a^. 402 ? This is the Corean much preferable to the jj^ of the Chinese editions. and water-lilies in gold and silver are made and fixed up behind the places where (the chief of them) are to sit. in the first. note 2. of sins first instituted by king Asoka general confession and inculcation of morality. When Tsze-hoh.. 89.

23 After the king has held the assembly. I often had the * credit of possessing weather-controlling powers. and on ^ this the wheat ripen show the account the king always begs the monks to make before they receive their portion. made of stone. and too numerous to be mentioned in detail. including mj'self. and when this distribution has taken place. he again redeems (whatever he wishes) from the monks ^. and waits on him himself. "o' fg in chapter ii found in monasteries boys and lads ° who looked up to certain of the monks as their preceptors. to make other and special offerings. The rules observed by the Sramans are remarkable. or even seven days and when all is finished. of all the Jambudvipa to There are several other instances of similar g^ifts in the ' Mahavansa. he takes own riding-horse. all sorts of precious things. he further exhorts the ministers The doing of this extends over one. is perplexing. differences of fine woollen cloth ' The text of this sentence it. and only the wheat gets ripe. The country. and all translators. calls Watters attention to this as showing that the monks of K'eeh-ch'a alone. all students of the hinayana. saddles. The text here has Y^ ^^. To the east of these hills the dress of the common people is of coarse materials. two. three. and in There is also a tooth of Buddha. does not produce the other cereals. for which colour like his alms-bowl. There is in the country a spittoon which belonged to Buddha. while he makes the noblest and most important minister of the kingdom mount . ^ have been puzzled by See what we are told of king Asoka's grant the monks in chapter xxvii. him. as in our country of Ts'in. the people have reared a tope. uttering vows at the same time along with all his ministers. taking fine white woollen cloth. connected with which there are more than a thousand monks and their disciples'*.GREAT QUINQUENNIAL ASSEMBLY OF MONKS. After the monks have articles received their annual (portion of this). which the Sramans require. being among the hills and cold. The country is in the midst of the Onion range. the mornings suddenly hoar-frost. . his five. is Compare what said of the dress of the people of Shen- shen. and Then. bridles. but here also' there them the were among and of serge or haircloth. he distributes them among them.

as having been introduced into China from Gan-seih by is Chang K'een. who by his supernatural ^ Giles thinks the fruit here is was the guava. Geography of India. CHAPTER ON TOWARDS NORTH INDIA. they were in North India. IMAGE OF MAITREYA went westwards towards North India. 73° 54' E. Arahat are all who has passed the different designations of the stages of the Noble perfected Arya. now occupied by Dardus or Dards.24 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. which.. where also there were many monks. and fruits are from those of the land of Han. trees. because the ordinary name for 'pomegranate' first preceded by gan (^^) . Darada. spit forth poisonous winds. the Path. Cunningham (' Ancient I am myself in more than doubt on the point. or eightfold .. and only crosses to the western bank as described in the next ' chapter. 30° 11' N. found themselves in a small kingdom called T'o-Ieih^. 30. the plants. The snow rests on them both winter and summer. Not one in ten thousand of those who encounter these dangers escapes with his life. and others with lat. H. Arhat. BODHISATTVA. In this kingdom there was formerly an Arhan ^. Ion. and cause showers of snow and storms of sand and gravel. forward from these mountains.' When (the travellers) had got through them. the country of the ancient Dardae. but the pomegranate was called at Gan Eitel Shih-lau. they succeeded in getting across and through the range of the Onion mountains. p. the region near Dardus. VI.' of the Indus. Fa-hien is here on the eastern bank its name. when provoked. who ^ referred to in chapter identify this vii. and immediately on entering its borders. excepting only the bamboo.' p. ' disciple Lo-han. There are also among them venomous dragons. 82) says. and month. all students this (the travellers) From after being on the way for a ' of the hinayana. As you go all different pomegranate \ and sugar-cane. DARADA. from whom it received But as I read our narrative. Darel is a valley on the riglit or western bank of the Indus. The people of the country call the range by the name of The Snow mountains. See E.

this was done three times. Buddhistic faith. often styled Ajita. at IMaitreya in is therefore the expected Messiah of the Buddhists. First and last.THE FIGURE OF MAITREYA. * 'gentleness' or 'kindness.' a body power over the body. has occasioned no Uttle previous translators. where all Bodhisattvas are reborn before Life lasts in Tushita 4000 years. an example of is is given from Chwang-tsze..' . and then return and make an image of him in wood.. to appear as Buddha after the lapse of 5000 years. eighty cubits in height. but finally appearing on earth as Buddha. On fast-days it emits an effulgent light. 152. 25 power^ took a clever artificer up to the Tushita^ heaven. E. No temple in power of supernatural footsteps. the Chinese disciples. H.' p. The kings of the (surrounding) countries vie with one another in presenting offerings to it. was not a Bodhisattva. nor is anything told of his antecedents. under ^^. p. to be seen now as of old *. and is not to be reborn again. to see the height.' is Maitreya (Spence Hardy. and ' a note subjoined that -^ ^[ equivalent to 'g' -^^ anciently and now. and eight cubits at the base from knee to knee of the crossed legs. is Arhatship implies possession of certain supernatural powers. designate by this name the wider circle of as well as the smaller ones of visit Canton ' is better worth a than that 500 and i8. residing present Tushita. 104. of the 500 Lo-han. who has conquered all passions. = flexible at pleasure.. — excellent way. p.' or unlimited twenty-four hours there are equal to 400 years ' on earth. 'the ' Eiddhi-sakshatkriya.Tushita is the fourth Devaloka. was in the Tushita heaven that Sakyamuni met him and appointed him as his successor. indeed. and not to be succeeded by Buddhaship. In the imperial thesaiurus of phraseology it (P'ei-wan Yun-foo). the Invincible. but implies the fact of the saint having already attained nirvana. according to the account of him in Eitel (H. Here it is. H.^^ in the the text of this concluding sentence. and so frequently occurring throughout dispute narrative. and appearance of Maitreya Bodhisattva ^. 70).' and this will be the character of his The combination among of A. and. 'aheady controlling the propagation of the The name means dispensation. and then the image was completed. . but counted among It the ordinary (historical) disciples. Maitri). Buddha's Popularly. complexion. ' E. the principal one. of Sakyamuni's retinue.

its banks being there eighty paces apart ^. When one approached the edge of it.' ^ The Japanese edition has a different reading true critical from the conjectured Chinese should copies. for upwards of 100 in miles. and from Indus sweeps for Rongdo sullen to Makpou-i-shang-rong. So. Skardo the pp.i6 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. WHEN BUDDHISM FIRST CROSSED THE RIVER FOR THE EAST.000 cubits from the base. approaching that Both Beal and Watters quote from Cunningham (Ladak. here. and) following the course of their range. CHAPTER VII.. which wild sublimity Rongdo means fury. his eyes became unsteady and if he wished to go forward in the same direction. that the earliest name in was Shin-tuh. p. and the narrow ledges of form a giddy pathway overhanging the here connected by ladders to seething caldron below. ' The Sindhu. — one which Remusat (with instinct) take the place of the more ' difficult text with a general which alone he was acquainted. 14). the mountains. and distributed ladders on the face of them. The spanned by frail rope bridges. the country of defiles . in striking accordance with our author's account — From : ' to Rongdo. a hill-like wall of rock. The travellers went on to the south-west for fifteen difficult days (at the foot of The way was and rugged. perhaps unequalled. 88. (running along) a bank exceedingly precipitous. the and dark through a mighty gorge is mountains. CROSSING OF THE INDUS. 10. The ' Nine Interpreters would be name for the official interpreters . by which the river was crossed. Between these points the Indus raves from foaming and chafing with ungovernable places has daring side to side of the gloomy chasm. China ^ for India We saw in a former note (2. the river Indus is called by a name in sound. The (place and arrangements) are to be found in the Records of the Nine Interpreters^. Yet even in these inaccessible yawning abyss rocks are is and ingenious man triumphed over opposing nature. to the number altogether of 70°) at the bottom of which there was a suspension bridge of ropes. . In former times men had chiselled paths along the rocks.. .. 89) the following description of the course of the Indus in these parts. there was no place on which he could place his foot and beneath were the waters of the river called the Indus^. which rose up there.

pp.C. appears in the Journal of the Anthropo. how. only got as far as the Caspian sea. the He extended. whereas recent inquirers place between so that if 480 and 470. he a. translated by Mr. 115. referred to already (note 3. which may be referred to the reign of king P'ing of the Chow dynasty'. Chang K'een. this would place the it the eleventh century B. a minister of the emperor ' Woo to of Han (b. But b. after the setting up of the image of Maitreya Bodhisattva. they all said that it had been handed down by from of old that. 5. ' ' Rhys Da\ids be correct. ' Where and when ? Indus. p. as I think he is. Now the image was set up rather more than 300 years after the nirvana* of Buddha. The memoir of Chang K'een. ' The phrase occurs in the memoir of Chang is K'een. referred to in the next note. there were Sramans of India who crossed this river.c.' corresponding very much the present Turkestan. ever. * Probably at his first resting-place crossing the This may refer to Sakyamuni's becoming Buddha on attaining to nirvana.c 750 to 719. 168. 140-87). Through him. knowledge of his countrymen with regard in the to the western regions see the memoir of Pan Chao Books of the second Han. 12). Wylie from the Books of the first Han dynasty. p. — logical Institute. ^ Less is 88 by his patron known of Kan Ying than of Chang K'een. the tno great Masters of the east were really contemporaries. INDUS.WHEN BUDDHISM CROSSED THE but spot. and returned to China. a regular intercourse was established between China see IMayers' Chinese and the thirty-six kingdoms or states of that quarter Reader's IManual.' and penetrated to the regions of the west. a year or nvo.c. after that of Confucius. According attached to the invading armies of Han in their attempts to penetrate and subdue the regions of the west.. in fixing the date of Buddha's death . of those countries about their fathers if it known when the Law of He When I asked the people it. or a few years. carrying with them Sutras and Books of Discipline. or more probably to his pari-nirvana and death. and Mayers' after Manual. had reached 27 the neither Chang K'een ^ nor Kan Ying could be repHed. ' - The monks ^ asked Fa-hien Buddha first went to the east. 167. Being sent in Pan Chao on an embassy to the Roman empire. As king P'ing's death of Buddha in ' reign lasted from b. ' celebrated as the first Chinese who pierced the void.d.c. by b.

' See note 3. who could have caused the "Three Precious Ones^" to be proclaimed so far. on the term purusha. meaning Subhavastu. VIII. and of these there are in all 500.' The food and clothes of the '". p. the country along forests. not to speak of Westergaard's still ' lower date. OR UDYANA. Buddha. They call the places where the monks stay (for a time) or reside permanently Sangharamas". ^ 58-75. Central India being what we should call the Middle Kingdom. p. of the Punjab. 61. 17. the Park just north .' 'the precious Law. (see Manual. Dharma. p. AND THEIR WAYS. flowers. 153). 213). The Law of Buddha is very (flourishing in Woo-chang). (the travellers) immediately of came ' which is indeed (a part) of North India. precious Buddha. may say that the diffusion of our great doctrines If it (in the east) began from (the setting up of) this image. p. This confirms the words of Eitel (note 3. H. The people all use the language of Central India. and Sahgha. Udyana. ' his dream its in a.c. MONASTERIES. had not been through that Maitreya^ the great spiritual master ^ (who is to be) the successor of the Sakya. OF BUDDHA. and the people of those border lands to know our Law? We know of a truth that the opening of (the way for such) a mysterious propagation is not the work of its man .' Buddhism. the monks being all students of the within a few years of 412 b. and so the dream of the emperor Ming of Han^ had proper cause. 99.d. that IMaitreya is already controlling the "^ propagadon of the Faith. ' The emperor had . ' ' Woo-chang common people are the same as in that Central Kingdom. the now called the Swat noted for and fruits (E. 23). p. .' CHAPTER WOO-CHANG. then the Buddha was very considerably the junior of Confucius.' but see Eitel's ' Handbook.d. characters for this The 'The Chinese simply mean ' the great scholar or officer.a8 to this account \vc THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. TRACES to the After kingdom crossing the river.. * Fa-hien thus endorses the view that Buddhism was introduced into China in this reign.' and 'the precious the whole being equivalent to Monkhood. a.

Hwuy-tah. as the sphere of particular transmigration to Eitel nirvana.' all in China the symbol higher in Buddhism. spirits.' a mendicant. I suppose was what we now Swastene. and that here he left a print of his foot. 29 When stranger bhikshus' wants are supplied for three days. or oceans. also are . however. and the place where he converted the wicked dragon ^.WOO-CHANG. it Beal says that later Buddhist writers include in it Udyana. With regard to the conversion here. ' when always represent them as enemies of mankind. especially the speaking of nagas as boa Chinese says Eitel. southern ^ Soo-ho-to has not been clearly identified. There is a tradition that when Buddha came to North India. That over. and kept the summer retreat *. as here. Hwuy-king. . ^ Naga is the Sanskrit name boa. which long or short according to the ideas of the beholder (on the subject). Here still to be seen the rock on which he dried his clothes. The six paramitas are the six virtues which carry men (p. and that he was converted by Sakyamuni shortly before the death of the latter. across (|^) the the great sea of life and death. after arrive at one of them.' a snake. the guardian deity of the Subhavastu river.' is The use of the character too (|^). rivers. hinayana. exists. they descended south. with one side of it smooth. * We would seem now to be in 403. he came is at once to this country. but when viewing them as deities of lakes. p. and more than twenty broad. according phase ' which nagas need to be converted in order to obtain a of being. and arrived in the country of Soo-ho-to ^. It must have been between the Indus and the call Swat. about thirty miles west of Jellalabad. ' In Chinese Na-k'eeh. convert. and Tao-ching went on ahead towards (the place of) Buddha's shadow in the country of Nagara ^ but Fa-hien and the others remained in Woo-chang. 11) says Naga's name was Apatala. often meaning Buddhists. a use of it unknown inclined. their which they are told to find a resting-place for themselves. ' All Bhikshu bhikshus is the name for a monk as 'living by alms. an ancient kingdom and city on the bank of the Cabul river. at the present day. for the ' Chinese lung or dragon. 79. It and the same thing is true about it. The rock is fourteen cubits high. Sovereign and Sage. call themselves Sramans. in the sense of to entirely Buddhistic. is they describe them as piously of the to The dragon. Sometimes the two names are used together by our author.

as in the first it sentence of the narrative. God or Ruler of a ' Devas. but looked upon as inferior to ^akyamuni. H. IX.' tector He is now the representative of the secular power. I will in ' general adhere.. as a law of life. or his of the Law of Buddha. ' He is appears several times in Fa-hien's narrative. in a former age^. ' formerly. by which our author could express concisely ' Buddhistic system. The Chinese character _ age. also Buddhism is flourishing. — it has been said.' which is of frequent occurrence.' ^S'. the valiant prois of the Buddhist body. by which could attain to the consummation of their being. Ruler of Devas. especially underlying has been pointed out (Cunningham's all Bhilsa Topes. two Chinese characters "j^ ]^. ' it seems me. and every Buddhist saint. tried the Bodhi- by producing * a hawk (in pursuit of a) dove. — as Dr. Christianity Buddhism all is not an adequate rendering of them any more than would be of to fiayyeXiov Xpto-roC. E. 'in a former former * some 'a pre-existent state in the time of a story. but their use in chapter xxiv . Sakra is into the circle of popularity. 44). Davids says (Hibbert Lectures.' and is often. pp. 102) that dharma is the keystone of king Priyadarsi or Asoka's edicts. LEGEND OF BUDDHA. The Fa or Law is the equivalent of dharma comprehending of self-culture It .30 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.' in the first Basket of the Buddhist teaching. CHAPTER SOO-HO-TO. There is in it the place where Sakra^. the Law of Buddha.' a directory or system of Rules. as here. karma.' His native Chinese afforded no better character than idea of the ^P men '^ or Law. as here.' by 'changed himself often their meaning in the sequel.' p. adopted by Buddhism its own great adherents. and to its system it. 108 and 46.' common name for the Brahmanic Indra. 'its ethics and philosophy. T'een Ti. ' In that country sattva. At other times means. The Such is incident related is Jataka It occurs at once to a translator to render the characters ^dK to. 'the The whole of them are dedicated to the attainment advancement of dharma. with the theory of p. simply equivalent to that adverb. 'because of his He is generally styled. of one object. when (the Bodhi- ' Buddhism stands for the and to that rendering of the phrase.' 'j'-^ birth.

' But see note i on next page. He had to by that time made himself king of Magadha. Dr. represented by the Fa Yi (^ ^) ^ of the text. and within about twenty years afterwards drove the Greeks out of India. . or completed to his course (fiJT ^g" ). . X. corresponding to the region about Dheri and Banjour. sattva) cut off a piece of his 31 own flesh. . Asoka is here mentioned for the first time the Constantine of the Buddhist society. in five days came to the country of Gandhara the place where Dharma-vivardhana*. and on the spot reared a tope. ruled. in travelling about he informed them that this was it) and the place where he ransomed the dove with a piece of his own flesh. p. this ransomed the dove. Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the the bold His grandson was converted Buddhism by East. constructed from the story of the blinding of Dharma-vivardhana. After Buddha had attained to perfect wisdom with his disciples (arrived at this spot). to the force of the binomial ' j^ •0fe. test of the meaning which I have given to That had become Buddha. and (with ^. and famous for the number of viharas and topes which he erected. Sandracottus). In way the people of the country became aware of the fact. the son of Asoka°. ' This seems be the contribution of is j^ (or Jtfj^. and became a most zealous supporter of the new faith. He was the grandson of Chandragupta (i. is. vol. LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. When Buddha was a Bodhisattva. * Dharma-vivardhana is the name in Sanskrit. he gave his eyes also for another man here^ and at the spot they have '. xlvi) says that ' Asoka's coronation can be fixed with absolute certainty within a year or ^ two either . adorned with layers^ of gold and silver plates. going downwards from this towards the east.q. having defeated Seleucus.LEGENDS OF BUDDHA.c' it This also is a Jataka story but Eitel thinks may be a myth. Eitel says 'an ancient kingdom. CHAPTER GANDHARA. and patient demeanour of an Arhat whom he had ordered to be buried alive. may them ' be considered as a crucial here. who at one time was a refugee in the camp of Alexander the Great. way of 267 b. The travellers. which continually occurring. the — Greek ruler of the Indus provinces. a rude adventurer. xi.

kingdom which means 'the severed head' language of China. adorned with layers of gold and silver plates. CHAPTER XL taksha^ilA. but the Takshasila of Fa-hien was on the other. (the still existing in the ruins of Shahdheri.' pp. Going on further for two days to the east. the region near Hoosun Abdaul satisfied. distances from his specifications of days. or western side of the Indus . See the account of the It of Buddhism. But this identification. 35° 48' N. indeed. The people of the country were mostly students of the hinayana. I wrong. The kings. when Buddha was a Bodhisattva. 206. The nations of those quarters call those (and the other two mentioned before) the four great topes. takes for determining this to credit ('Ancient site Geography of be the of Arrian's Taxila. in the Seven the days' journey from this to the east brought the travellers to of Taksha^ila*. is in lat.32 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. seven days travelling eastwards to reach we do in not know what stoppages he may have made on the way. Here.. he gave '^ — his head to a man^. he was next devaloka. both adorned with its away layers of all the precious substances. 91. 92. 109) in the upper Punjab.' ' See Julian's ' ' M^thode pour d^chiffrer at transcrira las Noms am Sanscrits. and peoples light of the kingdoms around vie with one another in making offerings at them. fc these two places also large topes have been built. and between the and Gandhara. and from this circumstance the kingdom got name. legends. 108. Cunningham. modern It Jhelum). Eitel says. — India. between the Indus and Hydaspes river it . .' p. '' We must be wary reckoning Two Jataka stories. 72° 44' E. the four great topes. ministers. also reared a large tope. they came to the place where the Bodhisattva threw down his body to feed a starving tigress^. indeed. but took him. took place . Ion. The Taxila of the Greeks. So far he may be correct .' pp. latter in Spence Hardy's Manual when Buddha had been born as a ' Brahman born in a in the village of DaUddi and from the merit of the act. at The trains of those who come ' to scatter flowers and lamps them never cease.

apart from any assured faith in and hope of immortahty.. but whether he it and entirely ceased to So far as be. Ion. council for the formation of the Buddhist canon. OR PESHAWUR. whose original seat was in Yiieh-she. definitely on the our use of language is concerned. saint. 'After be a king named Kanishka*. E. without being impossible to read as related in the Jlaha- moved almost to tears. Probably he himself would not and could not have spoken point. ^^ CHAPTER PURUSHAPURA. 34° 8' N. and had no purity. and could rejoice in Still an absolute freedom from passion. immediately mentioned.. Converted by the sudden appearance of a liberally as he became a zealous Buddhist. XII. or Tukhara. Going southwards from Gandhara. in another Kalpa. p. arrived at the (the kingdom of Purushapura'. 10.PC'RL'SNAPUJiA. societ}'.' This Kanishka was afterwards born into the and (once). and patronised the system as a magnificent sovereign. vol. longer to mourn his being within the circle of transmigration. till he attained to pari-nirvana. and the Sacred Books of the East. who shall spot build a tope. and a perfect he continued to all live life on for forty-five years. early in our first century. Ananda is to reappear on * earth as Buddha xi. OR PESHAnYUR. attained to ^ A first cousin of Sakyamuni. See E. and born at the moment when he Buddhaship. Sakyamuni became the Buddha. He was the last of three brothers.d. and began to reign. . PROPHECY ABOUT KING KANISHKA AND HIS TOPE. my on pari-nirvana^. * Kanishka appeared. his pari-nirvana was his death. DEATH OF H\YUY-YING. On his attaining to nirvana. The finest topes in him he was certainly a great man and . BUDDHA'S ALMS-B0\YL. would be to say. about a. when Buddha was travelling in this country with his disciples. in any sense of the word being. there this . pari-nirvana Sutra. He died . Ananda became an Arhat. The it is friendship between Sakyamuni and Ananda was very close and tender and much of what the dying Buddha said to him and of him. and had done with the of sense and absolutely diflBcult and had no more exercise of thought. lat. 71° 30' ' The modern Peshawur. H. when he had gone forth to look about him. for his first Under Buddha's teaching. f Asoka had done. w'ill travellers) in four days Formerly. and is famous strong and accurate memory and he played an important part at the . 9. world he said to Ananda". the north-west of India are ascribed to .

Again he caused a four-wheeled waggon to be prepared in which the bowl was put to be conveyed away. . H. right over the boy's tope. little Sakra.' The king said. and among four fabulous kings (E. representing the inhabited world as fancied by the Buddhists. different legends about him. It and so is called because it re- sembles in shape the leaves of the jambu divided south of It is mount Meru. he made a large elephant be grandly caparisoned. p. who. Ruler of Devas.. Cashmere.C. in an inartistic way. ' who asked what he was making.34 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. and placed the bowl upon it. and was unable to go forward. Eight elephants were then yoked to it. Formerly. as here perhaps. and the Tartars of Chinese writers. conquered Transoxiana. H. as he and his captains were sincere believers in the Law of Buddha. wishing to excite the idea in his mind. wishing to carry the bowl away. This king was perhaps Kanishka himself. Very and immediately. the little tope (of the boy) came out from its side on the south. driven on by the Huns (180 B. that the people were the Indo-Scythians of the Greeks. he (proceeded to) rear another. and he observes Juts of the present day. assumed the appearance of a herd-boy.C. and adorned with layers of all the precious substances. there was not one comparable to this in solemn beauty and majestic grandeur. ' the king).. Fa-hien mixing up. destroyed the Bactrian kingdom (126 B. Having subdued the kingdom. tree. the\. rather more than three cubits in height. their greatest king being Kanishka (E. Of all the topes and temples which (the travellers) saw in their journeyings. ' said. p. 152). which was more than four hundred cubits high. merely as the Buddhist ' name for India. and wished to carry off the bowl. I am making a tope for Buddha.). Eitel suggests that a relic of the old A name of the country may still exist in that of the Jats or more common name for it is Tukhara. often used. and finally conquered the Punjab.proceeded to present their offerings on a great scale. and was making a tope right sort of a thing in the way (of The boy good . There is a current saying that this is the finest tope in Jambudvipa When the king's tope was completed. When they had done so to the Three Precious Ones. ' Jambudvipa is one of the four great continents of the universe. 36). and dragged it with their united strength but neither were they able to '. Buddha's alms-bowl is in this country. But the elephant knelt down on the ground.). a king of Yiiehshe^ raised a large force and invaded this country. . and great part of India.

they bring out the bowl. ' sentence. while some very rich people. but he did not accept that his them. and is of various colours. There may be there more than seven hundred monks. Forthwith he built a tope at the place and a monastery. might not stop till they had thrown in hundreds. black predominating. 'W in the sense of ' in the same way ' is uniform throughout the narrative. They then brought if four bowls and when each entreated made of stone. p. and myriads of bushels.' This may mean the laity.' men who have no rank. each of the him an alms-bowl of emerald. Its thickness is about the fifth of an inch. See the account more correctly given Buddhist Birth ° Compare the narrative in Luke's Gospel. self 35 go forward. appearing upper rim in the if placed one within the other. The king thought him possession of the bowl. When it is near midday. make after ' Walters. 110.' p. with the seams that show its fourfold composition distinctly marked *. people'. given by Mahabrahma. ' the The text is simply those in white clothes. their various offerings to it. fruit . and. as meaning commoners. wishing to make offering of many flowers. of the colour of the mung own bowl might be accepted.. 183. making all sorts of contributions. ' his destiny did not e. ' I do not wonder that Rdmusat should give for this— 'et s'en retournent aprbs. 1-4. and left a guard to watch (the bowl). having vanished (about the time that Gotama became four guardian deities brought Buddha). It may contain rather more than two pecks. In the evening.' Stories. — 'The says: alms-bowl.\tend to a connexion with the bowl but the term that destiny' suggests a controlling or directing his virtue in the past ^ was not ' yet sufficient to give power without. it becomes immediately full. at the time of incense. thousands. they bring the bowl out again '. The king knew that the time for an association between himand the bowl had not yet arrived^.' but it is better to take the characters in their common Chinese See in Williams' acceptation. * Hardy's M. and was sad and deeply ashamed of himself. xxi. Buddha at the caused them to appear as as ' formed into a single bowl. When poor people throw into it a few flowers. and it has a bright and glossy lustre.THE BUDDHA'S ALMS-BOWL. along with the common which they take their midday meal.' or 'upasakas . clearly understanding the renders ' — thought of the author in this .' ' ' Dictionary under j^.' But Fa-hien's use of B. f 2 . and yet would not be able to fill if''.

and vary from four and a half or miles to seven. \iii. its does not use the Indian name here. critics. e. AND ^ Going west Buddha's ' for sixteen yojanas*. should be Hwuy-ying. See Williams' under •&. ' Fesha^Tir. XHI. west of The vihara. and Little Snowy Mountains but all the The confounding of the two names has been pointed . CHAPTER NAGARA.' and so ' clean little hut where the mendicant Our author. Pao-yun and Sang-king here merely made their offerings to the almsHwuy-king. deposited in a the flat-bone of vihara^ adorned all over with gold-leaf See chapter This. and Tao-ching remained to look after him. Hwuy-king^ came to his end ^ in the monastery of Buddha"s alms-bowl. HIS SHADOW. according to the test. ' is the residence of a recluse or priest. where there skull. and (then) he with Pao-yun and Sang-king took their way back to the land of Ts'in. out by Chinese ' Came to his end . and (then resolved to) go back. (There) Hwuy-king fell ill. and the flat-bone of his skull.' lives. to make their offerings at (the places of) Buddha's shadow. Hwuy-tah. tooth. ' i. but it Now in India. indeed afterwards he dies in crossing the texts make him ' King was at this time ill in Nagara. and five miles south of Jellalabad. * The phraseology wholly Buddhistic. Davids — the : The present Hidda. is of human life.36 THE TRA VELS OF FA -HIEN. 15-17.' pp. OTHER RELICS.. while Hwuy-tah came alone to Purushapura. however. and saw the others. ° no doubt. he came to the city He-lo is in the borders of the country of Nagara. and Taoching had gone on before the rest to Nagara^.' says Hardy. ° * See the subject exhaustively treated in Davids' Ceylon Coins and Measures. and sometimes more.' namely. and . bowl. die twice. FESTIVAL OF BUDDHA'S SKULL-BONE. ' proved the impermanence Dictionary and uncertainty. its is it not are possible to determine exactly what length then was. five The ' estimates of very different. and on this Fa-hien went forward alone towards the place of the flat-bone of Buddha's skull.' He uses the term occasionally. 'a pure dwelling. but the Chinese characters which express meaning tsing shay. Fa-hien used the Indian measure of distance.

