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1. Subject of this Section.This section gives an account of the six Seals, which in the os!els an" in conte#!o$a$% an" ea$lie$ &u"ais# we$e the 'essianic woes o$ signs of the i##e"iate "est$uction of the !$esent wo$l". The wo$l" in all its !hases su(se$ves a #o$al en"the t$aining an" "isci!lining of the chil"$en of o". )hen this en" is attaine", i e. when the nu#(e$ of o"*s chil"$en is co#!lete, +,11, the !$esent o$"e$ of things will (e "est$o%e". The a!!$oach of this consu##ation will (e he$al"e" (% the ($ea-ing u! of !olitical an" social o$"e$, 1,., an" the !a$tial "est$uction of the !$esent cos#ic o$"e$, 6/10,11, will follow. 2u$ autho$ thought that the ti#e of the en" was at han"3 fo$ he ex!ecte" a unive$sal !e$secution an" a unive$sal #a$t%$"o#. 4ut that hou$ ha" not %et co#e3 fo$ the $oll of the #a$t%$s was still inco#!lete. Acco$"ingl% the cos#ic woes in 6/10,1/5 a$e still futu$e, an" even when fulfille", a$e !a$tial an" not unive$sal.1 Histo$% has still so#e ti#e to $un, an" the ha!!enings of that ti#e a$e #ainl% the the#e of the $est of the (oo-. 0. The enti$e cha!te$ is f$o# ou$ autho$*s han" 6n"e!en"entl% of the fact that it fo$#s an o$ganic !a$t of his wo$-, the "iction an" i"io# a$e o(viousl% his. 7!8. Diction. 1. . See !. 196. "!ssi# / use" twent%:seven ti#es in ou$ autho$, (ut not elsewhe$e in the ;.T. of Ch$ist. 2. / also in <, ./ see !. 196. 8. = , as in 0/05. ! / cf. +/5, 15/<, 1, 0/06. 9. " !#$%& / cf. </6, +, 10, 15/., 1./0>. 2nl% once in $est of ;.T. ' . $ . ( / cf. 1/0, note, +, 10/11, 09/>. ' . ) cf. 1/0, note. 10. * #&+ $, / cf. 1/0, 19, 19/5, 1+/11, etc. - .$ / cf. 5/1, note. . / cf. 1+/0. 11. % /, cu# fut/ cf. +/>. 0 / cf. 09/5. 1 ! " / cf. 71+/198 00/+. 2 / cf. 0/01, 5/01. ;ot in othe$ &ohannine (oo-s of ;.T. 13. *3! . $4 / cf. +/1. 14. 35 6 4! . 3& 7! / cf. 16/09, whe$e the sa#e i"ea an" in fact the sa#e wo$"s $ecu$. 15. 1 8! . $4 / cf. 1+/1., 1+, 01/0>. 8! 00 ? !0 ? ( . These $ecu$ in 1+/1.. 16. 9 9% 9 $ 7i e. of @u"g#ent8. Recu$s in 16/1>, an" not elsewhe$e in ;.T. save in Acts 0/09, whe$e it is a Auotation f$o# &oel. 7b8 I$io#.

1 In the Gospels, Mark 13, Luke 21, and analogous descriptions of the last times, these woes are to be literally and fully realized, and so to be taken as the immediate heralds of the final udgment ! but in our author"s hands they ha#e ceased to be the immediate heralds of the end and are to be realized only partially$ %$&$ %ew &estament$

1. / cf. : in next clause/ f$eAuent in ou$ autho$. 2 #&7 a He($ais# fo$ 2 #&+. See note in %oc 2. - 7 3; / cf. </ also 16, ( % 3 ( . 6n > < %= 3; B B, the is co$$u!t fo$ <3 see !. 110 sA. 3.> /33 3 = Canothe$, a $e" ho$se.D This classical i"io# $ecu$s in 1>/., +, an" &ohn 1>/16 7%et see A((ott, G&!#. !. 610 sA.8 #a% (e inte$!$ete" in the sa#e wa%. 2the$wise it is not foun" in the ;.T. ? is use" in this sense in Eu-e 19/1, 05/50. 4. / !# ! / cf. 11. /, cu# inf ' nine ti#es in ou$ autho$, fou$teen in $est of ;.T. 6. 2 #&7 . See note on ! 5< sA. 7. #&@ . AB = Cthe voice,D etc. 11. :!= / cf. 0/05. 2utsi"e ou$ autho$ onl% once in ;.T. 5. Metho$ of inte&"&etin( the Se)en Se!%s A sho$t inAui$% as to the $ight #etho" of inte$!$eting the Seven Seals in necessa$%, since the (ul- of inte$!$etations !$ocee" on wholl% a$(it$a$% lines. )e can ta-e account onl% of the #ost nota(le inte$!$etations, an" then t$% to a$$ive at one which is @ustifia(le on histo$ical an" c$itical g$oun"s. 2u$ inAui$% $elates to the fi$st five seals, since the sixth is unive$sall% ta-en eschatologicall%. The #etho"s #a% (e given as follows/ i. *onte#"o&!&+ Histo&ic!% Metho$.FGlte$ in all his fou$ volu#es, E$(es, 51 sAA., HoltH#ann, an" Swete see- to ex!lain the fi$st five seals (% the Conte#!o$a$% Histo$ical 'etho". The fi$st th$ee seals $e!$o"uce, E$(es asse$ts, an ancient eschatological sche#e, (ut co$$es!on" to events of the !$esent, an" in $ega$" to the fou$th an" fifth Seals these w$ite$s fin" co$$es!on"ing histo$ical events. The fi$st Ri"e$ is the Pa$thian Iing FologJses, who in 60 A.K. fo$ce" a Ro#an a$#% to ca!itulate. E$(es ex!lains the secon" Ri"e$ (% the g$eat insu$$ection in 4$itain, 61 A.K., which le" to the loss of 1<9,999 lives an" (% conte#!o$a$% wa$s in e$#an% an" t$ou(les in Palestine3 the thi$" Ri"e$ (% a fa#ine in 60 affecting A$#enia an" Palestine3 the fou$th (% !estilences in Asia an" E!hesus, 61 A.K.3 the fifth (% the ;e$onic !e$secution. E$(es has he$e, on the whole, gone on the sa#e lines as his !$e"ecesso$s. FGlte$, HoltH#ann, an" Swete ta-e the fi$st Ri"e$ to $e!$esent the Pa$thian e#!i$e, the secon" to $e!$esent Ro#e, the thi$" the% ex!lain (% the fa#ine in Ko#itian*s ti#e 7see note on 68. Though in his ea$lie$ e"itions HoltH#ann see-s to ex!lain the fou$th figu$e as $efe$$ing to the failu$e of the ha$vests in >>, the fa#ines in ;e$o*s ti#e an" the g$eat !estilence th$oughout the E#!i$e in 6< 7Tac. Ann. xvi. 153 Suet. Ne&o' 5+, ><8, in the last he !$efe$s to a(an"on the Conte#!o$a$% Histo$ical 'etho", though it is t$ue he $efe$s the fifth Seal to the ;e$onic !e$secution. This #etho" !$ocee"s #ainl% on the !$inci!le that the s%#(ols use" in the Seals a$e eithe$ "evise" o$ at all events a$$ange" in thei$ !$esent o$"e$ with a view to $e!$esent ce$tain histo$ical events. ;ow since, as we shall see late$, the A!ocal%!tist has $eceive" f$o# t$a"ition (oth the #ate$ials of this vision an" al#ost the ve$% o$"e$ in which the% a$e cast, it will not (e !ossi(le to ac-nowle"ge it as a f&ee co#"osition' as the Conte#!o$a$% Histo$ical 'etho" woul" in the #ain $eAui$e, an" though a few clea$ $efe$ences to histo$ical events a$e to (e foun", we shall $ecogniHe these as

' (ords so enclosed are corrupt$ &he )ditor"s restoration is occasionally gi#en in the pop*up note$ +bbott, +bbott, Johannine Grammar, 1,-.$

$einte$!$etations of !$e:existing #ate$ials, o$ as a""itions to a !$e:existing eschatological sche#e. ii. *onte#"o&!&+,Histo&ic!% !n$ S+#bo%ic!% -ith T&!$ition!% E%e#ents.4ousset feels hi#self o(lige" to use these two #etho"s in this inte$!$etation of the Seals. The fi$st Seal #ust, he hol"s, (e inte$!$ete" (% the Conte#!o$a$%:Histo$ical of the Pa$thian e#!i$e on two g$oun"s/ 7!8 The #eaning of the white ho$se cannot (e ex!laine" f$o# ste$eot%!e" eschatological i"eas. 7b8 The white ho$se is !lace" fi$st in ou$ text in cont$a"istinction to the o$"e$ in Lech. 6, The latte$ $eason, al$ea"% a"vance" (% S!itta, 0+1, is not of #uch weight3 fo$ though the ho$ses a$e #entione" th$ee ti#es in Lech. 6 the% occu$ in a "iffe$ent o$"e$ each ti#e. The secon" an" fou$th Seals a$e ex!laine" s%#(olicall% of wa$ an" !estilence, though, of cou$se, in"ivi"ual featu$es in the Ri"e$s a$e "e$ive" f$o# t$a"ition. 6n $ega$" to the thi$" Seal, 4ousset acce!ts the Conte#!o$a$%:Histo$ical ex!lanation, an" inte$!$ets this Seal (% Ko#itian*s E"ict in +0 7see note on 6 of #% text8. The fifth Seal is li-ewise inte$!$ete" (% the sa#e #etho" 7!. 01>8. Thus the fi$st, thi$", an" fifth a$e to (e ex!laine" (% this #etho". S!itta, 0.1 sAA., ex!lains these th$ee Seals (% the sa#e #etho", (ut a$$ives at ve$% "iffe$ent $esults. The fi$st Seal $efe$s to Ro#e, the thi$" to "efinite fa#ines, an" the fifth 7!. 5998 to the !e$secutions of the Ch$istians (% the &ews. Although 4ousset*s exegesis is, of cou$se, goo", it has in #% o!inion #isse" the -e% to the inte$!$etation of the Seals as a whole, an" the$efo$e has a show of a$(it$a$iness. iii. The T&!$ition!%,Histo&ic!%.This #etho" has (een a!!lie" to the inte$!$etation of the fi$st fou$ Seals (% un-el 7.u# &e%i(ions(esch /e&st $ N T <5 sA.8, who is of o!inion that !$i#itive 2$iental #ate$ials lie (ehin" this vision an" hel! to ex!lain so#e of its "etails. The fou$ ho$se#en, which in the A!ocal%!se a$e conceive" as !lague s!i$its, #ust o$iginall% have ha" a wholl% "iffe$ent significance. This, he hol"s, is Auite clea$ in the case of the fi$st victo$ious an" c$owne" ho$se#an, which has eve$ (een a c&u0 inte&"&etu# These fou$ ho$se#en we$e o$iginall% the fou$ wo$l" go"s, which $ule" each ove$ one of the fou$ wo$l" !e$io"s, an" a$e "istantl% $elate" to the fou$ (easts in Kan. 1, each of which $e!$esents a wo$l" e#!i$e. The fi$st ho$se#an was o$iginall% a sun:go"/ his ho$se is white 7as in 6/0, /33 / cf. the white ho$se of the "ivine sla%e$ of the "$agon, 1+/113 the white ho$ses of 'ith$as in the AvestaCu#ont, M+st1&es $e Mith&!, !. 58. He ca$$ies a (ow 7so 6/0, *0& 8 as the sun:go" 7Li##e$n, 2 A T 5 56., note <8/ he wea$s a c&o-n 7so 6/0, < !%#8 as 'ith$as 7Cu#ont, o" cit .>3 Kiete$ich, Mith&!s%itu&(ie' 11, 1<8, an" is alwa%s )icto&ious 7so 6/0, " / 7!,8, an" hence is calle" , CinvictusD 7Cu#ont, o" cit .08. The secon" ho$se#an is the go" of wa$, an" the thi$", o$iginall% the go" of g$ain, is he$e t$ansfo$#e" into a fa#ine go"/ thence is ex!laine" his s!a$ing the oil an" wine. ;ow, whilst the a(ove theo$% is ingenious an" offe$s so#e att$active ex!lanations, it is neve$theless unsatisfacto$% an" inconsistent. Mo$, fi$st of all, how can the fi$st of the fou$ ho$se#en, who a$e sai" to have (een o$iginall% wo$l" go"s who !$esi"e ove$ the fou$ wo$l" !e$io"s, (e afte$wa$"s "esc$i(e" as the sun:go", the wa$:go" an" g$ain:go"N un-el #a-es no atte#!t to fin" the o$iginal 7O8 eAuivalent of the fou$th ho$se#an, , in ou$ text. 6n $ega$" to the fi$st ho$se#an, howeve$, his theo$% is inte$esting3 (ut that the See$ ha" an% i"ea of the o$iginal #eaning of this figu$e cannot (e ente$taine" fo$ a #o#ent. /.A.T. 0chrader"s Die Keilinschriften und dasalte Testament , edited and rewritten by 1$ 2immern and 1$ (inckler, 1,-3$

iv. *onte#"o&!&+,Histo&ic!% !n$ T&!$ition!%,Histo&ic!%. Pn"e$ this hea"ing &. )eiss 7<+ sAA.8 is to (e #entione", though it is "ifficult to cha$acte$iHe his exegesis accu$atel%. The A!ocal%!tist, acco$"ing to )eiss, was using t$a"itional #ate$ial, an" the !a$ticula$ fo$# into which he cast this #ate$ial was "ue to the eschatological i"eas in the Pa$ousia "iscou$ses of ou$ Eo$", which he ha" lea$nt f$o# the os!els o$ f$o# o$al t$a"ition. The $ecognition of the connection of the Seals with the )oes in the Pa$ousia "iscou$ses, which is al$ea"% to (e foun" in Alfo$", is the chief #e$it in his exegesis of this !assage. An" %et he has onl% !a$tiall% a!!$eciate" the !e$#anent i#!o$tance of this fact, as we shall see !$esentl%. 6n the o$iginal &ohannine A!ocal%!se 7ci&c! 69 A.K.8 which )eiss assu#es, the following !lagues we$e enu#e$ate"/ C!estilence, wa$, fa#ine, Ha"es, !e$secution, ea$thAua-esD3 o$ Cwa$, fa#ine, !estilence, Ha"es, !e$secution, ea$thAua-es.D1 This A!ocal%!se the final A!ocal%!tist $e:e"ite", an" this !a$ticula$ !assage he t$ansfo$#e" (% !$efixing the victo$ious Ri"e$ on the white ho$se an" "is!lacing the #ention of #e$e !e$secution (% an account of actual #a$t%$"o# 76/+,118 al$ea"% in the !ast. The victo$ious Ri"e$ $e!$esents the victo$ious cou$se of the os!el, which #ust (e !$eache" to all nations (efo$e the woes co#e 7so )eiss inte$!$ets 'a$- 15/198. Thus, while in the co#!lete" A!ocal%!se the fifth Seal $e!$esents events al$ea"% in the !ast, the fi$st $e!$esents a !$esent !$ocess/ while in the &ohannine A!ocal%!se the secon", thi$", an" fou$th $e!$esent futu$e events, %et it is to (e !$esu#e" that these too in the co#!lete" A!ocal%!se $efe$ to !ast events. This ex!osition is no #o$e satisf%ing than those which !$ece"e. 6 !$ocee", the$efo$e, to offe$ anothe$ ex!lanation of the Seals, which ex!lains #o$e o$ less full% all the "ifficulties of this Fision. v. T&!$ition!%,Histo&ic!% Metho$ -ith inci$ent!% &efe&ences to conte#"o&!&+ E)ents.The #o$e closel% we stu"% the Seals in connection with 'a$- 15, 'att. 0>, Eu-e 01, the #o$e st$ongl% we shall (e convince" that ou$ autho$ fin"s his chief an" cont$olling autho$it% in the eschatological sche#e the$e set fo$th. 4% !utting these autho$ities an" ou$ text in !a$allel colu#ns we shall #a-e this close connection un"enia(le. 'att. 0>/6, 1, +a, 0+. 'a$- 15/1,+a, 0>,0<. 1. )a$s. 1. )a$s. 0. 6nte$national st$ife. 0. 6nte$national st$ife. 5. Ma#ines. 5. Ea$thAua-es. >. Ea$thAua-es. >. Ma#ines. <. Pe$secutions. <. Pe$secutions. 6. Ecli!ses of the sun an" #oon3 6. 7As in 'att.8 falling of the sta$s3 sha-ing of the !owe$s of heaven. Eu-e 01/+,10a, 0<,06. Rev. 6/0,11, 1/1. 1. )a$s. Seal 1. )a$s. 1 (eiss 3p$ .-4 is of opinion that originally the four figures were war, famine, pestilence, and 1ades, which gathered the #ictims of the first three, and that then the +pocalyptist affi5ed the first figure, which represents the #ictorious course of the Gospel$ 6ut to this we reply that our author had before him an eschatological scheme of seven woes which he found in the document behind Mark 13, Matt$ 27, Luke 21$

