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# Workout 1

1. Danny (E, G, M, T) (C, F, T) (C, T) (C) 5. 2008 6. 1* 7. 145 (C, F, G, P, T) (C, F, T) (C, F, P) 2. 24 3. 17.30 4. 2100 8. 4.3  9.  10. 9256 (C, F, T) (C, E, M, P, T) (C, F)

Solution - Problem #2

We can let the figure to the right illustrate the scenario in the problem. Notice that Joes points and   + = Franks points make up  of the total points in the  game. Therefore, the remaining four points scored by Ken and Mike are one-sixth of the games total points. There must have been 6´4 = 24 points scored in the game.

Solution/Multiple Representations - Problem #6

One way to approach this problem is to see it as a Rate ´ Time = Distance problem. We know  =  of an hour. (Remember that if the rate is 15 mph, and he is biking for four minutes, which is   our rate is in miles per hour, then our time must be in hours, and our distance will be in miles.) Now we  can calculate that 15 mph ´  hr = 1 mile. We also could view this as a proportional reasoning problem. We know that he travels 15 miles in 60 minutes, and we want to know the number of miles he travels in four minutes. This leads  = [ . Setting the cross products equal, we have 60x = 4(15). Dividing both sides to the proportion   by 60 then gets us to [ = 

) or decrease in value (11. . (Simply put. Can you see how the quotient of  consecutive terms is  no matter which two consecutive terms we use? (You also could describe this as a geometric sequence in which each term is multiplied by 3 to get the next term.).. 5. . 26 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . An arithmetic sequence is a sequence of terms in which the difference of the n th and n +1st term remains constant. each pair has the same quotient. .) A geometric sequence is similar. 7..   This problem refers to an arithmetic sequence though you could probably solve the problem without knowing what an arithmetic sequence is. 11. the difference of consecutive terms remains the same throughout the sequence. 11... =  =  mile..) Its important to remember that arithmetic sequences may have terms that increase in value (11. 15. but rather than every pair of consecutive terms having the same difference. An example of a geometric sequence is 2. can you show the next three terms of a geometric sequence with terms that decrease in value? Connection to.. 6. 9. . 17. even if the answer appears to require the singular form of the units. 18. 11...) or stay the same in value (11. Using 8 as the first term. . The same is true for geometric sequences.. 13. Geometric Sequences (Problem #7) * The plural form of the units will always be provided in the answer blank.. 54.

2) = 105. there are 105 ¸ 7 = 15 rows in Formation A.210 = 105n . 4 7. Solution/Multiple Representations . (It helps to know that 100 is the first three-digit multiple of 4.7)(n + 5) = 0.Problem #10 32 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . The figure included with this problem is extremely important because we see that the product of the number of rows and the number of columns (or band members in each row) is the total number of band members. and we know (m + 6)(n .4 4. some are one-digit integers.12n . then (m + 6. the value of n must be positive. Lets go back to the original two equations m ´n = 105 and (m + 6 )(n . 32 We know that we are numbering houses from 4 through 120. which will cost 64 ´ \$0. P. In Formation A with m rows and n columns. The first equation can  be rewritten as m =  Q . 6n 2 + 105n . Lets group them accordingly. 6n 2 . T) (C. From this point we see that we have two equations with two unknowns. 49 10. 215 6.210 = 0. We could list these out. P. T) 2. and there are 15 rows in Formation A. and there are six three-digit multiples yielding 6´3 = 18 digits.  3-digit 4´25 = 100 4´30 = 120 30 . 2830 3.  Solution . Formation B has m + 6 rows and n .2) = 105. By inspecting these four factor pairs. we know m ´n = 105.2) matches with the factor pair (21. or 105.2) = 105. M. 3 & 35. 15 (C) (C) (C. If there are seven members per row. 350 9. G. 5 & 21 and 7 & 15. others are two-digit integers and still others have three digits. we get ( Q + 6)(n . Since n is the number of band members per row. 7). Rather than jumping into the algebraic solution above. 86. Therefore.Workout 2 Answers 1. n 2 .Problem #4 The two one-digit multiples account for a total of two digits. This is a total of 2 + 44 + 18 = 64 digits. but using only the multiples of four.) 1-digit 4´1 = 4 4´2 = 8 2-digit 4´3 = 12 4´24 = 96 2 mult. and finally n = 7 or -5.50 = \$32.35 = 0.2 columns (or band members per row). lets examine the factor pairs for 105: 1 & 105.2) = 105n . m = 15. 840 (C) (C. T) (C) (C) (C. we can see that if we let ( m . but lets see if we can count them quickly. F) 8. and therefore n = 7. (n . Multiplying both sides of the equation by n gets us to (105 + 6n )(n . G.2 = 22 mult. Since 4 = 4 ´1 and 120 = 4´30. Substituting this into the second equation. E. n ) be the factor pair (15.2n . T) 5. 24 . resulting in 22´2 = 44 digits. we are working with the first 30 multiples of 4. Unfortunately. n . 5). there are 22 two-digit multiples.12n .24 = 6 mult. 19 (P.