Its colour is of it forms an imperfect circle twelve inches round \ curving upwards to the centre. they open the door. but I came I to the more frequently it occurs in his narrative in connexion with and at first I translated it by 'shrine' and shrine-house. four inches. having many images The monks it. and after each has inspected his seal. round. where it is supported on a round pedestal of the seven precious substances. there would be a See E. revering and honouring the bone. has selected eight individuals. and then depart. of in if it. one after another. 166. —a small pyramidal structure. Every day. after it has been brought forth. and committed to each a seal. ' the . he goes to the vihara. used here. he (and his attendants) in flowers and incense. and lapis lazuli. THE BUDDHA:S SKULL-BOXE. are employed ' in the phrase for worn on to degrade an ofiicer. with which he should seal (its shrine) and guard (the relic). in a monastery near Foo-chow . When the king hears them. 37 and the seven sacred substances. blow conchs. and that they opened as I was the most precious thing in their begged them to do. According to the characters. about ten but all.' Hsiian-chwang says * was twelve inches round. to remove the token of his rank crown of his head . it feet high.' conclusion. the keepers of the vihara ascend a high gallery. both adorned with rows of pearls. its convulsion that would destroy the whole establishment. order. and makes his offerings of When he has done this. glittering as if with the precious substances. and covered with a bell of a yellowish white. was said in a large it apartment of the building. The king makes his offerings and performs his worship. under fS. H. it square. place it (for a moment) on the top of their heads-. the characters. which they place outside the vihara.' that is. The king of the country. on a lofty platform.' but to place a thing on the crown is a Buddhistic form of religious homage. In Williams' Dictionary. at last.. I think. tinsel. The name ' of the province of Behar was given to ' it in consequence of many v i h a r a s. At early dawn these eight men come. possession.NAGAJ^A. This done. they wash their hands with scented water and bring out the bone. to employ always the Indian name. going out by the door on the west as they had entered by that on the east. where they beat great drums. p. (raise the bone). representing the great families in the kingdom. every morning and afterwards gives evidently^ in this sense the Buddhist relic worship. and anxious lest it should be stolen away. ' time saw a shrine-house was. It seemed to me. The first . and clash their copper cymbals.

where offerings are made in the same way as to the flat-bone of his skull. all and there When no remissness in the observance of the the offerings are over. they replace the bone in the is vihara. so long before. of Goslrsha Chandana. which subjective is explained as ' the act of self-liberation. The tope in the text would be emblematic in some way of the general idea of the mental progress conducting to the Buddhisdc consummation of existence. and as many states of liberty (vimukti) resulting therefrom. him to the mouth of and a vihara also has ' The See Vaisyas. and though heaven should shake and a yojana.' the twenty-fourth predecessor the assurance that he of Sakyamuni.' ^ Eitel's Handbook under and ' the name vimoksha. so. ^ ' would by-and-by be or The staff was. The kings of various countries are also constantly sending messengers with offerings. as an offering to the Dipahkara Buddha*. where there is a vimoksha tope^. The chiefs of the Vai^yas' affairs. sometimes open. Going on. p. earth be rent.' small and large. as you enter the temples. where there Buddha's pewter staff '^ . sometimes shut. north from this. of the seven precious substances. gave him Buddha. See Jataka Tales.' all There are eight acts of liberating one's self from and objective trammels. as immediately appears. * ' The illuminating Buddha. ' to-day throughout China. In front of the door of the vihara. 23. (Fa-hien) arrived at the where the Bodhisattva once purchased with money five stalks of flowers. They are eight degrees of and apparently eight stages on the way to nirvana. the place A yojana to the north-east of the city brought is a valley. and those who wish to make offerings buy some of all kinds. audience on the business of his government. are described here as ' resident scholars. this place would not move. for capital of Nagara. or bourgeois caste of Hindu society. The vihara stands in a square of thirty paces. sandal-wood from the Cow's-head mountain. such as are sold self-inanition. there are parties who every morning sell flowers and incense ^. to contain it.' the dwelling or state of liberty.38 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. and rather more than five cubits high.' a species of copper-brown sandal- . also make their offerings before it is they attend to their family Every day custom. ' This incense would be in long sticks. In the midst of the city there is also the tope of Buddha's tooth. and who.

as if it were only in your fancy. when Buddha was at the spot. he shaved off his hair and dipt his nails. north of mount Meru. The staff is made of Gosirsha Chandana. they could not move it. It is a custom of the country when there is a great drought.' . 'China Review. pp. is a rock-cavern.. and is quite sixteen or seventeen cubits long. Entering the mouth of the valley. ^ p. which had not yet come being visible to his spirit-like eyes (M. 118). The nearer you approach. It is called a pewter staff from having on it a head and rings of pewter. pp. and make offerings. the double or composite robe. B. South of the hill city. fronting the south-west and here it Among the people of the country there is a saying current that ' the thousand Buddhas^ must all leave their shadows here. for the people to collect in crowds. there . pay worship to it. and his characteristic marks . bring out the robe. and going west. in a great was that Buddha left his shadow. none of them have been able to do so. and offerings are made. pp. the fainter it becomes. those on the teeth. to the out. 227. 148.. half a yojani. along with his disciples. H. It is contained in a wooden tube. ROBE. See Watters. part of a monk's attire.' viii. Probablv = 'allBuddhas. and ' Williams' Dictionary. AND SHADOW. and proceeded. 43).. 228. to build a tope seventy or eighty wood. and fastened round the waist (E. Looking at it from a distance of more thai ten paces. and though a hundred or a thousand men were to (try to) lift it. you seem to see Buddha's real form.' Rather more than four hundred paces west from the shadow. he found Buddha's Sahghali*. 42. These were the rishi ' marks and beauties ' on the person of a supreme Buddha. 149). however. where also there is reared a vihara. H. When the kings from the regions all around have sent skilful artists to take a copy. The Kali Devala saw them on the body of the infant Sakya prince number ' of 328. said to be produced most abundantly on a mountain of (the fabulous continent) Ullarakuru.BUDDHA'S STAFF. under ijT' Or Sahghati. been built at 39 which offerings are made. reaching from the shoulders to the knees. which resembles ' in shape the head of a cow (E. on which there is immediately a great rain from the sky. with his complexion of gold.in their nicety clearly and brightly displayed.

they suddenly encountered a cold wind which made them shiver and become unable to speak. and preparing the mind the bottom of the river. many as a thousand topes ^ CHAPTER DEATH OF HWUY-KING Having two others '. LO-E. crossed the Little Snowy mountains*. Probably the Safeid Koh. By of the side of it there a monastery. and explained by ' individually intelligent. may be doubted. XIV. ' Nidana Buddhas. which. On the north (side) of the mountains. and without being As the ideal hermit. 96. to be a for all future topes . perfection. life for nirvana). denoting automats in ascetic life who Buddhaship " individually. IN till stayed there the third month of winter. without attaining p. ^ The number may appear i. Pratyeka Buddha is compared with called the rhinoceros khadga that lives lonely in the wilderness. touching " suppresses the errors of to absolute Thus in crossing samsara he and thought. He is also Nidana Buddha. * . in the shade. the able to save others. ' See Davids' Hibbert Lectures. But see what is said on the size of topes in note ^ page 17. to primitive Buddhism.' intelligent as regards the nidanas. says Eitel (pp. to a horse. and ' the effects of habit and passion. CROSSING THE INDUS TO THE EAST. 'a degree of saintship attain to unknown to primitive Buddhism." that is. THE LITTLE SNOWY MOUNTAINS. Fa-hien and the proceeding southwards. and Pra' tyeka Jinas. These must have been Tao-ching and Hwuy-king. the understanding life. 97)." Whether these Buddhas were unknown. On them the snow lies accumulated both winter and summer. however. its He is also compared crossing a river. Hwuyking could not go any farther. almost buries body under the water. all forms of existence. POHNA. Pase Buddhas. without. called also In Singhalese. and on the way to the Kohat pass. as Eitel says. model is cubits high.' This. with more than seven hundred are as monks in it. too great. as having mastered the twelve nidanas (the twelve of which solves the riddle of revealing the inanity of links in the everlast- ing chain of cause and effect in the whole range of existence. without a teacher. A white froth came from his mouth.40 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 146.' completely is intelligent. and it is still existing. At this place there Arhans and Pratyeka Buddhas ^.

and second. students of both the mahayana and hinayana. See note 2. page 36.tor. there was a country named where Buddhism was very flourishing. and arrived in the kingdom of Lo-e ^ where there were nearly three thousand monks. that. and ten days' journey brought them to the kingdom of Poh-na ^ where there are also more than three thousand . again exerted himself. 32° 10' and 33° 15' N. which he employed. CHAPTER BHIDA. vii. and when that was over. may be rendered The term implies a is not unintelligent. Pe-t'oo sympathy. so. They had done indeed. they were moved with great pity and After ''. that we do not all die here and with these words he died ^ Fa-hien stroked the corpse. ^ i. side all students of the hinayana. rightly The ' Chinese character ' by ' fate or destiny . Skardo or east of it.CHOSS/XG THE INDUS INTO THE PUXJAB. from north " Bhida. twice: first. Do you immediately go away. p. where the country on each was low and level ''. but out of place and inconsistent from the lips of Fa-hien. SYMPATHY OF MONKS WITH THE PILGRIMS. ' but the fate factor. the Punjab. is a name now and supposes the his Buddhism. the Indus before. ^ A very natural exclamation. idea for the ' Lo-e. it was a portion of in chap. Proceeding from this place for three days. and cried out piteously. Here they stayed for the summer retreat*. g . district doubt the present of Bannu. moment overcame or Rohi.. 393. I cannot live any longer. disciples from Ts'in passing along. they went on to the south. ' 41 and he said to Fa-hien. They had then crossed to south. What can we do?' He then it is fate''^. and they succeeded in crossing to the south of the range. Afghanistan but only a portion of it can be here intended. Our original plan has failed. betweei. as described 'The present Punjab . . they again crossed the Indus. and (the monks) studied When they saw their fellowboth the mahayana and hinayana. XV. ' ' — monks.' i. and 70° 26' and 72° E. for -m. and expressed themselves thus ' : ' How is it that these men AU the texts have Hwuy-king. at Eitel says. they had crossed the river. or fa. See Hunter's Gazetteer of India. * ° We No are therefore in 404. in the Lieutenant-Governorship of lat. Ion.e. A Confucian ordination of Heaven or God.

' that is. VIHARAS. or attend to any magistrates and their rules only those who . they take off their royal caps. whose ' emblem is This must be the Jumna. the P'oo-na has yet to be explained. CHAPTER XVL ON TO MATHURA OR MUTTRA. . The people are numerous and happy. and along with their relatives and ministers. they have not to register their households. have been handed down to is the present day. the birththe peacock. Ion. them with food with their own hands.42 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. and there neither hoarfrost nor snow. there were twenty monasteries. from a border-land should have learned to become monks \ and come for the sake of our doctrines from such a distance in search of the Law of Buddha?' They supplied them with what they needed. note. they by myriads. or Yamuna. 77° 43' E. supply still They followed the course of the P'oo-na river. CONDITION AND CUSTOMS OF CENTRAL INDIA OF THE MONKS.' page 6r. all they travelled south-east. 27° 30' N.. . which might contain three thousand monks and (here) the Law of Buddha was still more flourishing. and adopt the tonsure. passing by a succession of who might be counted these places. from the Sandy Desert. in all the countries of India. (Hunter). All south from this named the Middle is Kingdom *. * ' the Middle Country. the banks of which. Majjhima-desa. the kings had been firm believers in that Law. From very this place many monasteries. as here. ^ ' To come forth from their families .' lat. After passing Ma-t'aou-lo 2. place of Krishna. left . their The laws and ways. "^ Muttra. In it the cold and heat are finely tempered. In pan. Everywhere.'the peacock city. When they make their offerings to a community of monks.' See Davids' ' Buddhist Birth Stories. Why it is called. (the king) has a carpet spread for himself on the ground. and treated them in accordance with the rules of the Law. with a multitude of monks. came to a country ^ named on and right. That done. AND MONASTERIES. and sits down on it in front of the chairman they dare not presume to sit on couches in front of the . to become celibates. — community. according to which the kings presented offerings when Buddha was in the world.

In that country they do not keep pigs and fowls. they strike a piece to make themselves known. houses. When and do not come into contact with them. resembling ' the teeth of fishes. they only have their right hands cut offi The king's body-guards and attendants all have salaries." and those who carry " the awful flag. nor drink intoxicating liquor." to warn oflf their betters . ' Eitel (pp. those of The only exception is that of the Chandalas^. Even in cases of repeated attempts at wicked rebellion. and live apart from others. Buddha's pari-nirvana is equivalent to Buddha's death. so that afterwards they were to annul them. they stay. but with the ° same meaning. If they they want to stay on. so that men know and avoid them. and orchards. 145. nor eat onions or garlic. the lowest and most despised caste of India. when as converted. wood they enter the gate of a city or a market-place. After Buddha attained to pari-nirvana^ the kings of the various countries and the heads of the Vaisyas* built and endowed them with plates of metal to king. 6) says. 'The name Chandalas is explained by "butchers.CC'STOJ/S cultivate the royal land OF MID-INDIA. the grants being engraved on '. That is the name for who are (held to be) wicked men." " wicked men. however. and long before and after it.' '^ 'CowTies. In buying and selling commodities they use cowries-. were admitted even into the ranks of the priesthood. gardens. members of which. not 'shells and ivory. g2 . Criminals are simply fined.' ^ '\M. the second term entering into the name from marks inside the edge of the ^ shell. See the preparadon of such a deed of grant in a special case. they go . and do not sell live cattle in the markets there are no butchers' shops and no dealers in intoxicating drink. Throughout the whole country the people do not kill any living creature. . viharas for the priests. any one daring the present time. 43 want to go.' See note See note * page 33. but cowries alone. if have to pay (a portion of) the gain from it. The king governs without decapitation or (other) corporal punishments. i. it was custom to engrave such deeds on plates of metal. without fields. along with handed down from king and they remain even to the resident populations and their cattle. The order of the characters is different here. Only the Chandalas are fishermen and hunters. according to the circumstances (of each case). xxxix. page 38. the No doubt in Fa-hien's time.' one might the suppose. lightly or heavily. 3. and sell flesh meat. as related in chap.

occurs again in chap. their feet. give them water which to anoint them. consisting. the Singhalese name of this disciple.) He went to hell. but See Watters. a native of Nalanda. pp. vi. 123. He also died before Sakyamuni. Eitel. and magic powers. and also topes (in honour) of ' ' No monk at can eat solid food except betsveen sunrise and noon.' and is total abstinence from intoxicating drinks obligatory (Davids' ]Manual. p. xxxviii and the meaning ' clear. The foil. When stranger monks arrive (at receive them. as Watters has shown viii. and indeed the followers of the Abhidharma look on him as to reappear founder. but a weary might receive unseasonable refreshment.' His name is derived from that of his mother ^arika. carry for to any monastery). The expression here is somewhat perplexing. after which he receives a sleeping apartment with its appurtenances. Several Sastras are their ascribed to him. (Ch. Where a community to of monks resides. according to his regular order. and forbidden. 124. oil with wash mitted out of the regular hours ^. 272 and and (Singh. Serijut) attendant. he often appears under the name of Upatissa (Upa-tishya). 163).. thej' further ask the number of years that he has been a monk. and indeed the most learned and ingenious of them all. and See note 2. treacle. they erect topes to Sariputtra ^. ^ 282). ' also was one of the principal for his disciples. Food eaten traveller any other part of the day is called vikala. page 33. (Compare the similar story in chap. is more pronounceable. and released his mother. and the liquid food perWhen (the stranger) has enjoyed a very brief rest. . 'knowledge and wisdom. In Spence Hardy. and everything is done for him which the rules prescribe ". butter. 279 and foil. and is to reappear as Buddha. was one of the principal disciples of Buddha. The name was by the latter that he took up an artist to Tushita to get a view of Sakyamuni. Ch. the old residents meet and them their clothes and alms-bowl. called Buddha's his it left-hand attendant. of honey. xx. Maha-maudgalyayana *. the wife of Tishya. so that he obtained the title of :^ ^. regular business of the The virtue.44 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. vol. 65.' He is also called Buddha's 'right-hand Books of the East.3. * Mugalan. Rev. He died before Sakyamuni. and so make a statue of him. Eitel. ' derived from the former attribute. viii. p. and is sesamum it oil. Rev. rules are given at length in the Sacred Sariputtra p. p.' He He in was distinguished the text is power of vision. derived from his father. and to Ananda'. but is as a future Buddha. monks and is to perform acts of meritorious and to recite their Sutras sit wrapt in meditation. 282.

the Abhidharma'. and counted as the patriarch. anterior to Sakyamuni. The It families would be those as more devout than ' their neighbours. who was converted by Buddha. to The Sramaneras male or female. the Vinaya'. and the hearers nodded of Carlyle's description heads occasionally.. he first considered the fountain of Chinese orthodoxy. ' page 10. and send round them the liquid food which may be taken out of the ordinary hours. 17. ^ me last of meetings of ' The Ironsides of This statement is wanting in the Chinese editions. The bhikshunis'' for the most part make their offerings at the tope of Ananda. p. also to special ordinances of restraint.' which ' reminded Cromwell. 64. stimulate one another to after which offerings are presented at the tope of Sariputtra.WAVS OF THE MONKISH COMMUNITIES. 45 after the A month the famihes which are looking out for blessing ^ to make offerings to the monks. and begged (to be permitted) to quit his family (and become a monk). because it was he who requested the World-honoured one to allow females to quit their families (and become nuns). who have vowed . with all kinds of flowers and incense. 321. p. he went to Buddha. He to^be reborn as a Buddha. and skilful musicians are employed to perform ^. and indicated ' their sympathy with a sentiment now and then by an audible h'm. to See note 2. and the Sutras ^ (annual season of) rest. There was a pulpit in a large hall of the temple. chap. There was a Kasyapa Buddha. this One it rarely hears at preaching in China. The great Mugalan and the great Kasyapa^ also did the same. The bhikshunis and are the female monks or nuns. But this Mahdkasyapa was a Brahman of Magadha. are the novices. and became one of his disciples. xx. * Eitel. convoked ^ and directed the first synod. from which his is title of Arya-sthavira also is is derived. ' '^ A passage rather difficult construe. subject to the same rules as the bhikshus. struck me most I once heard Osaka in Japan. and preach the Law^. When Sariputtra was a great Brahman. and after the audience sat around on the matted floor. M. The Sramaneras'' mostly ' The different parts of the tripitaka. All the monks come together in a great assembly. their One priest took the pulpit another . ' See also Sacred Books of the East. vol. As the first compiler of the Canon. All through the night lamps are kept burning. See Hardy's E. He took the lead after Sakyamuni's death.

still world. pp. wisdom (prajna). . ' I take Having heard the refuge in Buddha . 160. I. (6) eating . worshipped in Shan-se. The mahayana school regard him as the apotheosis of perfect wisdom. made up vows. ^ ' Eitel. (4) lying. patience . unguents. The Chinese name is a mistranslation of the Sanskrit or name AvaloSelf. he followed his father as an attendant of a philosophical patron saint of all realistic Buddha's death became^he founder school (vaibhashika). silver." and According to Eitel (pp. ^." ^ ' of teaching. but Hsiian-chwang connects his worship with the yogachara or tantra-magic school. Abhidharma Students of to Manjusri*. own day for the mahayana present Kwan-she-yin offerings to the Prajna-paramita and When the monks have done receiving their observe the Shikshapada. Note page 45. now specially whose \antecedents are a hopeless jumble of history and fable. 24. . (10) receiving gold or Davids' Manual. His mother also to be reborn as Buddha. Kumara-raja. Trisharana. p. loi. 72). — his childhood. music. their offerings to offering.to class has its Every year there it. He is now revered as the after is and novices. 71. and to be reborn as the eldest son of every future is Buddha. tranquil contemplation . The professors of the it.' 'A famous Bodhisattva. His most common titles are Mahamati. Hardy's E. their offerings to make make is Rahula it . Prayer. or ten commandments. 90. to ten by use of the proper means. energy .' = ' Hearer of in Thibet. singing. or the threefold Law .' even 'On-looking and means 'Regarding or Looking on the sounds of the Originally. science. one such to and each ®. p. and force of purpose. pious But it is only prajna which carries men across the Eitel. 'means of passing . ^. M. — the after novice undertakes to observe the ten precepts that forbid (2) stealing. (9) high or broad couches. those of the Vinaya. "Great wisdom. and ornaments. and stage-plays (8) garlands. the Church. midday .. scents. "King bowls. p.' ^ The eldest son of Sakyamuni by Yasodhara. Fa-hien found him here worshipped by followers of the mahayana school. Avalokitesvara had only male attributes. with a thousand arms and a hundred alms- Kwan-she-yin and the dogmas about him or her are as great a mystery as Manjusri.46 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. (7) dancing. samsara * to the shores of nirvana. Converted to Buddhism.' 'On-looking and Sovereign. six There are nirvana : to — Charity (sometimes increased to ten) pa ram it as. Fa-hien was himself one of them from formula of Refuge.Existent.' kitesvara. (5) intoxicating — (i) destroying hfe drinks. morality . 23. (3) impurity.

'ana of Buddha-.SAiX^ASFA. From the and on is place where (the travellers) crossed the Indus to South India. have been handed down from one generation to another without interruption. the greatly gentle. and has her principal on the China Fa- which is a regular place of pilgrimage. is which would take much time and space. ' ' Kwan-yin. to See Eitel's Handbook.. and found themselves in a kingdom called Sankasya^ at the placewhere Buddha came but in China and Japan (Kwannon). a village forty-five miles north- west of Canouge. 27° 3' N. Have you not much the same thing in Europe in ' the worship of Mary ? is Compare what ^ said in chap.' and her worship took the place which a difficult inquir)% all. annual tribute (from the harvests)'. also proceed to give portions to one another. 1 24-131. From the nin. a distance of forty or fifty thousand le. now has in China. v. with a thousand arms and a seat in the island of Foo-t'oo. pp. verted into the ' How he was con- goddess of mercy. ' The name is still remaining in Samkassam. From this they proceeded south-east for eighteen yojanas. the Heads of the Vaisyas and the Brahmans bring clothes and require for use. when he remarked. but his attaining to Buddhaship. The monks. Ion. laws. and a satisfactory conclusion. . I was talking on the subject once with an intelligent Chinese pp. 18-20. and his Three Lectures on Buddhism (third edition). lat. CHAPTER XVII. having received them. This nirvana of Buddha must be — not his death. Buddha's ascent to and descent from the trayastrimsas heaven. coast. Kwan-she-yin would only be Avalokite'vara. to the Southern Sea. gentleman. 79° 50' E. all level plain. this deity (such popularly she sented as a is) is repre- woman. sankAsya. There are no large hills with streams (among them) there are simply the waters of the rivers. thousand eyes. To the worshippers of whom it hien speaks. practised by the sacred communities. and distribute 47 all such other articles as the monks among them. the forms of ceremony. and other legends. not be brought after so far as I see. and rules.

after down. not having seen Buddha forthwith went.' the first abhijnas or supernatural talents. 148. B.pp. with his wife and 119.' the faculty of comprehending in one . There he receives the monthly reports of the four Maharajas. in clouds in this were all thirstily looking up for him. Anuruddha was cousin of Sakyamuni. 'tallies in It is respects with the Svarga of INIeru. p. and speaks of his mother (Matru) in it. mater immaculata Reborn of the Buddhists.000 concubines. and immediately said to the honoured one.48 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. in the centre. ^ Compare the account of the Arhat's conveyance of the artist to the Tushita heaven ^ in chap. being the son of his uncle Amritodana. in Tushita. ' Do you go and salute the World-honoured one. Buddha said to Mugalan. saw the World-honoured one.' The . meaning 'the heaven of thirty-three historically all classes. ascending to the Trayastrimsas heaven^.' &c. of eight countries with their ministers and people. Tushita heaven was a more but was the former a part of visit to likely place to find her in than the Trayastrimsas the latter ? Hardy gives a long account of Buddha's the Trayastrimsas (M.' and thereupon Mugalan returned. Eitel says. without letting his disciples know but seven days before the completion (of the three months) he laid aside his invisibility^. v. which he calls Tawutisa. and four arms grasping the vajra. and had collected kingdom to wait for the World-honoured one. and with head and face did ' for a long time.x His special gift ' was the divyachakshus or 'heavenly eye. with a thousand heads and a thousand eyes. &c.. with his heavenly eyes*. and Anuruddha*. They then saluted and questioned each other. visited there Maya and Mahamaya. 298-302). and when this was over. she was by her son and converted. The and description of says Eitel.' ' a name which has been explained both it. concerning the progress of - good and the ' evil in the world. eight Indra's capital of Belle vue is on each of the four corners of the There he is enthroned. Buddha had gone heaven by his supernatural power^. Buddha's mother. He often mentioned in the account we have of Buddha's last moments.' and mythologically. situated between the four peaks of the consists of thirty-two cities of devas. Brahmanic mj'thology. the up to this . ' The heaven of Indra or Sakya. died seven days after his birth. The a is first first expression here is more comprehensive. of the si. Seven days after this I will go down to JambuAt this time the great kings dvipa. mountain. who had now become a deva by the changing of her sex.' Mugalan homage at (Buddha's) feet. great Mugalan. and there preaching his for three months Law for the benefit of his mother'-.

' He could see. however. p. 142).' and then ascribe the transfor- mation to the nun depends on the punctuation which view we adopt is and in the structure of the passage. To-day the be meeting (and welcoming) Buddha. 232. ' 'A holy king who turns the wheel. The Sanskrit word.. . the in first person of the Brahmanical Trimurti.' And one view is as reasonable. Then the bhikshuni Utpala^ thought in her heart. or by intuition. and surpassed by every Buddhist who attains to bodhi. adopted by Buddhism. of the highest is Chakra- who hurls his wheel among his enemies.' that is. Buddha was on the middle flight. Perhaps we should read here It to see Buddha. The oflBce. a chakra falls from heaven. however. is explained by 'blue lotus flowers.' ' Eitel gives the the text. ' with their ministers and people. changed her into the appearance of a holy Chakravartti'^ king. all beings in all worlds. copper. indicating by its material (gold. M. — *^^ ' calls her the nun 'Lotussame as Hardy's Upulwan and Uppalawarna. inferior to the peaceful mission of a Buddha. there were made to appear three flights of precious steps.DESCENT FROM THE TRAVASTRIMSAS HEA YEN. the military conqueror and monarch of the whole or part of a universe.' and Hsiian-chwang flower colour ' {^^ ^^ ^)'' herself. or rather as unreasonable.' This was Brahma.' says Eitel (p. of such a king is the chakra or wheel. or iron) the ' extent and character of his reign. silver. but placed saint an inferior position. and she was the foremost of all in doing reverence to him. by his spirit-like power.000 sakvalas as plainly as a mustard seed held in the hand. when he was coming down.' says Hardy. but not as the name Utpala with the same Chinese phonetisation as in name of any bhikshuni. will instantaneous view. all ' 49 kings. vartti. as the other. ' all things in 100. the steps of which were composed of the seven precious substances. (where he was seen) attending with a white chowry in his hand. who meekly turns the wheel of the Law. The king of Brahma-loka* also made a flight of silver steps appear on the right side. As Buddha descended from his position aloft in the Trayastrirnsas heaven. 'The s)Tnbo!. Sakra. and conquers every universe by * his teaching. there nothing to indicate that the stop the should be made before or after 'Buddha. h . I am (but) a woman how shall I succeed in being the first to see him ^ ? Buddha immediately. B. for when he ascends the throne.

given as thirty chow. calls ' it may have been made. with a well-carved elephant on the top.=' those belonging to — another school. as Fa-hien deemed it. ' but I eschew the terms heresy and heretical. A common The height name is for the earth below. wishing to know where their ends men to dig and see. it visited the spot (1862). — General ' Cunningham. possible such a mistake pillars at Sravasti.50 THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. where. in When he was come down. and the latter were having the worst of ^ See note See note 2.' . sixteen cubits in height. who tail.' sides. and pure as it were of lapis lazuli. Some teachers of another doctrine * once disputed with the Sramanas about (the right to) this as a place of residence. Behind the vihara he erected a stone pillar. 19. p.' in Pali.' translated ' Has always been heretical teachers . The Chinese term means 'outside' or 'foreign. A note of Mr. was minus trunk and to He supposes this It is be the pillar seen by Fa-hien. who mistook the top of for a lion. which continued to be Afterwards king Asoka. in his descent. water is found. whilst Hsiian-chwang (p. 30. with a lion on the top of it ^ of its four sides". (where he was seen) attending and holding an umbrella of the seven precious substances. That in niches on the The pillar or column must have been square. inside and ouf shining and transparent. ° ' * 3. and built a vihara over the steps. an5a-titthiya. but Brahmans or of some other false doctrine. 19. which is variously estimated. however. Ruler of Devas\ made (a flight of) steps of purple gold on the left side. foimd a evidently of the age of Ai^oka. p. with a standing image. an elephant is. this : the chow being the distance from the elbow " to the finger-tip. The parties would not be Buddhists of any creed or school. ' ^ Equivalent to ' all through. Survey). which. Beal says on pillar. there is an image of Buddha. Arch. and from this the king received an increase to his reverence and faith. An innumerable multitude of the devas'^ followed Buddha visible. sent the ground. on each cubits high ^. excepting seven steps. They went down to the yellow springs^ without reaching the bottom of the steps. about fifty Let into the pillar. on digging. as in the account of one of the Fa-hien says an ox formed the capital. the three flights all disappeared rested. right over the middle flight.

and where images of their persons were made. 144. p. swallower be the . Through Buddha having for three months partaken of the food of heaven. when he was in the world. who readOy solves all doubts reached in his time 40. 'he Human life a scion of the Kasyapa family. * See above.000 years. and IMaitreya (i) to Krakuchanda (Pali. See Eitel. there should be some marvellous attestation of When these words had been spoken. and the king of the Brahma-loka followed Buddha down (from the Trayastrirnsas heaven) they have also raised a tope. on which their opponents were frightened. a tope has now been built. 51. at the spot where he did so.000 years. and last. Kassapa).. ' of which he was the fourth. if 51 when they took an oath on both it. and withdrew. unlike that of an ordinary man. 95-97. . Such places are called Chahkramana (Pali. sometimes with costly stones. ' ' They were: of light. the argument. his body emitted a heavenly fragrance.PLACES WHERE TOPES WERE BUILT. The E. sitting ' would be not because of weariness or p. walked in meditation. topes are erected and where the three Buddhas ^ that preceded Sakyamuni Buddha and he himself sat where they walked ^. which is still existing. At all these places topes were made. (2) Kanakamuni (Pali. 39. sides on the condition that.' Human life reached in his time 20. H. . . a bathing-house was built. who all receive .. Konagamana). Hardy's M. ' That is. the lion on the top gave a great roar. but for meditation. under the several names .000 years. ' for the purpose of peripatetic meditation. 'body radiant with the colour of pure of the same family. cut his hair and nails ^. and so many persons B. At the place where the bhikshuni Utpala was the first to do reverence to Buddha. At this place the monks and nuns may be a thousand.' p. Ruler of the Devas. pp. He went immediately and bathed and afterwards. Chankama) promenades or corridors connected with a monastery. Kakusanda). for rest. (3) Kasyapa (Pali. ^ These fifth three predecessors of Sakyamuni were the three Buddhas of the is present or Maha-bhadra Kalpa. bowed to the decision. and so many persons were converted by him. the place did indeed belong to the Sramanas. h2 . and Davids' 'Buddhist Birth Stories. thus giving the pxoof. and are still existing. Human life reached in his time 30. made . At the places where Buddha. and so gold many persons were converted by him. At the place where Sakra. were converted by him.

and happy beyond comparison. and the people are prosperous. its ears. some drops fell on the ground. and supply them with what they need. ' formerly. which they present for its nourishment. Otherwise. Every day they set apart three of their number to go to its house. they are exceedingly attentive to them all. without the occurrence of any calamities. birth. come to it. which means ' Fire Limit. immediately it disappears and every year it thus comes forth once. Whenever the summer retreat is ended. which acts the part ofdanapati^ to the community of these monks. so that the monks enjoy their repose and ease.' Buddha.' The is is difference between Fa-hien's usage of to the ^gj and doings sense of * ' ^^ in a throughout his narrative . and eat there. and pursue their studies. They are still on other countries ' See note 2. when it appears as if saluting them.' often used of him and others in the former age or B. The country is very productive. who was converted by Buddha.' and /I^ always refers himself.. and appears as a small snake ^. which must be a mistake for the ' ^1^ of the Chinese ' editions. from the common store. 11. p. As soon as the monks recognise they fill a copper vessel with cream. quite marked.53 their food THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. M. and the enriching rains to come in season. they have made for it a dragon-house. there is a white-eared dragon. Where they live. and then carry it round from the one who has the highest seat (at their him who has the lowest. the dragon straightway changes its form. of Sakyamuni ^S^. causing abundant harvests in the country. and appointed for it a diet of blessing. When it was being made over to an Arhat by pouring water on his hands *. When it has been taken round.' The reading here seems to me a great improvement on that of the Chinese editions. one of his incarnations . When people of tables) to . Fifty yojanas north-west from the monastery there is another. p. which Chinese character Beal rendered in his revised version he has ' by ' in 2fc converted this demon.' See Hardy. and men subsequently at this place reared a vihara. mahayana with white spots at the side of it. at first it is said. * The character in my Corean copy is i|j|. 194: —-'As a token of the giving over of the garden. into which they put the creature. with a carpet for it to sit on. called 'The Great Heap^' Great Heap was the name of a wicked demon. the meaning would be a small medusa. In gratitude for its kindness. some of the and some of the hinayana. .

and from this time it became one of the principal residences of the ^ This would seem See note to be absurd but the writer evidently intended to convey the topes. this. The bodies of the monks are all burned. ^ after death) is as large as a and while grass grows all around. p. . There there is is a monastery. man may keep the side (the counting a whole day without being able to exact number). the idea that there '' was something mysterious about the number of 40. pp. 2. whether they be many or few.. travelling to the south-east for seven yojanas. carriage wheel present day. he arrived at the the king poured water upon the hands of Buddha sage. he be firmly bent on knowing he will place a man by of each tope. on this spot there The ground also where he dried his clothes produces no grass. and cannot be At this place there is also a (all constantly keeps about man dirt being required.LEGENDS. but the impression of them. at the BUDDHA'S PREACHING. Hardy's E.' .' cleanse it away filth blew (the away). ' This seems to be the meaning. I will A tope to Buddha. they may be brushed away and made to disappear. When this is done. at which a (their it. which At If this place there are a hundred small topes. KANYAKUBJA. M. continues to the The nirvana ground (where he was burned . and (see) whether you can or not.used to take his food. and however they ^^ removed. without any labour of king of corrupt views once said. proceeding to count the number of the men. and The spirit thereupon raised a made the place pure. OR CANOUGE. CHAPTER XVni. probably. Fa-HIEN Stayed and then. containing perhaps 600 or 700 monks. KANYAKUBJA. where they lay on it. till Dragon vihara after the summer retreat *. continue to be visible. where a good spirit swept and watered. he will not get to know in number)^. Since you are it) ' able to do lead a multitude of troops and reside there till the and filth has increased and accumulated. know great wind. * We are now. which a place where a Pratyeka Buddha. 322-324. is none. in 405. the spot. .