0. 6nte$national st$ife. Seal 0. 6nte$national st$ife. 5. Ea$thAua-es. Seal 5. Ma#ine. >. Ma#ines. Seal >. Pestilence. 7Keath an" Ha"es.8 <. Pestilence. Seal <. Pe$secutions. 6. Pe$secutions. Seal 6. 76/10,1/58 Ea$thAua-es, ecli!se of the sun, 1. Signs in the sun, #oon, an" ensanguining of the #oon, falling of the sta$s, #en calling sta$s3 #en fainting fo$ fea$ on the $oc-s to fall on the#, sha-ing of the !owe$s of of the things co#ing on the heaven, fou$ "est$o%ing win"s.1 wo$l"3 sha-ing of the !owe$s of heaven. Even a cu$so$% co#!a$ison of these lists shows that the% !$acticall% !$esent the sa#e #ate$ial.0 6f we acce!t the Ko#itian "ate of the A!ocal%!se, the$e can (e no Auestion as to the "e!en"ence of ou$ autho$ on the t$a"ition $e!$esente" in the os!els. The six Seals e#($ace the seven5 woes of Eu-e (% co#(ining two woes, i e. the thi$" an" seventh, un"e$ the sixth Seal. 6t is $e#a$-a(le that neithe$ in Eu-e on the one han" no$ in 'atthew o$ 'a$- on the othe$ can we fin" the full list of woes that a!!ea$s in Revelation. 6n this $es!ect the% a$e co#!le#enta$%. 2n the one han", ou$ text ag$ees with Eu-e $athe$ than with 'a$- an" 'atthew. Thus while !estilence, the fou$th !lague in Revelation, is o#itte" in the fi$st an" secon" os!els, it is foun" in the thi$"3 an", while the !$e"ictions in Rev. 6/1<,11 a$e wanting in the fi$st two, thei$ eAuivalent is foun" in Eu-e 01/0<. This shows a g$eate$ "e!en"ence on the Eucan fo$# of the na$$ative. 2n the othe$ han", whe$eas the ecli!se of the sun an" #oon an" the falling of the sta$s 7Rev. 6/10,158 a$e onl% $efe$$e" to in the Eucan account as Csigns in the sun, #oon, an" sta$s,D the% a$e "esc$i(e" in 'att. 0>/0+ an" 'a$- 15/0> in al#ost the sa#e language as in ou$ text. The Auestion natu$all% a$ises the$efo$e/ Ki" ou$ autho$ #a-e use 1 &his feature may ha#e its parallel in Luke 21829, where the nations are said to be distressed, 3C D0( !! ! . &he winds in our te5t, :81, are not to blow upon the sea till the final udgment$ &he storm winds of ;ahweh are a well*known eschatological element in <$&$ 2 <ther signs preluding the end are gi#en in connection with the predicted fall of =erusalem 3cf$ Mark 13817 s>>$ and parallels, Luke$ 2182- s>$4! but since =erusalem had fallen o#er twenty years before, our author is not concerned with these$ 3 + scheme of se#en plagues was already current in =ewish literature8 see 0ir$ 7-8,! &est$ 6en $ :82! 0ayings of the ?athers, 9811$ +lso Le#$ 2.821, @I will bring se#en times more plagues upon you according to your sins$A It is noteworthy that in Barsism we find many of the abo#e signs mentioned as precursors of the end of the world, such as the following8 wars 36ahmanC;ash ii$ 27 s>>$4! social di#isions 3op. cit$! 6undahish 555$ 1D4! the sun losing its light 328314$ 0ee 6Eklen, Verwandtschaft der Jdischchristlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie , p$ DD s>>$

of two of the os!els, Eu-e togethe$ with 'atthew o$ 'a$-3 o$ "i" he use the $ocu#ent behin$ the Gos"e%sthe Eittle A!ocal%!se, the existence of which so #an% schola$s have felt the#selves o(lige" to assu#e3 o$ thi$"l%, was he si#!l% "e!en"ent on o$al t$a"ition fo$ his #ate$ialO The fi$st an" thi$" alte$natives a$e !ossi(le, (ut less li-el% than the secon". The secon" see#s highl% !$o(a(le, if we #a% assu#e the in"e!en"ent existence of the Eittle &ewish:Ch$istian A!ocal%!se 7= 'a$- 15/1,., 1>,09, 0>,01, 59, 51, an" !a$allels in 'atthew an" Eu-e8. 6n this Eittle &ewish A!ocal%!se, so fa$ as it is !$ese$ve" in the os!els, the$e is no $efe$ence to the !e$secution of the faithful. 4ut since in the Psal#s, Kaniel an" late$ a!ocal%!tic lite$atu$e this is a constant su(@ect of co#!laint to o", it cannot have (een wanting in the o$iginal fo$# of the Eittle A!ocal%!se. 6f such an A!ocal%!se we$e cu$$ent, it is (ut natu$al to assu#e that such a !$ofoun" #aste$ of this lite$atu$e as ou$ autho$ woul" (e acAuainte" with it. Howeve$ this #a% (e, the conclusion that ou& te0t is $e"en$ent on the Gos"e% !ccounts' o& &!the& on the $ocu#ent behin$ the#' see#s i$$esisti(le. The su(@ect:#atte$, then, of the Seals is "e$ive" f$o# a !$e:existing eschatological sche#e. The nu#(e$ seven in such a connection is -nown to t$a"ition 7see note in %oc 83 (ut in"e!en"entl% of this fact it is !ostulate" (% ou$ autho$*s !lan, in which seven !la%s a !$e"o#inant $QleSeven Chu$ches, Seven 4owls. The "e!en"ence of ou$ autho$ on a !$e:existing eschatological sche#e is fu$the$ shown (% his see#ing a(an"on#ent of it in two !a$ticula$s. 1. Although he gives a new cha$acte$ to the seventh woe Auite "istinct f$o# that of the last woe in these os!els, he is ca$eful not to o#it the su(@ect:#atte$ of this last woe, an" acco$"ingl% e#(o"ies it un"e$ the sixth Seal. Thus the sixth Seal e#($aces the two os!el woesea$thAua-es an" signs in the !owe$s of heaven. 2u$ autho$ the$efo$e !$efe$$e" inclu"ing these two woes un"e$ one Seal to o#itting these ele#ents of t$a"ition. 0. 2u$ autho$ has change" the o$"e$ of the woes. He has $elegate" the Cea$thAua-esD to the sixth Seal, whe$eas it is thi$" in 'a$- an" Eu-e an" fou$th in 'atthew. Two vali" $easons fo$ this change can (e given. 1. 6n his f$esh $e!$o"uction of the t$a"itional #ate$ial, ou$ autho$ !e$sonifies fou$1 of the woes un"e$ fo$#s (o$$owe" f$o# Lech. 1/., 6/1,.. ;ow, since Cea$thAua-esD cannot (e so !e$sonifie", the% a$e $elegate" to the sixth Seal, an" thei$ !lace is ta-en (% C!estilence.D Thus the fou$ Ri"e$s $e!$esent wa$, inte$national st$ife, fa#ine, an" !estilence. 0. 4ut the$e is anothe$ an" weightie$ $eason. The #o$e closel% the vision is stu"ie", the #o$e #anifest (eco#es the "$a#atic fulness of the o$"e$ of the Seals, an" the g$owing intensit% of the evils the% s%#(oliHe. These (egin with social catacl%s#s 7Seals 1,>8 an" en" with cos#ic 7Seal 68. Hu#an societ% is ove$th$own (% wa$, $evolutions, fa#ines, an" !estilences 7Seals 1,>8, which $age without ceasing, till a la$ge !$o!o$tion of the nu#(e$ of the #a$t%$s is acco#!lishe" 7Seal <8. Social catast$o!hes a$e followe" (% cos#ic in the sixth Seal. The soli" c$ust of the ea$th ($ea-s, the heaven is $ent a(ove, sun an" #oon a$e "a$-ene" o$ ensanguine", an" the sta$s of heaven fall. M$o# the stan"!oint of ou$ autho$, the$efo$e, the necessit% of t$ans!osing Cea$thAua-esD f$o# the thi$" o$ fou$th !lace to the sixth is o(vious. Thus the subject,#!tte& of the Se!%s' -hich is $e&i)e$ f&o# ! "&e,e0istin( esch!to%o(ic!% sche#e' is &ec!st un$e& ne- fo&#s. 4ut, fu$the$, in this $e!$o"uction of the fi$st five woes ou$ autho$ so $ecasts the# as to give th$ee o$ !ossi(l% all of the# a #o$e o$ less clea$ histo$ical $efe$ence to 1 &his number is already suggested by the number of the four Li#ing Freatures who se#erally summon the four Giders$

conte#"o&!&+ e)ents. Thus the fi$st Ri"e$ -ith the bo- $efe$s to the Pa$thian e#!i$e that was to ove$th$ow the hate" Ro#e3 the secon" #a% have a secon"a$% $efe$ence to Ro#e, as the sou$ce of social "iso$"e$ an" "est$uction, though ea$lie$ $ega$"e" as the u!hol"e$ of o$"e$ an" !eace3 the thi$" !ossi(l% 7O8 to the e"ict of Ko#itian, an" the fifth ce$tainl% to the #a$t%$"o#s un"e$ ;e$o. 4ut these $efe$ences a$e "ue to ou$ autho$, an" "o not (elong to the o$iginal eschatological sche#e. Such conte#!o$a$% histo$ical $efe$ences a$e, howeve$, to (e loo-e" fo$, though !$i#a$il% the su(@ect:#atte$ is t$a"itional/ cf. 1 &ohn 0/1.. 1. E " :3' !#$&. The loosing of the Seals is a s%#(olical action. The visions a$e not $ea" out f$o# the 4oo-, (ut the contents of the 4oo- a$e fo$thwith t$anslate" into action in the visions of the See$. 2n see note on >/1. 6n = Cthe fi$st of,D we #a% have a He($ais# =

3 (ut the$e is the !ossi(ilit%, of cou$se, as 'oulton, G&!#. i. +< sA., conten"s, that F
ca#e in 4%Hantine $ee- to (e use" as an o$"inal, an" that we have such an instance he$e. The !a$titive use of is f$eAuent in the A!ocal%!se/ cf. 4lass, G&!#. !. +1. 4ut the fact that in we have a "ou(le He($ais#, an" that it occu$s in a (oocontaining so #an% He($ais#s, is in favou$ of the !h$ase (eing ta-en as such. )e #ight co#!a$e EHe-. 19/1>, Cthe face of the fi$stD = 3!&3 ( : = , whe$e fou$ a$e #entione"/ &o( >0/1>. 4ut the !h$ase #a% si#!l% #ean Cone of.D The occu$$ence of the o$"inals, howeve$, in </5, <, 1, a!!ea$s to (e against this. ! : " !!& AB& %$ 2 #&@ 84 G0 . 2n : = Cthe fi$st of,D see !$ece"ing note. The fou$ Che$u(i# in succession su##on the fou$ Ri"e$s. This is the #ost natu$al inte$!$etation, as &. )eiss, <+, 4ousset0, 06>, )ellhausen, 19, an" HoltH#ann5, >>>, have $ecogniHe". 2the$s have ta-en the wo$"s as a""$esse" to the See$3 (ut elsewhe$e 11/1, 01/+, whe$e the See$ is su##one", ( is use". 'o$eove$, as &. )eiss o(se$ves, it is inconceiva(le that the *0 shoul" (e a""$esse" fou$ ti#es to the See$. 2the$sAlfo$" an" Sweteagain su!!ose it to (e a""$esse" to Ch$ist, an" cite as !a$allels 00/11, 09. 2 #&7 . ;ea$l% all the textual evi"ence is against $ea"ing #&+, which in o$"e$ to a$$ive at an intelligi(le text we #ust $ea". 4ut 2 #&7 is susce!ti(le of ex!lanation. The w$ite$ #a% have ha" in his #in" an" $en"e$e" this as 2 #&7, whe$eas i"io#aticall% it = 2 #&+, the ( eing su!!$esse" afte$. . Cf. 6sa. </11, +/5. 2. H /33 . 2n the a!ocal%!tic !h$ase , which $ecu$s in 6/<, ., 1>/1, 1>, 1+/11, see note on >/1. The subject,#!tte& of the fi$st fou$ Seals a!!ea$s, as we have seen 7see !. 1<1 sAA.8, "e$ive" f$o# the woes #entione" in 7the &ewish:Ch$istian A!ocal%!se8 'a$- 15/1 sAA.3 'att. 0>/6 sAA.3 Eu-e 01/+ sAA., i e. wa$, inte$national o$ civil st$ife, fa#ine, !estilence 7i e. "eath8. The fo&# of the Fision in 6/0,. is (ase" on the vision of the fou$ sets of ho$ses an" cha$iots in Lech. 1/., 6/1,.so fa$ as $ega$"s the fou$ ho$ses an" thei$ colou$s. 4ut the functions an" cha$acte$ of the 2.T. figu$es a$e t$ansfo$#e", an" the #essenge$s of o" to the fou$ Aua$te$s of the heaven a$e change" into agents of "est$uction. Moulton, H Moulton"s Grammar of 6lass, 6lass, Grammar of <$&$ <ld &estament$ .T. Gree!2, #ol$ 2$, 1,-.

