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Rethinking Marxism

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From Marx to Berlusconi: Lucio Colletti and the Struggle for Scientific Marxism
Steve Redhead

Online publication date: 09 December 2009

To cite this Article Redhead, Steve(2010) 'From Marx to Berlusconi: Lucio Colletti and the Struggle for Scientific Marxism',

Rethinking Marxism, 22: 1, 148 — 156 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/08935690903411727 URL:

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more From Marx to Berlusconi. From Rousseau to Lenin. but the global credit crunch of 2007Á/8 and the possible beginning of a prolonged new depression may herald a renaissance for Colletti as an important analytical theorist of capital. and elevated to membership in a small band of high theorists. Not so much. if conflicting. In the 1970s.RETHINKING MARXISM VOLUME 22 NUMBER 1 (JANUARY 2010) Remarx From Marx to Berlusconi: Lucio Colletti and the Struggle for Scientific Marxism Steve Redhead Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 This essay reviews the life and work of the Italian Marxist philosopher Lucio Colletti (1924Á/2001). aesthetics. and died in Livorno. he was in the arms of Silvio Berlusconi: not so much From Rousseau to Lenin. His intellectual legacy is much less influential than might have been expected.1080/08935690903411727 . Galvano Della Volpe. Colletti developed theories of value. who were said at the time to constitute the pinnacle of ‘‘Western ISSN 0893-5696 print/1475-8059 online/10/010148-09 – 2010 Association for Economic and Social Analysis DOI: 10. and politics that are still relevant but that have been strangely sidelined. law. Louis Althusser. Colletti and Althusser engaged in a dialogue in their lifetimes. He was survived by his second wife Fauzia and daughters from each of his two marriages. and politics which are still relevant today. this essay suggest reasons for his rightward political trajectory and compares and contrasts his work with that of another scientific European Marxist. including Louis Althusser and Ju ¨rgen Habermas. more From Marx to Berlusconi. the state. of a sudden heart attack while taking a bath on 4 November 2001. even within Marxist discourse. but the legacy of their joint. the state. Italy. law. Hegelianism. remarkably. Louis Althusser. Key Words: Scientific Marxism. His death at age seventy-six was marked by the equivalent of a state funeral. By contextualizing Colletti’s life and work. aesthetics. been largely forgotten. but since that time his work has. though. and capitalism (Mann 2009). Colletti developed theories of value. By the 1990s. struggles for Marxism as scientific materialism lives on in today’s accelerated culture as a new depression beckons. he was described as the most important living Italian Marxist philosopher. was born in Rome on 9 December 1924. eclipsing even Antonio Gramsci and Galvano Della Volpe. he was described as the most important living Italian Marxist philosopher. Western Marxism Lucio Colletti. eclipsing even such figures as Antonio Gramsci and Galvano Della Volpe. In the 1970s. the former Italian communist and Marxist theorist.