There are two monasit. tion name is with the present Saket still making Cunningham's identificamore likely. At a distance from the city of six or seven le. It has been handed down that his subjects of discourse were such as The teries in ' bitterness ' and vanity (of life) as impermanent and uncertain. and.. the inmates of which are students of the hinayana. explained by This village Blessed water. is a place where Buddha preached the Law to his disciples.' and that The body is as a bubble or foam on the water. on the east of the road after the place) where Buddha. on the west.' and ' Come ' from heaven to ') (the Chinese editions read forest has hardly been clearly identified. this to the south-east for three yojanas. CHAPTER SHA-CHE. Going on from the great they came to kingdom of Sha-che*. at all of which topes have been built. on the northern bank of the Ganges. The . when it ' Canouge. indeed. out of the city of Sha-che by (is the southern gate.54 city of THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. whose overtures they earth. Kanyakubja^. XIX. no doubt.' had ^ ' refused. or 'dental wood. which the monk chews every morning to cleanse his teeth. lying along the Ganges-. ^ This was. the latitude note. and where he walked. E. who were made deformed by the curse of the rishi Rlaha-vriksha. As you go ^. and for the purpose of health generally. where he sat. The Sanskrit name means and longitude of which have been given in a previous the city of humpbacked maidens with . The change of jjj^ into slight.' bit mostly a of the ficus Indicus or banyan tree. what was called the danta-kashtha. ' ' reference to the legend of the hundred daughters of king Brahma-datta. H. Having crossed the Ganges. p. and gone south for three yojanas. LEGEND OF BUDDHA's DANTA-KAsHTHA.' At this spot a tope was erected. and still exists. it he had chewed his willow branch stuck in the ground. 51. ' Ganga. * Sha-che of the jjjf^ should probably be Sha-khe. the Khang-hsf dictionary thinks the two characters should be but one and the same. (the travellers) arrived at a village named A-le^ containing places where Buddha preached the Law.

. . ^ There were two Indian kingdoms of this name.' Prajapati was aunt and . same spot as at first. Siu-vey) placed Rapti.' and Lord of Life. here evidently the capital of Kosala. 283. ' In Singhalese. is views ^ In Singhalese. it up. Yang \^.' He was one of the earliest converts and chief patrons of Sakyamuni. someand cast it to a distance. Sewet . Buddha's. (the travellers) kingdom of Kosala ^. by Cunningham (Archaeological about fifty-eight on the south bank of the Ayodya or Oude. or at least Fa-hien used. of the well and walls of this to the south.B UDDHA 'S DA NTA -KA SHTHA increasing nor diminishing.' having and ways outside of. (at which height remained) neither The Brahmans with their contrary doctrines ^ became angry and times they plucked jealous. intended here. not having the banyan. Are two 'all classes of opponents. 95) one of the originators of Buddliist idolatry. Chinese. or in its neighbourhood. meaning leader of the victorious army. It was in this town. amounting in all (only) to a few more than two hundred families the city where king Prasenajit * ruled. a southern and northern.' or 'heretics ' ' and Brahmans?' Brahmans were also the unbelievers and heretics. yojanas. pp. Explained by Path of Love. ^ the general name for the willow) instead of it. because of the statue which in this chapter. CHAPTER XX. and opposed to. in which the inhabitants were few and far between. have used. This was the northern. but it grew again on the Here also is the place where the four Buddhas which a tope was built that is still existing. SYMPATHY OF THE MONKS WITH THE Going on from came PILGRIMS. ' is mentioned ^ See Hardy's M. MEMORIALS AND LEGENDS OF BUDDHA. B. for eight - to the city of Sravasti in the . that Sakyamuni spent many j'ears of his life after he became Buddha. walked and sat. SRA VA STL it 55 forthwith grew up seven cubits. ' et al. ' ^h It ^^. the name being Sahet Mahat. so that we should I think read the the unbelievers and Brahmans. and the place of the old vihara of Maha-prajapati^. Pase-nadi. or only one. THE JETAVANA VIHARA AXD OTHER KOSALA AND SRAVASXi. There are still the ruins of a great town. and at Sometimes they cut the tree down. Eitel calls him miles north of ' (p. a part of the present Oudli. 284.

with their contrary doctrine. in the autobiographical Eitel (p. name of Anatha-pindika and (or Pindada). As you go the When Buddha went up to the Trayastrirnsas heaven *. of Sravasti. but there came from the heavens such a storm of crashing thunder and flashing lightning that they were not able in the (the house of) the (Vaisya) became an Arhat.' See chapter . to pari-nirvana. erected 37) says: in a park which Anatha-pindika bought of prince Jeta.' this place his favourite residence for many years. and preached Law for the benefit of his mother*. and where the Angulimalya* (afterwards) burned on his attaining At all these places topes were subsequently erected. IVIost of the and xvii. or Vaisya head. when it is said in the te. famous liberality at the ^ for his (Hardy. Of his old house. which are still existing in the city. poem 'A noted vihara in the suburbs of Sravasti. meaning almsgiver. the The Ahgulimalya were a sect or set of Sivaitic fanatics. and when the door was open. The Brahmans. and wished to destroy them. the thickets of trees always luxuriant. and 1. and body was end to effect their purpose. (after he had been absent for) first nurse of Sakyamuni. who made assassiThe one of them here mentioned had joined them by force of circumstances. the whole forming what is called the Jetavana vihara^. and the figure of an ox on the top of that on the right. and the first first Buddhistic convent. That he did become an Arhat is clear from his Songs of the Theras. On the left and right of the building the ponds of water clear and pure. I think that expres- sion implies more than is his conversion. supposititious) date from this spot. the (Vaisya) head Sudatta built a vihara.' or doctrine. on each side of it there was a stone pillar.' was the original become a Buddha. he became a monk but . a wealthy householder. constituted a lovely scene. and the numerous flowers of various hues. only the well walls remained time of Fa-hien's visit to Sravasti.56 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. nation a religious act. Being converted by Buddha. ' She is yet to Sudatta. out from the city by the south gate. his head Sudatta^. Anepidu). the superior of the ' woman admitted to the monkhood. Sakyamuni made Sfitras (authentic * — ' and is equivalent to his becoming an Arhat. facing the south. the son of Prasenajit. His name ^ in Pali Ahgulimala.xt that he ' got the Tao. with the figure of a wheel on the top of that on the left. became full of hatred and envy in their hearts.200 paces from it.

and came forth to meet him. 14. supposing that the sandal-wood image had been burned but lo after four or five days. you will serve as a pattern to the four classes of my disciples -. this is is the extinction of passion. and co-operated in restoring the vihara. this of misery is caused by the passions. there was immediately seen the original image. to be carved in 57 ninety days. When they had succeeded in completing two storeys. set one of the streamers or canopies on fire. were all very sad and distressed. The Jetavana vihara was originally of seven storeys. According to — Aryas. and dwelt in a small vihara on the south side (of the other). longing to see him. After I have attained to pari-nirvana. are distinguished into four Srotapannas. (It happened that) a rat. scattering flowers. they removed the image back to its former place. carrying in its mouth the wick of a lamp. . Return to your seat. Prasenajit. ' ^ Arya. with their officers and people. or followers of Buddha. This was the very first of all the images (of Buddha). ! ' See chapter xiii.' ' venerable.. Buddha said to it. and that which men subsequently copied. Anagamins. When Fa-hien and Tao-ching first arrived at the Jetavana monastery. the nirodha: and (4) diat marga. and thought how the World-honoured one had formerly resided ' . and twenty pac'es distant from it. E. meaning all honourable. which these truths. caused an image of him Gosirsha Chandana wood S and put in the place where he usually sat. and lighting lamps. which caught the vihara. so as to make the night as bright as the day. and Arhats. tion' of passion possible. When Buddha on his return entered the vihara. p. This they did day after day without ceasing. hanging up about it silken streamers and canopies. The kings and people of the countries around vied with one another in their offerings. Sakridagamins.' and on this the image returned to its seat. is — (i) that 'misery' a necessary sentient existence. The kings. They were all greatly rejoiced. when the door of a small vihara on the east was opened. this image immediately left its place. is this duhkha: (2) that the 'accumulation' is samudaya: (3) that the 'extincthe 'path' leads to their attainment of classes.' is a title given only to those is who have mastered condition of the four spiritual truths.IMAGE OF BUDDHA. and the seven storeys w-ere all consumed. burning incense. Buddha then removed. a different place from that containing the image. H.

' meaning of the in the text. In China it has been used first as a synonym for |j]j. Buddha first is ' This is the time that Fa-hien employs China the for name all Ho-shang monks Sanskrit teacher. In the text there seems to be implied some —probably.' see Sacred the Pali A.' The Indian from the Lamas. xiii. without distinction of rank or (5^ ^^'hich now popularly used in office. They were melancholy through their pain of heart. 155).' says is Eitel (p. painful Bom .5« THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.? or by 'he who knows what ' sinful is and what jifj^ . pp.' the north-west of the vihara there is a grove called 'The Getting of Eyes. then was used all to designate the abbots of monas- But it is now popularly applied to distinction Buddhist monks. and the crowd of monks came out. between the 'teachers' and the 'ho-shang.' fp^). vol. arrive here. 'We are come. If I recollect ' ^ in order to bring out the full aright. who order that they might be near the vihara^. in popular teaching (teachers of the Law). monks engaged Ijjj.' lived here in Formerly there were five hundred blind men. we have never seen men of Han. the help of the police . and some had (died).' they replied. by 'a self-taught not sinful. a border-land. jji£ (hwa-shay) and from the latter (ho-shay) and ^ term are derived "jp^ (ho-shang). in distinction from ^ it disciplinists. and asked them from what kingdom they were come. It is Buddhist the representative of the term Upadhyaya.' said the monks with a sigh. and jjj^ ^jjj. Vinaya Texts. it was made to signify the priests of the older ritual. preceptors and to one another. along with their like-minded friends. Books of the East. in disdnction ^^ ^ . proving the impermanence and uncertainty of life. Adopted by Buddhists of Central Asia. they had travelled through so many kingdoms some of those friends had returned there for twenty-five years. in Kustana and Kashgar they '^^ the Chinese synon}'ms. 'explained.^ariya and Upa^^g'/iaya . 179. and to-day they saw the place where Buddha had lived now unoccupied by him. as depending on it. is with the note.' [.' ' ' said to one another. followers of our system. In Indiathe vernacular of this term sa}- !^ (Pmunshee Bonze]). * It might be added. that men of a border country should be able to come here in search of our Law!' Then they of Han. term was originally a designation for those who teach only a part of the Vedas. in reflections arose in their minds. 'from the land (to their own land). ' monks ^. Strange. the Vedahgas. 178. contemplative philosophers (meditationists) teries. have succeeded Four le to During all the time that we.

' p. mother Vaisakha ^ built another vihara. to keep the approaches to the Cathedral free from the service. of joy. after they had taken their midday meal.THE JETAVANA VIHARA. to — woman and calumniated Buddha. who squatted down there during hearers would come out with softened hearts. and sat there in that it way got its meditation.' See also the fuller account in Beal's is Records of Western Countries. so that they came to form a grove. The wife of Anatha-pindika in note p. superior' of surprised ^ it many p.. Here Buddha lived for a longer time than at any other place. see in Julien's 'Vie et killed a ' Voyages de Hiouen-thsang. Six or seven existing. found the popular tutelary temples in Peking and other places. and no one It dared to cut them down. i. where the murder several Brahmacharins. and who became 'motherB. each of the great residences for the monks the Jetavana vihara there were two gates. preached his 59 Full Law to them.' pp. and disposed in to be charitable. preaching his Law and converting men. Outside the east gate of the Jetavana. on the west of the road. and with their heads and The staves immediately began to grow. went to the grove. this People made much of them. hoping that the I number of beggars. and most of the Jetavana monks. Buddha held a discussion had to be called in at Hongkong in its early years. did reverence. one facing the east and the other facing the The park (containing the whole) was the space of ground which it the (Vaisya) head Sudatta purchased by covering with gold coins. See her history in W. 8. le north-east from the Jetavana. and which at To north. to which she invited is still Buddha and his monks. 220-227. 56. In this passage Beal makes Sundari of the murdered person (a harlot). at a distance of seventy paces to the north. I ^r" does not end with the statement that she 136. H. Hsiian-chwang does not give See E.. 2 committed by be the name to But the text cannot be so construed. 'a heretical Brahman 125. nunneries. become a Buddha. was in name. At the places where he walked and sat they also (subsequently) reared topes. The vihara was exactly in the centre. 7. they stuck their staves in the earth. and ' the path up Mount T'ai Shan-lung similarly frequented. i . faces on the ground. each having its particular name . and they all got back their eyesight. is pp. and they grew to be great. and here was the place where Sundari. the name of this murderer.murdered a person and then falsely charged Buddha (with the crime).

and the hatred continued successive birth. and a near therefore of Sakyamuni. 315-321. however. On the east of the road there was a devalaya* of (one of ) the contrary systems. Chinchi. ^ 275-277.' last of the eight was the Avichi naraka die. to which she went.' Eitel (p. in own destruction at M. at the place where the discussion took place. M. 21. see' The Life of the Buddha. with the (advocates of the) ninety-six schemes of erroneous doctrine. See the accounts of him. pp. '^ A devalaya \J^ ^p or -^ jjl^)) place in which a deva worshipped. H. Ruler of Devas.. through which they reappeared in the world. same time was is rent. He had in every become so an earlier state of existence. by it. and people were all assembled in crowds to hear erroneous systems. the (extra) clothes which she wore dropt and when this was down on the ground. Further. where the culprits and are born again in uninterrupted succession (such being the meaning of Avichi). On this. For the particular attempt referred to in the text.' or 'one of Earth's prisons. trying with empoisoned claws to injure Buddha. Then a woman belonging to one of the name Chanchamana^. called 'The ' Shadow Covered. when the king and his great officers. of the latter. He was in the deadly enemy.. prompted by the envious hatred in her heart.6o THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. in Singhalese. and she went (down) alive into (This) also the place where Devadatta^. See the story about her. the householders. Sakra. p. . which bit through the strings about her waist done. in * ' is expected yet to appear as Buddha to save him.. the hot prisons. relative though not without hope of ^ final redemption. changed himself and some devas into white mice. to When he was engulphed. the East. and we a Buddha under the name of Devap. pp. having in it an image of Buddha in a sitting posture. B. E. and the flames were around him. went set down alive into hell. 233-265. 326-330. Devadatta was brother of Ananda. and his the last. in the Sacred Books of Vinaya Texts. so as to give her the appearance of being with child. pp. he cried out are told that he raja. xx. 39. is a universe called Deva-soppana. vol. The hell earth at the ^. H. falsely accused Buddha before all the assembly of having acted unlawfully (towards her).. It 'Earth's prison. and still better.' p. 107. and of his various devices against Buddha. B. and having put on (extra) clothes in front of her person. they reared a vihara rather more than sixty cubits high. Men subsequently up marks to distinguish where both these events took place. E. 144) calls her Chaucha. .

Fa-hien. and never fell on the vihara of Buddha. The reason When the sun why it was called The Shadow Covered was this was in the west. with State-Ceremonial. It has been handed down. ' Brahmans themwhich they ser\'ed take the lamps and go three times round the vihara of Buddha and present After this ministration to Buddha they suddenly disappeared.THE SHADOW-COVERED DEVALAYA. 6i right opposite the vihara on the place of discussion. near the time when these things occurred. the shadow of the vihara of the World-honoured one fell on the devalaya of a contrary system. that twice-battered god of Palestine. with (only) the road between them. p.' Three stages as here.' it. and said. The Brahmans thereupon knowing how great was the spiritual power of Buddha.' — entering ' path. offerings. from that ^. that. about the ^ ' Entered the doctrine or : indicated by Fa-hien 'getting it. to sweep and water (all about it). ' Samuel v. The Brahmans were indignant. around the Jetavana vihara there were ninety-eight monasteries. light the lamps.P& ^^)' ^"*^ '"^ consequence the name of Sze i^r) given to all Buddhistic temples. forthwith left their families.' by becoming Buddha (^ . to bum but in the morning the incense. he was lodged in the Court of and ' that afterwards there was built for him ' The Court of the White-horse came ' to be . in all will not stop our service for you ^ ! ' On that night the spirits selves kept watch. The mal-believers regularly employed men to watch their devalaya. and also rather more than sixty cubits high. but natural enough in the circumin i Compare the whole account with the narrative Ark and Dagon. 30). applies this (Q term only to Brahmanical temples. and became monks-. when they saw the deva —a general name for all Brahmanical temples ' (Eitel. in the Buddhistic life are .' stances. however. and in the vihara of Buddha. and present offerings lamps were found to have been suddenly removed. (^ jM!) ' by becoming monks (y^ »^) ^^^ 'completing it. but when the sun was in the east. Their speech was somewhat unconnected. Western Regions. the shadow of that devalaya was diverted to the north. Those Sramanas take our lamps and use them for their own service of Buddha. his Classics or Sutras. We read in the the the Khang-hsi dictionary under capital in the time of the when Kaiyapa Matahga came to emperor Ming of the second Han dynasty. but we ' ' : — . by becoming Arhats if).

' But this is just the opposite meaning was. note 2. according to our Corean text. note 3 . all of which recognise world and the future world (and the connexion between them). or transmigration of souls. R^musat says the heretics limited themselves to speak of the duties of it man in his actual without connecting by the notion of the metempsychosis with the anterior periods of existence through which he had passed. or only Kosala. . beds. this In this Middle Kingdom^ '^ there are ninety-six^ sorts of views. : Each has its multitude of followers. If he had wished to of what ' Fa-hien's ' say what the French sinologue thinks he does say. moreover. he would probably have written -^ which Buddhism holds between the past world (including the present) and the future is ^^ j^^ B!. and p.' pp. 51. erroneous and different from our system. the only difference being in the time (for which those parties remain). excepting only in of which there were one place which was vacant. " This mention of ' See Rhys Davids' 'Buddhism.' ' Adhering ' to own I would call its doctrine that of The Transrotation of Births. Four le south-east from the city of Sravasti. regularly make offerings to the three previous Buddhas. and food and drink are supplied to travellers. and they all beg their food only they do not carry the alms-bowl. a tope has been They * It is not quite clear whether the author had in I think mind here Central India it as a whole. but not to Sakyamuni Buddha ^. there were only thirty-two sects. that the connexion not that of a metempsychosis. and also to monks. the part of where he then In the older teaching. couches. but there may have been three subdivisions of each. seek (to acquire) the blessing (of good deeds) on unfrequented ways. The notion of the metempsychosis was just that in which all the ninety-six erroneous systems agreed among themselves and with Buddhism. They also. it does not its appear to admit any separate existence of the phraseology of the wheel. There are also companies of the followers of Devadatta still existing. monks residing.6a THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. Let me add. 98. coming and going as guests. See p. for soul.' ' See Rhys Davids' third Hibbert Lecture. moreover. which was. all The want of it in the latter has been a in a note stumbling-block in the way of that life ' previous translators. 60. however. setting up on the road-side houses of charity. 99. the future world is an important difference between ' the Corean and Chinese texts. he had. where rooms.

topes were erected. ' . birth to A. 63 erected at the place where the World-honoured one encountered king Virildhaha^. which. the birthplace of Kasyapa Buddha ^. meaning. the it destroyer Sakya family. * According to a calculation of R^musat. a great tope was also erected. the son and successor of Prasenajit. and went back to Sravasti but the destruction of Kapilavastu was only postponed for a short space.' The king was moved to sympathy for the time. The birthplace of Kasyapa Buddha generally thought to have been Benares.992.' It is equivalent to ' Rightful Buddha. Identified. in Chinese 5ffJ 5k. from his It seems 1832 there were 1. and Buddha This would be the interview ' Oriental Series. in the Life of the Buddha in Triibner's when Virudhaha on his march found Buddha under an old sakotato tree. as Beal says. p. THE THREE PREDECESSORS OF SAKYAMUNI IX THE BUDDHASHIP. Vaidurya.THE PREDECESSORS OF SAKFAMUNI. says. as given ' by Eitel.' Hardy . more according the city of to the phonetisation of the text. as Eitel. CHAPTER XXI. a village nine miles to is the west of Sahara-mahat.when he wished to attack the kingdom of Shay-e\ and took his stand before him at the side of the road -. His hostility the Sakyas sufiiciently established. Fifty le to the west of the city bring (the traveller) to a town named Too-wei ^. the true successor in the Supreme Buddha Line. by Cunningham with Tadwa. One is Sakyamuni and his father (real or supposed) Suddhodana. name is Shay-e. the Kasyapa Tathagata ^. 147. ' Or.859 years! to be necessary to have a meeting between every Buddha and his at least is ascribed to father. p. the same (^0 9^)' "^"^ ^^ ^^^ phonetisations of Kapilavastu. and may be ' considered as certain that the p. It afforded him no shade. and at that where he attained to parinirvana. 89.D. ^ This the highest epithet given to every supreme Buddha . but he told the king that the thought of the danger of his relatives and kindred made it shady. and Kapilavastu. himself acknowledged ' it to be inevitable in the connexion of cause and effect. Over the entire relic of the whole body of him. the to He was of is king of Kosala. according to Julien's as Kia-e ^ Methode. At the place where he and his father met*.' may be read Chia-e. ' Sic profectus sum. 116.

At the place where he and his father met. reconcile statements. during his life- It was situated a short distance north-west of the present Goruckpoor. this to the east it from brought them to the city of All was but in there was neither king nor people. the city of beautiful virtue. but was destroyed. the birthplace of Krakuchanda Buddha^. presenting the appearance of a perfect skeleton Na-pei-kea or Nabhiga at the city of It is not mentioned elsewhere. the Davids says (Manual.64 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. AND OTHER INCIDENTS Less than a yojana Kapilavastu ^ . A more common appellation 'the king of pure . still 97) with the following in their usual his body was burnt. the bones remained .. or ' supposed father. and Hardy gives to his birthplace possible. erected a dagoba over his relics !' one yojana in height ^ position. came to a town named Na-pei-kea ^. 51. 83° 19' E. miles north-west of the city of Benares. river Rohini. they came to a town which had been the birthplace of Kanakamuni Buddha ". p. CHAPTER KAPILAVASTU. and at that where he attained to pari-nirvana. Eitel says this Buddha these was born as Gan-ho (^ IMekhala. Ion. sentence : — After ' B. 26° 46' N. assembling together. ' See note 2. IN LEGENDS OF BUDDHA'S BIRTH. as intimated in the notes on time. and where he attained to pari-nirvana. Going on south-east from the city of Sravasti for twelve yojanas.. p. Of inhabitants there were only some monks and a score or two of families of the common people. ' Kapilavastu. At the place where he and his father met. 'It was on the banks of the modern Kohana. lat. ITS DESOLATION. XXII. At the spot where stood the old palace of king Suddhodana * there have been made concludes his account of the Kasyapa Buddha (M. last chapter. Going north from here less than a yojana. mound and desolation. may be ^ ^). about 100 of ^akyamuni. p. 25). topes were (the travellers) erected. CONNEXION WITH IT.' ' The father. and the whole of the inhabitants of Jambudvipa. He is here called is ' the king white and pure (^ J^ ^). by means of Sanskrit.' was the birthplace of ^akyamuni. topes were erected.

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DREAM OF BUDDHA'S MOTHER OF HIS INCARNATION. .y / I.

. ' In Hardy's M.' and the appellation='Pure Brahman king. see Eitel. 15.' p. he became agitated. Brahman. when he was in company with Nanda and others. and Yasodhara. 58-63.' pp. 29. ° See note 2. She was a daughter of Aiijana or Anusakya. Devadatta. he made the necessary examinathat tions . 6':^ images of the prince (his eldest son) and his mother*. topes have been erected. k . and legs like the pestle for pounding rice his charioteer and when he learned from was that he saw.' p. 154. B. 155.. He is called in Pah Kala Devala.' See M. or 'rice. and returned at once to the palace.' must be a mistake for^*.' see note 2. we read. on the elephant being struck down and drawn on one side. king of the was Sakyamuni. ' womb better. and it his mother's womb sick man after . was one day passof sores. instead of There are also topes erected what it ' at the following spots ' of former translators. and at the places where that son appeared mounted on a white elephant when he entered -. There appear ^ to have been various intermarriages between the royal houses of Kapila and Koli. In 'The Life of the Buddha. still Rhys Davids' 'Birth Stories. p. The places (were also pointed out) * where (the rishi) A-e ^ inspected the marks ^ (of Buddhaship on the body) of the heirapparent (when an infant) where. we read that 'Buddha was now in the Tushita heaven. B. and his mother had no other son. . son ' or ' prince' page 48. ing along. rice ' i^^ The ' ' ^^ i)j' eldest ^^^ ^^ character ^^. under the appearance of an elephant. in the midnight watch he entered her pp. under Sarvarthasiddha) full .KAPILAVASTU. and where he turned his carriage round on seeing the he had gone out of the city by the eastern gate ^. and had been a minister of Suddhodana's father. pp. Asita. the first name like given to Sakyamuni see Eitel. and having decided Maha-maya was the right mother. with a body a water-vessel. he saw a deva under the appearance of a leper.' See also Rhys Davids' 'Buddhism. neighbouring country of Koli. As the prince (Siddhartha. an aunt of Suddhodana. ' In 'The Life of the Buddha' we read . Fa-hien does not say there were memorial topes '• at all these places. that the Lichchhavis of Vaisalihad sent to the young prince a very fine elephant but when it was near Kapilavastu. and knowing that his time was come (the time for his in the course of last rebirth which he would become Buddha). page 39. 15. he tossed it away ' where he shot an arrow to the south-east. * This is an addition of my own.' * For his mother.. 140-143. and.

perceived his sleeping father. 120-127. where he says that a branch of one of these in was taken from Buddha Gaya to Anuradhapura B. so that (even) the king. at this time only ten years old. though I love thee. first Buddhism assert superiority to the conditions of rank and Upali was distinguished by his knowledge of the rules of discipline. ^. when the force of the characters in the made a great ditch. and pulled on one that side . Manual. and the principal compiler of the original ^ ° Vinaya books.66 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. Buddha returned and saw the king. the palace. and . ' The young Sakyas were then seventeen. come forth. which is still standing^. and that we should -^ . B. 199-204. could not enter ^ under a nyagrodha tree. the oldest historical tree . to show their humility.C. trees p. doors (of the hall). his father ^ where five hundred Sakyas quitted their families and did reverence to Upali * while the earth shook and moved in six different ways where Buddha preached his Law to the devas. 39. where.' pp. suspect read ^^^ See note 2. He was one of the three leaders of the first synod. and I may not stay —The did Life of the Buddha. yet a fear possesses me. saw the carcase lying on the road. Nanda (not Ananda. ^ column have been disarranged. after he had attained to Wisdom ^.' said. He was ° ' page 61. and as he was leaving p. See 'Buddhist Birth Stories. pp. shooting when the prince thus surpassed them all. with his face to the east. and the four deva kings and others kept the four went a distance of thirty spring to . Meaning. took its fall it by the tail. See Rhys Davids' note. and tossed I it over seven fences and ditches.. killed it with a blow of his fist. as explained in Chinese. his father. only a its Sfidra and had been a barber so from the caste. finally fled This was not the night when he from Kapilavastu. seeing it there. and praised on that account by Buddha. Buddha.. and (his aunt) Maha-prajapati presented him with a where Buddha sat out of envy. it was that related in M. ' Father. Most probably did birth. have not met with the particulars of this preaching. le. and is still growing there. * They by I suppose. ' the ficus Indica. Ceylon in the middle of the third century in the world. this. then entering the ground and making a which men subsequently fashioned into a well from which travellers might drink'. a tree without knots I ' . . that is Siddhartha. was ^. but a half-brother it of Siddhartha). but the Bodhisattva. for Upali was . coining that way.^. 25.

. BUDDHA TOSSING THE ELEPHANT OVER THE WALL.III.

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Ch.II. WITH THE NAGAS SUPPLYING WATER TO WASH HIM. BUDDHA JUST BORN. . 22.