.T. Gree! 3transl$ by &hackeray4, 1D,D$

;ext as $ega$"s the "iffe$ent colou$s, these a$e chosen f$o# Lecha$iah to suit the woes the% s%#(oliHe. Thus $e" natu$all% co$$es!on"s to the swo$", (lac- to fa#ine, an" !ale %ellow to "eath, (eing a co$!seli-e colou$. The white $e#ains, an" this natu$all% (elongs to the ho$se on which t$iu#!hant wa$ is seate". Thus Re$xes $o"e on white ;isaean ho$ses 7He$o". vii. >93 Philost$. /it A"o%%. i. 598, an" 'a$"onius, one of his chief gene$als, $o"e on a white ho$se 7He$o". ix. 658. )hite was the colou$ of victo$%/ cf. Fi$g. Aen. iii. <51, CSuattuo$ hic, !$i#u# o#en, eAuos in g$a#ine vi"i Ton"entes ca#!u# late can"o$e nivali.D He$e Se$vius notes/ Ccan"o$e nivali. Hoc a" victo$iae o#en !e$tinet.D Acco$"ing to Kio Cassius, H R. xliii. 1> 7Auote" (% Swete8, the fou$ ho$ses which "$ew the ca$ in &ulius Caesa$*s t$iu#!h we$e white/ ' 3 ' 3I#!% 3 " /33&. 2u$ autho$ was at li(e$t% to a$$ange the colou$s in an% o$"e$ that suite" his !u$!ose3 fo$ in Lech. 1/., 6/0,1, the% a$e given th$ee ti#es, an" in each in a "iffe$ent o$"e$/ 1/., $e", so$$el 7o$ $e""ish:%ellow8, white 7"efective83 6/0, 5, $e", (lac-, white, s!ec-le"3 6/1, ., (lac-, white, s!ec-le", $e".1 1 &he passages in 2echariah call for treatment since they are manifestly corrupt$ 2ech$ 18D,

! LII, 3 JI K

3 $ 1ere it is admitted that the te5t is defecti#e and omits

which is found in .82, .$ &he LII gi#es, it is true, four colours, but

I and 3 appear to be duplicate renderings! for, according to 1esychius, they ha#e the same meaning$ 0o also )ustathius on the "liad, 5#ii$ ad fin.# I /33 - ' I5 3$ %e5t, in .82, 3 we ha#e

. . . . . . . ., LII 3

H % H

H 3 JIK$ 1ere also it is admitted that the te5t is corrupt$

J @strong,A cannot denote a colour$ It has possibly been inserted here

from .8:$ 6y its omission we ha#e the needed four colours$ ?inally, in .8., : we ha#e

. . . . . . . . .

LII, 1

% H 1 H 1 3 H 1 I 3but +>uila has 1 3 4$1ere

is rightly taken to be a corruption of @red,A a reading which is

attested by the Beshitto and +>uila$ &he te5t is thus restored so far as the colours go, but there are e#idently two lacunae in .8., :! for since the four bodies of horses represent the four winds, .89, the four >uarters of the world to which they go as God"s messengers should be mentioned, whereas only the north and the south are$ In the ne5t place, while the $lac! horses rightly go towards the north, the red should go to the south and not the spotted, the white to the east, and the %ellow 3@spottedA in te5t4 to the west! for the four colours of

- 7 3; *0& , < !%#, 4 " / 7!, . As has al$ea"% (een !ointe" out, the $i"e$ he$e s%#(oliHes wa$ in the fi$st instance3 fo$ this is the fi$st woe in the sou$ce f$o# which the woes in the Seals a$e "e$ive" 7see !!. 1<1,+83 (ut owing to the $i"e$ ca$$%ing a (ow1 an" $i"ing on a white ho$se, we can ha$"l% eva"e the conclusion that a secon"a$% $efe$ence to the Pa$thian e#!i$e is he$e "esigne" as $e!$esenting t$iu#!hant wa$. The g$eat victo$% of FologJses in 60 ove$ the Ro#ans gave (i$th to the i"ea that Ro#e woul" (e finall% ove$th$own (% an 2$iental !owe$. This i"ea $ecu$s late$ in ou$ autho$ 7see 11/168. The ve$% fo$# of the wo$"s favou$s this view. 4 " woul" $efe$ to !ast achieve#ents of this e#!i$e, an" / 7!, to its ulti#ate conAuest of the west. the horses are said to symbolize the four >uarters 32immern, K.A.T.3 33,, .1., .33! Marti on 2ech$ 18D4$ (e can now reconstruct 2ech$ .8., :,

L !K $
1ere I ha#e with pre#ious scholars emended the unintelligible


, and changed into three times 3with

%e5t I ha#e restored the lost finally I ha#e transposed


@to the west country,A and

before from the

beginning of :, where they are meaningless$ &hus we ha#e, @&he black horses go forth to the north country, and the white go forth to the east country and the spotted to forth to the west country, and the red go forth to the south country$A +ll appears right here e5cept the word D ,.82

J @spotted$A In 18D


J@sorrel,A a yellowish or reddish brown colour, appears in its stead$

0ince in 18D red is already mentioned, we should take this word with 6ochart, &iero'oicon# i$ 9-, as meaning @yellow$A &hus the @yellowA horses go to the >uarter of which yellow is the symbol$ &his may be the source of the word 0&, @paleA or @pale yellow,A in our te5t, .8D$ +s regards

I see no way

of e5plaining it from an archaeological standpoint, nor of reconciling it with the apparently right word

in 2ech$ 18D$ 1ere again our author does not

follow the LII$ &he abo#e four colours are said to be connected with the planets =upiter, Mars, Mercury, and 0aturn$ 6ut among the 6abylonians white has ne#er been disco#ered to be the colour of =upiter or of the other three$ &he speculations of =eremias 3(a$%lonisches im .T. 27 s>$, and in Das A.T. im

The (ift of the !%# is eAuivalent to a !$o#ise of victo$%. Mu$the$#o$e, as $ega$"s the !%#, which, as a s%#(ol of victo$%, was given to hi#, it #a% (e #entione", though the fact !$o(a(l% "oes not conce$n ou$ text, that Seleucus, the Pa$thian -ing, who foun"e" Seleucia on the Tig$is, was na#e" L&. The Pa$thian lea"e$s, acco$"ing to )etstein, $o"e white ho$ses in (attle. 2the$ inte$!$etations a$e as follows/ 1. The text !oints fi&st !n$ so%e%+ to the Pa$thian e#!i$e/ so HoltH#ann, Sch#i"t3 113 Ra#sa%, <.3 Swete, 4ousset. 0. FGlte$ in his "iffe$ent wo$-s, an" E$(es, 51 sAA., inte$!$et the fi$st Ri"e$ of FologJses. This is a less "efensi(le view than 1. 5. S!itta, 0+9, inte$!$ets the text of Ro#e3 (ut this view is gene$all% $e@ecte". >. A g$eat nu#(e$ of inte$!$ete$sFicto$inus, P$i#asius, 4e"e, 4ullinge$, Pa$aeus, $otius, Fit$inga, KTste$"iec-, 4. )eiss, >><, have i"entifie" the fi$st ho$se#an with the Ri"e$ on the white ho$se in 1+/11 sAA., i e. the 'essiah. 4ut the 'essiah cannot a!!ea$ (efo$e the 'essianic woes3 no$ can he (e at once the Ea#( who o!ens the Seals, an" the Ri"e$ who a!!ea$s in conseAuence of such o!ening. 'o$eove$, the "etails a$e "istinct. The fo$#e$ ca$$ies a , the latte$ a M#3 the fo$#e$ wea$s a !%#, the latte$ 7 3. ;ot a (ow, (ut the swo$" of the wo$" (elongs to Ch$ist. 6n fact the two Ri"e$s have nothing in co##on (ut the white ho$se. <. Hilgenfel" 7. 3 T , 1.+9, !. >0<8, Lahn, 0/<+0, Alfo$", IT(el ta-e this ho$se#an to $e!$esent the victo$ious cou$se of the os!el. &. )eiss, <+ sAA., acce!ts this inte$!$etation, an" #aintains that it $eceives su!!o$t f$o# the Pa$ousia "iscou$ses of Ch$ist. Mo$ although 'a$- 15/+ t$eats of the (eginning of the 'essianic woes, %et acco$"ing to 15/19 the os!el #ust fi$st (e #a"e -nown to all nations. The woes, the$efo$e, in (oth !assages (egin when the victo$% of the os!el is "eci"e". Kes!ite all t$i(ulations, the victo$% is once an" fo$ all assu$e". This view with #o"ifications was ea$lie$ !ut fo$wa$" (% An"$eas, A$ethas, E%$a, an" Ri(ei$a. 2ve$ against ex!lanations > an" <, it is to (e #aintaine" that the$e is an essential li-eness a#ong the Ri"e$s/ the% clea$l% (elong togethe$, an" $e!$esent the 0@ N& 7'a$- 15/.8. All fou$ have to "eal with @u"g#ents Cthe (eating "own of ea$thl% !owe$s, ($ea-ing u! of ea$thl% !eace, the exhausting of ea$thl% wealth, the "est$uction of ea$thl% lifeD 7Alfo$"8. The fi$st ho$se#an li-e the $est, the$efo$e, is to (e inte$!$ete" of woe"enoting fi$st of all wa$, as it "i" in its i##e"iate sou$ce, an" in a secon"a$% as!ect th$ough its f$esh $e#oul"ing (% ou$ autho$, the Pa$thian e#!i$e. 3. E @ !#$ @ %, ! ( % AB %$ G0 . 4. 4 > /33 3 , < %= 3; J<K 8 @ 7 JK 4 $4 / 7 !# !, < 0 $ . This secon" ho$se#an is a s%#(ol of inte$national an" civil st$ife. The i##e"iate sou$ce of ou$ autho$ is, as we have seen, the "ocu#ent (ehin" the os!el accounts, 'att. 0>/13 'a$- 15/.3 Eu-e 01/19 7see !!. 1<1,+8. 4ut the$e a$e othe$ $efe$ences to such civil st$ife as !$elu"ing the Pa$ousia in &ewish lite$atu$e/ cf. &u(. 05/1+3 1 Enoch <6/13 > EH$a </+, 6/0>, 15/513 0 4a$. >./50, )icht des alten *rients4 on this >uestion are often merely fantastic$ 0ee MMller, @Nie +pokal$ Geiter,A +. .T.,.# 1,-:, 2,-O31.$ 1 0ee 1erod$ 987,, :8.1! <#id, Trist$ ii$ 22:! +mmianus Marcellinus, 228D! and (etstein in loc. 2.,.T. +eitschrift f-r ,issenschaftliche Theologic$

19/5, 6. The ex!ectation that civil st$ife woul" he$al" the en" of the wo$l" is foun" also in 4a(%lonian lite$atu$e. See Li##e$n, 2 A T 5 5+5. Since we have he$e to "eal with a ste$eot%!e" !$e"iction, which exhi(its no new ele#ents !ointing to histo$ical events, the$e is no occasion to enu#e$ate the va$ious histo$ical inte$!$etations that have (een a"vance". As in the case of the fi$st Seal the Ri"e$ is fu$nishe" with a (ow 7which gives the Seal an histo$ical $efe$ence8, so he$e the secon" Ri"e$ is !$ovi"e" with a swo$". This s%#(ol, howeve$, (elongs to eschatological t$a"ition. This swo$" is #entione" in this eschatological sense in 6sa. 01/1, 5>/<, >6/19, >1/63 EHe-. 01/5 sAA., whe$e it is wiel"e" (% Uahweh Hi#self. 6n the next stage of "evelo!#ent it is co##itte" to 6s$ael to ta-e vengeance on thei$ own an" o"*s ene#ies. The ve$% wo$"s ? 0 $ a$e foun" in 1 Enoch +9/1+, CA g$eat swo$" was given to the shee!, an" the shee! !$ocee"e" against all the (easts of the fiel" to sla% the#.D This swo$" is again #entione" in +1/10, +9/5>. The o(@ect with which it is given in Enoch is that the faithful 6s$aelites #a% the$ewith "est$o% thei$ ene#ies, who a$e the ene#ies of o". 6n the thi$" stage of "evelo!#ent it is given to the ene#ies of o" that the% #a% "est$o% one anothe$ with it. This stage is foun" in 1 Enoch ../0 whe$e a($iel causes the giant offs!$ing of the fallen angels an" the "aughte$s of #en to "est$o% each othe$ (% giving the# a swo$". CAn" one of the# "$ew a swo$" an" gave it to those ele!hants an" ca#els an" asses/ then the% (egan to s#ite each othe$, an" the whole ea$th Aua-e" (ecause of the#.D The co##an" to "o so is given in a!ocal%!tic language in 19/+, CP$ocee" against the (asta$"s ? an" "est$o% the chil"$en of fo$nication, an" the chil"$en of the watche$s ? sen" the# one against anothe$ that the% #a% "est$o% each othe$ in (attle.D 6n ou$ text, as also in 'att. 19/5>, @ ! E O 8 7 3 @ $4) O 8 7 ' 0 7cf. Eu-e 10/<18, the s%#(ol has the sa#e eschatological fo$ce. 2u$ text, 8 @ 7 JK 4 $4 ? < 0, loo-s li-e a $e#iniscence of the wo$"s of ou$ Eo$" @ust cite". The 'asso$etic text of EHe-. 5./01 see#s to attest the sa#e i"ea, (ut it is co$$u!t, an" the text of the ERR 748 is to (e followe" he$e 7see 'a$ti in %oc.8. HoltH#ann an" 'offatt have ta-en the Cswo$"D as s%#(oliHing Ro#e, @ust as the C(owD s%#(oliHes the Pa$thian e#!i$e, an" hol"s that the two wo$l" e#!i$es a$e he$e "esignate". 4ut this is not so. The C(owD is ch!&!cte&istic of the fi$st Ri"e$3 (ut the swo$" is not cha$acte$istic of this Ri"e$, (ut is (i)en to hi#, @ust as the Cc$ownD is given to the fi$st Ri"e$. As the Cc$ownD is given to fo$eshow conAuest, the swo$" is given to ($ing a(out civil an" inte$national st$ife. The$e #a%, howeve$, (e a $e#ote $efe$ence to Ro#e as the "est$o%e$ of o$"e$ an" life as o!!ose" to the $Qle it was conceive" to !la% (% St. Paul. 8 @ 7 JK 4 $4 . The o(@ect of this woe is to ta-e awa% the false !eace of the ea$th. Cont$ast &ohn 1>/01. Thus it see#s (est he$e to follow A an" so#e cu$sives in o#itting . Cf. the -in"$e" !h$ase Cchil"$en of ea$th,D 1 Enoch 199/6, 190/5, ove$ against Cchil"$en of heaven,D 191/1. Mo$ / with the fut. 6n". see Ro(e$tson, G&!# ++. sA. 5. E @ !#$ @ , ! ( AB %$ G0 . , H /33 %, - 7 3; *0& A $ + 0 ( . Ma#ine is he$e s%#(oliHe" (% the (lac- ho$se, as we LII 0eptuagint$ + + 3#4 London$ 0d$ 7$ Gobertson, Gobertson, Grammar of the Gree! of the .T$, 1,17$