S) (C) 8. P. but both are close. M) (C. we could use our calculator with some Guess. 7. However.970. It fails. M.3) than the extreme values. 3y . the first column will show a value of x . 40 3. First. but lets examine 24. Solution/Multiple Representations . we can divide both sides by y  2 2 to see that x =  \ . we can add some variables to our picture. The prime factorization of 336 is 24 ´ 3 ´ 7. but lets look at a pair of factors involving 21. we have y = 24. However. we see the result is 100. 2. Alternatively. so its possible to solve at this point. (Since theyre both positive integers.01 (C. it is going to be challenging to solve. We cant form 22 or 23 from the factorization of 336. F.Problem #6 y First. The factor pair would be 24 & 14. We dont know that y the fencing between the two gardens splits the entire area in half. Since 3y + 2x = 100. S. then a 3 :b 3 is the ratio of their volumes. 3y + 2(336) = 100y . we can see that this happens only when x = 14 and y = 24. F. 26 7. G. 312 6. F. Our factor pair is going to have to consist of numbers that are both closer to the square root of 336 (which is approximately 18. The factor pair is 21 & 16. 17 (C. We have y two equations and two unknowns. to the nearest whole number. 3 4. E. We dont need to check factor pairs of 336 with extremely large factors like 336 & 1 or 168 & 2 because of the cap weve already established. Starting with xy = 336. we know that both x and y must be less than 50. We now need to solve for y.28)(y . and so y = 24. Check & Revise and perhaps get to the answer quicker.) We also know that xy = 336. We will use the relationships y =  and 3y + 2x = 100. and then divide the values of the two volumes. We cant form the factors 18. 19 or 20 from these prime factors.000 We could calculate the volumes of both Mars and Pluto since we are given each planets radius. 12. the Y1 column will show the corresponding value of y (notice the product of every pair of values in these first two columns is 336). From here. we will enter the following equations in the [  Y= field: Y1 =  [ and Y2 = 3( [ ) + 2x.2 (C.24) = 0. 50 is a good estimate cap since 3(0) + 2(50) = 100. Upon testing 3(24) + 2(14). Now we have 3y + 2( \ ) = 100.Problem #8 38 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . we can skip right to our answer by simplifying 21063 :7073. and the value in the Y 2 column is the corresponding value of 3y + 2x. This pair must satisfy 3(21) + 2(16) = 100 or 3(16) + 2(21) = 100. Solution . We also could use the TABLE feature of a graphing calculator to solve this problem. M. (3y .100y + 672 = 0. If we scroll down until we have 100 in the Y2 column. we see that y =   or 24. T) (C) (C. which is approximately 26. Since we were told the dimensions were integers. When we go to the TABLE feature. relying on the property that if a :b is the ratio of the radii of similar figures.Workout 3 Answers 1.7 10. P) (C) (F) 2. 24 9. but we x know xy = 336 and 3y + 2x = 100. 46. T) (C) 5. even after getting these merged into one equation with one variable. G.