Two dragon-kings (appeared) and washed his body. ' See the account of this in M. in his ' first translation. and from it. this presenta- tion. I have not met with the account of I\I. There Buddha came the had their wounds dressed. and preached them Law. in the faith. Sarighali . and. page 39. The brotapannas are the class of saints. p. where the queen entered the pond and bathed.' p. he (immediately) walked seven paces. 16. see note 2. and 'Buddhist Birth ' There is difficulty in construing the text of this it last statement.' k 2 . named Lumbini*.. ' China from the But there we have no magic and no extravagance. which is still existing.' p. ' ' See the accounts of event in j\L B. as well as from the above pond. Beal had. The Life of the Buddha. gave birth to the heir-apparent °. 146 Stories. she lifted up her hand. where (the queen) bathed^. there was immediately formed a well. after (walking) twenty paces.. where the heirapparent sat under a tree. 67 and (where) king Vaidurya slew the seed of Sakya. In his revised version he gives for I cannot say happily. and were reborn in Thence they came back and visited Buddha ' the region of the four Great at Jetavana in the night. ' See note i. hands and feet cut to off. B.BIRTH OF BUDDHA. . At the place where they did so. The Life of the Buddha. who are not to be reborn in a lower sphere. and were in consequence taken to a pond. As well as at the pool. no doubt inadvertently. They died Kings. The general account their nirvana after ha\ing The Chinese editions is that they were 500. Having come forth from the pond on the northern bank. The account of it reminds me of institution in the ploughing earliest times. pp. 145. ' See the long account of Prajapati in See note 2. first page 57. The place of Liberadon this page 38.' pp. omitted it. 121. tope was erected at this last place. Several le north-east from the city was the king's field. and A drink it. the monks (even) now constantly take the water. the water of which came down from above for washing (the child). men or devas. laid hold of a branch of a tree. who refused to take their place in king \'aidurya's harem. and looked at the ploughers ^. When he fell to the ground. 306-315. which has been an . but attain to been reborn seven times consecutively as state there were ' 1000 of the Sakya ' seed. pp. with her face to the east. and there they obtained the reward of Srotapanna. Fifty le east from the city was a garden. all maidens. 150. B.. and they ' all in dying became Srotapannas -. * ' by the sovereign. Mr. 15. and had to them. 66.

they are spoken of as 'black. On the roads people have to be on their guard against white elephants" and and should not travel incautiously. of) all — . and in the pool a dragon. desolation. East from Buddha's is birthplace.' ^ Rama or Ramagrama. and presented offerings at it day and night. named the Rama tope. When king Asoka a called kingdom Rama^. p. nor does he speak of the lions as of any particular colour. Other places in connexion with them became remarkable.' Fa-hien does not say that he himself saw any of these white elephants. : There are four places of regular and fixed occurrence (in the history Buddhas first. page 49. The country The inhabitants of Kapilavastu is a great scene of empty lions. wheel of a universal empire of truth and righteousness ' but he admits that this is more grandiloquent than the phraseology was in the ears of Buddhists. . between Kapilavastu and Kusanagara.68 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. The latter says. . I prefer the words quoted from lent to ^ ' Eitel in the note referred to. By the side of it there was a pool. wheel of the See also Davids' Manual. and-by. the place where they preached the Law. and fourth. after going up to the Trayastrimsas heaven to preach the Law for the benefit of their mothers. to We shall find by- make them appear more terrible. the place where they attained to perfect Wisdom (and became Buddha) second. 45. that. the place where they came down. that to turn the Law means ' ' to set rolling the royal chariot . The king one portion of the relics of ' See note ' 3. CHAPTER XXin. ' They turned ' is probably equiva- They began to turn. discoursed of righteousness. RAMA. and at a distance of five yojanas. according to the manifestations which were made at them at particular times. which constantly kept watch over (the tope). are few and far between. and discomfited (the advocates of) erroneous doctrines. the place where they turned the wheel of the Law ^ third. AND ITS TOPE. having obtained Buddha's body*. xi. Buddhist Suttas. returned with it and built over it a tope. there of this country. vol. relics of * See the account of the eightfold division of the Buddha's body in the Sacred Books of the East. in a note further on. pp. 133-136.

it said to him. 69 forth into the world. (the inmates of which) might serve the tope. — ' The bones of the human body are supposed to consist of 84. the thought filled him with great sadness that there should be no monastery here. After he had thrown down the seven (others). and there was nobody to sprinkle and sweep (about the tope) but a herd of elephants came regularly. (Once) there came from one of the kingdoms a devotee^ to worship at the tope. king. it appears to me. Being what he was.000 atoms. knew that such appliances for offerings were not to be had anywhere in the world. and various kinds of flowers and incense. you can destroy The I will not contend with you. and screened himself among the trees but when he saw them go through with the offerings in the most proper manner. and thereupon returned (without carrying . intended his readers to understand that the naga- guardian had a palace of his own. and made it pure and clean. he wished to destroy the eight topes (over the and to build (instead of them) 84. one over each atom Fa-hien. put the place in good order. which brought water with their trunks to water the ground.000 topes ^. ' What the great prohibitions ' which the devotee now gave up were we cannot ascetical habits. took the king into its palace ^ and when he had seen all the things provided for offerings. ' If you are able with your offerings to exceed these. came reHcs).' but * one devotee. out his purpose). to build and hence the legend of Asoka's wish of Sakyamuni's skeleton. When he encountered the elephants he was greatly alarmed. But then the dragon showed itself.000 topes. but the elephants have to do the watering and sweeping. which they presented at the tope. ^ 84. he prevailed on the king of the country to . page 45. Forthwith he gave up the great prohibitions (by which he was bound)*. and take it all away. (After^vards). See note 7. inside or underneath the pool or tank. .THE TOPE OF RAMA. and resumed the status of a Sramanera^. a monk of more than ordinary difficult he may have undertaken peculiar and ^ vows.' the tope. the power of his exhortations. or in Chinese Shamei. With his own hands he cleared away the grass and By trees. The Sramanera. he wished next to destroy this tope. tell. however. the ground all about became overgrown with vegetation. ' It stands out on the narrative as a whole that we have not here ' some pilgrims.

Chandaka. 180 N. 87.' " was over the place of Buddha's cremation.W. was the prince's charioteer. there has always been a Sramanera head of the establishment. which Eitel. form a residence for monks and when that was done. 32. So the white horse Kanthaka (Kanthakanam Asvaraja). and in sympathy with him. would have preferred ' to call so . and Kapilavastu. B. AND WHERE HE East from erected. attained to pari-nirvana (and died). pp. still to the east. with There his head to the north. Going on twelve yojanas. the Shorea robusta. yields the famous teak wood.' p. of the monastery. not R^musat has grass (the la tour des charbons.' says Davids. on the bank of the Nairanjana ^ river. to ! be reborn immediately in the Trayastrimsas heaven as the deva Kanthaka ^ Beal and Giles it call this the ' Ashes is ' tope. N. . WHERE BUDDHA FINALLY RENOUNCED THE WORLD. where there is also a monastery. ^ Confounded.7° THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. they came to the city of Kusanagara ^. was Channa. according to even by Hsiian-chwang. the left returned to the but died of grief at being by his master. but the Chinese character It ^. and 80 miles due east of The ^ala tree. with his white horse ^ and there also a tope was Four yojanas to the east from this. there the place where the heir-apparent . It In Pali Kusinara. of Benares. tope ^ This was fulfil on the the night when Sakyamuni he felt finally left his palace and family to in Pali also course to which that he was called. and Davids' Manual. noble horse never pp. he became head At the present day there are monks residing in it. CHAPTER XXIV. DIED. that time till now. E. 33. between two trees *. delight till See M.' * ruins are ' still near Kusiah. from Patna. its got its name from extant. to 'Buddhist Birth Stories. 120 miles N. but in all the succession from This event is of recent occurrence . 'about. is here four yojanas. which flows past the city on the south. According city. on the north of which. is the place where the World-honoured one. which neighed his the devas heard him. . with the Hiranya- vati. the Kusa poa cynosu- roides). (the travellers) came to the Charcoal ^. sent back Chandaka. 158-161. I also J5J<..

BUDDHA'S DYING INSTRUCTIONS. .VII.

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BUDDHA S DEATH. .VIII.

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A S KKLICS. . DIVISION OF HUDIJH. f h. :14.IX.

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this great occasion. "^ : — cence. 103-110. from Buddha the very night he died. brah- mans. ' something which they did on Vajrapani ' is also explained as ' meaning * ' the diamond mighty hero but the epithet of diamond is not so appli- cable to them as to Indra. 'For the place of cremation. 'strong or mighty heroes so also were those of Pava and Vaisali . Thus treating the dead Buddha as if he had been a Chakravartti king. chap. great protector intended here but the difficulty with I me is nor any other writer. Going from this to the south-east for twelve yojanas. a kingdom and city. . and the body was deposited is in a golden sarcophagus. Eitel says that he but see the full account of attained to nirvana a few moments before Sakyamuni him and his conversion in 'Buddhist Suttas. that . . In the city the inhabitants are few and far between. ° — each wanted ' but they agreed to an eightfold division with at the suggestion of the brahman Drona. Of Kusanagara. p. Pava. Kings. says offered their own coronation-hall. ' The name Vajrapani explained as is 'he who holds in his hand the diamond club Sakra. which was decorated with the utmost magnifi.DEA TH OF B UDDHA also are the places to J i where Subhadra \ the . that neither in He therefore. and a question arises whether the language may not refer to some story which Fa-hien had heard. . ' These strong heroes were the chiefs of Vaisali. attained Wisdom (and became an Arhat) where in his coffin of gold they made World-honoured one for seven days^. ' The princes of Kusanagara were called mallas. preached to him the Law. xxxix. The Brahman was converted and attained at once to Arhatship. and then putting aside the ingenious but unimportant question which he propounded.' See the account of a cremation which Fa-hien witnessed in Ceylon. the whole relic . of himself made by Indra on this occasion. all of which are now existing. 347. last (of his converts).' pp. have met with any manifestation would seem to be Hardy nor Rockhill. said to have been 120 years old. B. and where the eight kings divided the relics (of the burnt body)*: at all these places were built topes and monasteries. princes. and other kingdoms. they came to the place where the Lichchhavis^ wished to follow Buddha to (the offerings to the — ^ A Brahman of Benares. the princes (of Kusindra) Hardy's M. Vaisali. comprising only the families belonging to the (different) societies of monks.. Ananda would have repulsed him but Buddha ordered him to be introduced .' which one of the many names of Indra or of Buddhism. The clause may hereafter obtain more elucidation. where the Vajrapani laid aside his golden club'^. (or pestle=sceptre). who came to learn .

and where. Inside the city the is woman Ambapali^ it built a vihara in honour of Buddha. 33. She was a courtesan. or galleries. renounced the world. It is difficult to tell what was the peculiar form of its this vihara from which it got its name "^ . unwilling to go away.000 times a prostitute perfect continence during the period of but maintaining Kasyapa Buddha.' THE COUNCIL OF VAI^ALI. north of See Seal's Patna. having in it where Buddha dwelt. the same. as related in the next chapter. She had been manynarakas . Sakyamuni's predecessor. this city ten yojanas. See the earliest account of Ambapali's presentation of the garden in ' Buddhist Suttas. and 10. and the note there from Bishop Bigandet on pp. or hells. 'the guardian of the Amra (probably in the mango) tree. in which he might an oligarchical constitution. 456-8. 30-33. (is the) garden to Buddha. and attained to the state of an Arhat. he made to appear a large and deep ditch which they could not cross over. . as Besarh. Revised Version. pp. she had been born a devi. and the tope over body Ananda -. half the North of the of city so ^ the double-galleried vihara came to the kingdom named is a large forest.' is famous in Buddhist annals.72 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. (thus) sending them back to their families. 34. Amra tree in There again she fell into her old ways. ' p. THE TOPE CALLED 'WEAPONS LAID DOWN. VAl6ALt. (the travellers) East from of Vaisali. and finally appeared in earth under an Vaisali. and gave them his alms-bowl. twenty miles north of Hajipur. They embraced Buddhism early. ' Ambapali. lii. CHAPTER XXV. (which) the same Ambapali presented on the west of the road. for their peculiar attachment to Buddha. and had a son by king Bimbisara but she was won over by Buddha to virtue and chastity. when he would not listen to them and they kept cleaving to him. B. was 100. The ruins of the city still exist at Bassahar. Amrapali.000 times a female beggar.' pp. or Amradarika. or cupboards. something about the construction of this in the door. as a pledge of his regard. There a stone pillar was erected with an account of this event engraved upon it. I suppose. See the account of her in M. Three le south of the city. See the explanation of next chapter. . which now standing as was at first.. and were noted The second synod was held at Vaisali. place of) his pari-nirvana.

(He had it brought to him). The two kings. he turned round. They grew. ' . This the last place I shall visit ceci. crushing all opposition in every expedition which they undertook. down the stream another king was walking and looking about. pp. said. ' laid down. The king . east . You are my sons why are you acting so unnaturally and rebelliously ?' They replied.. He took them and had them brought up. brought from her ' womb The superior wife. upright and complete. Here I have taken my last walk ^.' The wife said. TOPE. You have brought into a forth a thing of evil omen. whose country lay along the a ball of flesh. Only make a high gallery on the w'all of the city on the ' . towards me. ' ' ' ' ' Beal gives.' She then pressed her breasts with her two hands. the fathers.' and immeFarther diately it was put box of w'ood and thrown into the river. who became in consequence greatly distressed and sad. 236. daring and strong beyond compare. jealous of the other. Who are you that say you are our mother. By and by they attacked the kingdom of their real father.' If you do not believe me. and each sent forth 500 jets of milk. and. different. when he saw the wooden box (floating) in the water. ' religious act of my un earthly career ' Giles. You need not be sad and sorrowful.LEGEND OF THE BOWS AXD WEAPONS' reside. 235. 73 When Buddha was quitting the city the city on his right. .' ' Men subsequently built a tope at this spot. opened it. . and each one different from the others. she said to them from the tower. B. Perhaps the walk ' which but Buddha * referred had been See the account of this legend in the note in 1 M.' did as she said and when the enemies came.' she said. which fell into the mouths of the thousand sons. That king has a thousand sons. and very daring and strong. and laid down their bows and weapons-. as he by the west gate. was about to attain to his pari-nirvana. beholding said to them. Ganges. ' and when the thieves come. ' ' C'est to lieu oil je reviendrai bien longtemps apres for meditation. I shall be able to make them retire. and he wishes with them to attack my kingdom this is what makes me sad.' The reason why it got that name was river this Bows and The : — inferior wife of a king.' Rdmusat. The thieves (thus) knew that she was their mother. and open your mouths. le Three weapons forth north-west of the city there is a tope called. all of you.tall and large. His inferior wife asked what it was that made him so. ' In this ' place is I have performed the last . and found a thousand little boys. look. and he replied.

' and king Mara* had so fascinated and stupefied Ananda. thrice. if Sacred Books of the East.' Suttas.' and similar appellations.' It was thus that subsequently men got to know (the fact). How long back the former age was we cannot suppose the tope of the two fathers built like the one commemorating the 'the who became Pratyeka Buddhas had been laying down of weapons after Buddha had sages. the god of and death. page 40. pp.74 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. the per- sonification of lust. and both got to be Pratyeka Buddhas*. Kalpa of worthies or stability. the top of the to residing in the heaven Paranirmita Vasavartin on Kamadhatu. said to Ananda.' ' ' the destroyer of virtue. was by the side of the Weapons-laid-down tope that Buddha. ' Bhadra-kalpa. Three or four le east from this place there is a tope (commemorating It ' ' ' not less absurd. in this and riding on is an elephant. having given up the idea of living longer. See note 3. the arch-enemy of goodness. he said to his disciples. 22. He is. 'is a designation for a Kalpa of so called because 1000 is Buddhas appear in the course of Our present period last a Bhadra-kalpa. of the thousand little " Thus Sakyamuni had been one box in boys who floated in tell. of The first part of Fa-hien's narrative will have sent the thoughts some of ' my readers to the exposure of the infant Moses. In a subsequent age. In three months from this I will attain to pari-nirvana.' The oldest form of the legend vol. perfect is when the World-honoured one had attained to ' Wisdom (and become Buddha).' says Eitel. xi. but over 151 millions explained by ' The king of demons. The tope of the two Pratyeka Buddhas is still existing. Ananda had asked him he would have postponed . where Buddha says his death.' The "name Mara love. as related in Exodus. 'This. 41-55. that he was not able to ask Buddha to remain longer in this world. I in This down my bow and weapons -. p. He assumes difierent forms. and four Buddhas have already appeared.' told his disciples of the strange events in the past. or sends his daughters.' * ' It is to 236 millions of years. He is often represented with 100 arms. is ' the murderer. it. fell hereupon into reflection. paragraph in ' Buddhist that. the I the Ganges. especially monstrous ones. The thousand the place where a former age laid little boys were the thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa^. or inspires wicked men like granthas to do his work. have already elapsed. tempt or frighten the Devadatta or the Nir- saints. sin. which in this way received its name. and raised the tope on this spot.' says Eitel.

last generally spoken of as the second Great Council of the Buddhist Church. CHAPTER Four yojanas gadha^ to Or is XXVI. Vaisali. 410. in which — the heretics (I can use that term here) claimed at least indulgence. Subsequently men built at this place the tope (in question). covered with viharas. the ' the Vinaya-pitaka. of Ananda. and appealed for their justification Hereupon the Arhats and Bhikshus observant of the rules. Two meetings were held and discuss them. discipline At the was held same time in all consequence. shortly after and the Council The was Buddha's death. first and See.C. — say about to consider b. wishing his When Ananda was brought the travellers going from Ma- pari-nirvana to take place (there). under the presidency of . The meeting referred to was an important one.COUNCIL OF VAISALI. a fact perpetuated. and a more the books and subjects of seem to have undergone a The Corean text is clearer than careful revision. examined afresh and collated the collection of disciplinary books'. chapter of Davids' Manual. ^ Magadha was for some time the headquarters of Buddhism . It could not be far from Patna. REMARKABLE DEATH OF ANANDA. to disciple must therefore have been a very old ' This spot does not appear have been identified. to the number in all of 700 monks. The second was that spoken of here say about 216) we find the ten points of discipline. as has been observed in a previous 1 2 . of which Fa-hien speaks.c. some Bhikshus of Vaisali went wrong to what they said were the words of Buddha. xviii. their succeeded in carrying At the former the orthodox party barely condemnation of the laxer monks and a second and . emphatic condemnation passed. and or Yasada. who had been a man. — the Arhats and orthodox monks. The leader who composed the among them was a Yasas. In Davids' Manual (p. that held at Rajagriha. the holy land. on the History of the Order. chap. which is still existing. 300.. M. Hardy's E. on the formation of the Buddhist Canon. the Chinese as to those Council. larger meeting. pari -nirvana of the matter of the disciplinary rules in ten particulars. the following occurrence) : 75 —A hundred years after the in Buddha. or Yedsaputtra. Kasyapa. on from this place to the east to the confluence of the five rivers-. B.

they all arrived together at the river. for his liberality in almsgiving. as 'self-control. a vitality. as 'meditative abstraction. a second. .' death of Some concerning the Ananda are hidden beneath the darkness of the phraseology.' He then quotes apparently the language of the text.•j6 THE TRA VELS OF it. in the name of the present Behar. if he went forward. pp. and a favourer of Devadatta.' says Eitel. to the palace of a certain Naga king a third is given to Ajatasatru and the fourth to the Lichchhavis. Ajasat murdered his least WTOUght death. 'perfect tranquillity. and then he divides the relic of the burnt body into two parts (for so e\idently Fa-hien intended his narration to be taken). or at of the first royal converts to Buddhism. all really means I cannot tell. who was one father.. (the fire of) ' He consumed is his body by Agni Samadhi. and had reached the river. he became famous Eitel has a long article (pp. He thereupon in the very middle of the river burnt his body in a fiery ecstasy of Samadhi^.' and says it is ' a common facts expression for the effects of such ecstatic. which it is impossible for us to ascertain. and his pari-nirvana was attained. consistently culminating in total destruction of life. and leaves one half ' The account of Ananda's death in Nien-ch'ang's History of is much more extravagant. his 321-326. with a note. FA-HIEN. 115) on the meaning of Samadhi. king Ajatasatru would be very angr}'. . Hardy ' defines it as meaning 'Tumour. and they on their part came to meet him. the Lichchhavis of Vaisah' had heard that Ananda was coming (to their citj^). Ajasat.' ' and Edkins. signifies the highest all pitch of abstract. him.' All this simply ' a darkening of counsel by words without knowledge. while. Crowds of men and devas are brought together to witness it. ecstatic meditation. (In this way). ultra-mystic self-annihilation. state of torpor of both the material and spiritual forces of a sort of terrestrial nirvana. 114. if he went back. By or in Samadhi he burns his bod)' in the very middle of the river.' Burnouf. He divided devas informed king Ajatasatru^ of own grand carriage. He was the son of king Bimbisara. and Ananda considered that. to the ancient ^ kingdom of In Singhalese.' Samadhi. the Lichchhavis would resent his conduct. a state of absolute indiff'erence to influences from within or without. as ' ecstatic reverie. When "^ converted. One is conveyed to the Tushita heaven. in his and the king immediately pursued body of soldiers. which is one of the seven sections of wisdom (bodhyanga). (On the other hand). Buddha and the Patriarchs ' . the southern portion of which corresponds JNIagadhi. B. What it on each bank. The body is divided into four parts. and was at first opposed to Sakyamuni. See the account of his conversion in M.

so that Fa-hien connects a legend of with his account of Patna. which exist now as of old. The other. DISPENSARIES AND HOSPITALS. to he convoked the third It Great Synod. it once assumed the form of a vulture on or. 77 his body (also) into two. was unwilling to accept the invitation. however. Ion. it . in a way which no human hands of this world could accomplish. on which the king said to him. in the eighteenth year of his reign. 85° 15' E. and I will make a hill for you inside the city. The city of flowers. because It it was a resort of vultures. wished and begged him (to come and live) in his family. must have been held a few years before b. and there raised a tope over CHAPTER XXVII. so called because Mara. in the kingdom of where king A^oka^ ruled. the city — ' ' ' means ' The modern Patna. page 31. 246. he provided the materials of a feast. own capital). The king. finding his delight in solitude and quiet. where he could supply all his wants. It was near Rajagriha. KING ASOKA'S SPIRITBUILT PALACE AND HALLS. through his delight in the stillness of the mountain. PATALIPUTTRA OR PATNA. to interrupt the meditation of Ananda more probably. at least. came to the Magadha.' Accordingly.c. 250. and which piled up the stones. crossed the river. abounded in caverns. — according. transferred his See note 5. were all made by spirits which he employed. Only accept my invitation. and descended south for a yojana. and resided on Gridhra-kuta hill. (leaving) the half of each of the two kings got one half as a (sacred) (to his on each bank so that relic. The royal palace and halls in the midst of the city. It is the The Sanskrit name to Indian Florence. King Asoka had a younger brother who had attained to be an Arhat.. and was famous as a resort of ascetics. . lat. the it earlier capital of Asoka.' PATiWA AND KING AS OKA. THE BUDDHIST BRAHMAN. Eitel ' ' sa)'s in The Vulture-hill. and took it back it. RADHASAMI. IN MAGADHA. Asoka court from Rajagriha Pataliputtra.' ' 25° 28' N. according to Buddhist tradition. and executed the elegant carving and inlaid sculpturework. and there. reared the walls and gates. (the Having travellers) town of Pataliputtra'. who sincerely reverenced him. ' southern Buddhism.

the hill. and students. as soon as he let it go. (like) a wall. . but a Buddhist in ' faith. four or five paces square. By means of this one man. he took hold of his hand. the king made them form on one another. each one . very grand and beautiful there is also a hinayana one the two together containing six hundred or seven hundred monks. The king of the country honoured and reverenced him. and the followers of other doctrines did not find it in their power to persecute the body of monks in any way. his Chinese text having a ^ between and ^^. 'To-morrow you will but as there are no mats for you to sit on. in his love and reverence. a seat). Why should there not have been schools in those monasteries in India as there were in China Fa-hien himself grew up with other boys in a monastery. So. bringing with him a great rock. the Law of Buddha was widely made known. and also at the foot of with five large square stones. and served him as his In this city there had resided a great a professor of the mahayana. let own seat).' And the next sentence shows us there might be schools for more advanced students as well as for the ^ramaneras. who understood everything. suppose the name was Radhasvami or Radhasami. of clear discernment teacher. by the help of Julian's M^thode. to make an apartment.' Next day the spirits came. often occurring in the Li K\ and Mencius. . . By the side of the tope of Asoka. receive my invitation each one bring (his (for and announced to them.78 called to all THE TEA VELS OF him the spirits. twenty cubits wide. If he went to inquire for and greet him. and no doubt had to 'go to school. FA-HIEN. which might be more than thirty cubits long. living by himself in spotless purity. the names of two kinds of ? schools. When their sitting a hill with the large stones piled was over. inquirers A Brahman by caste. and much wisdom. He might be more than fifty years old. the king did not presume to sit down alongside of him and if.' I transliterate the Chinese characters ^^ W^ ^ 3ZC A^ ^' I -^^^^ gives Radhasvami. there has been made a mahayana monastery. Shamans ^ "^ of the highest virtue from all quarters. of observation. The rules of demeanour and the scholastic arrangements^ in them are worthy . and more than ten cubits high. ^ j^. the Brahman made haste to pour water on it and wash it. and all the kingdom looked up to him. Brahman ^ named Radha-sami^.

make See note page 4. They make figures of devas. This it. All through the night they keep lamps burning. with a Buddha seated and a Bodhisattva standing in attendance on him. On the day mentioned. is It is perhaps with reference to the famous Bodhisattva that the * ? Brahman here said to be ' also' named Mafiju5rJ. and on it erect is a structure of five storeys by means of bamboos tied together. which is then painted in various colours. and present offerings. and the mahayana Bhikshus honour and look up to. 79 all resort to these There also resides in this monastery a Brahman teacher. White and silk-like cloth of hair . The Heads of the Vaisya families in them establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicines. All the poor and destitute in the country. maimed people and cripples. the monks and laity within the borders all come together they have singers and skilful musicians they pay their devotions with flowers and incense. all grand and imposing. having the shape of a tope. This is the practice in all the other kingdoms as well. and doctors examine their diseases. and all who are diseased. they go . There may be twenty cars. The inhabitants are rich and prosperous. (intending) to i. and lapis lazuli grandly blended and having silken streamers and canopies hung out over them. and childless men. have skilful music. with poles and lances slanting from and is rather more than twenty cubits high. orphans. . go to those houses. with gold.is wrapped all round it. it. . four sides are niches. widowers. .FESTIVALS AXD CHARITIES OF wishing to find out truth and the grounds of monasteries. When ' king Asoka destroyed the seven topes. Every year on the eighth day of the second month they celebrate a procession of images. whose name also is Maiijusri'. away of themselves. MAG AD HA. silver. They make a four-wheeled car. On the in each. whom the Shamans of greatest virtue in the kingdom. These do so in order. They get the food and medicines which their cases require. The Brahmans come and invite the Buddhas to enter the city. and remain two nights in it. and are made to feel at ease and when they are better. but each one difterent from the others. Cashmere cloth. The cities and towns of this country are the greatest of all in the Middle Kingdom. and are provided with every kind of help. and vie with one another in the practice of benevolence and righteousness. supported by a king-post.

which also is more than thirty feet high. with a lion on the top of it. a foot- Buddha. page 69.' It has been identified with a near the village of Giryek. . NEW AND OLD. body of all the monks. could only have been a small place an outpost for the defence of Pataliputtra. and came to a small solitary rocky hill *. with the number of the year. river. * Called by Hsiian-chwang Indra-sila-guha. this ' We wish that we had more particulars of value in great transaction.' where h ended the river. king A^oka built the city of Ne-le^ In it there is a stone pillar. on the bank of the PaSchana river. bears an oblong terrace . saying. more In front of this there is than three print of le to the south of this city. it ' to be gave it monks. facing the south. when Sakra. and on the south of it there is a stone pillar. Ruler of Devas. and he bought He was the only Power ' that was. This does not mean the top or summit of the at hill. and did not receive back. or hill ' The cavern of Indra. and more than thirty cubits high.8o THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. On the pillar there is an inscription recording the things which led to the building of Ne-le. where a vihara has been built. at the head or end of which ^ was an apartment of stone.covered with the ruins of several buildings. Pancha- — ' See note i. (The travellers) went on from this to the south-east for nine yojanas. '. fourteen or fifteen cubits in circumference. . It and is that we knew what obser\-ed that he right ^ money Asoka to the it set on the whole world. on which there Asoka gave the jambudvipa to the general is an inscription. XXVIII. The hill terminates in two peaks overhanging the and It it is the more northern and higher of these which Fa-hien had ° in mind. We know nothing more of Ne-le. brought the deva-musician. LEGENDS AND INCIDENTS CONNECTED WITH IT. but its ' headland. This he did three times'. the day. Their was from him. about thirty-six miles from Gaya. the place where Buddha sat. and then redeemed it from them with money. especially of a vihara.' North from the tope 300 or 400 paces. ' CHAPTER RAJAGRIHA. The door of it faces the north. and the month. It from them. eighty-four thousand the first which he made was the great tope.

Behar. we are told. ' is some doubt as to the statement that Nala was " his birthplace. Over the spot (where is still in his body was burned) there was built a tope. and beautiful. or 'Five. 8x (^ikha)\ to give pleasure to him by playing on his lute. a few miles from it the old residence ascribes it Eitel says was built by Bimbisara. or depends on the punctuation. high.. Its Here the still first death. which appears His harp or lute. It is from name of the musician. while Fa-hien suppose the son finished what the father had begun. was subsequently chwang. I it from Kusagarapura. king Ajatasatru. at the foot of the Gridhras}'nod assembled within a year after Sakyarauni's mountains. Leaving the city by the south gate. page 44. 288-290. in the Sakra-prasna SQtra '). B. Another yojana to the west brought them to New Rajagriha^. of It is it. tracing (the questions) out with his finger one by one on the rock ^.' called New Rajagriha to distinguish of the kings. pp. and form an object of pilgrimage to the Jains (E. . having obtained one portion of the relics of Buddha. it Whether was Sakra who wrote It his questions. which are still be found in one of the Sutras (' the Dik-Sahga. seems better to Buddha who wrote the answers.W. where Sariputtra* was born. Three hundred paces outside the west gate. pp. built (over them) a tope.' '^ to Hardy (M. the kflta metropolis of Buddhism. which stand all round — new ' See the account of that this visit of Sakra Hardy in ' we are able to complete here the Fa-hien as only Paficha. There . was twelve miles long. the city which was built by king Ajatasatru. large. and to which also he returned. one enters a valley. The city of ' Royal Palaces first 'the residence of the Magadha kings from Bimbisara to Asoka. A yojana south-west from this place brought them to the village of Nala^. and attained here his pari-nirvana. H. 289) makes the subjects only thirteen. sixteen miles S. grand. Sakra then asked Buddha about forty-two subjects. make Sakra the writer. ' Or Nalanda. B. 288. A grand monastery of Hsiian- famous by the residence for five years * See note 3. p. 100). The prints of his tracing are still there . identified with built at it. and here also there is a monastery.' in M. the present Baragong. and proceeding south four le.LEGENDS. to Ajatasatru.. which existence. ruins are extant at the village of Rajghir. NEW RAjAGRIHA. and comes to a circular space formed by five hills.. There were two monasteries in it.

See note 72. xiii. in Pali Assaji. 3. AND LEGENDS.' be directed The two more famous by him. after • ' ascending 5. Jivaka built a vihara in the garden of his 1250 disciples to it. 144-147- One of the I si. pp. Vinaya Texts. Here was from east to west about five or six le. and from north to south seven or eight.' M. condemned the use of clothes. See Sacred Books of the East. Vinaya Texts. to Buddha. 81. ° 247. of the East. and thought he could subdue all passions who called themselves by his name and were the forerunners of the Jains. GRIDHRA-KUTA HILL. king Ajatasatru ing him to made a black elephant intoxicated with liquor. but to have not found the particulars of the attempts on Buddha's referred by Fa-hien). The king was moved Vinaya Texts. but to vol. and have the appearance of the suburban wall of a city. that the Nirgrantha^ made a pit of fire and poisoned the rice. See Sacred Books of the East. pp. the valley. Of course the elephant disapto this by Devadatta. his offerings to support them. Jivaka was Ambapali's son by king Bimbisara. He was an ascetic. and devoted See the account of him in the Sacred Books himself to the practice of medicine. title He is also called Asvajit . wishand that at the north-east corner of the city injure Buddha * . all is (These places) are as of old. or Brahmanical opponents of Buddha. p. p. He had a body of followers. and keeping along the mountains on the southfifteen le. pp. 85).. (Eitel. Entering east. pp. ' met him. 84. Ambathere and invited Buddha with that he might still . but Asvajit seems to be a military disciples = ' Master or trainer of horses. and is therefore called Nirgranthajuad. pointed them.x Tirthyas (T!rthakas = ' erroneous teachers. p. 290life 292. one He taught a system of of fatalism. FA-HIEN PASSES A NIGHT ON IT. THE TRAVELS OF FA -HIEN. B. there make it. 1 71-194. xvii. . in a (large) curving (space) pali^.82 it. HIS REFLECTIONS. vol. . but inside the city emptiness and desolation no man dwells in CHAPTER XXIX. and did homage to Sakyamuni. XX. (the travellers) came to mount Gridhra- See note One of the five first followers of Sakyamuni. by * fasting. the Jnati clan. It was here that Sariputtra and Maudgalyayana first saw Upasena^. vol. and then invited Buddha (to eat with him) that the old city of king Bimbisara^ . not to lead him.

vol. was 'by the help of Sacred Books of the East. where Ananda was of sitting in when the deva Mara vulture. and stroked Ananda's shoulder. hills. The footprints of the bird and the cleft for (Buddha's) hand are still there. Hardy says that Devadatta's attempt a machine. kuta ^. p. but restrained his tears and said. And. introduced his hand. of the mountain. supernatural power. fifteen cubits high. in which Buddha meditation.' In front of the cavern there are the places where the four Buddhas There are caverns also of the Arhats. p. 74. He felt melancholy.. is still the rock there hall *. Vinaya 245. p. and signifies ' sinful lust. and hence comes the name sat. When he himself got to it. oil and lamps.' but the oldest account in the Texts. B. 83 in Three le before you reach the is top. sat and meditated. p. by his mysterious. fourteen or paces round. is the highest of the five In the New City Fa-hien bought incense-(sticks). beautifully green. made a cleft in the rock. 4. as described by Hsiian-chwang. I. Thirty paces to the north-west there meditation. and frightened the disciple. On this hill the all peak is and rises grandly up . to carry them (to the peak). ' ° 4. ' was ' bom when See note See note See Here Buddha delivered the Surangama (Sutra) °. Fa-hien. threw a rock across. from Buddha was walking from east to west (in among the beetling cliffs on the north and hurt Buddha's toes his *. having assumed the form in a large took his place front the cavern. agrees with what Fa-hien implies that he threw the rock with his own * arm. Bunyiu Nanjios 'Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist .FA-HIEN'S NIGHT ON GRIDHRA-KUTA HILL. facing the south. flowers. of another. long resident (at the place).' M. and lighted the lamps when the darkness began to come on. one where each all. 320. so that his fear immediately passed away. and only the foundations of the brick walls remain. Pisuna^. amounting to several hundred in front of his rocky apartment At the place where in meditation). 80. and hired two bhikshus. Pisuna is a name given to IMara. The where Buddha preached Law it has been destroyed. I could not meet with Buddha and now I only see the . he made his offerings with the flowers and incense. Then Buddha. there is a cavern sat in the rocks. of ' The Hill of the Vulture Cavern. and thirty ' See Mr. xx. and Devadatta.