conflicts between forces. . Colletti was no opportunist. 3) Colletti’s goal was to produce a genuine scientific basis for Marxism*/one that had no place for Hegelian consciousness and humanism. right-wing media magnate. On the other hand. By the end of his life. fetishism) . He rose in the next two decades to be revered as one of the most famous Italian public intellectuals of the twentieth century and. Il Marxismo e Hegel (1969a).The fundamental principle of materialism and of science. All the same . Reality cannot contain dialectical contradictions but only real oppositions. Despite this remarkable political trajectory. . Colletti had become a member of the Italian Communist party (PCI). and translated into English as Marxism and Hegel (1973). an irreverent and sarcastic but liberated spirit. Colletti was variously remembered in obituaries as an intelligent Marxist. it is nonetheless true that it confirms the existence of two aspects in Marx: that of the scientist and that of philosopher. serving as an elected politician in Berlusconi’s party in the Italian parliament. a rigorous but spirited critical thinker. relations of contrariety .REMARX 149 Marxism’’ (Anderson 1977).’’ and he was an antifascist for his entire career. . By 1950. 3. as we have seen is the principle of non-contradiction. though few commentators seem to have read the whole text. inverted reality (alienation. by the 1990s. and as a (formerly) dangerous communist. But Colletti was also heavily criticized by liberal media commentators for his role in Berlusconi’s electoral success in 2001 and subsequent dictatorial term as prime minister. the link between Hegelian dialectics and Marxism had been greatly overblown in Marxist philosophy. The 1980s witnessed the global demise of the theoretical power of Marxism and the influence of Marxist theorists and. Gottfried 1978). the political party of Silvio Berlusconi. He is perhaps best known for his major theoretical treatise on Marx. capitalist oppositions are. For Colletti. with Althusser in France. Colletti summarized his own arguments on the problem of the distinction between Kant’s notion of real opposition and Stalinist dialectical contradiction as threefold: 1. 2. 7). first published in Italy in 1969. Berlusconi remained prime minister until 2006. Colletti had embraced Silvio Berlusconi. and Il Marxismo e Hegel stressed the singular importance of Immanuel Kant as a philosophical ancestor of Marx well before it was fashionable to do so (Smith 1986. The editor of New Left Review called him a major contemporary author and hailed him for rapidly producing ‘‘new texts as the NLR was sending its numbers to press’’ (Anderson 2000. . he developed an Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 . (1975b. capitalism is contradictory not because it is a reality and all realities are contradictory. he always described himself as being ‘‘on the left. but because it is an upside down. and he had to wait until 1945 when. he had served as a parliamentary deputy for five years for Forza Italia. and prime minister of Italy. Colletti was determined to study philosophy from a young age. owner of the AC Milan soccer club. For Marx. at age twenty-one. the Galileo of social sciences. . In this context. This was impossible in the fascist Italy of the 1930s. Colletti 1975b. the theorist most committed to the historical and political legacy of Marxism as scientific materialism rather than humanism. . following in the footsteps of Italian communism’s founding philosopher Antonio Gramsci (Colletti 1971). he enrolled in the University of Rome. . and reimposed his right-wing policies after his reelection in 2008. dialectical contradictions and not real oppositions . . for Marx.

roles Colletti had pioneered (Dick and Kofman 2002). Colletti was always what one obituary writer called an extraordinary polemicist. Colletti first discovered Della Volpe’s work in 1951. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the first philosopher to develop a fundamental critique of the bourgeois representative state together with an analysis of the separation of state and civil society. but there is surprisingly little written about him in English and even less attention given to his falling out with Marxism from the 1970s onward (Mann 2009). especially when Della Volpe and Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 . Della Volpe’s Critique of Taste (1960. even in the wake of Lenin’s writings. translated into English as From Rousseau to Lenin (1972). In the last quarter-century of his life. and the late 1950s saw an important Della Volpean influence inside the PCI. Della Volpe had been professor at the University of Messina where Colletti had also taught before going to the University of Rome.150 REDHEAD important and sustained critique of the varieties of Marxism espoused by Georg Luka ´cs. won the Isaac Deutscher Memorial Prize in 1973 and is probably his most widely read and cited work in English. and Western Marxism as a whole. Indeed. The problematic binary of scientist and philosopher in Marx (and in Colletti) was to persist for Colletti long after the crisis of Marxism he and others identified during the 1970s. Ideologia e Societa (1969b). and it had a profound impact on him. He first taught at the University of Messina and was at the University of Salerno in a faculty that included such Italian luminaries as Gabriel De Rosa and Carl Salinari. One major contemporary influence on Colletti’s work was the Italian Marxist philosopher Galvano Della Volpe. and other twentieth-century theorists. That Marx’s own development of theories of the state barely moved beyond Rousseau suggested to Colletti that Marxism lacked a true political theory. Colletti also memorably contributed a theoretically complex introduction to an English edition of Marx’s Early Writings in the 1970s (Colletti 1975a). Della Volpe and Colletti were among the few professors who remained in the PCI after the Hungarian revolt of 1956. English translation 1978) was a treatise on Marxist aesthetics and his most significant book at a time when he was Italy’s leading Marxist philosopher. with the play of language between science and philosophy. Colletti’s subsequent collection of essays. apart from Gramsci and later Giorgio Agamben (2005). Eduard Bernstein and the Second International. who died in 1968. For Colletti. culminating in a new celebrity culture of the philosopher as public intellectual. indeed. and Lenin’s State and Revolution. the Frankfurt School. Colletti was seen as the inheritor of Della Volpe’s mantle. From the mid-1960s through the 1970s. the deconstruction of Jacques Derrida wrestled with the scientist and philosopher in Marx and. Colletti was arguably the twentieth century’s leading Italian left philosopher and the true successor to Della Volpe’s pioneering efforts. The papers in From Rousseau to Lenin are culled from a decade of writing about themes like Marxism as sociology. Colletti. would not make much more progress in this direction. and later a preface to an Italian edition of Marx and Engels’s The Communist Manifesto (Colletti 1985). he also taught philosophy at the University of Geneva in Switzerland after his intellectual and political activities at the University of Rome had become increasingly controversial for the Italian right. while Colletti held a chair in philosophy at the University of Rome in the 1960s. and his identification of a real and serious problem in Marx would find no ultimate solution in his lifetime. Theodor Adorno. In the 1970s.