have seen 7see !. 1618. Mo$ the #o$e "etaile" ex!lanation see next ve$se. The A $ is lite$all% the (ea# of the (alance f$o# which the scales a$e sus!en"e". That ($ea" is sol" (% weight is a to-en of sca$cit%. Cf. EHe-. >/16, #$ > !< C, an" Eev. 06/06, 3P! ! H > Q" !< #$! @ 3!4. 6. ! 2 #&@ %!= " !!& AB& %$ ! 0 ! , 0 " ) * @ 7!, . 2n the !eculia$ use of 2 he$e see note on !. 55 sA. )e have the sa#e use on 1+/1, 6. The voice, as 4ousset suggests, #a% (e that of the Ea#(. The voice states a co#ing !$ice of the wheat an" (a$le%al#ost a fa#ine !$ice3 fo$ a 0 of wheata(out two !intsconstitute" the "ail% consu#!tion of a #an. So He$o"otus assu#es in esti#ating the a#ount of foo" consu#e" (% Re$xes* a$#%/ 1/1.1, Q!& $' ! 8 0 3 " ?! 4 9% 8 R 3%. Thuc%"i"es, >/16, #entions as the allowance #a"e fo$ the S!a$tans in S!hacte$ia! ? 0 :!= S' #& T %, 3 R & 9!%. The Auantit% he$e state" was the o$"ina$% allowance #a"e at the S!a$tan #ess, the allowance (oth of g$ain an" wine (eing $oub%e of that which was su!!ose" to (e necessa$%. Si#ila$l% in Athenaeus, 5/09, @ R 0 9#, an" Kiog. Eae$t. P+th!(. viii. 1., an" Sui"as un"e$ P%thago$as / 9 $' 0 97! #7. Mo$ othe$ $efe$ences see )etstein. The "ena$ius, which was wo$th a(out +1V0". 7see Hastings* D 4 i. >018, was the o$"ina$% "ail% wage 7cf. 'att. 09/0 sAA.8. The following !assages f$o# Cice$o a$e inst$uctive. Cice$o, /e&&. iii. .1, C6"Aue f$u#entu# Senatus ita aesti#asset, Auate$nis H.S. t$itici #o"iu#, (inis, ho$"ei. ? Cu# in Sicilia H.S. (inis t$itici #o"ius esset ? su##u# H.S. te$nis ? tu# iste !$o t$itici #o"iis singulis te$nos a( a$ato$i(us "ena$ios exegit. .>, Cu# esset H.S. (inis aut etia# te$nis ? "uo"enos seste$tios exegisti.D He$e wheat a!!ea$s to have (een twice the !$ice of (a$le% in Sicil%3 whe$eas it was th$ee ti#es in ou$ text. 6n the next !lace the #o"ius of wheat cost 0 o$ 5 seste$ces, o$ acco$"ing to the esti#ate of the Senate >. ;ow, since a #o"ius contains . choenices, an" a "ena$ius=fou$ seste$ces, it follows that the !$ice in ou$ text was 16 ti#es the lowest !$ice of wheat in Sicil%3 19 0V5 ti#es the highest, an" . ti#es the esti#ate #a"e (% the Senate. Thus at the ti#e "esigne" in ou$ text a "ena$iusa #an*s "ail% wagecoul" !u$chase onl% two !ints of wheata Auantit% sufficient #e$el% fo$ his own i##e"iate nee"s, whe$eas at othe$ ti#es its !u$chasing !owe$ was ., 10, o$ 16 ti#es as g$eat, if we #a% use the "ata su!!lie" (% Cice$o. 4ut since the wo$-#an woul" not (u% wheat (ut (a$le%, he coul" ea$n enough to !$ocu$e so#ething fo$ his fa#il% as well, though the su!!l% was ina"eAuate an" "eaths occu$$e" th$ough sta$vation 7see .8. The text, then, s!ea-s of a ti#e of ve$% g$eat "ea$th, (ut not of a(solute fa#ine, that was co#ing u!on the wo$l". 6t is the !$e"icte" in 'a$- 15/.3 'att. 0>/1. 4ut the wo$"s that follow, * @ 7!,, when ta-en in con@unction with what !$ece"es, #a% !oint to a s!ecial ti#e when the necessa$ies of life we$e sca$ce an" its su!e$fluities a(un"ant. Acco$"ing to E$(es, >9, the #o$e #o"e$ate the sca$cit% is $e!$esente", the #o$e #anifestl% it (elongs not to the $egion of fanc% (ut to histo$%, an" in his o!inion to the %ea$ 60 7Tac. Ann. xv. < 3 &ose!h. Ant. xx. +. 08 3 whilst FGlte$ in his va$ious wo$-s assigns this event to the latte$ half of ;e$o*s $eign 7Suet. Ne&o, ><3 Tac. Ann. xv. 1.8. N.(. 1astings" Dictionar% of the (i$le$

4ut a #o$e satisfacto$% ex!lanation has $ecentl% (een a"vance" (% Ha$nac- 7T L . , 1+90, col. <+1 sA.8 in a sho$t notice on S. Reinach*s CEa #Wvente "es vins sous le haut: e#!i$e $o#ain,D Re) Ach1o%., sW$. iii. t. xxxix., 1+91, !!. 5<9,51>. 2wing to the lac- of ce$eals an" the su!e$a(un"ance of wine, Ko#itian issue" an e"ict 7Suet. Do#. 1 / cf. Euse(. *h&on., on +0 A.K.8 that no f$esh vine%a$"s shoul" (e !lante" in 6tal%, an" that half the vine%a$"s in the !$ovinces shoul" (e cut "own. 4ut, as Suetonius o(se$ves, Ko#itian "i" not !e$seve$e in this #atte$3 fo$ the e"ict set the Asiatic cities in an u!$oa$, an" owing to thei$ agitation the% !$evaile" on Ko#itian not onl% to with"$aw his e"ict, (ut to i#!ose a !unish#ent on those who allowe" thei$ ol" vine%a$"s to go out of cultivation 7cf. @ 7!, of ou$ text8.1 2u$ autho$ f$o# his ascetic stan"!oint ha" s%#!athiHe" with Ko#itian*s "ec$ee, which acco$"ing to its own clai#s was "i$ecte" against luxu$%, an" was acco$"ingl% the #o$e in"ignant when it was $ecalle". Acco$"ingl%, he !$e"icts an evil ti#e, when #en will have oil an" wine1 in a(un"ance, (ut suffe$ f$o# lac- of ($ea". 6n favou$ of this view it #a% (e a""e" that the "ate of the A!ocal%!se the$ein i#!lie" woul" ag$ee with that assigne" to it (% 6$enaeus an" E!i!hanius. This ex!lanation is acce!te" (% 4ousset an" Swete, (ut is t$eate" as "ou(tful:(% HoltH#ann an" $e@ecte" (% )ellhausen. Though )ellhausen suggests no alte$native ex!lanation, he is $ight, 6 thin-, in $e@ecting the last #entione". At all events the "ec$ee of Ko#itian, if he$e o!e$ative at all, was not the cause, (ut onl% the occasion of the state#ent in ou$ text. The sca$cit% of ($ea" an" the !lentifulness of the vintage in the last "a%s was an ol" &ewish ex!ectation. Thus we have in Sotah, >+(, C6n the ti#es when the 'essiah is at han" sha#elessness will inc$ease, an" the$e will (e a "ea$th/ the vine will %iel" its f$uit, (ut wine will (e "ea$ 7 # 83 the e#!i$e of the wo$l" will (eco#e #inaean / the$e will (e no "isci!line ? the son will "es!ise the fathe$, the "aughte$ $esist the #othe$, the "aughte$:in:law the #othe$:in:law/ a #an*s foes shall (e the% of his own househol" 7

8.D The last clauses he$e #a% have (een in the #in" of ou$ Eo$" when He utte$e" 'att. 19/5< sA. 7= Eu-e 10/<58, while the o!ening wo$"s #a% ex!lain ou$ text. Ra((i ;ehe#iah 7in Ha"$ian*s ti#e8 Auotes the fi$st !a$t of the a(ove, an" R. ;eho$ai an" R. &u"ah, his conte#!o$a$ies, othe$ !o$tions of it in Sanh. +1a. 6t see#s, the$efo$e, to have (een in an ol" a!ocal%!se. This a!ocal%!se states that the$e will (e a gene$al "ea$th, (ut not of the vintage, though, owing to the "iso$"e$, wine woul" (e "ea$. Ko#itian*s e"ict #a% have occasione" the #ention of this ol" eschatological ex!ectation. 7. E @ !#$ @ , ! #&@ ( AB %$ G0 . 8. , H /33 0& . The fou$th ho$se is "esc$i(e" as 0&, C!ale %ellow,D C!alli",D o$ C!ale.D This a!!ea$s to (e an
ERR has he$e 3. ;ow 3 evi"entl% !$e:su!!oses , as in Lech. &.).+. Theologische )iteratur'eitung $

in"e!en"ent $en"e$ing (% ou$ autho$ of " in Lech. 1/. 7see note on !. 1608. The

1 <ur author, according to 1arnack, added the oil of his own initiati#e, or else found it in a decree unknown to us$ 1 In =ub$ 2381D the first Messianic woe is gi#en thus8 @&here shall be no seed of the #ine and no oil$A

6/5, 1, an" not . 4ut as we have seen in the note $efe$$e" to, we $eAui$e in Lecha$iah a wo$" signif%ing C%ellowD o$ C!ale %ellow.D 4ocha$t 7Hie&on5oicon, i. <98 gives goo" g$oun"s fo$ assu#ing this to (e the #eaning of $ , an" hol"s that "$ an" % % we$e $elate" colou$s, since in Eev. 11/1., Keut. 1>/11 the sa#e (i$" is calle"

in 2n-elos an" in Ps. &on. The ;isaean ho$ses we$e so#ewhat

of this colou$, as Phavo$inus attests / L! /33 E ! ) 9 $' L! 3! ' /33 ' *0 7see 4ocha$t, %oc cit.8. ;ow A$istotle 7Meteo&, 5, >, <8 "efines as the colou$ in the $ain(ow (etween $e" an" g$een. CPale %ellowD then is the #eaning $eAui$e" (% ou$ text an" #ost !$o(a(l% (% that of Lech. 1/.. Possi(l% ou$ autho$ foun" a fo$# o$ instea" of " in Lech. 1/. 3 fo$ 0& is the #ost f$eAuent $en"e$ing of this wo$" in the ERR. $ & #eans C!aleness,D Clivi"ness.D 8b. - 7 3& ( 6 < - 1 [ - U D ; ( ] < ! 3 % 4 $4 , [3 M#C < = Q3 " & 4 $4 ]. Eithe$ the a(ove text is co$$u!t o$ the w$ite$ confuse" (e%on" all !$ece"ent. 6 have co#e to the fo$#e$ conclusion, the g$oun"s fo$ which a$e given (elow. The Ri"e$ s%#(oliHes Cthe !estilenceD 7- 8. An" the o$iginal text is to (e t$anslate" as follows/ CHe that sat u!on hi# was na#e" Pestilence, an" the$e was given to hi# autho$it% ove$ the fou$th !a$t of the ea$th.D Eet us now stu"% the text as it stan"s. Mi$st of all, Keath an" Ha"es a$e !e$sonifie" as in 1/1., 09/15, 1>. 4ut how a$e we to conceive the# in the !$esent !assageO The$e is onl% one ho$se an" the$e a$e two figu$es. M$o# the analog% of the !$ece"ing Seals we ex!ect he$e onl% one figu$e. Hence &. )eiss, <+, thin-s that Ha"es is he$e Csus!iciousl%D th$ust into the co$ne$ an" g$ante" onl% a sha"ow% existence, since he sca$cel% a!!ea$s to (e aught else than a "ou(le of Keath. This w$ite$ then goes on to con@ectu$e that he$e was in the o$iginal conce!tion a !e$sonification of

!estilence 7= 8, an" that Ha"es then $e!$esente" Keath in a gene$al sense, whose function was to gathe$ the victi#s of the !$ece"ing !lagues. 2$iginall%, the$efo$e, the fou$ we$e )a$, Ma#ine, Pestilence, an" Ha"es, an" not as in ou$ text. These fou$ (eca#e in ou$ autho$*s han"s five, when he !$efixe" the fi$st Ri"e$, who, acco$"ing to &. )eiss, s%#(oliHes the !$og$ess of the os!el. Keath an" Ha"es we$e then of necessit% $e!$esente" as one. This theo$% is att$active, (ut the evi"ence, as 6 have sought to show 7!. 1<1 sAA.8, is in favou$ of the vision of the Seals (eing (ase" on the #ate$ial given in 'a$- 15, 'att. 0>, Eu-e 01, (% #eans of which we can ex!lain the fi$st six Seals. 4esi"es, we cannot acce!t this schola$*s ex!lanation of the fi$st Seal 7see !. 1658. How then a$e we to $ecove$ the o$iginal textO 4% a ca$eful stu"% of the "etails. 1. The$e is onl% one ho$se #entione" un"e$ the fou$th Seal/ the$e coul" not (e two3 fo$ the$e a$e onl% fou$ ho$ses altogethe$ !$esu!!ose". Ha"es then cannot (e $i"ing a se!a$ate ho$se, as the$e is onl% one ho$se3 no$ can he (e $i"ing on the sa#e ho$se as Keath, fo$ then we shoul" ex!ect 1 7 an" not - 7. Hence the clause 1 &he irregular construction here is due to a 1ebraism 3cf$ ,8114$ &he line J