No tigers' Two black lions' indeed crouched before him for a time ' ' ' this night. in front of the rock cavern. SUICIDE OF A BHIKSHU. ' See 'Buddhist Birth here is Stories. (p. they 'drooped their This of course tails.' p. and prostrated themselves before him. OR CAVE OF THE FIRST COUNCIL. but a legendary tribute to his bold perseverance. Nanjio exactly renders the adjectival character. vihara in it. but Eitel says that the Karanda is a bird of a sweet voice. who keep it) swept and watered. 399. the cuculus melano- Karanda Venuvana. left. and thus saved his life. See the account of the transaction in M. (the travellers) found the Karanda (old) vihara in existence. but herding in flocks. also built a who leucus. 194. not an historical account. THE ^RATAPARNA CAVE. as our author had no sympathy . walking over 300 paces. appear in the ' Memoir."' But ' the high priests merely means distinguished monks. from a creature so named. North of the vihara two or three le there was the Sma^anam. the creature appears as a squirrel.' ' (the ground about Tripitaka. he chanted the Sura li gam a Sutra. Mr.' ' .. and when they saw him resolute. 'eminent monks. and nothing more. where the company of monks. on the west of with a Out from the old is still city. Ix) to his revised version of our author. There is a account of this perilous visit of Fa-hien. this ' It was the former of these that came on ' occasion to the thoughts and In a note full memory of Fa-hien.' Siltra Pitaka. Bamboo garden^. and how he was ' attacked by tigers. resembhng a magpie. B. Nor was Fa-hien attacked by tigers' on the peak.' as Mr. remained there over the night.' licking their lips to attack their and not heads. LEGENDS. The place was called Karanda. footprints which he has and the place where he lived. Beal says. ^ a park presented to Buddha by king Bimbisara. after the road. which name means in Chinese the field of graves into which the dead are thrown ^.84 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. put is down but their appearance was to and waving their tails him. which awoke p. in the " History of the High Priests.' With this. and then returned towards the New City ^ CHAPTER XXX. if The language rather contemptuous. 446. 118. Nos. 'try. In Hardy the king just as a snake was about to bite him.

Ananda was then outside the door. but by his own Buddhistic method of cremation. 500 Arhats collected the Sutras. Sariputtra occupied the one on the left. 370-385. See Davids' Manual. there are also a very great many cells among the rocks. As you with any other mode of disposing of the dead. Of the number of five hundred one Mahakasyapa was president (on the middle seat). At the place there was (subsequently) raised a tope. that so important a member should have been shut out 'i . nirvana^ of Buddha. the Chinese texts have ' vacant. Going on still to the west for five or six le. which is still existing. named the Pippala cave^ in which Buddha regularly sat in meditation after taking his (midday) meal. being rugs spread ' — they were carpeted. not the meaning of King («^) Vinaya ? rules. in the shade. The cave was prepared for the occasion by king Ajatasatru. and could not get in^. they found a dwelHng among the rocks. with some cachinnation.' here be extended to the ' would seem INIay that the Sfltras or some of them had been already committed to writing. raised higher than the other places for Did they not contrive to let him in. pp. the place where. When they brought the Sutras forth. but Fa-hien would hardly have neglected to mention such a circumstance. ' So in the text. they found the cavern called Srataparna^. both cushioned and seats. perhaps. on the north of the hill. where the various Arhans sat and meditated. '' A very great place in the annals of Buddhism. as well as the Siitras. SUICIDE OF As A BHIKSHU. 85 they kept along the mountain on the south. and went west for 300 paces.THE FIRST COUNCIL.' carpeted. three lofty seats * had been prepared and grandly ornamented. Along (the sides of) the hill. evidently for pari-nirvana. and mean 'the ix. fortuitously. this cavern serve also to They make us think that there was such a tree overshadowing the cave . ' Instead of ' high seats. ' The Chinese characters used for the name of name the pippala (peepul) tree. ' Vinaya Texts. it From the expression about the 'bringing forth of the King. standards of the system generally vol. the ficus religiosa. xx. was wanting. in on the ground. chapter and Sacred Books of the East. and after the Maudgalyayana that on the right. The Council but appears to in the Srata- parna cave did not come together have been convoked by the older members to settle the rules and doctrines of the order. even so august an assembly.' The character for 'prepared' denotes 'spread.

M. but are * born once more as devas. made a law forbidding the monks miseries to commit life suicide. and attain to nirvana. not easily caught.' ^ * ' Beal says — See also M. thought with himself: 'This body^ is impermanent. ' Evil desire 57. and go there is the rock dwelling of Devadatta. E. Our author expresses no opinion of his own on the act of this bhikshu. . . 465. 152 — 'Buddha . show than what appears here.' . With the first gash into when he had gone the flesh he attained the state of a Srotapanna ^ half through. The sentiment of p. to the third degree 57).. Must it not have been a good act. and attained to pari-nirvana* (and died). I am weary of this body. and at a distance of it paces from there is a large. leave the old city on the north. pp.. 8. it would not The bhikshu was evidently rather out of this ' attract the interest his mind .' Immediately with the knife he cut his throat. . which it and the verdict of a coroner's inquest of killed himself nineteenth century would have pronounced that he in a fit of insanity. black rock. The Anagamin belong Aryas (note to be 2. square. Formerly there was a bhikshu. the third class of page who are no men.' See note 2. now only wish to kill three poisonous thieves ^. and which cannot be looked on as pure^. I think. H. and troubled by With this he grasped a knife. He : prohibited any one from discoursing on the of in such a manner as to cause desperation. he attained to be an Anagamin' and when he had cut right through. by such blessed consequences ? But if Buddhism had not something better to now does. B. But he thought again but I : — ' The World-honoured one Further it laid down a : prohibition against one's killing himself*. this clause is : * See E. he was an Arhat. ^ ' See the account of Buddha's preaching in chapter xviii. 9. pp. who. more liable to be reborn as when they will forthwith become Arhats. a thing of bitterness and vanity". p. hatred . ignorance. of Buddhistic saintship. fairly express the idea of the bhikshu. 464. and was about to kill himit as an evil/ self.' ' occurred to him Yes. as he walked backwards and forwards upon it. ^ ' The life of this body ' would. in the very act of performance. he did . down east for three fifty le.. when it was attended.86 J HE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN.

.

.IV. 31. Ch. BUDDHA IN SOLITUDE AND ENDURING AUSTERITIES.

and the incidents do not follow in the order of time. B. Half a yoj ana from this place to the north-east there was a cavern in came to the city of Gaya * . but inside the city ness and desolation. pp. but this does not appear in the only other account of the incident I have met with. they arrived at the place where the Bodhisattva for six years practised with himself painful austerities.' p.. The tree and the rock are there at the present day. . SAKYAMUXl'S ATTAINING TO THE BUDDHASHIP OTHER LEGENDS. 24° 47' N. GAYA.THE ATTAlNMEXr OF THE BUDDHASHIP. 85° I'E. was here that Sakyamuni lived for seven years. 87 CHAPTER XXXI. and facing the east. ^ p. 30 and the girl Luddhist Binh is Stories. was north-west of the present Gayah (lat. seated on a rock under a great tree. when Buddha had gone into the water to bathe. after travelling to the . though is he is unless indeed the narrative confused. it seems me a happy solution of Fa-hien. The rock may be six cubits in breadth and In Central India the length. Two le north from this was the place where the Gramika girls presented to Buddha the rice-gruel made with milk'^. cold and heat are so equally tempered that trees will live in it for several thousand and even for ten thousand years. AND From pilgrims) west for four yojanas. additions.. All around was forest. 92 . with many . 31. ' is told. this place. — in 'The Life of the Buddha. ' Gaya. here called so .' but the name of the ministering or girls to different. after quitting his family. he ate (the gruel). E. Ion. Three le west from here they came to the place where. 166-168 pp. a deva bent down the branch of a tree.' p. by means of which he succeeded in getting out of the pool". H. 91. I take Gramika from a note in Beal's revised version of the difficulty caused hy the §|3 ^ . And he was not yet Buddha. in Hardy's ' M. ' An incident similar to this . and two le north from this (again) was the place where. a city It of Magadha.). The place is still frequented by pilgrims. The Life of the Buddha. is This told so as to make us think that he was in danger of being drowned. 41.. until he attained to Buddhaship. and rather more than two cubits in height. (the all was emptiGoing on again to the south for twenty le.

where. At a distance of thirty paces from the tree. where all past Buddhas have attained. to tempt him. 96-101. to perfect Wisdom. At this moment heaven and ' earth were greatly moved. which is bright at the present day. who came from the north.. he said wisdom (and become Buddha). 38. B.' When they had spoken these words. See note 2. (As he did so). and at all these other places. The Bodhisattva put his toes down on the ground. after attaining to perfect wisdom. 92. . rather more than three feet in length. the its borassus flabellifera. and disappeared. The kusa See the grass. to perfect Wisdom. contest with account of Mara in M.88 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. and 'Buddhist Birth * Stories. while he himself came from the south to do the same. and the three young ladies were changed into old (grand-) mothers ^. The Bodhisattva went forward to the patra tree. 'If let I am to attain to perfect there be a supernatural attestation of On the wall of the rock there appeared immediately the still shadow of a Buddha. it. and sat down with his face to the east. Less than half a yojana from this to the south-west will bring you to the patra^ tree. After (he had proceeded) fifteen paces. under ' Called ' the tree of leaves. or he that is to come. which all exist at the present day. into which the Bodhisattva entered.' and ' the tree of reflection . and the demon soldiers retired and dispersed. mentioned in a previous note. or will attain. placed the ku^a grass at the foot of it. H. It is pippala. and sat cross-legged with his face to the west.' pp.. and devas in the air spoke plainly. they immediately led the way forwards to the place. 500 green birds came flying towards him. Then king Mara sent three beautiful young ladies. this E. p. went round him thrice. pp. for seven days contemplated the tree. which he received and went on. and all to come must attain.' the rocks. Where Buddha. men subsequently reared topes and set up images. the Bodhisattva arose and walked (after them). to himself. often confounded with the " ' described as a tree which never loses leaves. has attained. 1 71-179. This is not the place where any Buddha of the past. p. As they thus went away. ' a palm tree. At the place mentioned above of the six years' painful austerities. singing as they did so. a deva gave him the grass of lucky omen ^. and experienced the joy of vimukti *.

V. . BUDDHASHIP ATTAINED.

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whilst the which ^akyamuni once where seven days absorbed the Buddha' is: — 'Buddha went king guarded him. 114. the patra tree. p. chants* presented to him the roasted flour and honey. up to this dme holders They views. . rising. p. where the . these places topes were reared. were three brothers. and the Nidana 500 well-laden waggons with them. and presented offerings to him for seven days where the blind dragon Muchilinda' encircled him for seven days where he sat under the nyagrodha tree. 89 he walked backwards and forwards from west to east for devas made a hall appear. and where he converted the brothers Kasyapa and their thousand disciples^. 115. no. lived the naga king IMuchilinda. where the 500 merseven days. 109. composed of the seven precious substances. other accounts mention only two but in M. in Buddha all attained to perfect there of which around supply the what they require.AFTER THE A TTA IXMEXT OF THE BUDDHA SHIP. This seems to be the meaning the sentence of the benevolence of the but I do not wonder that some understand monkish population to the travellers. . and wishing to preser\'e him from the sun and round him.' to The account rain. pp. and 200 disciples respectively. 300.' p. What he requested of the Buddha was that he would begin the preaching of his Law. The laws regulating their demeanour in sitting. 35) in The Life of he. having 500. and spread out days in thought. B. there are monks residing. . The p. these two have ' ' .. are those which have been practised by all the saints since families of their people Wisdom. the ' tutelary deity of a lake near in meditation. and Nadi-Kasyapa. so that there is no lack or stints The disciplinary rules are strictly observed by them. in Buddhist Birth Stories. ' See the Nidana Katha. (p. p. 35. 45. ^ These must not be confounded with Mahaka^yapa of note They 5. 1 11. ' wrapped his body seven times head and there he remained seven ' * See note 4. and entering when the others are assembled. . Gaya. though 'king' is omitted. or the Great Muchilinda. of erroneous became distinguished followers of bakyamuni and are each of them to become Katha. 182. ' This was Brahma himself. with his face to the east. . on a square rock. — — Buddha by-and-by. Uruvilva. The societies of these monks with an are abundant sufficiency of ' Called also Maha. . Nidana Katha.' his hood over his So also the Nidana Katha. p. Eitel says: sat for ' A naga king. and Brahma-deva ^ came and made his request to him where the four deva kings brought to him their alms-bowls^. —at all At three the place where monasteries.

little When of becoming a king of the iron wheel-. Having thereupon asked his ministers what sort of a thing it was. Those four great topes are those at the places where Buddha was born where he attained to Wisdom where he (began to) move the wheel of his Law. outside the Chakravalas (the double circuit of mountains above). a naraka^ for the punishment of wicked men. Perhaps a former birth ' ' is the best translation. as . but because of this (the boy) received the recompense king Asoka. and returned it to the ground on which he was walking. . to the Chinese '^ The Corean ' reading of Kasyapa Buddha is certainly preferable Sakj'a Buddha. he met Kasyapa Buddha walking. It belongs to Yama *. instead of translating the Chinese o^" ' text by 'Earth's prison {]^ M^)'' '^ prison in the earth.' 49. and handed The places of the down without break. the regent of the south of the the 'regent of the Aryan god of the dead. boy and playing on (The stranger) begged food. transferred his abode to Both views have been retained by Buddhism. they replied. four great topes have been fixed. but Brahmanism . p.' The Yama te. The Buddha took the earth. See note 3. AND HIS NARAKA.xt is narakas. and not merely a former time.90 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. king of ' for a former age . was originally the living in a heaven above the world. and where he attained to pari -nirvana. to rule over Jambudvipa. in Buddha was the world down to the present day. 173) says: — 'Yama hell. He has a sister who all the female culprits. CHAPTER XXXII. * China for gehenna and Eitel (p. he saw. (Once) when he was making a judicial tour of inspection through Jambudvipa. LEGEND OF KING ASOKA IN A FORMER BIRTH. in a palace built of brass and iron. between the iron circuit of the two hills. and the boy pleasantly took a handful of earth and gave it to him. ^ I prefer to retain the Sanskrit term here.' the in name which has been adopted generally by Christian missionaries hell. in a former birth \ was a the road. Buddha attained to nirvana. controls residing south of Jambu- dvipa. since .

when they came. Immediately after. however. they took him to the king. yellow hair. punish me as a sinner in the same way. and. he exclusively deals with the male sex. while he called to him birds and beasts. whom they As the thrust into a mortar and pounded till a red froth overflowed. and do not let me go. hooking up the fish with his feet. a Three times. instantly seize him and punish him as a sinner. naraka saw him. make its gates strong and it w ith thirsting desire and when any one enters. however. . with a black countenance. men why should not I. they w'ere about to subject him to their tortures but he. Having got this man. Even if I should enter.' Such.' him unspeakable pain.XA/iAA'A. then shot and killed them. make a which to deal with wicked men?' He forthwith asked his ministers who could make for him a naraka and preside over the punishment of wicked people in it. four hours. so that with wicked naraka in . When the lictors of the . bhikshu looked on. men sure . and squeezes down ' his throat. You must make a square enclosure with high walls. ' . the lictors seized him. I now appoint you master of that naraka. under the name of ' The Universal King. and green ej'es. there came to him the thought of the impermanence. in every twentyit demon pours boiling copper into Yama's mouth. causing transrotation of births. so that not one escaped. Plant in it all kinds of flowers and fruits make good ponds in it for bathing make it grand and imposing in every way. food. pursuing his regular course of begging his shall look to . They replied that it was only a man of extreme wickedness who could make it and the king thereupon sent officers to seek e\-erywhere for (such) a bad man and they saw by the side of a pond a man tall and strong. Immediately after. there came in another man. and how it is but as a bubble and as foam and instantly he attained to Arhatship. begged them to allow him a moment in which to eat his midday meal. not allowing him to get out. . frightened. who am the lord of men. and threw him into a caldron of . he is to be reborn as Buddha.' . : 91 ' demons.' Soon after this a bhikshu. is the wonderful that when Yama's sins have been expiated. entered the gate (of the place). the painful sufiering and inanity of this body. for punishing wicked people/ The king thought within himself (Even) the king of demons is able to make a naraka in which to deal . who secretly charged him.A^OHrJS .

of his errors. when it is nearly lOo cubits in height. ' CHAPTER XXXHL MOUNT GURUPADA. In the middle (of the caldron) there rose up a lotus flower.' The king thereupon followed them. in bhikshu's countenance. Your majesty ought to go quickly. and repented of all the evil which he had formerly done. WHERE KASYAPA BUDDHA'S ENTIRE SKELETON (The travellers). and wished him ' ' . and poured a hundred pitchers of cows' milk on the roots and as he lay with his four limbs spread out on the ground. and fell to the ground. with the bhikshu seated on it. She watched for a time when the king was not there. resembling the foot of a chicken. and the ministers replied that he was constantly to be seen under (such and such) a patra tree. If the tree do not live. inside which Mahakasyapa even ' Or. IS.' ' numerical category. . and constantly went to a patra tree. the tree immediately began to grow from the roots. he swooned away with sorrow. and saw what had been done. repenting under it. came to a mountain named Gurupada^. His ministers sprinkled water on his face. and the water became cold. There was a look of joyful satisfaction. THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. reported to the king that there to naraka. Let your former agreement be altered. ' from the bonds. and it has continued to grow till now. It lies with three peaks. When the king came. The lictors at once went and the was a marvellous occurrence in the go and see it. and he believed. however. of his various illusions. this particular I suppose.' When he had uttered this oath.' The lictors said. and entered (the naraka). I ' ' was loosed . and accepting the eight rules of abstinence^. The fire was extinguished. Forthwith he demolished the naraka. with self-reproach. and then sent men to cut the tree down. " ' have not met with Fowl's-foot hill. going on from this three le to the south. I formerlymade such an agreement that now I dare not go (to the place). This is not a small matter. and after a considerable time he revived. but the king said. The queen asked where the king was constantly going to. and was made free^. From this time he believed in and honoured the Three Precious Ones. he took this oath.92 boiling water. when the bhikshu preached the Law to him. He then built all round (the stump) with bricks. I will never rise from this.

OR BENARES. Devotees of our Law from the various countries in that quarter go year by year to the mountain. MUN'l'S FIRST V. . as in the account of his I the cave after their on * Gridhra-kflta. and disappearing suddenly afterwards. p.\XASI. seven miles south-east of Gaya. appear also on a comparison of of him that the chapter speaks. Outside the hole (at which he entered) is the earth with which he had washed his hands ^. 58 but this chapter does not say that Kasjapa is in the mountain alive.A. . 93 now is.SKELETOX OF KASFAPA BUDDHA IX MOUNTAIX. and feel immediately easier ^. body was burnt. there was a hole on one side. and there the complete body of Kasj^apa (still) abides. so that people should not travel incautiously. On this mountain. to it. will who also is called ' Mahakasyapa.' ' Was This it a custom to wash the hands with 'earth. is Fa-hien here mentioned singly. Hardy (M. On this hill hazels grow luxuriantly and there are many lions.. and wolves.' . and talk with them.R. discussing and explaining their doubts. and went down into it. Having gone down very far. and not of the famous disciple of ^akyamuni. they plaster on it some of the earth from this. said to be still who is So Eitel says. p. now as of old. though the place where he entered would not (now) admit a man. but that his body entire is in a recess or hole in it. and was the residence of Mahakasyapa. and present ofiferings to Kasyapa and to those whose hearts are strong in faith there come Arhats at night. DOINGS AFTER BECOMING BUDDHA. ' This ' Eitel's articles on Mahakasyapa and done with visit to Ka- syapa Buddha. presenring the appearance of a perfect skeleton. 77.' as is often sand. p. B. i^. . tigers.' ' ' I conceive to be the meaning here. the bones sdll remained It is in their usual position. CHAPTER XXXIV. there are Arhats abiding. OX THE WAY BACK TO PATNA. If the people living thereabouts have a sore on their heads.^KVA- Fa-hien^ returned (from here) towards Pataliputtra*. think that Tao-ching may have remained at Patna first visit See note 1. 97) says that after Kasyapa Buddha's living inside this mountain. He made a cleft. keeping along the course of the Ganges and descending in the direction of the west.

immortals' Rishis are divided into various classes. lat. p. and immediately attained to nirvana. . certain transformation indefinite period. at the city of Varanasi' in the kingdom of Kasi.' says Eitel. 135. see '' version. and going still to the west. When the World-honoured one was about to attain to perfect Wisdom. sympathising with him in the austerities he endured. but ' 'The 'The city surrounded by rivers.. he arrived. Taoism. and rishis are referred to as the seventh class of sentient beings. named 'The Wilderness. he found the vihara in the park of 'The rishi's Deer-wild^. this park. 'is a man whose bodily frame has that undergone a he is. * ° 4. p. first For another legend about note in Beal's and the identification with 'a fine wood' sdll existing. will now in seven days become Buddha.' Buddha had dwelt. men tyeka Buddha heard this place and hence built the vihara Buddha wished in it. '' rishi. such persons are called. was named 'The Park of the rishi's Deer-wild^. age. As this period is believed to extend far beyond the usual duration of human life. 83° 5' E.' After the World-honoured one had attained to perfect Wisdom. the devas sang in the sky.' The Pratheir words. with whom the deer were regularly in the habit of stopping for the night.' In this park there formerly resided a Pratyeka Buddha^. Rather more than ten le to the north-east of the city. yojanas he found a vihara. 25° 23' N. has ' its Seen See note See note 40. He and his four friends had followed ^akyamuni into the Uruvilva desert.' the modern Benares. 2. so for an exempt from decrepitude. and death. to convert Kaundinya ^ and his four companions . p. is spoken of as a seventh path of transrotation. and popularly believed to be. as well as Buddhism. and where there are monks now. a maternal uncle of Sakyamuni. ' The son of king Suddhodana. after twelve yojanas. by dint of meditation and asceticism. Ion.94 After going ten a place where THE TRA VELS OF FA-HI EN. and hoping that they would issue in his Buddhaship. . and hence he often appears as Ajflata Kaundinya. 64. They were not aware that that issue had come which may show us that all the accounts in the thirly-first chapter prince of of the A Magadha and name Ajnata. having quitted his family and studied the Path (of Wisdom)*. and rishi-ism jin. who gave him meaning automat. Pursuing the same course.

' For the most part our ' it properly ' ' ' more frequent designations. p. 1469. his speech. eating daily (only) a single hemp-seed.' Dr. sixty paces he sat with his face to the east.' = The Buddha of the Sakya tribe. in M.' He uses also the Sakya Buddha. and other historical works in Nanjio's Catalogue. Davids ( Buddhism. we soon find that Indian see E.Kt where the Bodhisattva or Buddha is called by the surname as a proper name. had borrowed a curious it from one of the ancient Vedic bard : families. (being aware of his intention). which counted the ancient rishi Gautama was Gautama among its ancestors. It is not easy to account for the rise of the surname Gotama ' in the Sakya family. and body. on the name histories have no surer foundation than the shifting sand . ' 95 they. It is fact that Gautama the family name of the Rajput chiefs of Nagara. the village which has been the sacerdotal identified with Kapilavastu.' and ^akya$akya sage.' When we rishi proceed. 1468. said to one another.' At the places where the five men all rose up. are the traveller uses Buddha means The Enlightened. 186. — Sakj'a. when he comes to us. when he came to them where. H. respectfully saluted (Buddha). 109. where. however. by means of external imagery.. These knew it not and they were offended by what they considered Sakyamuni's and the course he was now pursuing.' = 'The and in China. proper name. though ' combinations muni. Eitel says that ' name of the Sakya family. and first turned the .. . to endeavour to trace the conwith the Sakya house.COXVEJiSIOX OF KAUXDIXVA AXD OTHERS. without attaining to less will he do so now that he has entered ! among men. 108. See the account of their conversion .' Dr. The kingdom of nirvana had come without obser\'ation.' This last is the most common designation of the Buddha to my mind best combines the characteristics of a descriptive and a Among other Buddhistic peoples Gotama' and 'Gotama Buddha Gotama. as Oldenberg acknowledges. north from this. how much is and one grain of rice. internally.' adding in a note. converting Kaundinya and the four others. wheel of the Law. are merely descriptions. in accordance with the custom of Indian noble famihes. * B. of what had taken place friends failure. pp. by nexion of that Brahmanical means of 1323. We must be content for the present simply to accept Gotama as one of the surnames of the Buddha with whom we have to do. He says that the Sakyas. let us be on our guard not to speak with him. This Sramana Gotama' for six years continued in the practice of painful austerities. and giving the reins to (the indulgence of) his and his thoughts What has he to do with the Path (of Wisdom) ? To-day. 27) ' says ' The family name was is still certainly Gautama. the Path (of Wisdom) (again) .' p. is This the only instance in Fa-hien's ' te.

There. 29-31 (Sacred Books of the East. Was there a repetition of else ? here in the Deer-park. as he tells us at the end. 25. CHAPTER XXXV. very different. Its vihara named Ghochiravana* a place where Buddha formerly resided. thirty miles above Allahabad. where the description. (lat. There is also a monastery. 'When shall I get free from this naga body?' at all these places topes were reared. ^ and vihara Buddha. p. or head. near Kurrah the 25° 41' N. South from this 200 yojanas. H.96 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEX. When you go north-west from the vihara of the Deer-wild park for — yojanas. at a distance of fifty paces to the south. which may contain more than a hundred monks. vol. See 'Buddhist Records of the Western is World.. and where. 214. x. 55. there have been topes erected. Now. by others with * Kosam on to Jumna. pp. Ghochira was the name of a Vaisya elder. Hardy (M. or was a prediction ^ ' Nothing seems Identified be known of this now given concerning something naga but what we read here. most of whom are students of the hinayana. when you have travelled eight yojanas. DAKSHINA. pp. there is a country named Dakshina*.' vol. Dr. as of old. ii. Ion. Davids thinks this may refer to the striking and beautiful story of the con- version of the Yakkha Alavaka. in both of which there are monks residing.) . Alavakasutta.. there is a kingdom named Kausambi ^. ' See note 3. only gives them from hearsay. 81° 27'E. there is a company of monks there. In (the park) there are two monasteries. East from (this). . As to the various marvels in the chapter. and where he walked (in thirteen is — '" meditation) and sat at the place w^hich was his regular abode. p. It is there said that the prediction of Maitreya's succession to to the it Buddhaship was made to him in the Tushita heaven. who presented a garden 356) quotes a statement from a Singhalese authority that Sak3^amuni resided here during the ninth year of his Buddhaship.. by some with Kusia. the dragon Elapattra^ asked him. is the place where Buddha converted the evil demon. 215. B. part ii). twenty paces further to the north. however. p. See E. as related in the Uragavagga. " Said to be the ancient name for the Deccan. it must be borne in mind that our author. where there is a monastery (dedicated to) the bygone Kasyapa Buddha. and are still existing. AND THE PIGEON MONASTERY. he dehvered his prophecy concerning Maitreya^.

the monastery is called Paravata. having followed Everywhere the shape of the structure. so that they are all bright. Brahmanas. as related in chapter xxxviii. The people of that country are constantly seeing men on the wing. and perilous to traverse. 9 b. or (devotees of) any of the other and different schools. where the people all have bad and erroneous views. Because of this. without any being left in darkness. with 300 apartments the fourth. It consists in all of five storeys the lowest. At the four comers of the (tiers of) apartments. goes round among the rooms. being of small size. in the apartments of the monks. now circling. The men of the present day.' The kingdom of Dakshina is out of the way. with — . the rock has been hewTi so as to form steps for ascending to the top (of each). the people of those villages said to them. -. having the form of an ox. . who come and enter this monastery. and going up step by step. 'Why do you not fly? The devotees whom we have seen hereabouts all fly and the strangers answered. At the very top there is a spring. now curving. having the form of a lion. the water of which. the twenty- fourth Book of Biographies. the rock has been pierced so as to form windows for the admission of light. having the form of an elephant. . ' . There are difficulties in connexion with the roads but those who know . having the form of a horse. till in this way it arrives at the lowest storey. 400 apartments the third. when devotees of various countries came to perform their worship at it.THE PIGEON MONASTERY OF DAKSHINA. 'Our wings are not yet fully formed. . . and do not know the Sramanas of the Law of Buddha. with 100 apartments. There are always Arhats that being the Indian name for a pigeon. with 500 apartments in the rock the second. ' Compare the account of Buddha's great stride of fifteen yojanas in Ceylon. ' See the same phrase in the Books of the Later Han dynasty. At a very long distance from the hill there without inare villages. residing in it. with 200 apartments and the fifth. . On one occasion. y7 and which has been hewn out from a large hill of rock. The country about is (a tract of) uncultivated hillocks habitants. on the spur of the moment. always in front of the apartments in the rock. manage to get to the top but in a former age they did so at one step^. and flows out there at the door. p. having the form of a pigeon. .