Notice the difference of the first two   −  +   −  =  ×     ×  49 49 49 4 94 94 9 4 94 9 4 9 We dont know much about Georges first trip other than it was 300 miles. go to TBLSET and set TblStart equal to  . well multiply the left side of our equation by two. choosing a scenario with a rate that is divisible by three will make this easier. we also can take the original expression and use factoring. F) 8. For his second trip. we have Perhaps your first thought is to plug in the value of     −   +   −  . we have the expression 8x 3 + 12x  6x 2  9. the rate (or speed) for the second trip was only two-thirds that of the first trip. By plugging   in for x. as is the difference of the last two terms. F. Similarly. we see that the value of the first binomial factor is 0. 27 4. T) (C. so the total value of the expression is 0. Though probably not the most obvious or efficient solution. we can then find the value of this expression for any value of x. Since were particularly interested in  . 98 (C. This means we should multiply both sides of the equation by  two-thirds.75 (or  we entered into Y=) is 0. P) (C. which results in a 40 ´ 10 = 400-mile trip. M) (C.832 (C. M) (C. F) 2. Simplifying this isnt too difficult if we reduce fractions along the way:           ×× − ×× + × −  . well multiply the right side of the equation by two. and we didnt have to work with any large numbers or complicated fractions in the process! Since this is a Workout problem. We now know that the second trip would be 40 mph and 10 hrs. 1880 (C) (C. we see that the product of the new rate and the new time yield a distance of   2 ´ 300 = 400 miles. 8145. Lets go with the first trip being 60 mph and 5 hrs. 60 mph & 5 hrs. In doing this. F. 3 3. By simplifying the right side ´ equation. If we now go to the value of the expression when x =    ). and therefore. We could choose 30 mph & 10 hrs.  for each x. F) 5. 114 9. F) (C. but since we have to take two-thirds of the rate. E. 40 7. Solution/Multiple Representations . 22. we have r1 ´ t1 = 300 miles. the y-value (or value of the expression TABLE.Workout 4 Answers 1. and therefore the product of the two binomial factors (and the original expression) is 0. notice that we could solve this problem by just choosing values for the rate and time of the first trip that give us a distance of 300 miles. If we relate this problem to the common formula Rate ´ Time = Distance.Problem #5 terms is 0. Since his time is doubled. G. By changing the order of the terms. If we enter the expression 8x 3  6x 2 + 12x  9 into the Y= field of a graphing calculator. as well. which results in (  of the  ´ r1 ) ´ (2 ´ t1 ) =  ´ 2 ´ 300. 50 mph & 6 hrs. which is equivalent to 4x (2x 2 + 3)  3(2x 2 + 3) or (4x  3)(2x 2 + 3).06 Solution/Multiple Representations . Since we werent given too many constraints for the first trip. we will see that when x = 0. F) (C. we know that the rate and time of the first trip changed. 0 6. F. 400 10. etc. Doubling any of these times for the second trip will not be difficult.Problem #9 44 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . Now we have r1 ´ (2 ´ t1 ) = 2 ´ 300. we could have used our calculator to do all of the work for us. P.

you may have been able to see that each one of the girls could have been chosen to be left off the team. T) One efficient solution to this problem uses the formula for determining the number of ways to choose m items from a group of n items. M) (C. 1140 6. F. we first need to figure out how many different pairs of girls can be chosen for the = = 3 pairs. assuming that the order in which the m items are chosen does Q not matter. T) (C. 30 (C) (C.Workout 5 Answers 1. F. T) 8. F. For this problem. 20 9. There are five boys to choose from. F. F. 494. 29 7. G. 0. G. which results in 3 ´ 10 = 30 possible four-member teams consisting of two girls and two boys.) Now we also need to determine the number of different pairs of boys that can be chosen. which also results in three different selections for the female team members. 9. There are three girls to choose from. F. M) (C. T) (C. P. 5 (C. T) (C. P. S. We call this n choose m  and the expression for determining this number is P Q − P . Each of the three possible pairs of girls could be matched with each of the 10 possible pairs of boys. (Since team.550 (C. F. so well use 3 choose 2 = − there were only three girls to start with. 63 (C. so well use 5 choose 2 = = 10 pairs. T) 2. S.1 10. G.0235 3.18 ´ 10 4. T) -3 5. F. P. M. 3. Ä Ä.