La Logica di Benedetto Croce. all Marx’s work is essentially an analysis of modern capitalist society and that all the rest of his writing. confessed that he felt immensely distant from what he had written. sustained study of his original texts (Anderson 1974. emphasizing that. explored Colletti’s creeping disillusionment with Marxist philosophy and politics in the context of his life and work up to that date and was prescient in its rational and incisive break from Marxist theoreticist discourse. and consistently held an aversion to Stalinism in general to such an extent that he was regarded as a Trotskyist in Italy (Colletti 1970). Born in 1924. Like Della Volpe. and. in the end. Although the Anderson interview covered in great detail Colletti’s intellectual and political formation. Colletti felt that he. In hindsight. like nearly all the Italian intellectuals of his generation. where it is actually to be found in Marx’s writings themselves. Colletti gave a fascinating. In 1958. The interview was published in Italian in the same year. 3Á/28). Lenin’s materialism. ‘‘Hang Colletti’’ appeared as student graffiti in the 1970s. Much of Colletti’s background is conflated as Gramscian in the existing literature. Colletti grew up in an Italy where Gramsci’s prison writings were utilized to present Marxism as the fulfillment and conclusion of the tradition of Italian Hegelian idealism. which was translated and published in English a year later (1975b). This interview. together with the original Italian version of Colletti’s article ‘‘Marxism and the Dialectic’’ (1974). though important. Colletti had been a PCI dissenter after the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956. citing the pamphleteering tradition of socialism as a lost Marxist politics of the past. but this is a serious misunderstanding of Colletti’s milieu. was to be a much more formative influence. Colletti expressed to Anderson a profound dissatisfaction with what he had done in his academic career. it was eventually published in Italian in book form (Colletti 1992). in the 1960s. Colletti’s bachelor’s degree thesis. wide-ranging interview to Perry Anderson. was written in 1949. Further. editor of New Left Review (Anderson 1974. his conversation with Anderson lays the theoretical basis for the elements that underpinned his move to the right. however. 3Á/28). he felt strongly that Marxism could be revived only if no more books like his own Marxism and Hegel were published. when anti-Trotskyism was at its height on Italian university campuses. is secondary to the Grundrisse and Capital. revealing much about the subtleties of his life and work. in particular that of Croce (Colletti 1971). based on direct knowledge and intense. In the mid1970s. and focused on neo-idealist philosophical logic. however. Although Colletti acknowledged that both he and Della Volpe had a commitment to study Marxism rigorously. he was one of the 101 signatories to a notorious letter from dissident communist intellectuals deriding the party line on Eastern Europe and Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 . composed an extensive critical essay on Lenin’s seminal State and Revolution. it only hinted at the massive political move he was to make in the 1990s.REMARX 151 Colletti were both on the editorial committee of the party’s main cultural journal. He always cited Lenin’s writings as the main reason for his decision to join the PCI in 1950. In the 1950s. much of Colletti’s life and work were dedicated to a profound and serious relationship with the work of Marx. and emphasized strongly that he was in the process of radically rethinking his previous positions. reacted strongly to Italian fascism but was (perhaps) less critical of Stalinism. still uncannily resonant today. he wrote an introduction to an Italian edition of Lenin’s Philosophical Notebooks. Colletti insisted on the political importance of these texts.