CHAPTER XXXVI. or rather a copy of that We must suppose that the record had disappeared from the it Jetavana %ihara.' The second all instance. . In the various kingdoms of North India. original copy was handed down in the Jetavana vihara. is diflerent. Four times last in this chapter the character called it pii occurs. Fahad been to search for (copies of) the Vinaya. of monks. was after all unable to go there but having received the (above) accounts from men of the country. who will show them the . if he had been allowed to do so. ' and from one the eighteen schools. FA-HIEN'S LABOURS IN TRANSCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS. He had therefore travelled far and come on to Central India. IN PATNA. Varanasi (the travellers) went back east to Pataliputtra. however. containing the Mahasahghika" rules. How should there be eighteen copies. another. those which were observed in The the first Great Council. he found a copy of the Vinaya. however. in the mahayana monastery ^. often belonging to of ' copy. The eighteen pu (§|5). first and two instances can only have the meaning. each one has the views and decisions of its own masters.' that When was this first assembly in the time of ^akyamuni held? ' ' ' is. hien's original object From — Mentioned before in chapter xxvii. in the it. ' when he was and copied and it. The document found by Fa-hien would be a record of those rules record.' . AND INDIAN STUDIES FOR THREE YEARS. in minor matters ? different from the We are compelled to translate — original. how to manage such difficulties and wish to proceed should bring with them money and various articles. shortest routes. Fa-hien. he had found one master transmitting orally (the rules) to another. Mahasahghikah simply means the Great Assembly. however. while Buddha was still in the world.98 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. It does not appear that the rules observed at it were written down original at the time. or Fa-hien would probably have spoken of there. and give them to the king. These will (at different stages) pass them over to others. He will then send men to escort them. but no written copies which he could transcribe. As to the other eighteen schools ^. he has narrated them. Here.

as when one opens and another shuts ^. and writing out the Vinaya rules. asserting the reality of all ^ visible phenomena. being the sarvastivadah* rules.' which found " way into the New Testament.' 'opening' and 'shutting. from See Nanjio's Catalogue the schools of the Jewish Rabbins. and claiming the authority of Rahula. TA 0-CHING Those agree (with the rules). REMAINS AT PA TNA . he sadly called to mind in what a mutilated and imperfect condition the rules were among the monkish communities in the land of Ts'in. This equivalent to the 'binding' their and 'loosing. It was afterwards translated by Fa-hien into Chinese. connected with o % . handed down orally from master to master without being committed to writing. of the great vaibhashika school. is This copy (of ^. that columns 247 and 253.MSS. Probably Nanjio's Catalogue. No. containing about six or seven thousand gathas he also got a Sutra of 2500 gathas one chapter of the Parin irvana-vaipulya Sutra*. of the Chinese Tripitaka. .' See Nanjio's Catalogue. 218. of about 5000 gathas. moreover. he got the Samyuktabhidharma-hridaya-(sastra)'. When T^o-ching arrived all in the Central Kingdom. columns 400 and 401. it. . No. those which are observed by the communities of monks in the land of Ts'in which also have all been further He — . learning Sanskrit books and the Sanskrit speech. 1287. In the community here.' says Eitel. it has seemed to me. 120 any rate. ' 'A branch. who. and the Mahasanghikah Abhidharma. the most complete. and the is authorities there quoted. he says. 99 this) in the general meaning. In consequence (of this success in his quest) Fa-hien stayed here for three years. lines somewhat metrically arranged but I do not know . ' in all Buddhist writings. of a commonly of two. but they have small and trivial differences. See Rhys Davids' Manual. does not mention it in his account of Fa-hien. however. and the demeanour in their societies which he remarked under occurring circumstances. few. dignified and saw the rules observed by the Sramanas. and Nos. and made the following aspiration : — ' From this time forth till I come to the an expression well knoM-n p. generally consisting. translated the " Sainyukta-pitaka at Sfltra. ' A gatha is a stanza. 11 19 and 11 50. its length * is strictly defined. He . with the fullest explanations got a transcript of the rules in six or seven thousand gathas^. COPIED. and the Christian Church.

principal emporium is for the trade with . 88' 2' E. OR CEYLON. returned there alone. Perhaps Ching (^^ used here for any portions of the Tripitaka which he had obtained. at is) a seaport. three miles west of Baglipoor. Continuing predecessors. Buddha. wind was favourable . the modern Tam-look. After this he embarked in a large merchant-vessel. TAKES SHIP TO SINGHALA. ' This then would be the consummation of the Sramana's being. Ion. and descending eastwards for kingdom Champa^. he felt that each of his successive lives would be happier. me accordingly (in India). and. sailing day and night. his time in his — to get to be Buddha. Singhala was the name of a . the Buddha of he could attain to to attain to it Kalpa. In the country there all of which there are it. he came to the country of eighteen yojanas. and where he and the three Buddhas. whose original purpose had been to secure the introduction of the complete Vinaya rules into the land of Han. with topes reared at the places where Buddha walked in meditation by his vihara. STAY AND LABOURS THERE FOR THREE YEARS. Here Fa-hien stayed two years. The Law of Buddha is also flourishing in *. Ceylon and China . * 22° 17' N. near the mouth of the Hoogly. his There were monks residing at them all. Following of the course of the Ganges.. N. and the over the sea to the south-west.lOO state of THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. came to the country of Singhala The people said that it was distant (from Tamalipti) about 700 yojanas. Fa-hien. monks residing. and Tdo-ching . writing out his Sutras and drawing pictures of images. let He remained not be born in a frontier land ^. if lived in India. 56° 55' E. ' Then the lat. 25° 14' this sooner by living only in India. CHAPTER XXXVn. and went floating It was the beginning of winter. Probably the modern Champanagur.' and did not return (to the land of Han). " 'The Kingdom of the Lion. Ion. sat. his journey east for nearly fifty yojanas. after fourteen days.. they ®. however. thought that yet ^ consummation by a succession of births and was likely If all this was not in his mind. lat. TO CHAMPA AND TAMALIPTI. he found on the southern bank the great Tamalipti ^ (the capital of which are twenty-two monasteries.' Ceylon.

' — Singhala. 'the Country of the Lion. le . twenty.' to other accounts Singhala was originally occupied by Rakshasas Rakshas. ascribed. devour men. 'demons who ' ' monstrous cannibals or anthropophagi.SINGHALA. purer. distant from one another ten. extending from east to west Left and right from it yojanas. They simply set forth their precious commodid not show themselves. or Singha-Kingdom. His dragons or nagas have come before us again and again. there pearls and precious stones of various kinds ^. to whom ' the founding of the His father was named Singha. The most ' %'aluable rosaries are made of manis. there many as loo small islands. A ^. AT CEYLON. the pure and brilliant pearl —an island which CHAPTER XXXVIII. the spirits carried on a trade. The kingdom are as is loi fifty on a large island. . or even 200 but all subject to the large island. when they went away.' and 'beings to be feared. with which merchants of various countries When the trafficking was taking place. and from north to south thirty. human inhabitants-. Through the coming and going of the merchants (in this way). TOPES AND MONASTERIES.' mani pearl or bead. STATUE OF BUDDHA IN JADE. the terror of the shipwrecked mariner. with labels of the price attached to them made their purchases according to the price and took the things away.' . FEATS OF BUDDHA. for which 'inhabitants' or 'people' According or is elsewhere here by ' human inhabitants. which the collectors find.' bright and growing a symbol of Buddha and of his Law. Our author's spirits ( >^ ^^) were of a gentler type. Most of them produce is one which produces would form a square of about ten le. . the Lion. FESTIVAL OF BUDDHA'S TOOTH. but was occupied and nagas. OR CEYLON. RISE OF THE KINGDOM. the people of (their) various countries heard how pleasant the land was. BO TREE.' Called the ' Mani It is is explained as meaning 'free from stain.' which became the kingdom was name of the country. merchant adventurer from India. It is desirable to translate sufficient. while the merchants dities. The king employs men to watch and protect it. and flocked to it in numbers till it became a country originally had no spirits The only by . and requires three out of every ten such pearls.

' known ' Siva as having been ' Mohammedans. that in the beginning of our century. notes). Samastaktjta. proceeds whenever men think fit there are no fixed seasons : Cultivation for it. Over the footprint at the north of the city the king built a large tope. his supernatural finished with a combination of all the precious substances. ^. — fifth. fifth It is plain. ' Buddhism ' the island. and the other on the top of a mountain ^. wshing to transform the wicked power he planted one foot at the north of the royal city. 207-213. The (climate) is temperate and attractive. as 'Adam's peak. 400 cubits high. M. and eighth years of Davids his Buddhaship. adorned with carved and inlaid work of gold and is silver. The Hindus regard it as the footprint of This would be what is Tissa. 'the delight of the gods. and When Buddha came by to this country nagas. difference of THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. pp. about 160 years after the Council of Patna. in the first. called the Abhayagiri ^ where there are (now) five thousand monks. in whose reign. There is an indentation on the top of it. 250 feet in height.' Sakyamuni. the two being fifteen yojanas apart. grandly adorned with gold and silver. '^ Council of Patna. Hardy. as in the text. highest in Ceylon. glittering cannot express. Meaning The Fearless Hill. without any summer and winter. In the palm of the right hand there over with those substances. the ' in That Sakyamuni ever visited Ceylon is to me more than doubtful. 212. the . the three names of Selesumano. — 'Buddhism. as that of Adam and made by Buddha. the Buddhists. and about 2\ feet wide.I02 great nation.' a superficial hollow.. under his son Mahinda. has brought together the legends of three visits. reduced to 234. and built about 90. The vegetation is always luxuriant. in which there an image all Buddha) in green jade. B. 5 feet 3I inches long. . according to Davids. more than twenty cubits in height. ' still the Abhayagiri tope. however. the Tripitaka was p. by Watta Gamini. There is in it a hall of Buddha.' having. c.' There is . according to Hardy (pp. first and 330 years after the death of writing in Ceylon. c. the b. 211. from Fa-hien's prevailed throughout its narrative. 250-230). and (of rich in the seven precious substances. and having an appearance of solemn dignity which words is a priceless pearl. when was king (b. By the side of the tope he further built a monastery. and Samanila. in the last chapter of his after the Buddhism ascribes introduction to one of Asoka's missions. Several years had now elapsed since Fa-hien left the land of Han .

when by the side of this image of jade. that rose (to the surface) and were about four spans round. ' ' . where a tree grew up to the height of about 200 cubits. Of how the tree has grown and still lives we have an account in Davids' Buddhism. under which Sakyamuni had become Buddha. plant or tree his fellow-travellers. she took with her a branch of the sacred Bo tree at Buddha Gaya.THE FAMOUS BO men to TREE. what we we growth. . strange our author should have confounded them as he seems to do. propped it with a post eight or nine spans round. Suddenly (one day). In have. as indeed the in his native land. fearing it would fall. former king of the country had sent to Central India and got a slip of the patra tree-. of. and others flowing off in different directions no face or shadow was now with him but his own. The tree began to grow at the very heart of the prop. By-and-by he sent for his sister SanghamittS. that the tree at Buddha Gaya. the king. as the It is Bo tree. IMahinda. moreover.' He quotes the words of Sir Emerson Tennent. Although the post was split in the middle. no doubt. and went down to the ground. when in Ceylon. in Chinese texts say. and a constant sadness was in his heart. had been separated from him. generally spoken con- nexion with Buddha. heard neither of Mahinda nor Sanghamitta. is itself still living in its place. where it met (the trunk) (a shoot) pierced through the post. It has been apostle of stated in a previous note that Asoka's son. and the tears of sorrow involuntarily filled his eyes and fell down. from which the slip that grew to be this tree was taken more than 2000 years ago. or bodhidruma. as Eitel says. and preservation of the famous Bo tree. ' We naturally suppose that the merchant-offerer was a Chinese. ' . the outer portions kept A . under which he attained to the Buddhaship. 103 with . his account of the planting. As it bent on one side towards the south-east. entered the order at the same time as himself. and the fan such as Fa-hien had seen and used - This should be the pippala. some of the king's female relations having signified their wish to become On leaving India. went as the Buddhism to Ceylon. where it entered and formed roots. he saw a merchant presenting as his offering a fan of white silk^. which he planted by the side of the hall of Buddha. are told of the tree here. We might conclude that Fa-hien. whom him his eyes : he had been in intercourse had all been of regions strange had not rested on an old and familiar hill or river. who had nuns. some by death. that it is the oldest historical tree in the world but this must be denied if it be true. which still exists in Ceylon. and whose help was needed.

Beal's reading of them. to show his repentance of the evil thought.104 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEN. who Ceylon. his covetous greed was excited. and people did not remove them. they spread carpets. suppose the merchants were Arabs. xvi. in As orders for a period of full forty years *. In the treasuries of the stones. he informed the monks (of what had been and desired them to make a regulation that from that day forth the king should not be allowed to enter the treasury and see (what it contained). a sequel to this. I 'Sabaean' is Mr. form so important a part of the mercantile community . on the eighth. in which there hold (of the shoot). and va. and immediately went and bowed his head to the ground in the midst of the monks. whose houses are stately and beautiful. elders and Sabaean . • The phonetic values of the two Chinese characters here are in Sanskrit si. on which. forerunners of the so-called still Moormen. and duration of their ministry. bo or bha. One of the kings (once) entered one of those treasuries. The people say that in the kingdom there may be altogether sixty thousand monks. the seven precious substances have been employed. In the city there has been reared also the vihara of Buddha's tooth. In the city there are many Vaisya ' Compare what is said in chap. famine or scarcity. monkish communities there are many precious and the priceless man i s . probably in correct. as well as on the other. Since the establishment of government in the kingdom there has been no there has been built a vihara. and when he looked all round and saw the priceless pearls. and fifteenth days of the month. and the sincerity of the faith and reverence of the population inside the city are also great. who get their food from their common stores. no revolution or disorder. he came to himself. is Beneath the tree an image (of Buddha) seated.merchants. which the monks and commonalty reverence and look up to without ever becoming wearied. fourteenth. and he wished to take them to himself by force. and that no bhikshu should enter it till after he had been in his mind). In three days. The king practises the Brahmanical purifications. where. At the heads of the four principal streets there have been built preaching halls. while the monks and commonalty from all quarters come together to hear the Law. about the inquiries as to the standing of visitors in the ° made at monasteries monkhood. however. and set forth a pulpit. The lanes and passages are kept in good order.

' A Kalpa. Law. and take as much them Buddha is always brought forth in the middle of the Ten days beforehand the king grandly caparisons a large elephant. p. exists . : — . denotes a great period of time.FESTIVAL OF BUDDHA'S TOOTH. for the world what the character of all his ^ past births required. The king. for 1497 years. they take their great bowls. Buddha's tooth will be brought forth. vol. Buddhist Suttas. he continued in the world for another-. xi. equal ^ ' * to one followed by ninety-seven ciphers. and did not spare his own life. during three Asahkhyeya-kalpas *. want. on which he mounts a man who can speak distinctly. vessels will hold. life of a dove^. 15. See chapter He had been born in the Sakya house. manifested his activity. wife. In many such ways as these did he undergo pain for the sake of all living. prepares elsewhere in the city a 105 common supply of as the food for five or six thousand more. . And so it was. Since that event. besides. whether forty-five years. we have seen. he he gave his body to feed a starving tigress ^ he grudged not his marrow and brains. as an alms ^ . When his connexion with the living was completed*. See chapter ix. and son he plucked out his eyes and gave them to tooth of third The month. city. that. Asahkhyeya denotes sum for which a conventional term — according to Chinese calculations equal to one followed by seventeen ciphers Eitel. and all living beings have had long-continued sadness. and go (to the place of distribution). and make the following proclamation 'The Bodhisattva. 121. according to Thibetan and Singhalese. Behold! ten days after this. and taken to the Abhayagiri-vihara. and note on P . the light of the world has gone out ^. 89. He gave up kingdom. so that and the unconverted were converted. having become Buddha. all returning with When any full. 89. to do it. Compare the Sacred Books of the East. teaching and transforming. preaching his those who had no rest found rest. he attained to pari-nirvana (and died). xi. Let all and each. and he had done They could no more p. a period during is which a physical universe the highest formed and destroyed. the World-honoured one. to beat a large drum. see him. Every ]Maha- kalpa consists of four Asahkhyeya-kalpas. and is dressed in royal robes. he cut off a piece of his flesh to ransom the it cut off his head and gave . pp.

and then as a stag All these figures are brightly coloured and grandly if is executed. and ignorant of joy or grief. 1 16-124. Stories. looking as is they were alive. B. . is I take the name Sama from He says in a note that the Sama Jataka.' the B. make the roads smooth as offerings to and it. 'as a flash of lightning. so that Nidana Katha he earth.' Julien's my own first version was 'as the changing flashes of M^thode does not give the phonetic value in Sanskrit of IjJ^^. Beal's rewsed version. pp. 'his appearance as a bright flash of light. ^ In an analysis of the number of times and the difterent forms in which Sakyamuni had appeared in his Jataka births. where on the way hall of offerings are presented to Buddha the Abhayagiri-vihara. 158) unconscious though she be. given by Hardy (I\I. or a horse now as the king of elephants ^. he appeared in the Tushita heaven. p. of which ' Hardy. this But what the Sama Jataka was do not yet know. is over. or laics. for themselves. so as to line both different bodily sides of the road. the five hundred forms : in which the Bodhisattva has there as the course of his history appeared — here as Sudana^.. In it.' to enter in womb of Maha-maya. I represented in the Sanchi sculptures. After this the tooth of Buddha brought forth.' Giles.' p. M. the king exhibits. Everyand thus it arrives at the There monks and laics are preceded Sudana or Sudatta was the name of the Bodhisattva in the birth which his appearance as Sakyamuni or Gotama.' good grandly adorn the lanes and by-ways. p. en . the two Chinese characters in the text ' should be translated eclair ' the change into Sama. Sama ^.' his distinguishing attribute in the ' being entire self-renunciation and alms-giving. gives a long account. it. in his version. 158. as well as the Vessantara.' lightning. when he became the Supreme Buddha.. he fulfilled 'the Perfections. and in carried along in the middle of the road. as Sudana. is : made Even she by my free-giving's mighty power was shaken seven Then. monks who wish in to amass merit condition. when he passed away. This to say (' Buddhist Birth Stories. it is said that he had appeared six times as an elephant ten times as a deer and four times as a horse. This period is known as the Vessantara Jataka. la transformation Beal.' first Rdmusat gives for them.io6 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HIEX. But adopting ' name. and provide abundant store of flowers and incense to be used When this proclamation in . see also 'Buddhist Birth Nidana Katha. 100). and be born as Sakyamuni. . due time the ^ times.

called the Maha-vihara. 231. which flourished in Ceylon. 141. of such lofty virtue. when (the tooth) is returned to the vihara within the city. CHAPTER XXXIX. with a vihara on it. asked whether the bhikshu had They answered in the affirmaattained to the full degree of Wisdom ^. 400. He has lived for more than forty years in an apartment of stone. named Dharma-gupta^.d. 230. honoured and looked up to by all the kingdom. a. —Davids' Buddhism. that the people all surmised that he was an Arhat. without doing one another any harm. called the Chaitya^ where there may be 2000 monks. saying that he was an Arhat. ' Possibly. as the regular rules prescribed. is South of the city seven le there a vihara. the founder of a school. that he has brought snakes and rats to stop together in the same room. however. ' and asked the bhikshu. buried him after the fashion of an Arhat. . I way of construing. light lamps. tive. There had been among them a Sramana.' &c. collected in crowds.' Eitel. The hill the sacred of Mihintale. about eight miles due east of the Bo ^ tree. and perform all the day and night without ceasing. the king came to examine into the point and having assembled the monks according to rule. They burn been completed. pp. and so holy and pure in his observance of the disciplinary When he rules. Among them there is a Sramana of great virtue. says (p. and the forms of ceremonial reverence are observed according to the rules. 107 prescribed services. where 3000 monks reside. SERMON OF A DEVOTEE. drew near his end. On fast-days the door of that vihara is opened. when he died. The king accordingly. pictures. It is defined as ' a fane. p.CREMATION OF AN ARHAT. ' Chaitya is a general term designating all places and objects of religious wor- ship which have a reference to ancient Buddhas. &c. CREMATION OF AN ARHAT.' But Fa-hien gives no intimadon of Dharmaprefer the other gupta's founding a school.' 'a place for worship and presenting hill offerings. and including therefore Stflpas and temples as referred to is well as sacred relics. till ninety days have incense. Forty le to the east of the Abhayagiri-vihara there is a hill. P2 . statues. constantly showing such gentleness of heart. 31): Eitel 'A famous ascetic.

all over which oil of sweet basil was poured. five le east from the vihara there was reared a great pile of firewood. in multitudes all quarters. in form like our funeral car. the composed his mind his return to when he had usages there in all is and perhaps ' before ' eyes. See the description of a funeral car and the East. and the same in Near the top were laid sandal. the king himself presented flowers and incense. they wrapped (the body) round and round ^ They made a large carriage-frame. every one. from a distance into the midst of the flames. This disposes of difficulty occasioned by the dragons and fishes. When this was finished. ' The pyre served the purpose of a burial-ground or grave. was in this (country). Compare Buddhist xs\-iii. but the contrar)'. the car was lifted on the pile. to assist the burning. fragrant wood. and then a light was applied. There ' is nothing in the text to necessitate such a Suttas. first convoked a great and incense. This king must have been Maha-nana 410-432). and only saw his burial. but without the dragons and fishes -. they collected and preserved the bones. with a reverent heart. aloe. 93. and other kinds of height. and hence our it author writes of * as such. vol.\t of cremation he had taken at after the time.' shows that whatever notes account in the the te. At that time the king*. and proceeded to erect a tope. Fahien had not arrived in time (to see the distinguished Shaman) alive. (a.io8 THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. who was a sincere believer in the Law of Buddha and wished to build a new vihara for the monks. pulled off his upper garment. Four or At from the time of the cremation. and presented offerings of flowers While they were following the car to the burial-ground ^. and threw it.' pp. With clean white hair-cloth. its version.' this which I have expressed by China. On the four sides (of the pile) they made steps by which to ascend it. and his ' our. with his feather-fan and umbrella. ^ It seems strange that this should have been understood as a wrapping of the immense pyre with ^ the cloth. While the fire was blazing. the king and the people. collected together. Book XIX. almost like silk. decorations in the Sacred Books of ' the Lt K\. d. In the time of his . When the cremation was over. which might be more than thirty cubits square. ' Fa-hien's ]{:{^ ^.' The IS at the end merely the concluding particle. 92.

SERMON ON THE ALMS-BOWL OF BUDDHA. at the foot of the Thien-shan range (E. after so many hundred after so many hundred years. 109 rice. H. pp. d.' ° Western Tukhara xii. and the king himself turned up a furrow on the four sides of the ground within which the building was to be. 247. no one should venture to annul or alter it. and presenting his he selected a pair of first-rate oxen. the devas he will present to it it flowers these have expired. p. 368-410). the horns of M'hich were grandly decorated with gold. When Jambudvipa. from generation to After giving the monks a meal of ofterings (on the occasion). . and now gotten so it is in Gandhara ^. silver. of Han it . years. 'it will . 35. golden plough had been provided. and taken into his naga palace. and the precious substances. to Kharachar ^ after . When be about to attain to perfect Wisdom (and become vAW again separate into four bowls *. whence they came. after so many hundred years. Buddhaghosha wrote his commentaries. the exact number it). Both were great builders of viharas. the pitakas were first translated into Under RIaha-nana. " and when the Bodhisattva Maitreya sees it. to Khoten of years. it after so many hundred will return to Central India. Fa-hien had seen See the Mahdvansa. (^ ^X) is '^ '^^ same probably as as the Tukhara (|x) of chapter a king of which there described trying to carry off the bowl from Purushapura. (to the effect) that from that time onwards. * p. it at Purushapura. After that. Upatissa (a.. Instead of 'Anna 'the Chinese recensions have Vina. when Fa-hien heard him. it will come to Sinhala and . In this country Fa-hien heard an Indian devotee." and with . he will say The alms-bowl of Sakyamuni Buddha is come. where it will be received by the king Maitreya shall it Buddha). He then endowed the community of the monks with the population. which Eitel says was ' the ancient capital of Gandhara. ' North of the Bosteng lake See note 3. ' See chapter xii. foil. many hundred years (he gave. Singhalese. assembly. 56). nagas. say: — 'Buddha's alms-bowl was at After so who was first in ' reciting Vaisali. which will return to the of the sea top of mount Anna *. and houses. but he has forgo to Western Tukhara^. will ascend to the Tushita with a all heaven sigh. a Sutra from the pulpit. many hundred years. writing the grant on plates of metal. After Maitreya has become predecessor. to the land years. will return to and incense for seven days. A generation. fields.

' home That is. . and kill one another. he is \vill whom ' and conversion there and a connexion trans- mitted from the past \" (Such was the Sutra. Fa-hien ^\^shed to write it down as a portion of doctrine but the man said. After that extinction has taken place.000 years. and when the bowl has disappeared. cut. the four deva kings the case of the previous Buddha). Buddha (with their The thousand will all use the same alms-bowl the Law of Buddha will go on double its length till it reaches 80. but through becoming exceedingly wicked. Those among them on whom there is blessing will withdraw from society among the hills and when the wicked have exterminated one another. During this period of a five years' life. gradually to be extinguished. cherishing a gentle and sympathising heart. and doing all lawless things. he will in the first of the Law left by the Sakya who have quitted their families. the length of our life has been shortened and reduced even to five years. secondly and thirdly. butter. When each one in this way practises that faith and righteousness. Let us now unite together in the practice of what is good. undertaken the five Prohibitions and the eight Abstinences. till it is only a period of five years. those whose Karma in the past should be rewarded by such conversion in the present. and given offerings to the three Precious Ones save those between .' but Vina or VTnataka. and oil will all vanish away. rice. the fabled of the deva guardians of the bowl. and carefully cultivating good faith and righteousness. they will again come forth. .no bowls as they did THE TEA VELS OF FA-HIEN. " The men of former times enjoyed a very great longevity. will again think of the in Buddha. and begins to turn the wheel of place save those among the disciples Law. the life of man will be shortened. and men will become exceedingly wicked. and say among themselves. Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa. life will go on to . his When Maitreya appears in the world. The grass and trees which they lay hold of will change into swords and clubs. with which they will hurt. indeed. it is discourse). and those who have accepted the three Refuges. and Ana for Sudarsana are names of one or other of the concentric circles of rocks surrounding mount Meru. ' This is taken from no only the utterance of my own mind.

425. The merchants wished to go to the smaller vessel.' a sort of fourth Pitaka. according to Eitel. the Dirghagama and Sainyuktagama. he took passage in a large merchantman. Sarnyuktagamas (mixed Agamas). .' or is ' the sphere within Law are of Buddha of the first is influential. cut the connecting rope. Having obtained these Sanskrit works. and to which was attached by a rope a smaller vessel.PASSAGE TO CHINA BY SEA. Fa-hien abode pitaka of in this country two years . and. The vessel sprang aleak and the water came in. and then they encountered a great wind. With a favourable wind. containing Indian and Chinese miscellaneous that works. fill. fearing that too many would come. feeling their risk of instant death. CHAPTER . Nanjio's The Agamas Sutras hinayana. — all being works unknown in the land of Han. But Dr. on board of which there were more than 200 men.(Sutras). DISASTROUS PASSAGE TO JAVA AND THENCE TO CHINA ARRIVES AT SHAN-TUNG AND GOES TO NANKING. they proceeded eastwards for three days. into four classes. succeeded in getting a copy of the VinayaMahisasakah (school)'. as a provision against damage or injury to the large one from the perils of the navigation. CONCLUSION OR L'ENVOI BY ANOTHER . translated into Chinese by Buddhajiva and a Chinese Sramana about a. See Nanjio's fourth Canon. The merchants were greatly alarmed. Mahisasakah means which the ' the school of the trans- formed earth.' The ^ school one of the subdivisions of the Sarvastivadah. Davids says no work of this name is known either in Sanskrit or Pali literature. and also the Samyukta-safichayathe pitaka^. 545 and 504. in addition (to his acquisitions in Patna). Afraid that the vessel would they took their bulky goods and threw ' No. but the men on board it. 4. of the while Meaning 'Miscellaneous division Collections.d. AFTER TWO YEARS TAKES SHIP FOR CHINA. XL. 5. divided. the or the Dirghagathird class mas ^ (long contains the Agamas) being treatises on right conduct. . WRITER. 1 1 22 in Nanjio's Catalogue. pp.

rainy. only the great waves definite course. and is no knowing east or west If the weather were dark and stars was it possible to go forward. On the sea it was stopped. p. they could tell east and west. * In the text ^ ^. and reach my resting- way the tempest* continued day and night. to meet with whom is speedy death. moon. His words in his heart were not exactly words of prayer. the place of the leak was discovered. The sea was deep and bottomless. and emitting a brightness like that of fire.' but two things evidently are intended. were to be seen. ' We have in the text a phonetisation of the Sanskrit Kundika. into the water. (the protection of) the church of the land of ' Han ^. and the voyage was resumed. The great ocean spreads out. where. with huge turtles and other monsters of the deep (all about). At his Ones (the ' novitiate Fa-hien three Refuges [^ ^1 .112 THE TRAVELS OF FA-HI EN. till on the day the ship was carried to the side of an island. on the ebbing of the tide. on which (hereabouts) there are many pirates. as=' washing basin. with some other articles. not knowing where they were going.' = the typhoon. had sought the refuge of the three Precious of last chapter). without any In the darkness of the night. of which the congregation ' or body of the monks was one and here his thoughts turn naturally to the branch of it in China. 46. he could only think with all his heart of Kwan-she-yin ". ta-fung. but^very nearly so. them * and washingand cast them into the sea but fearing that the merchants would cast overboard his books and images. and (the ship) again went forward in In this thirteenth . I have travelled ! far in search of our Law. breaking on one another. . There only by observing the sun. return from place my Let me. The merchants were full of terror. * ' See note 5. clear. and there was no place But when the sky became where they could drop anchor and stop. (the ship) went as she was carried by the wind. and commit his life to Fa-hien also took his pitcher basin. supernatural (power). which is explained in Eitel by the two characters that follow. . 'the great wind. by your dread and wanderings. (saying in effect). a boundless expanse.

