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Sarah Rice General Psychology Final Exam/ Fall 2011 Dr. Tracy Masiello December 14 2011 1!

"n #he cha$#er on sensa#ion an% $erce$#ion &e %isc'sse% #he (ac# #ha# #here are o$#ical ill'sions &hich &e ex$erience e)ery %ay. *o' &ere as+e% #o no#ice some ill'sions #ha# yo' $ersonally ex$erience%. ,ha# are some exam$les o( #hose ill'sions- .ase% on &ha# yo' learne% abo'# sensing an% $ercei)ing s#im'li &ha# $rocesses acco'n# (or yo'r $erce$#ion o( #hose ill'sions- .e s$eci(ic regar%ing #he (ac#ors #ha# ca'se yo'r $erce$#ion o( #hem. " no#ice a lo# o( ill'sions &i#h regar%s #o my sense o( sigh#. "/)e been blesse% &i#h grea# )ision my en#ire li(e. ,hen " &al+ in#o a %ar+ room i# al&ays seems li+e #he room is ge##ing brigh#er as my eyes a%0's#. This is no# necessarily #he case. ,hen &e en#er a %ar+ room o'r $'$ils o$en '$ #o allo& as m'ch ligh# in as $ossible. 1s o'r eyes become acc's#ome% #o #he %ar+ i# a$$ears #he room has go##en brigh#er. This is %ar+ an% ligh# a%a$#a#ion. The ro%s an% cones &i#hin #he h'man eye &or+ #oge#her in si#'a#ions &here )ery li##le ligh# is a)ailable. 2'man eyesigh# is %e(ini#ely ama3ing. ,e learne% in lec#'re #ha# on a clear nigh# #he ligh# o( a can%le can be seen (rom 40 miles a&ay. ,hen &e loo+ a# an ob0ec# ligh# bo'nces o(( o( #he ob0ec#. The re(lec#e% ligh# (orms an image on #he re#ina. The image #hen genera#es signals in rece$#ors #ha# #ra)el along ner)e (ibers #o #he brain. The brain #hen says 52ey #here/s ligh# o)er #here.6 1ll #his ha$$ens in momen#s #ha# seem ins#an#aneo's. ,hen i# comes #o $erce$#ion signals are $rocesse% by #he brain an% &e $ercei)e #he ligh# #ha# &e say in #he &ay #ha# &e &an# #o see i#. 2! 7all #hree $eo$le an% #ell #hem some#hing #ha# goes com$le#ely agains# common +no&le%ge. Tell #he (irs# $erson #ha# #his is some#hing yo' 0's# hear% some&here 8%on/# gi)e a so'rce! an% as+ #heir o$inion abo'# i#. Tell #he secon% $erson yo' hear% i# in a ne&s re$or# an% as+ #heir o$inion abo'# i#. Tell #he #hir% $erson #ha# yo' hear% i# in se)eral ne& re$or#s an% as+ #heir o$inions abo'# i#. Prior #o ma+ing #he calls $re%ic# &ha# #heir res$onses &ill be. Then a(#er ma+ing #he calls ans&er #he (ollo&ing 9'es#ions: "/m going #o #ell #hem #ha# " hear% #ha# 1she)ille Mall is le##ing $eo$le #a+e #heir %ogs &i#h #hem #o #he mall no&. .ri##any: She is a little naive. She will probably say really and say something like, Wow, thats awesome. I can take Jazzie (her dog shopping with me all the time.! 1c#'al: 5Serio'sly-; "/m #a+ing <a33 &i#h me #o (inish my 7hris#mas sho$$ing.6 " #hen #ol% her #ha# i# &asn/# #r'e an% #ol% her i# &as (or school. She sai% 5,ell %amn. *o' go# my ho$es '$.6