of completely intellectual background. he had started to turn his back on Marxism. immediately abandon the Communist party in 1956. I became involved in the internal struggles over cultural policy in the PCI. the extreme period of Stalinism comprised ceaseless trials. I can say that if I were to relive my life again. It was my reading of certain of Lenin’s texts that was determinant for my adhesion to the PCI: in particular and despite all the reservations which it may inspire and which I share towards it today. suspicion. and had no regrets.152 REDHEAD lambasting Soviet repression. by the mid-1970s. I would repeat the experience of both my entry and my exit. political activity in the party allowed to overcome some forms of intellectualism and thereby to understand somewhat better the problems of the relationship between theory and practice in a political movement. and stressed that he did not want any part of it if that was to be the future of Marxism. his Materialism and EmpirioCriticism. and the international political context. however. Both were critical for my development. although this was accompanied by the firm conviction that it was North Korea which had launched an attack against the South. (Anderson 1974. he praised Leon Trotsky’s sober caution and dissection of Stalinism. From 1955 onwards. separated from the people it was meant to engage politically. By 1974. more seriously for Colletti. Second. not in order to furnish Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 . and purges inside the Soviet Communist party and all other communist parties. 5) Colletti was. it seemed that for too long Marxism had lived on merely as an academic current in the universities. made real contact for the first time with people from other social groups. 3Á/28). Colletti (1970) thought Stalin himself a cold and despotic individual. my entry into the Communist Party was precipitated by the outbreak of the Korean War. at least in the West. whom I could otherwise never have encountered except in trams or buses. a reaction as much generational as political. I regret neither the decision to join nor the decision to leave the party. He told Anderson that he experienced Stalin’s death in 1953 as an emancipation and Kruschev’s denunciation of Stalin at the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956 as an authentic liberation (Anderson 1974. I say this. At the same time. on the one hand. He had staunchly regarded dialectical materialism as an evening-class philosophical pastiche but. however. He predicted to Anderson that Marxism would survive merely as the ‘‘foible of a few university professors’’ (1974. on the other. My own role was that of a simple rank and file militant. In contrast. He had joined the Communist party in his youth as a militant and philosopher. almost inevitably. My membership of the party was an extremely important and positive experience for me. had been. Colletti did not. producing works of purely theoretical scope or cultural reflection. firmly against the May ’68 movement in Europe. waiting until 1964 to exit it and end any love affair he might have once had with the Soviet system. Colletti explained how influential Lenin. When Anderson asked him about his intellectual origins and entry into political life. 28). The first importance of militancy in the PCI lay essentially in this: the party was the site in which a man like myself. as he explained in the Anderson interview. For Colletti (1971).

although it meant doing violence to myself. 2006). another intellectual held sway*/namely. whose Forza Italia party began in December 1993. Althusser was an opponent of Eurocommunism who came to the fore in the 1960s. Colletti won a safe seat for Forza Italia in the 1996 elections. initially under the leadership of Bettino Craxi. Althusser showed me some of the articles he later collected in For Marx. 1974. thrown onto the theoretical pyre of Marxist history as his own personal life slid into tragedy. (Anderson. Della Volpe’s Italian school predated Althusser and his pupils in its Marxist antiHegelianism. My main reservation about this convergence was that Althusser did not appear to have mastered the canons of philosophical tradition adequately. when Colletti published his last major book in Italian. Berlusconi praised Colletti in an obituary. Like Colletti. and it was necessary to choose one side or the other. There was no Collettism to rival Althusserianism. In his 1974 New Left Review interview. Colletti’s distinctive contribution to Marxist theory in the 1960s was to claim a modern scientific basis for Marxism as well as to develop a theorized. Althusser. When we first met in Italy. but because it is the truth. My initial impression on reading them was that there was a considerable convergence of positions between ourselves and Althusser. Then I would fail to reply to him. Della Volpe’s discourse on Hegel was always based on a Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 . Reading breaking books like For Marx (Althusser 1969) and. Colletti recounted the fascinating history of dialogue between the two men. and saw instead the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) as the vehicle for a market-socialist solution. I opted for membership of the PCI*/with all the deep resistances of formation and culture that a petty-bourgeois intellectual of that epoch in Italy could feel towards Stalinism. In ground´tienne Balibar. anti-Stalinist culture within a Western communist party. Colletti registers only a few hundred against Althusser’s tens of thousands*/despite the fact that by 1980. Tramonto Dell’Ideologia (Colletti 1980).REMARX 153 myself with an a posteriori political virginity. that of Colletti. mental illness. which Berlusconi lost. but related to. Colletti was largely forgotten. and gradually the letters between us ceased. So. Colletti eventually settled for backing Silvio Berlusconi. My attitudes even then were of profound aversion towards Stalinism: but at that moment the world was rent into two. or he to me. In 2001. to the problems of Italian capitalism in the 1980s. In the French Communist party (PCF). I knew Althusser personally and for some years corresponded with him. On Google Scholar. as well as creating an anti-Stalinist theoretical cluster within a national communist party. 25) Colletti had no sympathy for the Eurocommunist turn of the 1970s. who died in 1990. theorizing a scientific basis for Marxism in the contemporary capitalist world. and confinement (Althusser 1994. saying he had courage in rejecting communism and had been a critical spirit of Forza Italia. After the collapse of Eastern European socialism in the late 1980s. and remains in Althusser’s shadow even today. wins hands-down in Internet hits. Althusser was himself becoming a forgotten man. It was Althusser who became the more influential in Western Marxist circles. Althusser was to propose a scientific basis for Marxist theory different from. Louis Althusser. and Colletti’s view of Althusser was colored by this fact. with E Capital (Althusser and Balibar 1970).