THEY GET TO LAND.' The merchants hereupon were A ' . voyage on the sixteenth day of the fourth month. when the night-drum had sounded the second watch. (Fa-hien) again embarked in another large merchantman. through their dread and communities of the land of Han mysterious protection. where various forms of error and Brahmanism are flourishing. We must not for the sake of one man allow patron of Fa-hien. each pints. and the merchants took counsel and said. while Buddhism in it is not worth speaking After staying there for five months. They used the salt-water of the sea for cooking. If you land this Sramana. ourselves to be exposed to such imminent peril. After day-break. If you land the bhikshu. they arrived at a country called Java-dvipa. and now the time is passed by many days ' . I will go to the king. They took a course Fa-hien kept his retreat on board the ship. intending to fetch Kwang-chow. month. you must at the same time land me and if you do not. and did not dare immediately to land (Fa-hien). Let us land the bhikshu and place him on some island-shore. and the made mistakes. then you must kill me. said to them. the Brahmans deliberated together and said. At this sailing-masters looked at one another and time the sky continued very dark and gloomy.' however. At the ordinary rate of sailing we ought to have reached Kwang-chow. there would have been no way of escape. man getting two Soon the whole was nearly gone. was preser\'ed to day-break. perplexed. and commenced the of. More than seventy days passed (from their leaving Java). Fa-hien again with and the monkish and. and honours the bhikshus. and carefully divided the (fresh) water. It is having this Sramana on board which has occasioned our misfortune and brought us this his heart directed his thoughts to Kwan-she-j-in . After more than a to the north-east. 113 If she had come on any hidden rock. which also had on board more than 200 men. when I get to the land of Han. and inform against you. the right direction. The king also reveres and believes the Law of Buddha. which threw the merchants all and passengers into consternation. and the provisions and water were nearly exhausted. they encountered a black wind and tempestuous rain. After proceeding in this way for rather more than ninety days. ' great and bitter suffering. They carried provisions for fifty days. q .

of whom they might ask what the place was. 'Who are you?' ship to the north-west. ' What said. after the may have lived. when brought before Fii- hien. the text appears to me " confused and imperfect. looking out for land .d. change of name was adopted. and having is on the east of All the country there included in the present Phing-too dates from the (a. these vegetables exactly were is difficult to say . Some said that they had not yet got to Kwang-chow. and now suddenly arriving at this shore. published in 181 it 5. on the borders of the prefecture of Ch'ang-kwang '. and seeing those (well-known) vegetables. they did not know whereabouts they were. and. and then called on Fa-hien to act Fa-hien first spoke assuringly to as interpreter and question them. and others that they had passed it. They had passed through many perils and hardships. them. Williams' Dictionary. and ' They had got to the south of the Shan-tung promontory. and the foot of rises mount it. was changed kwang. and immediately got good water and vegetables. Chow of the department Lae-chow. the lei and kwoh-. (some of them) got into a small boat and entered a creek. to look for some one They found two hunters. they knew indeed that it was the land of Han. 479-501). Unable to come to a definite conclusion. lie^. however.' For two or three columns here. the district of Tseih-mih Keao Chow. and there are different readings of the characters for them. and then slowly and distinctly asked them. and had been in a state of anxious apprehension for many days together. but under the into Ch'ang- dynasty of the After Ch'e (^^ ^^). under it kwoh. which east from still under the same name on the extreme south of the peninsula. must we not have held a wrong course They replied. whom they brought back with them. any inhabitants nor any traces of them. I suppose these men a were really hunters . Not seeing.114 THE TRAVELS OF ? ' FA. Lao. and composed the narrative of his travels. however. but the rendering of is simply a soup of simples. ' brings the two names together in a phrase. ' We are disciples of are you looking for among these hills?' Buddha ? He then They began to ' asked. they thought they would please him by saying . because he was Sramana. The name Phing-too Fa-hien Han it dynasty.HIEN. Immediately they directed the and after sailing day and night for twelve days. See the Topographical Tables of the different Dynasties ^ (^ |^ '^^ What ^ ^). they reached the shore on the south of mount Lao ^.

but Nan-king. but in a different meaning and connexion. immediately asked for (a portion of) their money and goods. 'to Rdmusat. a part of Ts'ing-chow under the (ruhng) House of Ch'ang- When city. but as it I have said in a previous note. i they were disciples of Buddha. q 2 . ' Probably the present department of Yang-chow in Keang-soo .to .' He asked further.END OF THE TRAVELS. the merchants were glad. and took them back with him to the seat of his government. (but) when (Fa-hien) arrived at Ts'ing-chow. he immediately came to the seashore with an escort to meet (the traveller). (the prefect there) begged him retreat remain with him) for a winter and a summer. wished. the narrative does not go on so clearly as generally does. Fa-hien.' character here has occurred twice before. and Giles take to it as equivalent to But his followers do not 'sacrifice' Buddha. at That is a priestly term. Beal. After the summer was ended. hurry to Ch'ang-gan but as the business which he had in hand was important. having been separated for a long time from . and receive the books and images. or could. 'This is the border of the prefecture of Ch'ang-kwang. they heard this. After Fa-hien set out from Ch'ang-gan. But what had disciples of Buddha in their hunting and taking life ? They were caught own trap. ' ' Was. this prefect be Le E? Probably not Ch'ang-gan. it took him six years to reach his (fellow--)masters. which was the capital of the Eastern Tsin dynasty under another name. ' We wanted to ' to present to Buddha. ' 115 get To-morrow is the some peaches is fifteenth day of the seventh month. and sent men to kwang The prefect Le E was a reverent believer in the Law of Buddha. When he heard that a Sramana had arrived in a ship across the sea. he went south to the Capital * and at an interview with the masters (there) exhibited the Sutras and the collection of the V n a y a (which he had procured).' this?' They replied. to do with and said they were looking ' for peaches. bringing with him books and images. The Chinese sacrifice. and should not be employed of anything done Buddhistic services. On (to this the merchants w-ent back in the direction of Yang-chow ^ ^ . What country Tsin.

It was in the year Keah-yin^. so that counting from a. while I accept this hesitation. the ninth year of the . thus incurring hardships on the sea upon double form. a character ' again.' which we have met with so often unless we suppose that ^ j^ . Fa-hien's travels had occupied According him fifteen j'ears. and not the twelfth. The whole of this paragraph is probably Fa-hien's own conclusion of his The second half of the second sentence. From the sandy desert westwards on to India. the cyclical designation of which was Ping-shin. 399. the twelfth year of the period E-he of the his return. in the same form which he adopted whole narrative. through which he passed were a few under thirty." at which the second ^ is placed. He ' narrative. "^ There is an error of date here. must be the three Precious Ones. as that in which he set out. might suggest the is There are. The countries . for which is difficult to account.ii6 Central India his return it ^ . the three ' same as the is employed which is similarly applied nowhere else and Honoured Ones.d. do it with That the following and concluding paragraph is is from another hand. For the name India. the year of his getting to Ts'ing-chow would have been Kwei-chow. to receive help and protection in his perils and therefore he wrote out an account of his experiences. the preceding paragraph. through the dread power of the three Honoured Ones ^. he therefore (went on) without regarding his own poor life. or (the dangers to be encountered) and difficulties in a was fortunate enough. both in sentiment and style seems to necessitate in the Chinese text. there can be no doubt. the beauty of the dignified demeanour of the monkhood and of the transforming influence of the Law was beyond the power of language fully to describe and reflecting how our masters . two peculiar phraseologies in it which work of another hand. And it as different as possible in style from the simple and straightforward it narrative of Fa-hien.d. but that was the tenth year of the period E-he. the year Ke-hae. however. had not heard any complete account of them. where the first ' . is printed in all the revisions for j^^ jtt. a.' which has often occurred. that worthy readers might share with him in what he had heard and said ^. I On some the whole. The to year Keah-yin was 414 . our ascribing indirect it to him. stoppages there extended over (other) six years and on took him three years to reach Ts'ing-chow. placed. writing on the for his impulse of his own thoughts. THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 'the World- honoured one. paragraph as Fa-hien's own.

in met the devotee Falodged him with myself in the winter study '. constitutes 'a great year. which seems to it. I asked him again and The man was modest and complaisant. again about his travels.x The 'year-star' the planet Jupiter. and the perspiration flows forth. tie the twelfth year of is E-he to Keah-yin. is ' When I look back on what I heart involuntarily moved. how- period E-he as the date at which the narrative silk. but unfortunately there is a particle at the end of the second date (^). and answered readily according to the truth. I thereupon advised him to enter into details where he had at first only given a summary. remove the error as it stands at present. . He said himself. as another designation of be possible to fi. was written out for the bamboo-tablets and the and then begins the Envoy. my That I encountered danger and trod the most perilous places.' These This man is one of those words affected me in turn. (Eastern) Tsin T17 dynasty. where he and talked with Fa-hien. ' We ' library sat do not know who the writer of the Envoy was. The winter study or would be the name of the apartment in his monastery or house. and in the meantime must leave ' that difficulty as I have found it. have gone through. : might accomplish but a ten-thousandth part of what I hoped. I do not know. and I thought who have seldom been seen from ancient times to the present. in twelve years. Henceforth I know that the influence of sincerity finds no obstacle. and he proceeded to relate all things in order from the beginning to the end. our meetings for conversation. without thinking of or sparing myself.' This would . the revolution of which. and thought of nothing but to do my I best in Thus if it was that exposed my simplicity and straightforwardness. hien. that On his arrival I and there. the year-star being in I Virgo-Libra. my life where death seemed inevitable.LENVOI. was because I had a definite aim. Since the I — ' Great Doctrine flowed on to the East there has been no one to be compared with Hien in his forgetfulness of self and search for the Law. in the summer.' Whether it would exactly by mathematical calculation in what year Jupiter was in the Chinese zodiacal sign embracing part of both Virgo and Scorpio. and we might join on 'This year Keah-yin' to that paragraph. and thereby help to solve the difficulty of the passage. 'In the twelfth year of E-he. at the close of the period of retreat.

it does not overcome.ii8 ever great. Does not the accomplishing of such service arise from forgetting (and disregarding) what what is is (generally) considered as important. and that force of it will does not fail to accomplish whatever service undertakes. which THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. and attaching importance to (generally) forgotten ? .

105. 89. when Hall of Abhayagiri monastery. in 65. A-e (Asita. 31. 70 . Champa. 78. Brahmans. 80 . estimates of the number of 5-8. 104. 108. 86. 107. 73. death he renounced the world. 32. Bimbisara (king). 103. Asoka. by Fa-hien the patra Chang-yih. legends of that time. Cremation of footprint. 38. Bhikshu. and his brother. 86. 109. vihara and pillar. inscription. Both are called tree.the. or Arhat first labours afterwards. 80 . page 65. for. 103. Chafichamana. 70 where Samadhi. Asahkhyeya-kalpa. 75. 49. 34. 100. 33. 106. Arya. 66. Anagamin. 81. Suicide of. Anuruddha. 19. of jade. A-le. 82. Maitreya Bodhisattva. the. 86. Fa-hien's name Buddhists. his wonderful stride and 24. different 30. he died. 13. Brahmanical Trimurti. 81. 30. 49. Arhan. 60. Topes and monasteries in. 82. 25. 75-77. 10 Ajatasatru (king). of. Legends of Buddha. Gaya. pillar of Ne-le. . Bodhisattva. where he endured austerities. 91. . 105. 109. 1 1. 77. 88. of. 47. 83.INDEX. 56. (king). Buddha's preaching. inci65 66 where . 43. Chandaka. 74. The Brah- Alms-bowl of Buddha. 57. 102. 87 . Buddha. and statue Books of See Vinaya. Buddhism. 55. 27. 89 (in . Ch'ang-gan. Condition and customs 42.000 topes. 88. Brahma person of the Abhidharma. . Ananda. 44. great tope 77. no. 35. 69. 102. 90. In Chinese Lo-han). 102. in mistake Chang K'een. In 70. 72. in Ceylon. 92. 72. 51 . Central India. 89. 100. Ahgulimalya. Ceylon. . Chandalas. Discipline. and halls. the. rishi). 45. 40. an Arhat. his his his city Kingdom. 60. 90-92. 57. 115. 76. His attainment of the Buddhaship. 48. 43- Chakravartti king. 85. the. 107. 29. Bodhisattva. 54. 10 1 54. in. incarnation of dents of his early life. 86. 10. 87. 74. legend of his naraka. 45. 71. 57. man Radha-sami. 50. 31. Bhikshuni. 1 13. 83. Bo tree. 50. 9. Anna (mount). 105. Ambapali. his spirit-built palace. or the Middle 28. the first Buddha et al. 75. and wished to build 84. 61.

Yu-hwuy. 3. 43. or the land of Han. 114. His surname. 100. Sha-che. or Udyana. 28 to. Tamalipti. 54. Soo-hoGandhara. 47. the the 85 . 11. 96. or fo lowers of. Too-wei. Desert of Gobi. Kusanagara. 100. Chang. 68. kingdom of K'eenof kwei. or Swastene. 53 A-le. 83 87 . constituents Sankasya. Lung. Peshawur. and offerings to them. Council in Srataparna cavern. 96-98. Dipahkara Buddha. Rajagriha. : Four spiritual truths. 109. Gay a. . 32 Central India. K'eeh-cha. ' The Shadow Covered. Gaya. E-he (period). in Nagara. Purushapura. one of the of Buddhism. 41. crosses the Indus. 64. Poh-na. Sravasti in Kosala. 90. 107. 29 . Little Snowy mountains. 86 . and especially the Corean appended to this volume. 109. .2. 24. 29. Dragons or nagas. disciples. 6 1 Devaloka. 63 Na-pei-kea. Danta-kashtha. 75. 67. 15. 57. Nala. 26 . 4. 62. Gandhara. 14. the. First image made of Buddha. 100. confluence of the five rivers. Takshasila. 93. Champa. . Dakshina. New . Discourse Ceylon. 21. or Bhida. or Dana and 55- danapati. : of Woo-chang. 25. . 72 . 2. 113 . Foo Kung-sun. 81 Gridhra-kfita hill. Pe-t'oo. 22. and notices of life. Fa-hien. 68.THE TRA VELS OF FA-HIEN. 1 2. 116. Shen-shen. 75. Pataliputtra. 41 . 96. 10 . Nagara. 106. 109. Vaisali. . loi . 36. that 1 1 .' 60. 80. kubja. 93 . 12 . or Brahmanic god. and four classes of Stages of his travels —Ch'ang-gan. 13. . in China. recrosses the Indus. sions of text it. 4. . or Ceylon. 10 10 . 41 19. or Hidda. Devala ya. Ganges. . dragon of the Rama white-eared dragon. 52 Srataparna cave. Elapattra. 52. Rajagriha. 98. Dharma-gupta. or . 28 at al. 24 . Yu-teen. 70. 64 Kapilavastu. 16. or Benares. 54. 113. or sermon of a devotee in 77. 55 . the Capital. 87-90. legend of Buddha's. T'o-leih. . 70 . 54 . Four great topes in North India.j-ih. 42. Genuineness of Different recen- Four places of regular occurrence history of all in the his narrative. KanyaCanouge. 79. 38-40. 3. 92. Singhala. 94 . 10 1 1 . . Shantung. 41 . Charcoal tope. 33 He-lo. Muttra. 15. 31 . Mathura. 40. 11. 22. 33. Devadatta. . Endowments of the monkish communities. Woo-e. Java. 85 Vaisali. 100. 21. 50. 81 . 44. Kausambf. no. lived to the age of eighty-eight. 108. Patna. desert of Gobi. Dharma. loi . Kasi. 38. 31. 69 mount Gurupada. 54 . Che-yen (pilgrim). Now-t'an. Rama. 58. or Patna. VaranasT. tope. 57. 12 . 115. Tun-hwang. China. Tsze-hoh. Deva. 23.the Law. in his early 1. Buddhas. 60. 32 . Lo-e.

Legends of Takshasila. 116. 10. 74. et al. Ke-hae (year). 42. 53. 9. Death of. Keah-yin (year). K'een-kwei. 12. a night on. 33 and his tope. 10. 245 statue 28. in North India. Kau. Madhyamayana. 96. 94. 54. 27. King 14. Habits of the Khoteners. 36. 24. Kosala. Lung. Ho-shang. 84.sambi. 30. 76. of. with 67. 28. 82. 57. 46. Kasi. Jataka stories. Kanyakubja. re- danta-kashtha. (pilgrim). 83. 109. 55. Kwan-she-yin. Legends of topes and monastery. 92. 22. 64-68. He-lo. 15. 21. 31. Death India. 45. Gridhra-kuta hill. Hwang-che Hwuy-keen Hwuy-king (period). 41. 40. Of his (Central). 47. Hwuy-wei (pilgrim). (North). 16. 48. Legends connected with. Le E (prefect). 82. Grove of the Getting of Eyes. 36. 10. Jambudvipa. Kwang-chow. 41. . Crossing 26 . it. Jivaka. 15. 28. Maha-prajapati. 113. 55. Legends of Buddha 30. of. Hinayana. Gomati monastery. . 40. in. Hwuy-ying (pilgrim). Khoten. 34. 44. 18. Le Hao. Han. Hwuy-tah (pilgrim). King's New monastery. 66. Mahakasyapa. 80. Gosirsha Chandana wood. Kanishka (king). 83. 17. 39. 94. 71. 54. 21. as Bodhisattva. 56 57. 15. 10. 16-20. (Mugalan). 58. 82. Hall of Buddha. 80. 32. Kapilavastu. 58.INDEX. 109. Little Snowy mountains. 73. et of. burning of the. Jetavana vihara. 41. 39. et al. Kao-ch'ang. the pilgrims. Park of the. 9. 25. 73. the Lumbini (garden). 93. 36. 59. Maha-maudgalyayana 48. 22. 67. Birth of Buddha Sympathy of monks at. K'eeh-ch'a. 109. 95. 85. Kan Ying. 114. 1 7. 55. 23. 31. 18. 89. 11. 72. garden 14. Kaun(lin3a and his companions. (pilgrim). 55. 29. 14. 18. 19. 34. 112. . 15. or Canouge. 29. 36. Prasenajit. See China. 59. 29. Kharachar. al. Kophene. 32. Mahayana. (South). Venuvana). name 58. 20. Lo-e. the land of. Lichchhavis. 9. Gurupada (mount). 53. the. 16. 29. 14. 10. crossing it. 102. Fa-hien spends Kasyapa brothers and their disciples. Kasyapa Buddha's entire skeleton. 41. 41. Indus. 26. 115. Karanda Bamboo (Karanda Maitreya Bodhisattva.

Rajagriha (new and old) legends and incidents. 36. 81. See Relics. Pari-nir\'ana. or Sahgharamas. 60. . 16-19 at Patna. Ninety-six sorts of erroneous views. tooth.2 8. 48. and South Poh-na. 22. 81. 39.79. 50. Ne-le 65. 68. 65. alms- Nanda. Monkish customs. : Relics of Buddha — spittoon. Retreat (the summer). 44. Quinquennial assembly of monks. 29. 42. 89. Park of The ' rishi's Deer-wild. 11. 89. Monkish food out of the ordinary hours. 107. Saiiiyuktabhidharma- Shadow of Buddha. Muchilinda (dragon).77. . . 14. 41. 82. al. the. Sahkasya. Monastery of the Great Heap. Woo-e). 44. 74. or Muttra. 83 88. Pe-t'oo. JMerchants (five hundred). hospitals and dispensaries of. 2500 gathas. Monks (4000 in in Shen-shen).88. 37 . Sfitra of the Parinir\"ana-vaipulya Sutra. Sama. 113. Quinquennial assembly of. 57. 36. Rahula. Shikshapada. or Sahghati. the. 105. 33. Pat. 80. 21. 79 (a Brahman). Samadhi. 33. 36. 23. 39. 109. FA-HIEX. See King Prasenajit. Onion mountains. Nagara. 73. Mathura. 74 Pisuna. Nirvana. 82. 36. 10. India).or Patna. 15. Nala. Sahghali. or Peshawur. 1 7 . 29. 30. Pratyeka Buddhas. Khoten). io6. Sariputtra. shadow. 27. hair and nails. 42. 33. monasteries of. 11. 34. Sing-shao (pilgrim). 76. 56. 79i 97~99. 52. Naraka. 63. 46. 23. et P'ing (king of Plain (Central Chow dynasty). . 81. Paramitas. 47. city and bowl. 80-86. ]Monastery (Pigeon). staff. et al. 62. Mother of Buddha (Maha-maya). 15. 11. 46 . 69. 21. 96-98. the Mahasahghika rules. 106. pewter pillar. Pao-)'un (pilgrim). 78. 39 et al. 42.Manuscripts copied there. 24. et al. 39. 80. 81. 12. skull-bone. 22. Sarvastivadah rules. 98-99 . 10. 15 (several myriads in Purushapura. 89. New Rajagriha. 54. 23. Sahghali. Rama and its tope. Monastery (Goniati). or Jumna river. 46. Monasteries. 40. 46. Shen-shen. 90. 44-47. king. or ten commandments. Poonah. 47.aliputtra. 49. 11.THE TEA VELS OF MaSjusri. 53. Shay-e. sahghikah Abhidharma.' 94. in Ceylon. 41. Nirgrantha. 23. Influence of the. Maha- hridaya-(sastra). 46. Procession of images at Khoten. Sha-che. 13 . 23 . 17. 20. Now-t'an. 117. Mara. 22. 34. 27. 35. . 107 . Sakra. Prajna-paramita. or Bhida. (4000 79. See Relics. 99. Sang-king (pilgrim).

Smasanam. 63. Sj-mpathy of Indian grims. Vaisyas. Trayastrirnsas heaven. 28. Q'- Suddhodana. 18. Tushita heaven. or Books of Discipline. Subhadra. Sramana (Sraman. 123 Manu- Tripitaka. or Benares. Vaisalt. 84. 15. 108. T'un-hwang. 36. 47. Tao-ching (pilgrim). 67. Trisharana. Treasuries of the monasteries in Ceylon. 71. 16. Sudatta. 38. 24. Utpala bhikshunt. 24. new \ihara to monks in Ceylon. 70. 86. Singhala. et al. or bakyamuni. Tathagata. Vimoksha tope. 11. 100. 53. 84. 104. \\Tien the law of Buddha first went to Darada. 82. the East. Yang-chow. 29. 94. Srotipannas. 56-61. 59. Virfldhaha (Vaidfirya). Takshasila. T'o-leih. . legend of Buddha's ascent to and descent from. Vaisakha (mother). 63. Topes. scripts obtained in. 23. 54. 10. 85. 106. Vinaya. 28. 66. 32. 12. loo-iii. or Khoten. Snow mountains. Ts'in. 56. 25. et al. 49. Yu-hwuy. et al. 115. 67. UpaU. Srataparna cave. 10. Woo-e. 17. monks with pil- Varanasi. 56. 36. 27. et al. or Udyana. Vanity of life and of the body. 69. Sha-man). 21. 115. 41.INDEX. ^ravasti. 39> 40. 21. 64. Sudana. 98. Yang-low. Soo-ho-to (Swastene). 29. 40. or cave of the First Council. 103 . Sramanera. chiefs of. 72. 45. 37. Buddha hima model tope. anterior to Three Buddhas 63. 46. Upasena. 64. 29. self assisted in building Woo-chang. 55. King's grant of a Vihara. in. 14. 38. 99. rule regarding. Yu-teen. 10. or Ceylon. 30. 9. Topes and legends of. 48. Tamaliptt. Ts'ing-chow. 49. king. 9. 14 Tsze-hoh.

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\^ ^ n n m m m m M m. r. m> n ^> m n B ia m '^ m n ^f ib n ^. ^R' # PI m m M B # 1^. ^ W. M j£. ]\I '^. M ^. >^ n i^^ y$ B# n^ ^ A ^ m> ^^"^ m ^ n m m. ' S. ith M ^ ]^. ^ + ^ # # iW ^ M M ^. "^. 0. T. M ^. >li itb -^^ ^iJ. n m ':bl n 0. S. 1^ . m :I>H. pt m ^^ i ^. -flc ^. ^^ ^> ±. A ^ m. 1^^ ^ if ^ ^ -b ft. ii: ^ ^ ra v^^ =:- ffi itb + i i^ II. ^ i-di ^' # ^ ^. ^ -^ ith '\^> Tff tif ^ m =^ m w p^ ^ A> ^> m m ^ ^ n'f m -Y z^ B ^ ll:h *tfe >p^ ^Cl^ w> w. M ^ :^ IE T ^^f 1^ ^ ^ 5i =. P^. M a. M j[^. m tk "^^ "^ m. w ^ ^ ^ B#. ]^. .n '& m 4 pf n^ ^. M =? M. ' After S. S.m B. M. * H^ ^ ^ S^ Ui M ^. A m. m a J^> m ^ M i ^. A f. m ^8 ^. . insert * After ' j^. ^ ^ 1^ m 1^ M A.m ^ n m ^>r^ f^ . ^. ^g 1^ ^ M ^. ^ ^. # mA m :?^ 'A^. B. It.+m mmm m M "^ T y ^ m ih n >k m. ^ + ^ 0. m i< m m i< r^ m.|>|>|. i^.r^ m. ^ ^ it ^ ^. ± A ^ iW JI6 insert ' S. m M m m w n\. Contracted form in text. ' jM j^. ^ i^ ^ n ti ^ + # ^ B. Should be ^ ^. ^s ^ ^ ^ ft.1* ^ ^ > ^iJ ilf.^ M ^ m "^ A m "^ # H#. !i 5i ^ A 0. m m m m 7K. H! ^ ^:^ itB .

ft itb II itk' ^ m m. M ig ' S. in m 1^ A ^. A jl^ 4^ m n n t^. M^ ^ '' . ^ O # ^ §? ^ it f^ # lif ^ W A. ifr. ' S. M :. 4- m A ^ ^ B. iiT ^> ip IB. '^ m u m m ^ M ^ t^. S. '^. M invert. 51] ^ n >^ 11 ^ A ^4i A H psr P 11 :^.^c ' Text has a vulvar form. ?t ffi] M i r A :Nl! iii^. m ^. i^ # :! N" If. m fi # ^. rsi # 51J ft. " M . . M jj. ' * S.2^0 ft '^ +0 ^ + pg # itk m M ^i is. Tic t ^ Bra. * 1^ « ± # A A.. itk ^. m m m It 7i< m. . S. and elsewhere.^ m m A ^^ itt: #. ft ±. " S. If. M omit. iS. f^ m M m A ± >^ A M. m ^. IE ffl ^ m ^ Pi ill =L -»^ ^. pT A M.

^> m n\ it] ^ '^^ ^ >^ # ^ ^ M ^ il ii^ ^. M :j^.+ ^9 m ^ m. with ^[ inside. m> ^. * « M insert '^. -f".m ^p ^. After :^fe.^ A K M i^ H#. m m n M B. S. ^ -t ±. S. M s. 1^ M ^ fi m ^ +i Is # ^ ± m. ^ ^ M ^ ^ ^ H 41'=^ i^^A ^1 iE. S. ^. ^ ^ ^ m ^ ^ m m> m. ^ M. ' s. " S. m. . M -|-. 7> f. lij. A. ^. # ^ ^ * fi a & ^ ft-^# M ^ ^ ^F m =f' ^ » m' S. n ^1 ffi # n#. im "^^ 5<^ 7J t)t. M omit. w. A ^a ^ B> m Ht H m s. m H#. m ffii ^ H n 1^ B. % ^f. #^-ta^§»^B ^ ^. m Lij ^> b> ^ m m #^ ^ ^f #. ' '" '' S. A tr ^ JH A ^ iS € ^ t^ . After ^. ir *A' It . fl li 11 ^ ^ ft -.. M ». ^ci\ & m i^. M ||.. Text. IM ^. i^o fH Tit iii ^ A i: pg D M i*: ^ ® 1* pji H. ^ m n M ^' ^ 1^ M ^ ^ IM ^ "(t ^ it fl^ i ^.n> b. i' t^. * t^ M 'g'o ^. s. #. M omit. S. M insert ^ij pj^ ^. r. B. M omit. ' -^ itt. m s. B. |g ^#a. ill Ic vffi. IS ^ W ^ ^ ^. 13:.

4 itb . ^ m If M: M M. ^i ^ A. g ^ ^ ^ W ^ B ^! m m ^ ±. f^ m m i^ f^ m m ^ m m ^ * ^ ^ ^ m ^ m.iiii& ±. ^ ^.

^ ^ ^ W ^.in fjfc ^p w 1$ 1^ ji. .M^. ^.^ ^ 1^.'L 4*fe lii. ^ m ^ ft. iRf ^Cl\ . . ^ M «. t^ Ui ra it . 11 + ^^ ^ ^ ^ .e .^ % v^.m % ^ ^ r^ '& n '& ^. ^. ^. M* i^.g -t ^ ^^ ^= f^ # ^ ^ ^ ^ @ ^ ffl 5l5. *. . . ^ #. ft = ^o S.fL +H *. ^ ^ '^ ^ M ^ )i n.S^&. ¥ ^ # n ^. . 3^ ^.Mj£. ^^^^--^^ M^^I-a. sS. iis 4^. m n> i^ m m m 7^ )^ o . ^ # ^ ^. W. )ii rfo '/^ jiii -\^ -i.i i: a. :^ m. "^ % % f^ ^ ^ n ^ % . i Jl 0.M^. ^.g M..fL + u Wi 5ij tiJ. ^ M i. iifs '«c 75r ttl . + ^ 1^ ^ ^.^ m n ^ ^'^. ^ Wo ^ ^ >^ ^. ^ H#. 'S.i^ ^ % ^. fln M'i ft ffn p.^ m %. ^ #.K. ft # A. ^n ^ {^ ffi fiJJ. . ill. M ^.1 fi ij'^ PI a ^ # ' i& tf -^ -b ^. lii ^fi 5^5 =f- 'Ji B|l fil. pT P^ IJ. ^ H. m ^ ^ M ^ m m> m ^. . ^ m ^. A .^.^ *n ft -t ^ Si. *S. 1* m + 7^ ^ + ^ :^ ^ B i ^ ^ + M il. ?^ B I®. -> t§' El fb bI 5i ^ ^ ±. ft t: ^. la An obsolete form in text. 1^ I n 0.^ # fi Y^ B.^. ^ r^ ^ ® 1^ 11 ^ -^ i M HR ^ ^ # ft It A ^ M # f^ M.

^^ m -^ ft.w. p|^ % r^ ^ tt psr >^ ^if ^. M omit S. ^.^ 1^ i> m ^ ^ ^. ii. H ^. M £: 'M M ^ ^ m M ^1. ' ^^I ' S. H A. S. if r^ m m. ^ M :^. ft ^ ^ i^ 3E M. u H +' m A^' m m w i^ U W. M 2|S. it H y^ 1^ \i\ ft A ft m B m ^. m. ' « After "pj*. A. #. M omit. m' A' u 0. ± B ^ A M ^ pf ±> m m 5-. M inserts >» Test has ^ on left. W. A. . 3E ic ft A M ^. n m z. K A tt tt Si ti -^ fqj \>x ^.m. ^ m ir'n. ^^ ^ M A 4. ^ ^ ^. m m s ft ^ ^ A m >ci\ -LL A+H # ^ A i^ n. invert. ^ + ^ ft. m^'m # m M M m m m -^ ^ ^ ti % ^^ ^ IP m "f-. M insert ^. ^ «! i J? '^.^ 0. ^ A. A ^. '= S. 'If m m m ^ M A n. ' Before S has . After S. m m> m ^. ]\r omit. m m 0. i. ^. A. m m ffii m i§izg ¥ it. * S. " ^. S.m m' ^^ ^ m M ^ m ^. ^ \<x ft ^ ft pg m % m A. M ^.

^ ^ M ^ m m ^ . IiJ riT ttl 1M' 5ij it. ± m m m % M ^ m m> m ^ A '^ lil> ' ^ %. m> m.M' B ^ i^ m m M m ^ ib J£ ^ ^> ^. =:^ 5t S S ^ 5 ^. ^Ci' 5t.. m n. 5t. m fSi 5t #. jii m m M ^ m ty itl^ ^ ^ .1^. g m> ^ . ^ A ^. M invert. 5^ A il ^ ® it ^ A i^ A m m. . J£ A. K. After M insert ^ M ^. M J^. J^. M A n ^' ^ m ^ m ^ m. fk.^^ M ' ^ li> S. * S. \h . ^ # M ^ M ^ % # H„ ^ m ^ ^ ^ A I* il ^ * ji f±. i^ #. ^ ^ ^. m i^ ^ ^ . ijjl.. + m. S* M. *llJ i^o . ^.^. ^ ^ 3 + tH i^ It ^. S.^. m M 1. if _[}. M. ^ ^ #S ^. S. m m ^ m m ^^ w i^ ^ * ^ ^n ^. w ^ m. ^ M |jf . ^ ^ IE' v^ H Hi ^ ^ A W m + It. S.m % m ^ B ^ z> m Pi ^. ^. pT -M ^ r.m \u ^ m iu m ^ m> b* m ±.-t+= mmm ^ ^ m t:> A+ ^ W ^. n m n ^ -^ m> m. mm ^^ '^'m ^> m z. m ^ ^ ^ m M ^ M mc m M m A m m ^ ^ ^ m. e. w. ' X ^ ^ ^. i m. r^ ^ m' + vi 'H A. So m. -t if ^ 5l^. B ^. 1^ m "f-. S.e. m m B. M M g.m *# ft. m. M ^ J^ \f^ ^ ^ ih>m .