<'li: She will say something like"!#eally$ When did they say that$ Ive got to go watch that on the news.! 1c#'al: 5=o &ay. "/ll #ell Mom #ha#. ,ha# #ime %i% yo' see #ha# on #he ne&s- "/% li+e #o &a#ch i# #o see &hen #ha# s#ar#s.6 " #ol% her i# &asn/# #r'e an% #ha# i# &as (or school. She sai% 5"#/s no# nice #o lie an% la'ghe%. She sai% 5" &as +in% o( &on%ering beca'se #ha# so'n%e% a li##le &eir%. >a'ra: She will say something like"!%ow can they do that$ Some people dont even walk there dogs or take care o& them. It will be absol'te chaos. I cant believe it(! 1c#'al: She sai% 5*o' are +i%%ing; There &ill be %ogs r'nning e)ery&here #hro'gh #he mall #earing s#'(( '$. The mall &ill smell li+e %og an% %og $oo$. ,ha# #he hell are #hey #hin+ing- 2o& am " s'$$ose% #o %o my sho$$ing no&-6 ,hen " #ol% her i# &asn/# #r'e an% i# &as (or school she sai% 5?h #han+ Go%; *o' ha% me really &orrie% #ha# #he mall &as going #o #he %ogs. What were your results? Did they match your predictions? Discuss your results in terms of the key concepts youve learned about social psychology. How do your results compare to Aschs? I felt like my predictions were pretty close to what I thought they would be. I know my sisters very well. I know how they think and how they react to a lot of situations. Aschs e periments proved that people will generally conform to the group even if the group is obviously incorrect. !ocial influence will definitely play an important role in the way that people react in group situations. I know that my sister "rittany is na#ve and definitely follows the crowd. $y sister %uli is only &' and is e periencing a lot of peer pressure( but still trying to form her own identity. $y sister )aura is more comfortable with herself and would be more likely to voice her opinion. *hen again( I think it would still depend heavily on the situation and who was in the group. 4! Try #o memori3e #he (ollo&ing #hree lis#s 8memori3e #hem se$ara#ely one a# a T2@=ST?F1M 1AAB200C1C4D E2E44A4D4A Discuss the strategies you used to memori+e the lists. Did your strategy differ with each list? If so( in what way? Were the lists easy or difficult for you to learn? Why? "e sure to use the concepts youve learned in this class about memory( forgetting( perception( and learning in your answer. $y strategy was the same for each group( but I used the strategy a little differently. I used chunking to memori+e the groups of alpha,numeric symbols. In the first line( I memori+ed it like a weird couple of words. -*huns to .am/. Its kind of silly and funny which makes it easy to remember.

In the ne t line( I chunked 0 numbers together to memori+e &11',2334,&405. *hat made the group a lot easier to remember. In the last line( I also used chunking in the same way that we learn telephone number 626,771,0501. Its familiar so that makes it easier to remember. It is much easier to store information in your short,term memory if you can break it down in a way that allows you to encode the information and store it for a brief period of time.

4! ?n a $iece o( $a$er &ri#e #he (ollo&ing a((irma#ion message an% %is$lay i# in a $rominen# $lace &here yo' &ill see i# se)eral #imes a %ay. 5" am in charge o( my o&n li(e. " can reg'la#e #he amo'n# o( s#ress " ex$erience.6 1(#er #&o %ays ans&er #he (ollo&ing 9'es#ions: Did you feel more in control of things? Did viewing the affirmation affect your stress level in any way? Why or why not? "e sure to discuss your results using what youve learned about health( stress( coping( and the principles of motivation. I did feel more in control of things after reading this affirmation so many times. I felt more rela ed and confidant( which I think is pretty awesome. I felt less stressed and had this sense of relief where I could say to myself( Ive got this and everything is going to be fine. I really like feeling that way. I know that it is a very good( healthy practice to give yourself a -pep talk/ sometimes. It can help you mange your stress levels. 8educing stress levels can help a persons blood pressure and reduce the chances of disease causing agents taking over your body. If I am rela ed and I feel in control of my situation( my potential will sky rocket. If I e pect to accomplish great things( I can accomplish them. D! Thin+ abo'# #he class ac#i)i#y #ha# &e %i% regar%ing 2o&ar% Gar%ner/s #heory o( m'l#i$le in#elligences. ,ha# #y$e o( in#elligence &as yo'r s#ronges#- ,hich &as yo'r &ea+es#- Rela#e #hese in#elligences #o ac#'al #es#s yo' ha)e #a+en in #he $as#. ,ere yo'r #es# res'l#s consis#en# &i#h #he in#elligences #ha# &ere yo'r s#ronges# or &ea+es#- "( so gi)e an exam$le. "( no# ex$lain &ha# migh# acco'n# (or #he %iscre$ancy be#&een yo'r #y$e o( in#elligence an% yo'r $er(ormance 'sing in(orma#ion #ha# yo' ha)e learne% abo'# cogni#ion an% in#elligence. My s#ronges# #y$e o( in#elligence &as ling'is#ic an% my &ea+es# &as logicalF ma#hema#ical. " %o #hin+ #hese res'l#s are $re##y acc'ra#e &i#h all #he #es#s "/)e #a+en o)er #he years. " al&ays seem #o %o really &ell in #he English/>ang'age/Rea%ing $ar#s o( my #es#s. " &asn/# horrible a# ma#h " 0's# %i%n/# %o as &ell in ma#h as " %i% #he English $ar#s. " recen#ly #oo+ #he TE1S #es#. " %i% really &ell on all o( #he >ang'age