These ideas radically separated the two scientistic Western Marxists. none of the Della Volpeans had any weakness towards Maoism. (Anderson 1974. in the last decade of his own life. which appeared to be an intrusion of another sort of political discourse into the philosophical text itself. and makes his work on Marx’s theory of value still pertinent in the economic meltdown of global capitalism today. it should be added. A few years later. . although a volume on Coletti appeared in Italian in 2004 (it has yet to be translated into English). I started to read it. Colletti viewed the celebrated French theorist as a highly intelligent person who unfortunately displayed an organic sympathy with Stalinism. 37Á/8). because in our time they are the only scholars who have made an irreconcilable theoretical distinction between Marx and Hegel and a definition of the specificity of Marxist philosophy the conscious centre of their investigations’’ (Althusser 1969. 23) Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 On Althusser’s part. it was substituted by the intromission of simplifications of a political type. Althusser discussed Colletti and Della Volpe at various points. there has to date been no biography of his life or comprehensive analysis of his work (Bongiorno and Ricci 2004). stand in contrast to Althusser’s idea of an epistemological break between the early and late (or young and old) Marx. the works of Colletti and Della Volpe were of the ‘‘greatest importance. the articles which later made up For Marx seemed to show a pronounced convergence with the classical theses of the Della Volpean current in Italian Marxism. . Colletti’s insistence on his insight that the problems of alienated labor and commodity fetishism are central to the whole architecture of Marx’s later work underlies all his own theoretical edifice. and did not pursue it any further. This dimension was much less visible in Althusser. For example. at the time he wrote For Marx in 1965. Then Althusser sent me Reading Capital. even as he was being fe ˆted as one of the leaders of . falling into the arms of the Italian right just at the moment when his own earlier contributions to forging a scientific basis for Marxist philosophy were being systematically overlooked by newer theorists and their followers (Bongiorno and Ricci 2004). Colletti regarded Althusser’s thought as having become increasingly impoverished and arid with the passage of time (Anderson 1974. I have suggested in this essay that Colletti was more prescient than his fellow scholars in his rational exit from the theoreticist Marxism of the 1970s. despite their agreement on the pivotal importance of Capital and the Grundrisse. Surprisingly. 3Á/28).154 REDHEAD very close knowledge and analytical examination of his texts. I did not find it particularly interesting as such. with these reservations. Aristotle or Plato. and found*/I say this without any irony*/that I could not understand the presuppositions and purpose of the work . This dearth of such works leaves unanswered major questions about his personal move to the right in the 1980s and 1990s. During the 1990s. and his contention that these themes are present in the whole of the later Marx. but made the clear mistake of conflating Gramsci and Colletti. At a time when Althusser’s star was still on the rise. Essentially Colletti’s own attention to alienation and fetishism in Marx’s writings. in these essays there would be a series of references to Mao. On the contrary. and well before Althusser’s tragic decline at the end of the 1970s. Colletti achieved political notoriety of a quite different sort. not to speak of those of Kant. At any rate. Politically. when writing ‘‘The Object of Capital’’ section of Reading Capital.