M insert ^. fS. ' S ^. P pT ^ T ^ ^ it -b ^ + ^ # X X ^. ^ ® 0. # "f # i§ H :^ # itb ^ *& ^"^ M Ift ft # ^. . ^ ^ n. # :# m ^ 1^ te ik ^. m n # Jp ^ m m m "^ M O ^ n. pf ^4^ Wi m n Ttc *i: >?^ gifj fS.J^ itk ^. ft #ff A A ' H M.^ # ft m. it f^ 1 If S.i r. ^ u ^^ ^ ^ 7^ #. }5: :k . S. pT ^Cl\ i-ili.«^ a. A ^. W ^. ^. #. # ^ ^= ^ ^ ^ ^ M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^.{^ 4 ^ ^ X B ft t ^ . mA- . 2^ m m ^ m m. pT ^^ ^P i 1 m # M m ± %. m * ^ ft ^ ft ^ .^ -^ %^ m.^.-t+H :k i& tk +H . W insert After ^Ij. yt + 1^ ^ m ^ m ^ ^ 1^. -t ifi. )^. *&.^. i$ m ^ ^ m> ip M.§^ . vi # m. ^ ^ J P^ fb i ^ 1^ m W ^ #. ^7i i H. m. ^ + ^ . ffi 5'J 11. it + 1 m ii p. ^ci\ ^i:> itt: ila 50c After |f|5. ^ 1^ ###=?• ^ . is •&' ft ^ m' ii n m. II.

ia ')&.M^. S. . 5iJ H# A ^ m w . @ ^ Hi ^ ^. ^!^ 5l5 .1ii rirj :^ m ± PI B9 R :.#: # ^ ^i '4l ^1^ . O A ^^ ^. 5i. M omit. A # — m m m m m p ^ &p lilt. . #. m.i 31^ ^ :^ ^ m t^.^ n.?(J - M MS >^ J^ ItT* 3X5?^ ffn 1^1 li #. ^' ^ A' #. ^S. IE 1th ^ # S^. ^ 11 it A. ' S. » S.H ^y> + ^=^ #. ^ ^ ^ m ^ilJ m A )t. ^ ^^ + ft 1. . ^ # ^ M ^ m ^±. M invert.^ fi^ A •^ m liJ A- n ^ B^ t?r it ft ^ H.^ ^ 75r itb # ^ pin |M>^ Fji ^-K. it ^ # M ^ W. . jM omit. -T ^ B ff. ± ^. if it rfn W. PI ^. ^ M M ^ * f^ * t^ m> A li ^ ft^.lit i^ # A M. A m ^ e ^ f± #. m . M ^ ^ A ^ }I >5 f a.^ A {^. E 2 . J\I "^ S.

Text has ^ B#. ft B. ^£ ^. fi i:^ ft H # ^ fUtj tii ^^ ^. lit 1th ^ tf r. 14 ^ — S. After P^ . ^ II * ^. Tit. . ^ M insert M !^. m :* n §i. ' -^o u is. M. M omit.M ^ . 11 . ^ >^ 1^ . iJ-^ ^ + 1: #. f^ ^ n ^ pT ^ H #ff fl ^ + ^ #II ^.-\'~ ^^ iii& . « ^. ^ ^ ^^ J^. M S. m H '' I' S ^ ^ ^ m m .i^ itb ^ f^ a j^ f^ •«. o AM. After So.' -4- Jl:b W. tr. ^.^. ^ M. ft 1^ #. S. A f ^>m \^ A ^ it m ^^ i^ i M iMi ^ 5^ i ^ A \ n n ft a A ff A m M.1^ it i f^. m w W ^ M. S. * ^ A ^ ^ ft ir ^ ^.* ^ it ^ ^h ^ ^. . "^ -i^ itk # ft. ith 9 5f5 7|a m ft. ^ ^. ^ itC ffi m ^ ^ J "ai itb i«: -t W it M- 0i ir :t ^ fl P E.^ ^ ^ #.g li^ ^.m.g "^. insert instead of ^. ^.{^ itk n Pi: >?^ A . ^ ^ .t. * S. ^^ K+H i itl: £ # i ^ A. ^ ^ T H . M ^. 4- ^ ^ jt B.?(S. s» it ^ Wl n )g fl ^ + W ^^ IS ^.g ' M M Bt^ ib ^ e 1^ ^ t.+ . S.

= S. ^> -^ 0. # ^ M. ib M #' fill ft. M J^. ^ ^ m T ffij ^ m ^ 'If Ji ^ A ft M itb ith ^h ip 111 + ti ip m • ^ T it. Text has -^ on the left. S.^ ± ^ ^ ^ m ^. M repeat. M omit. M omit.H+H $ra + H 1^ H& KM 5IJ ^H + H f^' ^. R• * S. E . ' ' Should be >/g. J ^. M ^. k m ^ . it liJ B m la: A. M omit.1 3E m m i 5fc ^> § S. S. W. ^ ^ m ^. » S. ^ Ji' ^o fA iP Ji A + + ^ ^.n ^ # H 'ik ' A f:3e 5. MAO m A ^ ^ ^ it z. n PUB yJ o m ^ f^ A W A S — B.

-^ e A. S. ip itT itb ^ ^ m 'ft % # tt}. i. ^ — £ ^> ^ 4 ^ ±= «e. ^ ^ 5 A Hi. M omit. ^^ '/^ ^ s ^ A ^ If f^. A. M omit. IP P«1 m W. .. ft ' ' S. P i^^ * ^±. B#^ Pi i^ '/^ # # M ^ H. HI %. S.: m. ' ^ S. -^ >j< s f^ id! ill! ^. it H^ yf p £. s n A S B A ^. # Af^ i lie ^Jc M m H ^ H ^ f^ ^. m "^ ji<. ^ #. lir m it ^ ft. H. ti 1^ ^ ^. H m # A S ^ m It ^ A m ^ 1^ A it ^. M insert M omit. g ^. 2 S. '' S. m ^ ± © # ej p. M |^.1# if. pjx ^ A m A. ^ PI 1^ A. ft' ^ IP 4 ^. m A. f^ J^ :^. ' J ' S. f^ m. W i IP #. ^. 0' 5l5 A i^ IP. ^. '^. . M ^. M omits. IP w> I. M P^. • Before ^.

.-+H ^r. it B T. /P) j^i ith m. M omit. A ^ iU ^ ± ^. va # m M. M m ^.^ # H M w^ fir ^ >^. ?f ^ ^ H m m ^ M m w. ' M S. f^ -£ % ^ A> ^ i^ m s.i fel 1^. fit *e. -b n i& m 7> m T. M S. 1^ ^ % ^ A. >^. 1^^ iJ^ Mil wK. S. S. l>il M m /^i :i/5 m ^ m •. % IS m n ^ n w n % B. S.f :^ ^ ^ ^ 1^ J^ f^ $B. 1^ m M ^' ' m ?f ^ ^ m. ± 15^ >ffc ^> ^\ f^ w ± i ^ »^.m m n. M m i^ ^. s. + = j^i tr. in m m £. M omit. M omit. 1^ *E ^. ^ ^> M H ^^ :^ ^ n ^ m. ^ :^ m u m m O ^ M m ^ A ^ ^ N" M ^ ^ ^.t . ft m ^ ^. tr . W A m ^ m z ft ^ ^ "W r^ ^. BET 0#. (sj )Mi> IS) :t'@ =f- iH: B#.m ^ ft it K A m ^ >^ :^ 5 m pg -b M 1^ ^ 1^ m ^ m. rfc 121 >^.

^ ^ m m ^ ^ ffi ra" n ^ fi titk ^P m' 'M ^ 5lJ ^ ^ m 1^ ^ =4 H M. 5lJ . ^ 1^ J: n # X ^. f^ + l: ^ 4 ^ j^ ^i ^ ^ ^. i5^. •fflT. ' M A- ' °™'*- ' ^' ^^ . ^ m in ^ *lfe ^ * ^ m M. S. B ^ ^ ^ J' n m ^ o s ^ n I* #• 1^ L * II f^ # ^ R ^ n ^ ^. mi 4^.i.! itk ffi Ht. ii. BS ^ # m m :^ R S» .{^ ffl tti 'ft 'M. tl^ 1^. 5 1^ ^ * ^*i" 1 ^ A n :^ m i^ ^ ^ y^ + f& M. ^1 M M 4^ if. m m. it ^1. ^ m ^.VHr dbfc ]i:t itE :|li -/S^. it s ^ m r\ *. N°"'''- ^. :ir ffi -fct 14- K&B l^jc =f a. ^ m. M ^. ^ M. 7^ 4^ f^ m ^ m m ^ ^' ^ ^ m m .tc itC In).^ f'. m= B. f^ ti 5 ^. m '^^ s if M.. lit . A M ^ M. »ii\i . ^ m. ^.^. in ^ li M ^» ^ ^ ^ it ^ i w 1^ .Mi zfcr -+^ +^ pTl k 1: .

. — III If i ^ -^ n :k M m ^ m M A ^ ± :^ # ^.g . A. ^ ^+Hiiii& M Vi M m ^ w m m til PI ^ ^ m At ^K ^.4" ^.^ 51 ^ nM ^. M ^ B# Wi ^ ^ #. JZr.%-^r. M. it M ^ ^ ^ ^.# +^ . n m ^ /lite '|*T~ * .

g ^ ^ II f^. ^ij. 1\I has wk. ^:^ f)r ^iJ iiii. #. ® I* . i"^ * sM ^. %\\ i«: itb ith uj. ^. 1th it - ^A it PI ^. m t^ ib >^ i # m. n ^ m n m M. « ^^ m m m . ^ ib ^ iM: ^. i5^ If. ^k # * =f m. |J^ ^ fS). f^ — ^ *B ii. tti f>5ff itt: ' After IJ:|^. IP. ?i :i A ^ M m >^ Jl H i 1^ iS ?^ ^. #. ib + + ^. #. ' Text has the |& beneath. llj 7i. :^. .M has ^j^r)-. i M.^ A+ ^1] in^ . 4* ^> #? m 1^ 4» H M.S. After ^. n p|? m. m m Idt it. ii i:^ ^> III SI ff.m ^ H. . itb *e' N" ^ ^ ^ A S. ^ H 'St if f^ j^.[^ IP ^ f^ A if M -^ . ^ m ^. 4^ 4 Mi 4^ M. ft # :^ ^k m. '& m.m tr '^ :^ m m> ^ % ^ m ±. n 1^ 'W O #.^^+n iiii& m m ^ m M m m m m. ^. pfe m ^ m Ft^ A ^ 3l liJ '^ ^ Efe ^ ijip. >?^ ff % ^k ^. N" m # ^^ ^ M i m ^ m ^ # ^ ft ff M. i^ ^ ^ Elf ^ m ^ ^ m w w ^^ m> it.^ ij 4 ® s. N" + M. S.

i ^.-b-h .A+ . .

^ ^ ^ m M> s: ^ m m w m ^ m.^v m. 5it rife f± ft pT ^ It. S W ^. 3E ^ ^ M ^ 11 M> H 'I. m. i ^^ -t + ft w W ^o IR. *B ^ H ^^. ff m f* .g ft A. :^^ >A^ it ^ 5t. 5t. * PI ^ ^ -^ .«^ ^ t^ #. m ^ m + r. ^ -^ m.^.?: 11 p«i ^J^ m i!> ^. W. |J^ Itli TTC Ji: ^.mmm ^l ^. ^e^ it. 3E ^ ^ r.?. .g :^ . f^ s it ^. iija 'ij/ m> jK'BS # ^' . m ^ . A :^ # ft. ^ P«1 A ^ z ^ ^ 0.^ ^ f^ :^ ^ m m> m \U. M M\\ ^ ^ ®. ft^'m ^ 4 ^= '^' ^k ^o m' pT m. it m. m m n. 0>J1 ^ ^f^ W -i- m 75? -^. >Et. ^ M ^^' izg m . % m'^ m> m ^ N" ^.i* m. ^ ^ <f i^ i P5. 5lc. m> ^h ^^ ft ^ * PI A ^ ^ mi i^ m A. 0. i:|i . pt m it ft ^ M. ^ # i PI ^ #. M^ ft .

y'a. M omit. M omit. ^ij m m o i^ # ^ # J:|i ft if it. ^|J. *^ ^ ^ ^^ ^: N" It. m ±. ' = S. M omit. S. ^:^ ^ H ii. ^ n > -b n ^ * S. M + n fi m It ^ ^ i m m M. M ^. It 'ft. iit tJ^^ Ml] N"^^ It - m" p. ^R ig^. After S. S. m M n w N" €.i + zi ^-b^^ 1S ^>^ + ^ ^ m "^ i^ it m ^ m ^ ^ ^ m. S. ]M insert ^ Jj^. M >^ |}i. 11^ n P f^ ^B. It m # M ^ m m itk 1^ A m ^' 0# fe ii la t^ ^ M !i. 5f^ M. M omit. "" After 1^. fi i^ 1^. M W ^ m ^. = S. M insert ^ ^. 1" -^ m ^ m It O # itf: H& 'It. ^ m W S. " M . S. it itB IE 1^ -^ It. M omit. itg IS m fb ± ^ ^ fi i^. ' S. /L. « S.

H. m . ^^> M ^ n M f-. m =f- m. A . ^ ^ ti lir ^j^ . .it «• 1^ H f^ A. m H#. 1^ ^ i^ fSl i^ i^ ^ m ^ A m m B^ :^. ^J> M ^ ^ 0. i^ 1^ in ^ fi A 5t m m. ^.^ ^^ # >e ^. ^^ \>A ^ m ± m m . tir ra+11 '^ j^* -f^e H. m ik m ^ m m r^ i$ 1 A ^ m> ^ "^ m. ^. ti Tie m. ^ ^ i A *J: P. W. Ml] p«i A ^ A. m IE M *£ i^t #.^i+urn* A m ^ B. * ^ -^ # ft. i i ^ H. ^0^ in W^ ^ ±. bk n f^ M m ^.g §1 ^. ir ^ ±. ^ A m m m m A ^' ^ 4m m ^ m m A ^. #. i^ ^R W.

€ ^ M m B m> ^ -^ ^ m m w :^. = S. P^ A ii.mm m m ^. m # ^ m m 1^ ii ^ n ±» ^ # W ^r 5ij m i^ m n m m ^. m. ^ i ft ii la m m 3E B. S. $ m ^ m # ^ ^ ta m m m m m m^ u> m m 4.^ ^ ^ iti: ^ nt m' m m. ^ i m fr^> m. ^ ^5 ^ ^.t. a ^§. ^ il> itE ^. m pT ]it w *. m ^ iit itb 1^. with ^ yg. R. M. M # ^ F^ ^ ia.A:il:A^ A m if. :# ^ ^ ^ ± it ^ r^ n n ik u fe ^. tt m ^' m ^ ^ ^ m m ^ ^ n [g. ' J ^. S. ^p w. M omit. ' JNI omit. ^. at the side. . 1^ ^' 1^. m ^. H it m> ^> ^ tl^ i A it ^ ^ Y^ ip A H il. ^ S. itli -ir ' « S. r. t^ Jr. <if 5lJ. but should be S ^. 4.^ ffij . 5iJ ^ m m # # ib. rirj m> ih ^ :^ i^ 1^ ^ ^ m ^ m r^ M n m ^. ^. ft Jtb ill O ^ # ±f m 4 i :^ ^ ^ ^ m :^> * ^. ®. ¥ m. * ' So. ' M omit. t^ m> pt ^ M i'^. m m m m.f. M ^..&> "l^ ^ ^ a ^ ^' ^ ^. ^ A ^ ^ ^ ^?i^. ?«.t. In text. .^ ^.M. ^ ^ ib t ^ ^ij }Mi> Jmi. m. Tic '^ ^„ . n ith f^ -ft + :n # ^ . •iJ'Mt ^ . M omit. m m ^ n m> i^ M n i^ -t M ^ M. w jf ^ m m.

+=.»=+m im =. .

M omit. MiT rTT ^ ^. + M. After ^. ns. ic f- O n.^. m. i: ^^ = * ii ?^ ^. m m M ^. ^ ^. m a. tr it' =^ M ^ A m. S. ^ i ^M ^ ^ m m ^. '' After .7/j. M f^. M 75f AV. Mi) S. ^. A ^ # m m. ^ m th i^. ^ S. ± M 'M m ^ M m ^ M. u ^ m ^ ^> ^ >t. Mr ^. ^ m m W M H#. S. ^. ^ m m m '^' m ^. 5^ ^. -i. m A 'X ± -x m ± :ir. M ^. S. ^ ff ' 1^^ S.-+ft *z: + z: 3E 1^ 11^^ i& -+- M m m ^ n "f- A. ^ i: -^ W M. Bo m A i: tii. ' Mistake for " S ^. m m i^ ^ m> m m n r^ M ^ ^ m ^ w m ^ ^ ^ A>m. B. ^ % m m ^ ^ ^. tii n n PI A ^ P^" M li- m n It m " m m ^ ^ m ^i ^> o m $M m ^ m m M m ¥. ^ "^ ± m ^ m m ^ ^ ^ M z.^ S. . n ^ :& ^ m m.> lia <ff "IB. insert ^fj. M omit. M^ ffi^ + ft =. .? ^. IM insert . ^ M. m.A. S. M omit. " M insert M tg. m> m. ±. S. ' ^ftg^ .

After |[|. " Another form of this in text. |5. ^ ^:t ^ ^' H. H# ^f m 4 ^ ^ m. Should probably be J^.m^f ft Pi +^ X A . M repeat. m. ti m Pi' . M omit. ' mm A 3i it t^ ^j M i-di J^ ^ ^ itt: m ^ u M in m W'^ ^ ^ r^ ^ ' m ^[ w ^m ^. p. M :|^.^ iil! m 5i ^ m A M m #r PI ^. " " S. '" M j^. M ^. ir.g M.M-J^ i^.y. . ^ * ^ 7^ i^. M insert ^. * m S. g g fe iho H it A m'-m ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ m n f^ 4e 3i i: ^"# m. ^^ + A ft i ^. M omit. " S. S. K. M omit. M m n m ^ m m m ^. S. S. M ff|. it it B#. " After {^. ] )Jk. it ^. S.^. ^3^ fj^ fli M'i TO ii-. S. ^ . S. ^ ^ .f m p^ m i^ ^ ^ ^> m m m m m it. M omit. ^ F^"A # :^. in ^ A ^. « " « ' S.{^ ^ ffii W. ^ ^. f^ ^ PI f B. S. -ffc M m ±. ' w M ^|J. " " S. 'ii> 1^ lit ^ ^ ^. S #. M jj^. " " M g. S. insert ^. S. ' M S. z. ^ U 'I # m ^[^ 11^. S.

^ ^:^ 5'J . IM. M omit. l.. ^ S. M 'j^.^ va Ik t^ M ^ ft #^ ^ t . S. ffi =g^ ii: . m f^ A % m^ 5lJ ^ ^ ^ il . Hi ^ ^ fp ia #J ^ ^ ^ ^ l: . ^ :^.M. S. this. ^ *. ' S. A 0. S :k tti m n. ib #. It ft If ii M. " S. 1^ ^. iiB ^\!> IJ. M insert -t^. " After C 2 ^. m ^ ^ M. . ^ -^ ® 11 ^ f^ m. Ik ^^ It ^. W ^ "f 't^ . ^^.. fie- ^. A. " S. ^ -^ {i ^IJ itb 4 ii: itL -tH. 5lJ. ti ii PI. 5^ ^ ft TO ^. :\I ]^.e.i ^. . 1 0f ^ 3i ®. ]\I 7--. iiiffi 'it flf. g H ^ ^ H 4 # * 4 ^» -ffi^ ^ + ^ i ai ^. * ' S.^ ^ W. -fer ith.g ^ ft ±. H^. 7> bI >j^ # M A. PI B In]. 5l^. # M f^ M ^> ^ # ^ ^c #J . f^ + m ^ m m n ^[ itb P^ Ml >b it IP # X ^. 5 ft P3 1^ *& ^.^ PI. ^ m m # ^ S. i ^ a^ ^^ 3i li :i§ ife i-di. M H. ' M j^. + ^ ^. ^. itb ::! Y-^ ^ h ft + m # *^ m -^ ib :k -b £:! ^^ A. M ^Pi. P«1 S. M S. % ^ A ^.*: i=ii^ JI-S 5lJ. # ft. The Corean text is a vulgar form of S f g M ^.

i^ m m> it *i §N 11 ^ a ' ±' f^ n ^f pr m. M :{^. IP i 4 Mi ip ^ ^ ± # "¥ ^ ^ ^ fi M ip A m m m m ^. ' S. M i)^^. S. After ^. . .mmm M m m i ^ B. m >^i A + A ^. M M S. fffl ?^.-SI It m. /if PI P^ =f- ilr - ^ m is tt l: ^!^ ^ . M omit. M ^. -t '^ # f^ m + A m m ^ ^ ^ ± A+ W M ^&. ' S.$l PIf M ' J repeats. insert insert .?(iv. ' ' S. * ^^ ^ m ^' m IS pt u. ' After il^. M j^. ' * S. '^. RI omit. S. S.

^ m ^ m ^ pT ^ ^ ^ ^ ® i^ 1 ^. '^ M. ^. . M omit. y. M fi^^. ^ ^ o m ^ ff ^ ^ $^. S. C . tn ' ft'.i^ ith * ^ f(^^ m\ iu R> H. ^' #ff lib itC /l^ M insert \U^. all ' recensions S. M j^.^ If m # E A i^. m it ^ 15 ^ if ^ M ^ ^^ m ^. ^ ^ ^ it ^. i^ ^. ^. IP ^ # ^ ^ 1^ m m m m ^. -^^ B Aft. ^. ft II X^ -t itL # f^ ^ ^. ^ f. ^ ^ ^ A ^ '^> n ^ m ^ m ^. ^ S. S^ ^ :S m it 1M ^. ^ ^ ^ a ^0 » in 1^ itl^ fj i-lli ipS ^. m m ^[ P^ ^ ^i ^o m u -^ !^. ' ' S. ^. ^.-fc+*+-»^+ A M 4 m.g 5ij psr n ^ After '2^^. Julien. « * So. ^ ^ ft tr. ^\ iife ^ i OiW . ^. . W A. 7K n ii ^L itk ^ ^ >^ ii> # ^ ^. p. and Probably should always be V"^. % t^ ia ^ m m ?§ A 'i> IjiS mi ffi A+ r^ bI >^ -fc ^t -t ^ ^ ^ m. O m + W t^ it m it m ± * ^r :!#. H A ^ P^ K m. ^ ^. ^ II! j^) Itli ::^ fll ^. n m. M omit. ^ ft fl — ^ w o :^. S. fL> j^i ^ A ^ *> ^ A. S.M<. ^ 1^ ^ z.

m) m. + .

'BO iib. # ^ w T m. ^ ^ 1^ fi ii ^ >^ i> 1^ p^ 1^' #. -b # 4 I? ^. M j^.51 + 1^ f-^ 5i fH i:. ^ e #. #. S. M m. ' S. . M ^ T ^ ^ ik IP IP \%\ ik '& m i ^ ^ f± |i ± m i^ . ^ 1^^ ^iJ J^. i. * S. ^ m K ^ -t m IS T. Itk Pi. >^ ^ 1^ g Yf ^ ^. j\I invert.^ ^ -n ^ iR 55 ^h ^ H i. insert R. ' After ]gP. ^ PH 7^. Hf ^ fl li # ^ ii ^ J§ ji ^ ^ ^ :* ± >^ m # ^ ^. - = S. p ft ^ ^^ Jl:h f±.= -\' l>^ ^rii ift 'If.^ ^ ^ A. M S. -t ft ^ # H i. ff Pt m il. P IP ffi f«1 m ^ ± m T^ P^. B. fe tt ^ ^ ^ ^ tS 1^ 1^ i yi T ^ n ^. M omit. MB* ' M IS s. S. B# ip ^ -^ . P^ ± ^ ^ ft i: ^ 4 ^. tffj . 3E M ^. M. 5lJ fS] -t: PH !§(. T. ^h ^ ^ :i l: H it^ ^. i^ -t m 1^ ^ ^ JS m m Ills j® tH: ^h >^ jt il T i i^ ^ n. ^..

A :^ ft m A. f^ ^ ^ m m * ^Mt ^ o m 1^ ^ ^^ >^ # ^ ^ m ^ m ^. . ra+ %^ Ill m ¥ ii i^« M ^ ftf M m ^. ^. M . in* 0. m n . % ^. M TJJ. M f^. ^. PI i^ \% ^. m j^: ft ^ n n PI % ig"i *8? ^ ?Rr ff ^. S. M omit. S.!fC 7?j iJ£ itb ^ilJ ift >!: ij'^ ^i| tft IM: El S. ^. m. \% m \% M ^ M. M 1^. S. A^ ^ m ^ '& ^ #. Before ^. M invert. 1^ ^ n # # m m w.ft m A n m cm i * i n. ' ' S. M. ' M have :|^. M omit. M > " « S. S. % vc i^ ft.. S. Jil. ^ ff fi ^ T M m ^ i^. » B.g ® ^ ^ a. S. A ^ Bt n # p^ ^ # H M. M omit. . ^ . + M> M. m 1^ Uj ^ ^: ^ w\ m h g :* ±. R. S.^. m i£ B ^ ^ ^.-fc + 7|j M'J. ^ " M invert. i^ ffi §ti n @ #. ' '"= S. iH: A '^ ^1] IE ^. ' S. RI ^. ^. M omit. A ^ i^. ft f^ ^.

^ ^. " s.=+ m> fs i$> mmm Ml] ^ m r^ ^. ^. ^. ^S. m. ^Mf it # i. m> ^ m m a ^ ^' m. '^ m.g ^ ft i^ p. m^ a m ^ m m ^ m )^ ^ ^ w Hf n m. n ^ m> ^r m> i^> m ^ m m m \^> M ^ m m ^. . ft ^ m^'M ^ i^ w ^ m m ^ p if . S. r^ m i^ m. ^ m # ^ m m m.W. a A :^ m ^ ^ ^ EE ^. ffi. s m m. ' gjjt S. M omit. ^. ^> Wi r^ ^. S. m' '^t ffi ^^. After M m. S. S. k. M /f . >r ^ s B^ ^ ^. ^ M ^ M ^ ^ *ii! ^ Yf ^ ^ -^ ft i£ 11. m 7^ M M ^ m m m ^ m ^ r^ m ^ P ^ m ^ m m m. S -f^ . m m> m m m ^ m 'A ^> ^ ^ Si 1^ *E i B. 7k^ ^. « ^ S • M :^ f|. » S '" ^. A \fn m :^ ^ 7> Pf ^' ^. ^. ^7^ ffl i>^ itil f|i ^ H M m ^ m m B#. M insert -j^ M f^. 3S. m m ^ b. ' M^. ^ Pi ^.m>^m^m m^ a. ^ ^ A m ^ ^ ^ M m:^ m e 1^ K ^ ft 15 S ±. p.rIC. 1^ ^ m M ^ M M j^j ^.^. <iii> ^^i >S. ^ m "^ m n> w m. w.y.^.MP|.

ft i ^ ^ 1^ ft. A ¥ M.i # ^ It ill!. S. ^ A H ^ jl . Itb ^ ^ f^ i . S ^ m m ^ P ^ j^ ^ M ^ ^ f^ ith tii il ^ # m.g ^^ A ft. ^- ^ ^ IS ^ H #. ^. A.J S.^. ^ A m "f-. it. ^ ^ ^ n. &M A ^ ^ Itb ii. ^> b\u ' S. ^ H ^ ^H H ft. itk -fer :zr. ^ ^ ^ 1^ *s* it it A j^ ^U HE? III 75r ib Ft lil =p- 5ij a O ^ m ^ ^. 4 ^i B#. m.^ it m T # ^ m ^ p ^ if tr M + IS ^ ^. =f- o ? ? iu # M pT m ^» :! M ? ? O W.J^-y^ + ^i + idl M^-Jr itk 11 + Hi + M ^ X ^ ^ i> ^ m m.ig ^. ®. A PH m ^. A f^ -^^ m ^ u B^ ^ ^ M. M . i^ ^^ ^ M m TJ m :^ + ic m. > ^ m ^' fit 1^ 1^ fit ft Jt ^ li^ ft B#. ^ . 11 A ^ ^ pT ^^ m ^ H W A. M omit. M m . ^ fto m m .

i^. M omit. ^o M IE M X w %. S. RI ^. ii.-+ Bl. ° S. * S. mmm A A m ib m m -m ^. % m 1^ ^' ^. ft ^ ^ A ^ ^ ^. M insert The Corean • text has the 'xa^ beneath. m e i^ f* # S. . « |Z9 S. M m ^ ¥ ^ to 1 m m m ti A. M omit. ' m ^ #. A. :# f + :^ ^ ^ f^ ib tl -^ m. n. ^ ¥ ifi: m \h H Si ^ ^ m ^ ^ m ^ ^o m ^0 i. ^ m n m ^ "^ * sp M. ^ ^ "^ H -t tti. IS PI i ^ E. After P M ^. B 2 . m ' K >ii r. 11 i f* # m m it m in ft Itb it. M |7g. "> ^ S. UJ M m PI i^ i^r ^.

insert » M ^. A. ^ ^ A -^ m ^ fi ^. tlj -t 1^ Ji ^ H ^. I\I After ^ ^. ^.-^ J^ i*» H+ — M ^ + ^ # 1^ rH -t m ^ fi pT ik n- ^. After -^^ M omit. it H ir m ^ % m ^ A m. ]\I omit. Mg fjff].{^ 1^ '& ^y fe lis. iii- » lis. ^ A ^ ^ Tl ^ If •t. and insert S. la JS B. W. s '^ ^ M A. . S. TV m m m n ^ ^. . iti # ^<. M S. ®^ 7t '''TO ft. ]\I S. ^ ^ 1^ i^. ^ ^ ' m m ^ m m ^ ' S. ||. B. #. m A m ^ J: W til ?g ^. ^ ^ # ffi w \% ^ ^ ? ft Ml] m:s ft ±. ' S. ?i i^ T. :^. m. omit. fjfc A ^. S. t^ it ^. M insert ]g. m> r^ \^ \% 1^ i^ ^ M ^ w =f- # n ra ^. ^ * ^ '^ ^ ^. M izg ^ ft P . A o ' M-. S.

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ft.^ ^ m #. A. I\I omit.i ^. K f ^ ^. M M. M. f^ ra ^ ^ ^ ^. . ^ Pi ^ i* @ ^ M.m M ^^ s ^ ft 4V !^. 1^. ' ^' ^^ « i'^- ' ^^^^^ ' @ S.^. $^ yj. H 4-^ itb -f^ II] ffi *^^ ib A # ^ f . M ^. ^ M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ & ^ m Hf A. ^^ 11 ^t nj -<H I tk as. M . m ^. n. ^MM ^. ^ ^. ? ± ft ^ it A m ' m ^ M ± n ^ # Jl. m. ^ ^i ^ ^ ^ ® A ^ i^ >^ . ffi 5IJ Tff Itk =f- ' '^y-. ^ ^ # ft ^ ^ ^ O ^ §. " ' S. M . ^ ft W ^: A.m t^ ft 1^ i: i^. S. ^ m w ^ !S g ^ A ^ W M ^ ^ ^ i ^» # ^^ . ^ i ^. M omit. M. PI r^ % ^ M. . — :s tr tr ^ li m ^ i5« iJ^^ H PI. M repeat f$ H S. M a ^. * g . ^ m n PI It M 0. n m> ^ ^ >g ^ A >^ ji ^ 0> m. iS i5 W> n. *^ M 0. S. S. ft 0. pjt » S. ft . ^^ ^.^ ft i^' ^ ^^ ^ itr.

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MINDING SECT. JAN 31^979 PLEASE CARDS OR SLIPS DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS POCKET TORONTO LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF DS 6 F3 5 Fa-hsien A record of Buddhistic kingdoms ^ .