$ $ $ ! $ & $ $

- U ? ( int$o"uces confusion of thought an" "iction, an" loo-s li-e an int$usion. 0. )e shoul" ex!ect he$e, as in Eu-e 01/11. 4ut can (e use" in the sa#e sense, as it f$eAuentl% a!!ea$s in the ERR as a t$anslation of . 6n Si$. 5+/0+ we have the co#(ination ! YX 3 ERR, / Fulg. Cfa#es et #o$sD3 an" also in Pss. Sol. 15/0, ( . 4ut the fact that an" not is use" is inst$uctive. 6t fo$#s an a""itional a$gu#ent that ou$ autho$ is using not ou$ Canonical os!els, (ut the "ocu#ent (ehin" 'a$- 15, 'att. 0>, Eu-e 013 fo$ the wo$" in this A$a#aic "ocu#ent woul" (e $ 31 fo$ this is the $en"e$ing in the Ta$gu# of 2n-elos of in Ex. +/1<3 ;u#. 1>/103 Ta$g. &on. of &e$. 1>/10, 01/6, 1, +, 0>/19, 0+/11, 1., >>/15 3 EHe-. </10, 11, 1>/01, 55/01, etc. ;ow can #ean eithe$ C"eathD o$ C!estilence.D Eu-e $en"e$e" it (% the un#ista-a(le wo$" in 01/11, (ut ou$ autho$ (% , which #ight #ean eithe$ C"eathD o$ C!estilence.D 4ut to $etu$n. )e ex!ect, as we saw in 1, a single Ri"e$/ in the next !lace we ex!ect hi# to (e na#e" Cthe !estilence,D as in the sou$ce use" (% ou$ autho$. An" this, in fact, coul" #ean, an" not onl% the sou$ce, (ut the context $eAui$es such a #eaning3 fo$ such a !lague as Cthe !estilenceD woul" (e in -ee!ing with what !$ece"es an" what follows3 fo$ all these $efe$ to !lagues o$ evils which ($ing a(out "eath, (ut a$e not s%non%#ous with "eath. Keath conceive" gene$all%, acco$"ing to the t$a"itional text, as the lo$" of all -in"s of "est$o%ing agents, an" Ha"es "o not (elong to the !$esent catego$% of evils. 5. The $ea"ing <, st$ongl% atteste" (% the Fe$sions an" S, is in favou$ of one figu$e onl%, i e. , C!estilence.D Acco$"ingl% we $e@ect - U D ; ( as the inte$!olation of a sc$i(e who was fa#ilia$ with ou$ autho$*s co#(ination of these two conce!tions, Keath an" Ha"es. Cf. 1/1., 09/15, 1>. 4ut his !e$ve$se in"ust$% "i" not sto! he$e3 fo$ to hi# we owe the final clause, as will a!!ea$ f$o# the next !a$ag$a!h. >. 6f the a(ove conclusions a$e $ight that onl% one Ri"e$ is $efe$$e" to an" that his na#e is C!estilence,D then the last clause of the ve$se, 3 ? $4, can ha$"l% (e genuine. 6t cannot (e sai" that !owe$ was given to Cthe !estilenceD to "est$o% Cwith the swo$", an" with fa#ine, an" with !estilence,D etc. Even if (% an% !ossi(ilit% in the fi$st instance #eant "eath itself, the lo$" of "est$uction, it woul" have (een cul!a(l% ca$eless to use the sa#e wo$" again in the sa#e sentence with Auite a "iffe$ent #eaning. 6t is fu$the$ to (e o(se$ve" that the clause 3 ? $4, which see#s inten"e" to $esu#e the evil activities of the secon", thi$", an" fou$th !lagues, is clea$l% otiose he$e. The state#ent a""s nothing to the weight of what is al$ea"% (ette$ sai", an" the $efe$ence to is ext$e#el% aw-wa$", since it o(liges us to assu#e 7 = lo$" of all the !lagues8 cont$olling 7 = a single !lague8, o$ 7 = !estilence8 cont$olling its un"e$ling 7 = !estilence8. Hence 6 conclu"e that the clause is an inte$!olation. Mu$the$#o$e, its su(@ect:#atte$ an", in fact, its "iction a$e (ase" on EHe-. 1>/01, M# 3' . This (o$$owing ex!lains the !$esence of M# instea" of 0 7cf. 6/198 an" the conclu"ing !h$ase, i e. Q3 " & 4 $4, which has no K (ords so enclosed are restored by the )ditor$ 1 If the source were in 1ebrew,

' 3J in +>$ or 0ym$, or in the

LII4 would account for the abo#e facts$

connection with the context as the othe$ th$ee !lagues have. The const$uction of Q3 afte$ an active ve$( is unexa#!le" elsewhe$e in the ;.T. an" is foun" ve$% $a$el% in classical $ee-. )ith & 4 $4 7 en. 1/593 EHe-. 5>/0.8, the onl% nea$ !a$allel in the ;.T. is Acts 11/6. The fact that the$e a$e fou$ !lagues "esc$i(e" in ou$ text, an" that EHe-iel in 1>/01 s!ea-s of Cfou$ so$e @u"g#ents,D #a% have le" to the inco$!o$ation of this gloss in ou$ text. 911. 6n a ce$tain #echanical #anne$ the fi$st fou$ !lagues a$e g$ou!e" togethe$ an" the last th$ee. The fi$st fou$ !ossess one cha$acte$istic in co##onthe i#!e$sonation of thei$ lea"ing featu$es/ anothe$ is thei$ connection with the fou$ living (eings. 4ut in anothe$ as!ect the fi$st five a$e #o$e nea$l% $elate" to each othe$ as evils affecting #an $i&ect%+, whe$eas the two evils which a$e co#(ine" in the sixth Sealthe ($ea-ing u! of ea$th an" heavena$e in thei$ fi$st $efe$ence cos#ic, an" affect #an in$i&ect%+. The fifth Se!%.Fe$ses +,11 "eal with Ch$istian #a$t%$"o#. 6n the co$$es!on"ing sections in 'a$- 15/+,15, 'att. 0>/+,19, Eu-e 01/10,1., !e$secutions an" #a$t%$"o# a$e fo$etol". 6n ou$ text the% a$e in !a$t al$ea"% acco#!lishe". The stan"!oint, the$efo$e, is wholl% change". 6nstea" of $e!$o"ucing the ste$eot%!e" "esc$i!tion of !e$secutions still to co#e ca$$%ing with the# the sanction of Ch$ist Hi#self, ou$ autho$ $efe$s in un#ista-a(le language to a g$eat !e$secution in the !ast/ na% #o$e, with his own e%es fo$ he is in heavenhe (ehol"s the souls of the #a$t%$s al$ea"% offe$e" on the heavenl% alta$ (efo$e o"3 hea$s the# su!!licating fo$ @u"g#ent on the heathen wo$l", an" sees the# (eing clothe" with thei$ heavenl% (o"iesa s!i$itual !$ivilege li#ite" exclusivel% to the #a$t%$e" $ighteous 3 fo$ the $est of the $ighteous coul" not $eceive thei$ heavenl% (o"ies till the final $esu$$ection. 9. E @ 3%3 !#$, Q3& ( !! ' I 0' " !#$%& ' $ ( ( ' @ V 0 . 6n this ve$se we have to "eal with th$ee Auestions/ 1. The alta$ in heaven. 0. The souls un"e$ the alta$in &u"ais# an" Ch$istianit%. 5. The $easons fo$ which the faithful suffe$e" #a$t%$"o#. 1. The !%t!& in he!)en.The fact that the alta$, though not #entione" hithe$to, is !$ece"e" (% the a$ticle, !oints to a cu$$ent (elief in the existence of an alta$ of (u$nt: offe$ing in heaven.1 That, acco$"ing to &ewish an" Ch$istian A!ocal%!tic, the$e was onl% one alta$ in heaven, an" that this alta$ ha" the cha$acte$istics !a$tl% of the ea$thl% alta$ of incense an" !a$tl% of the alta$ of (u$nt:offe$ing, (ut #ainl% of the fo$#e$, 6 have shown late$ on at so#e length. 7See note on ./5.8 How ea$l% this (elief a$ose cannot (e "efinitel% "ete$#ine". Since, howeve$, acco$"ing to Ex. 0</+, >9, ;u#. ./>, the ea$thl% alta$ an" ta(e$nacle we$e to (e #a"e afte$ the li-eness of heavenl% !atte$ns o$ o$iginals, a view which $ecu$s in He(. ./<, +/05, the (elief in Auestion #a% (e of ve$% ea$l% o$igin as ea$l% as 6sa. 6/1 sAA., though schola$s a$e "ivi"e" as to the scene of the vision in that cha!te$, Kuh#, )hitehouse, $a%, 'a$ti conten"ing that it is in the 1 0pitta, 2,. s>>$, argues strongly for the altar in =erusalem! but most of his arguments are beside the mark$ <n the other hand, the whole #ision implies a hea#enly scene, witnessed by our 0eer 3$ +ll the #isions in 781O1- the 0eer beheld while in heaven 3see p$ 1-,4$ &he white garments in which the martyrs were arrayed is a hea#enly #esture$ ?urthermore, the situation implies the age of Nomitian, when the &emple was no longer standing$

ea$thl% te#!le, while KelitHsch, Kill#ann, an" &e$e#ias #aintain that it is in the heavenl%. At all events it was cu$$ent in the 0n" cent. 4.C., as we have seen a(ove. 0. The sou%s un$e& the !%t!& in 6u$!is# !n$ *h&isti!nit+.The souls in ou$ text a$e those of the #a$t%$s. 6t has (een gene$all% su!!ose" that ou$ text is to (e ex!laine" f$o# the &ewish $itual, acco$"ing to which the (loo" of the victi# was to (e !ou$e" on the (ase of the alta$ 7Eev. >/1, F ( !0 0 3' @ 8! ( !! 8. Since the life was in the (loo", the souls we$e thus conceive" to (e (eneath the alta$. 4ut this is unsatisfacto$%. The souls a$e (eneath the heavenl% alta$3 fo$ the% have al$ea"% (een sac$ifice" the$eon. Eet us exa#ine the evi"ence. That a sac$ificial "eath of the #a$t%$s is i#!lie" in ou$ text is clea$ f$o# the wo$"s !! an" !#$%&. Elsewhe$e in the ;.T. the #a$t%$s a$e $ega$"e" as victi#s offe$e" to o", 0 Ti#. >/6 3 Phil. 0/113 an" in late$ ti#es cf. 6gnatius, A$ Ro#. ii. 0, 3% % @ 3!0! ( !3!4 <, 2 * !!7 ? !/ >/0, / ? ( ! Q". 4ut the (elief that the #a$t%$s we$e a sac$ifice was al$ea"% cu$$ent in !$e:Ch$istian &u"ais#, as a!!ea$s f$o# the !assages Auote" f$o# > 'acca(ees (elow.1 These !assages $efe$ to #a$t%$s. 6n late$ ti#es the souls of the &i(hteous a$e conceive" (% the Ch$istians as well as (% the &ews 7see late$8 as offe$e" in sac$ifice. Cf. Suestions of 4a$tholo#ew i. 0+, - R W&& 3 3 3 X!() Y, *! 9 < 3!= #% !Z - R X!H %$) I 0 &. Fita Pacho#ii a((atis ta(ennensis xxxviii. C'ultitu"o sancto$u# angelo$u# cu# #agna laetitia su#entes ani#a# e@us velut electa# hostia# Ch$isti cons!ecti(us o(tule$unt.D 6n &u"ais# also we fin" the (elief that the souls of the $ighteous we$e un$e& the !%t!& in he!)en. This in the Aboth R N. 06., CRa((i A-i(a "ecla$es ? that whoeve$ was (u$ie" in the lan" of 6s$ael was @ust as if he we$e (u$ie" un"e$ the alta$, an" -hoe)e& -!s bu&ie$ un$e& the !%t!& -!s just !s if he -e&e bu&ie$ un$e& the th&one of (%o&+.D 6n Sha((. 1<0( it is state" that Cthe souls of the $ighteous a$e !$ese$ve" un"e$ the th$one of glo$%,D an" in Ke(a$i# $a((a, 11, o" sa%s to the soul of 'oses / C o fo$th, "ela% not, an" 6 will ($ing thee u! to the highest heaven, an" cause thee to "well un"e$ the th$one of '% glo$% a#i"st the Che$u(i# an" Se$a!hi# an" heavenl% hosts.D 4ut if the souls of the $ighteous we$e un"e$ the heavenl% alta$, the% ha" fi$st (een offe$e" u!on it. Thus in the Tosa!hoth on 'enachoth, 119a, it is sai", acco$"ing to so#e teache$s, 1 +ccording to 7 Macc$ .82, the martyr"s death was concei#ed to be a true sacrifice and possessed an atoning power$ ! " 3! I 0 " 8 @ @ I 07$ Ff$ also op. cit$ 5#ii$ 21, 22 Moed Patan, 2Da, where the death of the righteous is said to atone as a red heifer$ In Gittin, 9:b, the mother of the se#en martyrs e5claims8 @My sons H tell +braham your father, &hou didst build an altar whereon to offer thy son as sacrifice$ I ha#e built se#en altars$A %ow, if the =ewish martyrs were regarded in pre* Fhristian times as an atoning sacrifice, it is more than probable that the belief in the abode of righteous souls under the hea#enly altar arose first in connection with the mart%rs, and that this pri#ilege was afterwards e5tended to the righteous generally$ 0ee 1 )noch 7:87, which is >uoted under 11$

that 'ichael sac$ifices u!on the heavenl% alta$ the souls of the stu"ents of the law. 6n the !# 7e". &elline-, 4et h! Mi$&!sch, iii. 1518, CAn" the$e stan"s ? the g$eat !$ince 'ichael an" the alta$ (efo$e hi#, an" he offe$s all the souls of the $ighteous on that alta$ 7 ! ( 8.D 6n the &al-ut Ru(. f. 110( 7SchGttgen, Ho&!e, i. 10098, CEt ille 7i e. 'ichael8 stet et offe$t ani#as @usto$u#D3 an" si#ila$l% in &al-ut Cha". f. 11., col. >. Again in &al-ut Ru(. fol. 1>, col. 5 7Ho&!e, i. 101<8, the souls of the $ighteous a$e offe$e" 7on the heavenl% alta$8/ CEx Auo te#!o$e con"itu# est alta$e te$$enu# "ixit Keus/ ;olo ut #ihi in alta$i caelesti oves aut (oves offe$antu$ nisi tantu# ani#ae @usto$u#.D See, fu$the$, Eue-en, Mich!e%, >. sA. The a(ove &ewish autho$ities a$e late, (ut the% #ust $e!$esent, when ta-en with analogous !heno#ena, a &ewish t$a"itionante$io$ at all events to Ch$istianit%3 fo$ it is not $easona(le to su!!ose that it was (o$$owe" f$o# ea$l% Ch$istian sou$ces. )e conclu"e, the$efo$e, that (% ou$ autho$ the #!&t+& -!s concei)e$ fi&st !n$ chief%+ !s ! s!c&ifice to Go$' !n$ th!t thou(h his bo$+ -!s s%!in on e!&th' the s!c&ifice -!s in &e!%it+ #!$e in he!)en' -he&e his sou% -!s offe&e$ on the he!)en%+ !%t!&. 2u$ text, the$efo$e, has co#e to $e!$esent s%#(olicall% the consu##ation of the i"ea ex!$esse" (% St. Paul in Ro#. 10/1, whe$e he exho$ts his $ea"e$s, 3!4! ' !P Q" ! A"! [$ < < !, @ $@ Q". Cf. Ro#. 6/153 Phil. 0/113 Col. 1/0.. 5. The &e!sons fo& -hich the f!ithfu% suffe&e$ #!&t+&$o#.The #a$t%$s we$e !ut to "eath (ecause of the wo$" given (% o" an" the witness (o$ne (% &esus. The testi#on% no less than the wo$" is an o(@ective !ossession of the faithful. 'an% schola$s have ta-en the witness to (e that which the #a$t%$s ha" (o$ne to Ch$ist3 (ut the ex!$ession 0 is against such a view, an" i#!lies a testi#on% that has (een given the# (% Ch$ist an" which the% have "&ese&)e$. &ohn 5/50, \ :P ! ( , @ ( 8) - 8] ( @ !#$! E 7 !. Thus the clause in ou$ text is the exact eAuivalent of the fulle$ clause in 10/11, 09/> The #a$t%$s a$e incontesta(l% Ch$istian #a$t%$s, to wit, the #a$t%$s of the ;e$onic ti#es.1 10. * #&+ $, %$ ^& 3, - !3 - .$ , F 9" " & 3 4 $4 3 * . The ao$ist a!!ea$s he$e to $efe$ to a single "efinite !$a%e$3 the $ighteous souls #a"e one a!!eal to o" an" it was i##e"iatel% answe$e". The% a$e not $e!$esente" as continuing to u$ge such su!!lications, as in the &ewish A!ocal%!ses Auote" (elow. ?& 3 . Cf. 'att. 11/11 = 'a$- +/1+3 &ohn 19/0>. The !h$ase is f$eAuent in the ERR, es!eciall% in the Psal#s. Cf. >/0, 6/5, 10 7158/1, 0, 61 7608/5, etc. - !3 = %!3. 2n the vocative with the a$ticle see 'oulton, G&!#. 19 sA., 05<3 4lass, G&!#. !. .1. !3 7= o$ , en. 1</0, .3 &osh. </1>3 6sa. 5/13 Kan. +/., 1<, 16, etc.8 is a!!lie" to o" in onl% two othe$ !assages in the ;.T., Eu-e 0/0+3 Acts >/0>. 6t is a!!lie" to Ch$ist twice, in 0 Pet. 0/13 &u"e >. - .$ . These e!ithets a$e use" in $efe$ence to Ch$ist in 5/1 7see note8. . Mo$ this co#(ination cf. 1+/0, E * ? !, an" 1 Sa#. 0>/15 in the He($ew,