S+ills. The Ma#h S+ills $ar# &asn/# #ha# %i((ic'l# i# 0's# %oesn/# come #o me as (as# as #he English $ar#. B! Thin+ abo'# an e)en# %'ring &hich yo' &ere a(rai% or )ery angry. Describe i# brie(ly in yo'r res$onse b'# as yo' %o so #hin+ abo'# #he en#ire ex$erience in %e#ail. Then ans&er #he (ollo&ing 9'es#ions: Is your mood different now than it was before you started thinking about the event? If so( how? "ased on what youve learned about emotion( e plain why thinking about a past emotional e perience can influence our emotions in the present. I was really pissed the other day in Anatomy. I went to the restroom and to make a phone call. It was break time and I was gone for about &3 minutes. When I came back( this horrible girl named %essica had moved all of my stuff out of my seat and to the back counter. In the process( shed thrown a few of my things on the floor and hadnt bothered to pick them up. It was evident that I was irritated. !he had decided that she was going to teach everybody about the bones. I 9ust ignored her. I certainly dont want someone who admitted that they failed Anatomy I three times to teach me anything as it is evident she is dumb and rude to begin with. )ooooo, that did make me kind o& mad. I can act'ally &eel my cheeks t'rn a little bit read. She really made me mad. *n emotion is a psychological state that involves s'b+ective e,perience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or e,pressive response. I know that I was really mad in *natomy. I tho'ght Jessica was r'de and inappropriate. She never sorry &or moving my st'&& and she +'st didnt seem to 'nderstand that I was mad. -motions, especially anger or &ear, can leave 's with the ability to recreate those moments beca'se they were a bit tra'matic. -motions are so linked to o'r physical sel&, and it is impossible to think o& a time when yo' were angry or sad and not e,perience some sort o& physical &eelings (increase blood press're, sweating, crying . Someone who has been m'gged might be a&raid to work down a certain street. .hat same woman will have a &lood o& emotions when she walks down that street. She will relive that &eeling thro'gh her emotions. A! Disc'ss #he #y$e o( con%i#ioning #ha# 5>i##le 1lber#6 recei)e%. What effects( if any( can conditioning have on ones personality? What are some modern day e amples of conditioning that we e perience on a regular basis? Watson was able to create a classically conditioned fear response in -)ittle Albert/ who was initially a calm baby who seemed to be bothered by very little. Watson took things the baby was not afraid of :rabbits( white rats( and dogs; and accompanied these animals with loud sounds. <ventually( the child e pected the animals to accompany the loud sounds. =nce the child associated the animals and the sounds( he became frightened of the animals because he e pected the sounds. >onditioning can make a person afraid of things they might have otherwise not been afraid of had