For Marx. evidence that before he died. The future lasts a long time. New Left Review 1/61. New Left Review 2/1. Bari: Laterza. L. Renewals. London: New Left Books. and his staunchly anticlerical stance persisted to the end. The doubts that had crept into his work in the mid-1970s as Marxism in the West became. * * // */. There is. which he shared with many other European Marxists of his generation except. New Left Review 1/65. * . In the speeded-up modernity and accelerated celebrity culture of the early-twentyfirst century. The question of Stalin. for those willing to be sympathetic to Colletti. Colletti. Bari: Laterza. The Centro Studi Lucio Colletti is housed in his former residence in Rome and run by his widow. * * // */. and E Anderson. and Oxford. 1970. Lucio Colletti: A political and philosophical interview. 1969b. 28). reverse this trend and revive interest in the life and work of Lucio Colletti. Balibar. Colletti’s turn away from Lenin and the choice of his own idiosyncratic personal parliamentary road ensured. However. The disillusionment with leftism that Colletti experienced in the 1970s never included a rapprochement with Catholicism in Italian society. L. * * // */. Lenin and his theories of revolutionary violence. swing right politically as he got older? One clue to the rightward shift is his fierce anti-Catholicism.REMARX 155 Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 Western Marxism. * * // */. References Agamben. Ricci. still resound amidst the attempt of today’s international public ˇiz intellectuals like Slavoj Z ˇek (2002. the Center houses his books and papers and sponsors philosophical and political events. Florence. Ideologia e Societa. Althusser. He chose Berlusconi over the Christian Democrats because of their mixing of church and state. even though Berlusconi’s party was widely seen as containing neofascist fellow travellers. P. Lucio Colletti: Tra Scienza e Liberta. Bongiorno. 2000. London: New Left Books. including Rome. he had a considerable falling out with Berlusconi’s party. unfortunately. 1974. that he would not be first on the lips of the new New Left in the twenty-first century. Philosophy of the encounter: Later writings 1978Á/1987. P. a ‘‘purely cultural and academic phenomenon’’ and the ‘‘foible of a few university professors’’ (Anderson 1974. London: Verso. a principled leftist. New Left Review 1/86: 3Á/28. ironically. ´. A fitting tribute to Coletti’s legacy. and always fought against the legacy of Mussolini and the fascists in Italy. 2004. 1971. * // */. 2005. An exhibition on his life and work entitled Lucio Colletti: Journey of a Contemporary Philosopher has traveled to various European cities. perhaps significantly. 1977. 1970. The credit crash of 2008 and the new depression on the horizon may. Dotessa Fauzia Gavioli. Considerations on Western Marxism. Reading Capital. 1994. and A. an institution devoted to Coletti’s legacy opened its doors not long after his death (Redhead 2004). * * // */. Rome: Ideazione. L. 1969. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The state of exception. Louis Althusser (Gottfried 2005). in his own words. 2008a. 2008b) to reenergize. London: Verso. and reexamine.. Harmondsworth: Penguin. * * // */. Antonio Gramsci and the Italian revolution. G. 1969a.. Il Marxismo e Hegel. But why did Colletti. Althusser. 2006.

Introduction to Early Writings. 2009.156 REDHEAD Downloaded By: [Duke University] At: 02:48 20 February 2010 * * // */. Bari: Laterza. * * // */. by K. 1992. London: Verso. Redhead. . Gottfried. The strange death of Marxism: The European left in the new millennium. * * // */. Della Volpe. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Intervista politicao-filosofica. * * // */. Tramonto Dell’Ideologia. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Revolution at the gates: Z Verso. A.Z ˇek on Lenin*/The 1917 writings. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Marxist Perspectives (Fall). Bari: Laterza. Critique of taste. London: Profile. * * // */. 1973. 1975a. 1974. In defence of lost causes. Bari: Laterza. 2004. Hegelianism and Marxism: A reply to Lucio Colletti. Violence. Mann. New Left Review 2/56. 1980. * * // */. G. 2008b. New Left Review 1/93. Preface to Manifesto del Partito Communista. London: Verso. Marxism contra Hegel: The world of Lucio Colletti. 1972. 1978. Engels. * * // */. Smith. 1985. S. 1975b. ˇiz ˇiz . * * // */. London: ICA. Kofman. Marxism and the dialectic.. * * // */. 1978. Colletti on the credit crunch: A response to Robin Blackburn. K. and A. Marx. 2008a. Con un Saggio su Marxismo e Dialettica. Paul Virilio: Theorist for an accelerated culture. S. Dick. 2005. Marx and F. London: ˇek. 2002. Derrida: A documentary. by K. G. From Rousseau to Lenin: Studies in ideology and society. London: Verso. Marxism and Hegel. Z. La Logica di Benedetto Croce. Science and Society. * * // */. P. * * // */. 1986. 2002. London: New Left Books. Rome: Marco.