1 0pitta, 3--, is of opinion that only =ewish persecutions of the =ews are referred to here$

1+/0 . . . . ) affo$"s anothe$ !a$allel to ou$ text in the e!ithets which a$e a!!lie" to !. 6n fact, 1+/0 "esc$i(es the fulfil#ent of the !$a%e$ in ou$ text. F 7= 8. Cf. 1+/0, whe$e this !h$ase $ecu$s. is followe" (% 7Keut. 1./1+3 1 Sa#. 0>/158 o$ 3 7Eu-e 1./58 in $efe$ence to the !e$sons f$o# who# the vengeance is exacte". Cf. also 0 Iings +/1, 7! ' / " & . 2n the #eaning of the !h$ase & 3 4 $4 see note on 5/19. As $ega$"s the thought of the wo$"s, it has (een #aintaine" that the% Conl% asse$t the !$inci!le of Kivine $et$i(ution which fo$(i"s the exe$cise of !e$sonal vengeance 7Ro#. 10/1+8.D 6t has (een u$ge" also that Eu-e 1./1, - R @ 37!, @ ! " " ( " 8P& < 9% , !$acticall% ex!$esse" the sa#e view. The teaching of the os!el !assage an" of ou$ text is, howeve$, "iffe$ent. 6n Eu-e the enti$e !assage $efe$s to the %i)in( elect 7cf. 1./18, an" the s!i$it of the teaching #ust (e const$ue" in -ee!ing with the context. 6n ou$ text, howeve$, the $e"!&te$ sou%s a$e $efe$$e" to, an" the note of !e$sonal vengeance cannot (e wholl% eli#inate" f$o# thei$ !$a%e$. The %i)in( !$a% to o" to f$ee the# f$o# un@ust o!!$ession an" secu$e the# thei$ @ust $ights. 2n the othe$ han", the $e"!&te$ !$a% fo$ vengeance fo$ what the% have suffe$e" o$ lost. The fo$#e$ is !$os!ective an" ($eathes the s!i$it of @ustice, the latte$ is $et$os!ective as well as @ust. 4oth Eu-e 1./1,. an" ou$ text a!!ea$s to go (ac- to &ewish o$iginals o$ &ewish t$a"itional views. The fo$#e$ has seve$al ele#ents in co##on with Si$. 50/1<,00, whe$e it is sai" that o" is a @ust o", an" hea$-ens to the !$a%e$ of hi# that is w$onge", an" to the su!!lication of the wi"ow, an" that He will not (e slac- in "oing @ustice to the#, no$ will He (e slow ove$ the# 7 7! 3; / cf. Eu-e 1./1, 3; 8, Ctill He have s#itten in sun"e$ the loins of the un#e$ciful.D 4oth Eu-e 1./1,. an" Si$. 50/1<,00 $efe$ to the living3 an" the fo$#e$, at all events, when ta-en in con@unction with Ch$ist*s othe$ teaching, !ostulates the su$$en"e$ of all "esi$e fo$ "e&son!% vengeance. The sa#e !ostulate cannot (e sai" to hol" fo$ the Si$ach !assage3 fo$ in Si$ach, !olic% is lai" "own no less f$eAuentl% than !$inci!le as the #otive of action. )e thus "isc$i#inate the te#!e$ un"e$l%ing ou$ text f$o# that in Eu-e 1./1,.. The t$ue fo$e$unne$s of ou$ text a$e to (e foun" in 1 Enoch >1/0, >1/>, CThe !$a%e$ of the $ighteous 7that the she""ing of thei$ (loo"8 #a% not (e in vain (efo$e the Eo$" of S!i$its, That @u"g#ent #a% (e "one unto the#, An" that the% #a% not have to suffe$ fo$ eve$.D >1/>, CAn" the hea$ts of the hol% we$e fille" with @o%, 4ecause ? the !$a%e$ of the $ighteous ha" (een hea$", An" the (loo" of the $ighteous (een $eAui$e" (efo$e the Eo$" of S!i$its.D 6n 00/<, 1 the s!i$its of the $ighteous, who a$e in Sheol an" ha" suffe$e" !e$secution o$ violent "eath, !$a% fo$ vengeance. 6n a conte#!o$a$% wo$-, i e. > EH$a >/5<, the souls of the $ighteous in the cha#(e$s of Sheol as-, CHow long a$e we to $e#ain he$eO when co#eth the f$uit u!on the th$eshing:floo$ of ou$ $ewa$"OD P$a%e$ fo$ vengeance is taught as a continuous "ut% in 1 Enoch ++/5, 19>/5, the$efo$e it was the #anifestation of a !e$#anent attitu"e of #in". This is not so in ou$ text. The !$a%e$ of the souls un"e$ the alta$ fo$ a $ighteous vin"ication on thei$ !e$secuto$s, #a"e he$e once an" fo$ all an" not uninte$$u!te"l% !$esse" as in &u"ais#, is $e!$esente" as fulfille" in 1./09, 1+/0. The$ein is $eflecte" the te#!e$ that in !a$t ani#ate" the Chu$ch in the !e$secutions of the 1st centu$%. )e #ight co#!a$e the attitu"e of the #a$t%$s towa$"s thei$ @u"ges in Pol%c. M!&t. 11, o$ the late$ Acts of the 'a$t%$s.

11. :!= !@ 7 . This white $o(e was thei$ heavenl% (o"% 7see note on 5/<, an" A""itional ;ote at close of this cha!te$/ cf. 1/+8. The #a$t%$s have thus in a g$eat "eg$ee attaine" thei$ consu##ation. Thei$ $ece!tion of the heavenl% (o"% at this stage is a s!ecial !$ivilege acco$"e" to the #a$t%$s, @ust as the% exclusivel% a$e to $etu$n with Ch$ist to $eign fo$ the 1999 %ea$s3 cf. 09/>.1 To all the $ighteous these white $o(es a$e given finall%. % / 3! * 0 . Augustine, Alcasa$, Ri(ie$a, 4engel, Ke )ette, 4lee-, HoltH#ann, 4ousset, etc., ex!lain these wo$"s as #eaning that the #a$t%$s a$e to (e !atient an" to a(stain f$o# thei$ c$% of vengeance3 (ut Hengsten(e$g, KTste$"iec-, Iliefoth, Alfo$", Swete, an" othe$s, as #eaning that the% a$e to $est in (lesse"ness, as in 1>/15, / 37! " 3& ". ?& 3&"! 1 ! " 1 # " 1 % 3%! 2 . The #a$t%$s a$e -e!t waiting until thei$ fellow:se$vants also 7i e. 8, who with the# have the sa#e 'aste$ 7!3, 198, an" thei$ ($eth$en 71/+8, have also (een slain. The ! an" the # a$e the sa#e !e$sons viewe" un"e$ "iffe$ent as!ects. The $e!eate" " can (est (e ex!laine" as an unconscious He($ais#. The a(ove clause loo-s (ac- to the #a$t%$"o#s un"e$ ;e$o, an" antici!ates a final an" unive$sal !e$secution un"e$ Ko#itian which woul" follow Cin a little ti#e.D 6n this !e$secution he ex!ects the nu#(e$ of the #a$t%$s to (e co#!lete". Then woul" ensue the en". 6nstea" of eithe$ of the a(ove ex!lanations of 3! *, the evi"ence of conte#!o$a$% lite$atu$e is !e$ha!s in favou$ of the following/ the souls of the #a$t%$s, now clothe" in s!i$itual (o"ies 7cf. Asc. 6sa. +/6 sA., whe$e A(el, Enoch, an" othe$s a$e $e!$esente" as (eing so clothe", an" in the seventh heaven, (ut not %et in !ossession of thei$ full !$ivileges8, a$e (i""en to en@o% thei$ !$esent $est an" Auietness fo$ a little while longe$, when, on the co#!letion of the $oll of the #a$t%$s, the @u"g#ent the% "e#an"e" woul" ensue. 6n a #uch ea$lie$ wo$-, 1 Enoch 199/<, the $ighteous souls in the inte$#e"iate state a$e $efe$$e" to/ CAn" ove$ all the $ighteous an" hol% He will a!!oint gua$"ians f$o# a#ongst the hol% angels, To gua$" the# as the a!!le of an e%e.D 6n 190/< the% a$e (i""en Cto wait fo$ the "a% of the @u"g#ent of sinne$s,D an" in 19>/5 7cf. 00/<,1, >1/0, >1/5,<8, to !$a% fo$ @u"g#ent on thei$ o!!$esso$s. M$o# the cont$ast of the con"itions of the $ighteous an" wic-e" in Sheol in +1,19>., it is clea$ that, though the $ighteous "e#an" vengeance on the evil:"oe$s, the% a$e en@o%ing !eace an" $est. 6n > EH$a 1/.< !a$t of the to$#ent of the wic-e" souls afte$ "eath will consist in seeing Chow the ha(itations of the othe$ souls a$e gua$"e" (% angels in !$ofoun" Auietness,D whilst !a$t of the (lesse"ness of the $ighteous souls will consist in (ehol"ing the !$esent evil con"ition of the souls of the wic-e", an" the still g$eate$ to$#ents that await the# 71/+58, an" in a!!$eciating Cthe $est which the% now, (eing gathe$e" in thei$ cha#(e$s, en@o% in !$ofoun" Auietness gua$"e" (% angelsD 71/+<8. M$o# the stan"!oint of the os!els we cannot un"e$stan" how the souls of the $ighteous coul" en@o% such $est in the !$esence of such suffe$ing. The view that the en" of the wo$l" woul" ensue when the $oll of the #a$t%$s was co#!lete was cu$$ent in !$e:Ch$istian &u"ais#.

1 )rbes, 72 s>$, seeks to e5plain the te5t by the indi#idual martyrdoms of =ews and Fhristians before .2 +$N$

This thought is highl% cha$acte$istic of late$ &u"ais#, which hel" that eve$%thing was ca$$ie" out in the "ivine gove$n#ent of the wo$l" acco$"ing to a ce$tain !$e"estine" nu#(e$, ti#e, o$ #easu$e. This a!!ea$s in > EH$a >/56 sA./ CMo$ He has weighe" the age in the (alance, An" with #easu$es has #easu$e" the ti#es, An" (% nu#(e$ has nu#(e$e" the seasons/ ;eithe$ will He #ove no$ sti$ things Till the #easu$e a!!ointe" (e fulfille".D 6n 1 Enoch >1 the en" will co#e when the nu#be& of the #!&t+&s is co#"%ete. Thus in >1/1 it is sai" that C6n those "a%s 7i e. the last8 shall have ascen"e" the !$a%e$ of the $ighteous, An" the (loo" of the $ighteous f$o# ea$th (efo$e the Eo$" of S!i$its.D 6n the next ve$se 7>1/08 the angels su!!licate an" inte$ce"e C2n (ehalf of the (loo" of the $ighteous which has (een she", An" that the !$a%e$ of the $ighteous #ight not (e in vain (efo$e the Eo$" of S!i$its, An" that @u"g#ent shoul" (e "one unto the#, An" that the% #a% not have to suffe$ fo$ eve$.D He$e clea$l% the souls of &ewish #a$t%$s a$e $efe$$e" to, which "e#an" vengeance an" !$a% against the fu$the$ !ost!one#ent of it. 6n >1/5 the (oo-s a$e o!ene" an" the Eo$" of S!i$its seats Hi#self on the th$one of @u"g#ent. 6n >1/> $ea"s/ CAn" the hea$ts of the hol% we$e fille" with @o%, 4ecause the nu#(e$ of the $ighteous ha" (een offe$e", An" the !$a%e$ of the $ighteous ha" (een hea$", An" the (loo" of the $ighteous (een $eAui$e" (efo$e the Eo$" of S!i$its.D He$e, as the context shows, the $ighteous a$e #a$t%$s. This is the ea$liest fo$# of this conce!tion, an" is $e!$o"uce" in ou$ text. A late$ "evelo!#ent of it 7see !. 1158 is foun" in > EH$a >/5<. C)e$e not these Auestions of thine as-e" (% the souls of the $ighteous in thei$ cha#(e$sO How long a$e we to $e#ain he$eO )hen co#eth the f$uit u!on the th$eshing:floo$ of ou$ $ewa$"O An" to the# the a$changel &e$e#iel #a"e $e!l% an" sai"/ Even when the nu#(e$ of those li-e %ou$self is fulfille"ND An" in 0 4a$. 59/0, CAn" it will co#e to !ass at that ti#e that the t$easu$ies shall (e o!ene" in which is !$ese$ve" the nu#(e$ of the souls of the $ighteous.D M$o# the a(ove !assages it follows that ou$ autho$ is following a cu$$ent &ewish t$a"ition. The$e is no nee" fo$ su!!osing that he ha" an% acAuaintance with > EH$a3 fo$ the latte$ $e!$esents a late$ "evelo!#ent of this conce!tion, as we have shown. 4ousset, as S!itta, 0+., ha" al$ea"% "one, $ega$"s ou$ text an" > EH$a >/5< sA. as in"e!en"ent, (ut as "e$ive" f$o# a co##on ol"e$ sou$ce. He $e!$esents ou$ autho$ as t$ansfo$#ing the cu$$ent &ewish t$a"ition, that the wo$l" woul" co#e to an en" when the nu#(e$ of the souls of the &i(hteous was co#!lete", into the fo$# given in ou$ text3 (ut 4ousset*s view was "ue to the unintelligi(le text of 1 Enoch >1/>, which, howeve$, when $et$anslate" into He($ew, !$esents the sa#e t$a"ition as ou$ text. The unintelligi(leness was "ue to the $ee- t$anslato$ $en"e$ing as Cha" "$awn nighD 7a !ossi(le #eaning8, instea" of Cha" (een sac$ifice",D as the context he$e $eAui$e" 7so in late$ He($ew an" A$a#aic8. See !. 110. 117:8. The si0th Se!%its "%!(ues !n$ the ensuin( "!use $u&in( -hich the f!ithfu% Is&!e%ites !&e se!%e$ to secu&e thei& s!fet+.These woes a$e still in the futu$e. The% a$e not in ou$ autho$ the i##e"iate he$al"s of the en", as in the os!els. The en" cannot co#e till the g$eat !e$secution an" #a$t%$"o# of the faithful have ta-en !lace. )ith the text co#!a$e 'a$- 15/., 0>,0<3 'att. 0>/1, 0+3 Eu-e 01/11, 0<,06, 05/59. The woes, the$efo$e, a$e not to (e ta-en in thei$ full lite$al significance. This is #anifest f$o# the