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The positive differences for the two expressions then range from 36 to 63.(-43) = 63.4) . for a positive difference of 11 . The difference of 63 is the greatest of the two.4 = 20 and 5 .4 £ 20 -25 ³ -6x + 5 ³ -43 are attained from x = 5.6x.6x )) and view the TABLE starting at x = 5. Using x = 5.5 for x will result in a positive difference of 49. we also can assume that choosing the middle value of 6.5 (which is the average of the differences found at x = 5 and x = 8). Since the expressions are each linear (x to the first power). it would make sense to test the extremes of our options for x. we must use it in both expressions. and the values of 20 and -43 -25 ³ 5 . and the difference of 63 at x = 8 is the greatest for our interval.  Ä Ä Solution . but once we choose the value.Problem #4 Ä Ä Ä We see that x can be any value from 5 to 8. we get 3(5) . This creates a greater difference between the two expressions.4 = 11 and 5 . Consider the compound inequality 5 £ x £ 8 and 5£ x £8 5£ x £8 alter it to match each of the two original expressions (as 15 £ 3x £ 24 -30 ³ -6x ³ -48 shown here). Using the two expressions. we see that the lines are furthest apart at x = 8.6x ³ -43 are attained from x = 8. We again see that the values of 11 and -25 11 £ 3x . so it is correct to choose the greatest possible value of x. the value of the first expression increases while the value of the second expression decreases. for a positive difference of 20 .(5 . This is the point of the greatest difference. Examining the graph in the interval 5 £ x £ 8. we could graph the equations y = 3x . Using x = 8.(-25) = 36. we get 3(8) . using the Y= field of a graphing calculator. We can see that as x increases. we can enter Y= abs((3x . with the greatest being 63. Since we are trying to find the greatest possible difference.6(8) = -43. Additionally.Problem #10 50 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 .4 and y = 5 . mainly 5 and 8. We can quickly see in the table that this value (the positive difference of the two expressions) increases as x increases.6(5) = -25. Solution/Multiple Representations . The difference of the two y -values at x = 8 is again 63.

2 Fig.  7. G) (G. 6 Fig. the 1x3 tile can go in the top row or bottom row. and the pairings that give us a total of 500 students are identified. as shown in Fig.926  6. 1) are the only possibilities. M. G. If we enter this expression into the Y= field of a graphing calculator. Since 500 is not divisible by 35 or 45. we see that (4. S. 56. we must understand that we are trying to fill the squares so that the dotted line shown in Fig. Fig.Workout 6 Answers 1. 3214 3. fix TBLSET to start at 1 and increase by 1. M. The sum of the four-digit numbers in the top two rows is 7452 + 4474 = 11. 8 5. After that is placed. 5). F) (C. we can then select TABLE and see our (x. there is only one option for the placement of the 1x3 tile. The key to solving this problem is to consider the shapes and sizes of the seven tiles. Needing a 5 to finish out the bottom row. the 1x3 tile and the two 1x2 tiles. we see the possible numbers of students for each type of bus. G. G. T) (C. 5 If we place the two 3x1 tiles as we did in Fig. T) (C. 1 indicate corresponding squares. G. The tiles to pay particular attention to are the two 3x1 tiles. Only placing it in the top row will preserve the symmetry (Fig. 3. E. 7 The 2004-2005 MATHCOUNTS poster originated from this problem.7x ) ¸ 9. T) 8. F. F. We also could use our graphing calculator. 7). The combination of four 35-passenger and eight 45passenger buses is the one that uses the fewest number of buses. S) (C. Solution/Multiple Representations . We are trying to find solutions to the equation 35x + 45y = 500. 1 is a line of symmetry. In this table. T) 2. 2232  10. The bottom row of caps is yellow. On the poster.5 4. 3 3x1 tiles must be positioned so that there is room for the 1x3 tile and two 1x2 tiles. eight of which are 45-passenger buses. y ) pairs that consist of two positive integers. we can place the 2x1 tile (Fig. with (4. 3 (E. 4 Fig. we have y = (100 . Fig. red. 2. M) (E. P) (C. M. but the numbers in the other Fig. which we can get only from one of the 1x2 tiles.926. T) Solution . The two Fig. 8) and (13. F. 6 (E. blue and yellow. We now need a 2 in the bottom left square.Problem #4 Every seat of every bus is filled. 4). This placement still preserves the symmetry even though we have added a 4.Problem #5 First. too (Fig. we will need a combination of the two bus sizes. Cutting out the pieces and moving them around the grid is extremely helpful! The sizes of the tiles eliminate many possibilities. 11. blue = 5. 35 35 70 105 140 175 210 245 280 315 350 385 420 455 490 45 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 405 450 495 56 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . which is really 7x + 9y = 100. The squares occupied by the dotted line can contain any number since they are on the line of symmetry. Scrolling down. 1 squares must have the symmetry demonstrated here. 3300 9. 6). The remaining two tiles fit nicely (Fig. green = 7. 8) using only 12 buses. Solving for y. where the 1x3 tile can fit across the top. there may not be room for both of the 1x2 tiles.  (C. red = 4 and yellow = 2. The shapes/ shading in Fig. but only one of the 1x2 tiles will then fit (bottom row). Many times after positioning the two 3x1 tiles. P.