they been e posed to things separately. If you e pect one thing thats good to accompany something really unpleasant( you will probably forgo the goof to avoid the bad. We are classically conditioned in advertising every day. We are bombarded with advertisements claiming how great a certain product is and at first we dont really think we need it. "ut( if you continually see this product( hear about this product( or see others using this product( we begin to believe we cant live without the product. E! Thin+ o( an ins#ance &hen yo' con(orme% #o social $ress're 8e.g. &earing bl'e 0eans &hen e)eryone else is &earing %ress slac+s or a s+ir#!. What was it about the situation that made you feel the need to conform? Have the pressures placed on you by your own socio,cultural group( or everyday peer group( ever come into conflict with the values and pressures of the ?nited !tates at large? If so( how and what did you do? If not( how do you think you would react in that situation? I used to really hate skinny pants@straight leg pants :I still think they look stupid on a lot of guys;. =ver the past few years( they are becoming more and more popular. I finally broke down and bought a pair. *hey look okay with flat shoes and a long sweater. However( I sometimes look at myself and thinkA/WHBCCC/ I actually broke down and bought them because everyone has them and they were one sale. I think that peer group pressure surrounds everyone. Its hard to avoid that pressure unless you can stay away from it for e tended periods of time. *his is very difficult when you go to school :where everyone wears skinny pants; or to work and find others doing the very thing you wanted to avoid. I think theres also a trend in the ?nited !tates towards worrying about offending people. .or e ample( about 15D of the population of the ?! is religious. )ast time I checked( thats a ma9ority. Eow( I understand not wanting to offend people( but I think that sometimes ma9ority rules. *he ?! is so worried about offending someone( they are forgetting about their faith. I think thats really messed up. A Fuarter of the population shouldnt be determining the beliefs of the other 7 Fuarters. Ill give in about my pants( but I dont want to give up on my faith. C! 1gree or %isagree &i#h #he (ollo&ing s#a#emen# an% s'$$or# yo'r ans&er: 5"# is no# $ossible #o cons#r'c# a c'l#'reF(ree in#elligence #es#.6 Are there culture,free or culture fair intelligence tests? What types of cultural influences or biases affect peoples performance on intelligence test? Does cultural influence only refer to the kinds of information to which people are e posed( or does it also refer to culturally,influenced motivation to perform well on tests or to ad9ust to the test,taking situation? It is impossible to create a culture,free intelligence e am. !o many factors come into consideration when creating an intelligence e am. It is difficult to include

Fuestions that are geared towards every culture across the world. Geople think( live( speak( and learn completely different based on where they live. !omeone from $adrid is not going to be able to take the same kind of intelligence test as someone from Eorth >arolina. Geople are e posed to different things depending on where they grow up. $any factors have to be considered when creating an intelligence test :language( recreational activities( religion( social activities( civil holidays( education( culture;. In many Asian countries( motivation plays a strong role in how well students do on their tests. *here is a strong desire for students to achieve for the good of the community( not 9ust themselves. &3 ; Discuss the difference between night terrors and nightmares. "e sure to include description to each disorder and discuss them in relation to the 5 stages of sleep. A nightmare is an an iety dream that may be frightening or unpleasant. A nightmare usually occurs during 8<$:brain waves are active and eyes may move rapidly during this stage of sleep;( the 5th stage of sleep. Eight terrors are sleep disturbances that include periods of intense fear and panic. Ganic and frightening hallucinations may also occur. *he individual may not recall the night terror the ne t morning. Eight terrors usually occur during stage 7 :theta and delta brain waves; or 0 :Delta brain waves; E8<$ sleep. 11!Men#al heal#h iss'es are com$lex an% )arie%. .ase% on &ha# yo'/)e learne% (rom yo'r rea%ing an% o'r class %isc'ssions ans&er #he (ollo&ing 9'es#ions: Does mental illness e plain the behavior of the students in the !tanford Grison e periment or the participants in $ilgrams shock treatment e periment to some e tent? Why or why not? What is the difference between personality disorders and clinical disorders? Gersonality disorders are characteri+ed by infle ible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. When does personality become a disorder? 12! ?( #he h'man being Sha+es$eare &ro#e 5,ha# a $iece o( &or+;6 What has this course taught you about our favorite piece of work? Boure on your own with this one( but discuss one thing that was especially interesting for you to learn about in this class( and tell why. How might it apply to your life?