fact that afte$ the sta$s of heaven ha" fallen, the heaven (een $e#ove" as a sc$oll, an" eve$% #ountain an" islan" ha" (een $e#ove" out of thei$ !laces, the -ings of the ea$th an" the #ight%, the (on" an" the f$ee, coul" ha$"l% (e "esc$i(e" as hi"ing the#selves in the caves an" $oc-s of the ea$th an" i#!lo$ing the #ountains to fall u!on the#. E @ !#$ @ ? , !! %$ $% , - _ $% % 2 ! 0 , 9 !7 E $% 2 F. The ea$thAua-e he$e is not to (e ex!laine" (% that in Eao"icea in 61, o$ at Po#!eii in 65. 6t is $athe$ a single g$eat ea$thAua-e, which is a !$ecu$so$ of the en" of the wo$l". Thus the !! ' 3 7 = 'a$- 15/.8 has not onl% (een t$ansfo$#e" into a single wo$l" catast$o!he, (ut also t$ans!ose" f$o# hol"ing the thi$" o$ fou$th !lace in the list of woes to the sixth, as we have al$ea"% !ointe" out. Ea$thAua-es (elong, of cou$se, to the t$a"itional eschatological sche#e. Cf. A#os ./., +/<3 EHe-. 5./1+3 &oel 0/193 Ass. 'os. x. >3 > EH$a </., +/53 0 4a$. lxx. .. See $ess#ann, 10 sAA. The$e a$e fu$the$ $efe$ences to an ea$thAua-e in ou$ text/ ./<, 11/15, 16/1.. The "a$-ening of the sun is also a constant eschatological !heno#enon/ A#os ./+3 6sa. 15/19, <9/5, !& ! 2 ! 7!& 38 (/ EHe-. 50/13 &oel 0/19, 51 7 = 'ass. iii. >8, - _ !#7! ! 9 !7 F 3 9% / 'att. 0>/0+3 'a$- 15/0>3 Eu-e 05/><3 Ass. 'os. x. <3 Acts 0/09 7Auotation f$o# &oel 0/5183 Rev. +/0. To &oel 0/51 7see Auotation a(ove8 an" Ass. 'os. x. <, C7luna8 tot! con)e&tet se in s!n(uine#'D we have a ve$% $e#a$-a(le !a$allel in ou$ text. The !assage in Ass. 'os. a!!ea$s to (e "i$ectl% "e!en"ent on the text of &oel save that it a""s tot!. ;ow ou$ text, while it gives a f$ee $en"e$ing of the He($ew (ehin" (oth !assages 7 * 8, e#(o"ies the a""ition of E in the Ass. 'os. This #ight (e a coinci"ence, (ut it see#s to (e #o$e. 2u$ autho$ #a% not i#!$o(a(l% have ha" the text of this (oo- (efo$e hi# in so#e fo$#3 fo$ the Ass. 'os. x. >,< contains $efe$ences to ea$thAua-es, the ecli!se of the sun, the ensanguining of the #oon, an" the "iso$"e$ of the sta$s/CEt t$e#e(it te$$a ? sol non "a(it lu#en ? et 7luna8 tota conve$tet se in sanguine# et o$(is stella$u# contu$(a(itu$.D 6n an% case he is not "e!en"ent on the ERR. Mo$ the ex!ectation in 4a(%lonian lite$atu$e that the sun an" #oon woul" (e "a$-ene", see Li##e$n, 2 A T 5 5+5. 13. 1 !% ( ( *3! @ $4, 2 ! 4 8 H ` 4 Q3 % $ !% , 14. - 30&! 2 88 :!! . This !assage a!!ea$s to (e (ase" on 6sa. 5>/>, 7! 35! 1 " ", :$7! 2 88 - , 3 ' >! 3! 2 # ? 3 ! 4. 6f this is so, then ou$ autho$ #a% see# "e!en"ent on the ERR, since the 'asso$etic has +, Cwill fa"e,D an" not = 3!, (ut that S%##achus also has 3!. This clause is foun" also in 'att. 0>/0+, 1 !% 3!( 3 ( (3 also in Si(%ll. iii. .5, 3%! 3# E 3 0 a, ii. 090, viii. 1+93 an" the sa#e ex!ectation in the 4un"ehesh xxx. 1. 74G-len, !. .18. The wo$l" an" its well(eing "e!en" on the faithfulness with which the lu#ina$ies of heaven fulfil thei$ !a$ts. The unva$%ing o$"e$ an" lo%alt% with which the% "o so was a favou$ite the#e with a!ocal%!tic w$ite$s/ cf. 1 Enoch ii. 1, xli. <, xliii. 0, lxix. 16 sAA. 3 T. ;a!h. iii. 03 Pss. Sol. xvii. 11,1>3 > EH$a 6/><. )hen, then, the sun an" #oon an" sta$s fo$soo- this o$"e$, the en" of the wo$l" was at han". Cf. 1 Enoch .9/<, 63 > EH$a </>, <3 Si(%ll. iii. .91 sA.

The "a$-ening of the sun an" the ensanguining of the #oon an" the falling of the sta$s in ou$ text, have a li-e significance.1 The #ention of the fig:t$ee a!!ea$s to (e "ue wholl% to 6sa. 5>/>, an" to have no connection with 'att. 0>/50 an" its !a$allels. 6 = @ 33% !( 7Hes%chius8. The figu$e in 30&! ? :!! is that of a !a!%$us $ent in two, whe$eu!on the "ivi"e" !o$tions cu$l an" fo$# a $oll on eithe$ si"e. )ith this clause we #ight co#!a$e 0 Pet. 5/19, 1 MA 3!, though the thought is he$e "iffe$ent. An excellent !a$allel a!!ea$s in Si(%ll. iii. .0, :,, ; .3 88 . Cf. ./055, >15. 6n the 2.T. the heavens a$e sai" to (e Csha-enD an"

C$entD 7 !8/ cf. 6sa. 15/15, 65/1+3 Hagg. 0/6, 01. 35 6 4! " 3& " 7!. This state#ent $ecu$s in 16/09, 35! 4! *# $, 6 0 Q%!. ;o $eal !a$allel has hithe$to (een foun" fo$ these wo$"s. ;ah. 1/< is a""uce" (% so#e, an" &e$. >/0> (% othe$s, (ut neithe$ is at all li-el%. Such cos#ic !heno#ena #ust in thei$ o$iginal context have (een i##e$i!te !$ecu$so$s of the en"3 (ut as the% a$e not such in ou$ autho$, the wo$"s a$e not to (e ta-en lite$all%. 15. 1 8! 4 $4 1 $!5 1 00 1 3! 1 !0 35 ( * I : H ' !37 ' 3% " `%&. )ith the a(ove enu#e$ation co#!a$e 15/16, 1+/1.. The nu#(e$ of classes in ou$ text is sevena favou$ite nu#(e$ with ou$ autho$. 6t inclu"es eve$% one f$o# the e#!e$o$ "own to the slave. Mo$ si#ila$ enu#e$ations see &u(. xxiii. 1+3 0 4a$. lxx. 5, >, 6, though these a$e #entione" in connection with what is given in ou$ text un"e$ the secon" Seal. )ith the thought of 1<,16 cf. Eu-e 01/06, 3I 0& P3& 3 #8 3! " 30%& + %,, 1 $' " " ! 7!. The 8! 4 $4 7cf. 11/0, 1., 1./5, +3 6sa. 0>/018 a$e the hea"s of the heathen nations. The $!5 a$e !$o(a(l% he$e to (e i"entifie" with the Pa$thian !$inces 7cf. 'o##sen, v. 5>5 sA.8. So HoltH#ann an" 4ousset. The wo$" is use" six ti#es in Theo"otion*s t$anslation of Kaniel as a $en"e$ing of $ , who we$e an o$"e$ of g$eat no(les an" cou$t officials un"e$ 4elshaHHa$ an" Ka$ius. Swete ta-es the# to (e civil officials, i e. the !e$secuting !$oconsuls. As "istinguishe" f$o# the Pa$thian no(les we have the Ro#an #ilita$% t$i(unes $efe$$e" to in 1 00. )ith * I : . cf. 6sa. 0/19, 1. sA., !% ' 3% 3! 4 $4 3 3!P3 ( #8 . ? ' 03 3 I !, !%$ ' !37 ' !0!' " 3" . See also 6sa. 0/013 &e$. >/0+. )ith 1<,16 cf. 1 Enoch 60/5, CAn" the$e shall stan" u! in that "a% all the -ings an" the #ight%, Z An" the exalte" an" those who hol" the ea$th, Z An" the% shall see an" $ecogniHe Z How He sits on the th$one of His glo$%D3 60/>, CThen shall !ain co#e u!on the# as u!on a wo#an in t$avail ?D3 60/<, Can" the% shall (e te$$ifie".D Cf. also 60/+, 65/1. 16. %$ ! 6! 3%) b%! #; 95 I 95 3 3!P3 ( % 3 ( 3 4 `$4 ( ( . These wo$"s a$e "$awn f$o# Hos. 19/., whe$e the ERR has (! 1 Gressmann 3.rsprung d. "sr./J-d. Eschat$ 2:O2D4 traces back the ideas in our te5t and such as underlie Isa$ 3787 to the mythical conception of a hea#enly tree with the stars as its fruit and the sirocco which casts them to the ground$

6! YI 95, 8 b%! #; 95. He$e ou$ text "iffe$s f$o# the ERR in its $en"e$ings, %$ !, 3%, I, an" in the o$"e$ of its ve$(s. This o$"e$ is foun" also in Eu-e 05/59, whe$e this Auotation is given/ > %$ 6! b%! #; 95, 8 YI 95 . 6t #a% not (e necessa$% to assu#e an in"e!en"ent t$anslation of Hos. 19/. he$e, (ut onl% the use of a cu$$ent collection of eschatological !assages, o$ a collection of the sa%ings of ou$ Eo$". Eithe$ of these h%!otheses woul" account fo$ the inve$sion of the o$"e$ of the ve$(s. The use of I an" 3% coul" (e accounte" fo$ (% the occu$$ence of these wo$"s in 1<. Against the genuineness of the clause, 3 4 `$4 ( , Fische$, >93 S!itta, 1.3 )e%lan", 1<93 FGlte$, i. <1, iv. 003 &. )eiss, 6>, an" othe$s have va$iousl% u$ge" that elsewhe$e in the A!ocal%!se the Ea#( has alwa%s a !eaceful $Qle, whe$eas the w$ath of o" is f$eAuentl% s!o-en of/ 11/1., 1>/19, 1+, 1</1, 16/1, 1+, 1+/1<. Mu$the$, that six ve$ses ea$lie$, i e. >/19, whe$e the #a$t%$s c$% fo$ @u"g#ent, o" an" not the Ea#( is a""$esse"3 an" that this is so in the !$esent !assage is shown (% the ( in 11. S!itta u$ges that the wo$"s "istu$( the unit% of the situation, since in >,6. o" is the &u"ge on the th$one, whe$eas the Ea#( a!!ea$s elsewhe$e in these cha!te$s (efo$e the th$one, su$$oun"e" (% angels. &. )eiss $ega$"s the clause as a late$ a""ition of the final e"ito$, acco$"ing to whose view the en#it% of the 4east is "i$ecte" against the Ea#( an" His followe$s, 11/1>,1<. Two $e@oin"e$s have (een #a"e to the a(ove a$gu#ents. 1. The clause is to (e $etaine"3 fo$ the Ea#( is the cent$al figu$e of this cha!te$. Since He o!ens the Seale" 4oo-, He is in a ce$tain sense the cause of the woes that follow/ it is Ch$ist that !$onounces the g$eat in 'att. 0</>1 sAA. on the wic-e", an" the i$$egula$ (, whe$e we shoul" ex!ect ", has its !a$allel in 1 Thess. 5/11, whe$e sing. ve$( follows - ? - 9"/ #o$eove$, o" an" Ch$ist a$e set on an eAualit% (% ou$ autho$, 1/11, 1., 00/15. See Hi$scht, <. sA. 0. The clause is to (e $etaine"3 fo$ the ( $efe$s not to o", (ut to the Ea#( onl%. So 4ousset. 6t is !e$ha!s (est to acce!t the clause on the secon" g$oun". The 'essiah was ex!ecte" to (e the @u"ge of the wo$l" in &u"ais#, 1 Enoch 6+/01/ ou$ autho$, who too- a fa$ highe$ view of His Pe$son, $ega$"e" Hi# in the sa#e light, 00/10. 17. E O 9 9% 9 $ 4 `$4 (, !4 . The ve$se see#s to (e (ase" on &oel 0/0, $ 9% ( ? 3#@

!#, *! 1 + 70/51 /7 % ( , 3 9% @ $. That ou$ autho$ ha" the He($ew of these !assages (efo$e his #in" #a% (e infe$$e" also f$o# the fact that in 10 he has al$ea"% (o$$owe" f$o# &oel 0/51a "i$ectl% o$ in"i$ectl%. 6n Le!h. 0/0 we have anothe$ close !a$allel, 3 ( 3 #; Q5 `$@ , 3 ( 3 #; Q5 9% ( . To the last clause in ou$ ve$se, the o$iginal of which is !$o(a(l% in &oel 0/0 7see a(ove8, we have fu$the$ !a$allels in ;ah. 1/6, 3 3!P3 `$4 ( Q3!7! !7! `$+ ( (. CThe g$eat "a%D an" eAuivalent !h$ases a$e ve$% f$eAuent in Enoch an" late$ &ewish lite$atu$e/ see 4ousset, Re%i(ion $ 6u$enthu#s' 0>63 FolH, 6u$ Esch!t. 1..3 1 Enoch ></0 7note in #% e"ition8. This )e&se e0"&esses the !%!&# of the conscience,st&ic7en inh!bit!nts of the e!&th' but not the thou(ht of ou& !utho&. The woes al$ea"% !ast, which ha" hithe$to (een $ega$"e" as the i##e"iate fo$e$unne$s of Cthe g$eat "a%,D #ight well have @ustifie" such a c$% of "es!ai$3 (ut ou$

autho$ teaches that the en" is not %et3 the $oll of the #a$t%$s is not %et co#!lete3 the un(elieving wo$l" has wo$se woes still to encounte$. )ith !43 we #ight cont$ast the !ictu$e in 1/+ sAA. of the innu#e$a(le host stan"ing 7:!"8 (efo$e o".

AKK6T62;AE ;2TE 2; 6/11

!@ 7. 6t is (est to give at the outset the inte$!$etation of the !@ 7 that can (e @ustifie" (% &ewish an" Ea$l% Ch$istian lite$atu$e, an" this is that the !@ 7 signifies the s!i$itual (o"ies which we$e fo$thwith given to the #a$t%$s, (ut not to the $est of the faithful "e!a$te" till afte$ the Minal &u"g#ent. Atte#!ts have (een #a"e (% 4G-len 7/e&-!n$tsch!ft $ j8$isch,ch&ist%ichen #it $ P!&ischen Esch!to%o(ie, !!. 61,608 to fin" this conce!tion in the Len":Avesta 7Uasht 15/>+ sA./ see S 4 E 05/1+0,1+518, (ut it cannot (e $ega$"e" as successful. 6n the Pahlavi lite$atu$e cent. A.K. o$ late$8 to which he a!!eals 7!. 608, the$e is a "oct$ine a!!$oxi#ating, (ut onl% a!!$oxi#ating, to that of ou$ autho$/ see 4un". 59/0. 7S 4 E v. 1018. CThis too, it sa%s, that whoeve$ has !e$fo$#e" no wo$shi!, an" has o$"e$e" no eti:-ha$i", an" has (estowe" no clothes as a $ighteous gift, is na-e" the$e3 an" he !e$fo$#s the wo$shi! of Aharmazd, an" B the heavenl% angels !$ovi"e hi# the use of clothing B.D Cf. also Ddistn- Dnk, xliii. 1+ 7S 4 E xviii. 1>+ sA.8, an" Sa" Ka$, lxxxviii. 0,6 7S 4 E xxiv. 5<18. The$e is the$efo$e no evi"ence to !$ove that &u"ais# o$ Ch$istianit% is (ehol"en to the Len" $eligion fo$ this "oct$ine. )e now $etu$n to !$e:Ch$istian an" late$ &u"ais#, whe$e we fin" this view un"ou(te"l% !$evalent. 6n Ps. 19>/0, CThou clothest Th%self with light as with a ga$#ent,D we fin" one of the sou$ces of the conce!tion with which we a$e "ealing. ;ow as o" was clothe" in light, the $isen faithful we$e li-ewise so conceive", as in 1 Enoch 19./10, C6 will ($ing fo$th in shining light those who have love" '% hol% na#e, an" 6 will seat each on the th$one of his honou$.D 4ut since the light going fo$th f$o# o" was li-ewise the glo$% of o", the $esu$$ection (o"ies of the $ighteous coul" (e "esc$i(e" as Cga$#ents of glo$%.D Thus in 1 Enoch 60/16/ CAn" the% shall have (een clothe" with ga$#ents of glo$%, An" these shall (e the ga$#ents of life f$o# the Eo$" of S!i$itsD3 an" in 0 Enoch 00/., CAn" the Eo$" sai" to 'ichael/ o an" ta-e Enoch f$o# out his ea$thl% ga$#ents ? an" !ut hi# into the ga$#ents of '% glo$%.D The ga$#ents a$e Cwhite,D as the white ga$#ent is a s%#(ol of the light st$ea#ing fo$th f$o# a su!e$natu$al (eing. Thus the $ai#ent of the angels is Cwhite,D 'a$- +/5 7' 1 ( ? ' 8, 16/< 7!@ 783 Acts 1/19 7!7!! 8, o$ C"aHHling,D Eu-e +/0+ 7- 1! ( !3&8, 0>/> 7 !4 !3!,8. So fa$ we see that the (o"ies of the $isen $ighteous we$e "esc$i(e" as Cga$#ents of glo$%,D i e. the su!e$natu$al glo$% o$ light (elonging to o" Hi#self 70 Enoch 10/.8, an" 0.(.E. 0acred (oo!s of the East 3edited by Ma5 MMller4, <5ford$ 1 1ere the departed souls re#isiting the earth say 8 @(ho will recei#e us with meat and clothes in his hand and with a prayer worthy of blissQA &he clothes so gi#en are supposed to clothe the soul in the ne5t world$ &his idea is poles apart from that in our te5t, and yet Flemen 3 Er!l1rung d. T, 1394 and many other Germans accept this #iew without any attempt to consult the 0.(.E.

that the ga$#ents of the angels in the ;.T. a$e "esc$i(e" in analogous te$#s as CwhiteD o$ C"aHHling.D The angels a$e then a!!a$entl% to (e conceive" of as having s!i$itual (o"ies. 4ut the i"entification of the Cwhite ga$#entsD o$ Cwhite $ai#entD of the (lesse" with thei$ s!i$itual (o"ies can (e full% esta(lishe". Mo$ in the Ascension of 6saiah 7ci&c. ..,199 A.K., o$ 199,109 A.K. acco$"ing to 4ee$8 we have ! -&itin( conte#"o&!&+' o& !%#ost conte#"o&!&+' -ith th!t of ou& !utho&' -hich $e!%s $efinite%+ -ith this 9uestion. Thus in >/16 we $ea"/ C4ut the saints will co#e with the Eo$" with thei$ ga$#ents which a$e 7now8 sto$e" u! on high in the seventh heaven/ with the Eo$" the% will co#e, whose s!i$its a$e clothe" ? an" He will clothe 7i e. $ea"ing 3! fo$ !0!, which latte$ the Ethio!ic !$esu!!oses8 the saints who have (een foun" in the (o"% ? in the ga$#ents of the saints.D Again in ./1> we fin"/ C)hen f$o# the (o"% ? thou hast ascen"e" hithe$, then thou wilt $eceive the ga$#ent which thou seest.D Mo$ othe$ $efe$ences to these Cga$#entsD o$ s!i$itual (o"ies see 1/00, ./06, +/+, 11, 0>,06, 11/>9. These ga$#ents we$e #ost !$o(a(l% te$#e" 7 in the lost $ee- o$iginal, since this te$# is foun" in the G&ee7 Le(en$, ii. 5<, which is (ase" on the Asc. 6sa. See !. 1>< of #% e"ition of this wo$-. M$o# the Ascension we #a% !$ocee" to He$#as, Si#. viii. 0. 5, 1! R 3 0 2! 0 , an" > EH$a 0/5+, CSui se "e u#($a saeculi t$anstule$unt, s!len"i"as tunicas a "o#ino acce!e$unt ? >0. Ego Es"$as vi"i in #onte Sion tu$(a# #agna#, Aua# nu#e$ate non !otui ? >>,><. Tunc inte$$ogavi angelu# et "ixi/ Sui sunt hi, Ko#ineO Sui $es!on"ens "ixit #ihi/ Hi sunt Aui #o$tale# tunica# "e!osue$unt et i##o$tale# su#!se$unt.D M$o# the evi"ence given in the !$ece"ing !a$ag$a!h we conclu"e that, in the ci$cles (est fitte" to un"e$stan" a!ocal%!tic s%#(ols, the s%#(olis# of the white ga$#ents f$o# .. o$ the$ea(outs to 099 A.K. was clea$l% un"e$stoo" as given a(ove. )e #a% now $etu$n to the ;.T., to the Pauline E!istles, an" ou$ autho$. That St. Paul hel" analogous (eliefs though he ex!$esse" the# so#ewhat "iffe$entl%, is clea$ f$o# 1 Co$. 1</>>, whe$e he "istinguishes the !" I 0 f$o# the !" 3 , the latte$ of which is sai" 71</>+8 to (e Cthe li-eness of the heavenl%D 7@ ( 3 8. This heavenl% (o"% he calls in 0 Co$. </1 an @ ( ? 03 P / in the next ve$se he "efines it as 7 9" (, (eing clothe" with which we shall not (e foun" na-e" 7 ! $ Q! 8. Minall% he "ecla$es 7Phil. 5/018 that this (o"% of ou$ hu#iliation will (e fashione" anew so as to (e confo$#e" to the (o"% of His 7i e. Ch$ist*s8 glo$% 7!# < !P 4 (8. He$e the !" 4

(1 "enotes the sa#e thing as the Cga$#ents of glo$%D in 1 Enoch 60/16, though the fo$# of ex!$ession is "iffe$ent. Eet us next exa#ine the views of ou$ autho$ on this Auestion. 6n this connection he uses two wo$"s, !7 an" 1. Since the #eaning is less clea$ with $ega$" to 1 we shall (egin with !7. Mi$st of all, in 6/11, when the souls un"e$ the alta$ a!!eale" fo$ @u"g#ent on thei$ o!!$esso$s, a !@ 7 7i e. a s!i$itual (o"%8 was given to each, an" the% we$e (i""en to $est till thei$ fellow:se$vants on ea$th shoul" suffe$ #a$t%$"o# even as the% ha". He$e the$e is no "efinite answe$ given to thei$ collective c$% fo$ $et$i(ution, (ut a "efinite (oon is acco$"e"even the gift of s!i$itual (o"ies. 4ut the$e(% thei$ co#!lete (lesse"ness is not %et fulfille". This cannot (e acco#!lishe" till all the faithful have finishe" thei$ wa$fa$e on ea$th. The% a$e not to en@o% !e$fect (lesse"ness till the $oll of the #a$t%$s is co#!lete an" the 'illennial Iing"o# esta(lishe" on the ea$th. 6n this -ing"o# the% a$e to $eign with Ch$ist fo$ 1999 %ea$s 709/>8, sitting on His th$one 7i e. sha$ing in His autho$it%8, 5/01 7cf. Eu-e 00/0+, 593 'att. 1+/0.8, an" to (e c$owne" as victo$s in the st$ife on ea$th, 0/19, 5/0 7cf. 0 Ti#. >/1, .8. )e #ight co#!a$e with ou$ autho$*s ex!ectation Asc. 6sa. +/+, whe$e the See$ sees all the $ighteous f$o# A"a# onwa$"s Cst$i!t of the ga$#ents of the fleshD 7= ' 4 ! 7, cf. G&ee7 Le(en$, ii. 558 an" clothe" in Cthei$ ga$#ents of the u!!e$ wo$l",D an" a!!ea$ing Cli-e angels.D 19. C4ut the% sat not on thei$ th$ones, no$ we$e thei$ c$owns of glo$% on the#. 11. An" 6 as-e" the angel who was with #e/ How is it that the% have $eceive" the ga$#ents (ut not the th$ones an" the c$ownsO 10, 15. An" he sai" unto #e/ C$owns an" th$ones of glo$% the% "o not $eceive till the 4elove"D has "escen"e" into the wo$l" an" $eascen"e" 711,1.8. He$e, though the ti#e li#it "iffe$s, the i"ea is si#ila$. The i"ea in ou$ text is that of the soli"a$it% of the Chu$ch, of the 'a$t%$s. That of the enti$e Chu$ch,

It is noteworthy that this idea of a resurrection body of glory or light is used in a purely spiritual sense in the <des of 0olomon$ @I forsook the folly which is spread o#er the earth +nd I stripped it off and cast it from me8 +nd the Lord renewed me in 1is raiment +nd formed me by 1is light$A @I put off darkness and clothed myself with light, +nd my soul ac>uired a body ?ree from sorrow or affliction or pains$A @In me there shall be nothing but light, +nd I was clothed with the co#ering of &hy 0pirit, +nd I cast away from me my raiment of skin$A Gendel 1arris 3*des of 0olomon, p$ .:4 points out that according to Gabbi Meir, +dam was orginally clothed with @coats of lightA 3 ?all he was clothed with @coats of skinA 3 !

Ff$ <de 5i$ ,O1-$

<de 55i$ 2$

<de 55#$ :OD$

4, but that after the


&ewish an" Ch$istian, is well set fo$th in He(. 11/5+,>9, CThese all ? $eceive" not the !$o#ise, o" having !$ovi"e" so#e (ette$ thing conce$ning us, that a!a$t f$o# us the% shoul" not (e #a"e !e$fect.D The !@ 7 in 6/11 is, then, clea$l% the s!i$itual (o"ies which a$e given (% o" to the #a$t%$s, an" acco$"ing to ou$ autho$ to the #a$t%$s onl% at this stage. This !h$ase use" in connection with the glo$ifie" #a$t%$ host in heaven in 1/+ 760 3H ? 388% !' 8 an" in 1/15 7c 1 388% ' !' ' 8 has, of cou$se, the sa#e #eaning. The$e a$e two othe$ !assages, 1/1>, 00/1>, in which this !h$ase occu$s, an" which at fi$st sight see# to !lace consi"e$a(le "ifficult% in the wa% of the a(ove inte$!$etation. 4ut the "ifficult% is #o$e see#ing than $eal. To solve it, howeve$, we #ust tu$n to ou$ autho$*s use of 11 as a s%non%# of !7, an" li-ewise 8!!a secon" s%non%# fo$ !7. Maithful "isci!leshi! in chi$st !$ovi"es the s!i$it with the s!i$itual (o"%/ othe$wise it is n!7e$, as we saw a(ove in 0 Co$. </1,<. ;ow this s!i$itual (o"% is the @oint $esult of o"*s g$ace an" #an*s faithfulness. 6t is, on the one han", a "ivine gift/ in 5/1., whe$e chi$st "ecla$es in ! 8 & ! $! 3; ( ? 1 ' / 38, @ #&+ 9 !0 4 $ ! 7cf. 0 Co$. </1, <8, an" #ost !$o(a(l% in 5/<, - " d& 38 1 , an" again in 1+/., + / 38 8!! 3 . 2n the othe$ han", the s!i$itual (o"% is in a ce$tain sense the !$esent !ossession of the faithful, an" can, the$efo$e, onl% (e !$ese$ve" th$ough faithfulness/ cf. 5/>, e ' 1 "/ 16/1<, - ? " ' ( / @ $ 33+. The faithful "isci!le will wal- with Ch$ist in white 7 , i.e. will !ossess a s!i$itual (o"%, 5/>8. These "&o#ises a$e esch!to%o(ic!% an" $elate to the futu$e. Ch$ist #a% co#e at an% hou$ 75/58, an" acco$"ing to the faithfulness o$ unfaithfulness of His "isci!les, so will the% (e clothe" o$ na-e" he$eafte$. 6t #ust (e confesse" that 5/> 7e ' 1 "8 ta-en in an" (% itself coul" (e inte$!$ete" as $elating wholl% to the s!i$itual ex!e$ience of the Ch$istian in the !$esent3 (ut the clause that follows is against this, (eing !u$el% eschatological, 337! ! ; ( , an" still #o$e so is the next ve$se. The (eing clothe" in white ga$#ents is the $esult of faithfulness unto "eath 7- "8. The Cna-e"nessD in 5/1., 16/1<, is, as we have seen, the sa#e thing as in 0 Co$. </1,<, an" "enotes the loss of the s!i$itual (o"%. ;ow let us $etu$n to 1/1>, 00/1> 71 3 ' !' "8. 6f it is !ossi(le to "efile the heavenl% (o"% 75/>8, o$ even to "est$o% it 75/1., 16/1<8, it is no less !ossi(le to cleanse it 71/1>, 00/1>8 an" #a-e it white 7 , 1/1>8 in the (loo" of the Ea#(. Thus to su# u!. The !$esent life of faith has within it the !$o#ise an" the !otenc% of a (lesse" i##o$talit% of the soul en"owe" with an o$ganis# 7s%#(oliHe" in ou$ autho$ (% !@ 7 o$ 1 8 a"a!te" to its s!i$itual envi$on#ent. Eve$% 1 In 787 the 1 are the spiritual of the )lders, which they ha#e as hea#enly beings$ In 1,817, % 8!! , and in 198., % 3, the hea#enly bodies of the angels are referred to in any case, e#en if there is a secondary reference to their white garments$ In 1,813, 1. 1 is apparently used in its literal sense$ 0ee footnote on p$ D2$

t$ue Ch$istian has !otentiall% an" actuall% this s!i$itual (o"%, which he can "efile 75/>8 o$ cleanse 71/1>, 10/1>8 an" #a-e white 71/1>8, o$ "est$o% wholl% 75/1., 16/1<8. Eve$% act of the !$esent life is thus lin-e" u! inexo$a(l% with the futu$e. 'o$eove$, while it is t$ue on the one han" that o" (estows on us the s!i$itual (o"% 75/1., 6/118, it is eAuall% t$ue on the othe$ that we have ou$ sha$e in the c$eation of this (o"% 75/>, 16/1<8, th$ough the fellowshi! of ou$ s!i$it with that of Ch$ist, an" can "est$o% ali-e its !ossi(ilities an" itself (% unfaithfulness to Ch$ist 75/1., 16/1<8.

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