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Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 1 Works Cited Primary Sources "An Act Respecting Alien Enemies.

" The Alien and Sedition Acts. Lillian Goldman Law Library, 2008. Web. 11 December 2013. The Alien and Sedition Acts were an example of government abuse of the First Amendment, a precedent to Watergate. In the same situation as Watergate, the administration feared for its power and tried to maintain it by quelling the wishes of the people. Obviously, it backfired on them, leading to the Federalists losing the White House to the Democratic-Republicans in the Election of 1800. It gave us insight on Watergate as history tends to repeat itself. An Act in Addition to the Act, Entitled An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes Against the United States. The Alien and Sedition Acts. Lillian Goldman Law Library, 2008. Web. 11 December 2013. The Sedition Act, favored by President Adams, impeded on the peoples freedom of speech but especially the freedom of the press of the newspapers who were criticizing the President and his administration. Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward. "Dean Alleges Nixon Knew of Cover-up Plan."Washington Post 3 June 1973, Page A01 sec.: n. pag. Watergate 25.Washington Post Co. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. This source is a newspaper article in the Washington Post, written by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward right in the middle of the Watergate prosecutions. The language of the piece gives a sense of the urgency, intrigue, and anger surrounding the scandal, and Deans allegations shed further light on the extent of the White Houses involvement in the cover-up of Watergate. The government was actively involved during the Nixon administration in covering-up the Watergate scandal, purposefully depriving the people of their right to government transparency even outright lying to them about the Watergate issue. "The Bill of Rights: A Transcription." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2014. To effectively understand the 1st Amendment, it was necessary that we looked at it in its original form, without the preconceived notions of what people have interpreted it to mean over the years. Thus an exact transcription of the amendment from an extremely reliable source was very helpful in deciding the implications of it ourselves. "The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 2 This direct transcription provided the context and background of the 1st Amendment, which gave us a better grasp on what the 1st Amendment was meant to be interpreted as when it was written compared to what it is interpreted as today. "The Espionage Act of 1917." Digital History. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. A transcript of the Espionage Act of 1917 preceded by some historical context and commentary. It aided in our understanding of the Espionage Act, why it was passed, and the effects it had; this helped developed our ideas about the evolution of the media. Joint Resolution of Congress. "Bill of Rights." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. This source is the original outline of the guaranteed freedoms, rights, and liberties of Americans. Most important of these to our project is the First Amendment, which guarantees the freedom of the press and the freedom of speech, both of which were tested in Watergate and in later abuses of government power. Katz, David M., and Julia Homer. "WorldCom Whistle-blower Cynthia Cooper." CFO. CFO, 1 Feb. 2008. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. A very insightful interview with Cynthia Cooper, outlining her role and attitude in and about exposing the fraud of WorldCom. It also contained a great quote that not only encompassed her whistleblowing, but also applied to the Ms. Watkins. Kilpatrick, Carroll. "Nixon Resigns." The Washington Post [Washington D.C.] 9 Aug. 1974: A1+. Print. This story, published by The Washington Post, marks the culmination of the Watergate Scandal and the Washington Post investigation. The resignation was seen as a clear attempt to avoid being convicted during an impeachment trial. Nixon said his resignation was in the best interest of the country as he could no longer effectively govern. Levi, Edward H. "Attorney General's Memorandum on the 1974 Amendments to the FOIA." Attorney General's Memorandum on the 1974 Amendments to the FOIA. DOJ, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. Memorandum from the Attorney General of the United States regarding the 1974 Amendments to the Freedom of Information Act in the wake of the Watergate scandal. The amendments include new provisions allowing the public greater access to information regarding themselves, petition to amend records that are incorrect, and the right to sue the government for improper utilization of your records. We used this source to better understand the government reaction to the Watergate scandal regarding legislative responses.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 3 Lewis, Alfred E. "5 Held in Plot to Bug Democrats' Office Here." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 18 June 1972. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. This source is an original newspaper article from 1972, written the day after the Watergate break-in, drawing the first of the nations attention to the scandal. It illustrates the involvement of the Washington Post in the breaking of the story. It was also the first release of information regarding the break-in to the general public, and demonstrates how the media played the most direct line to the people to get their information, as the government had to careful what it said so it would not reveal its play in it, and the investigators were subjected to confidentiality agreements. Thus some trust was put in common media, because at least they werent outwardly hiding something from the people. "The Man With the Muck Rake, 1906." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This was a transcript of President Theodore Roosevelts speech in which he attacked the practice of muckraking. This marked the beginning of the end of the friendly relationship between the administration and the sensationalist journalists. Mistere999. "Nixon interview with David Frost." Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 1 June 2010. Web. 10 February 2014. Nixons apology for his actions surrounding Watergate, gruelingly extracted by David Frost, foreshadowed the lack of government reaction to Watergate. His unwillingness to admit to any wrongdoing and exaggeration of the good he accomplished while in office was clearly revealed in this video. Nixon, Richard. "President Nixon's Resignation Speech." Transcription of Speech. PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. Nixons address to the country as he resigned from the position of the president of the United States was largely in response to the scandal associated with Watergate. It sheds light on the presidents official reaction to the Watergate issue, but at the same time highlights the diction and tone used by Nixon to emphasize that he was elected to this position, he served it in what he believed to be of the best interests of the Nation, and he was effective in many areas; simultaneously drawing attention away from the recent past of Watergate. He only explicitly refers to Watergate in the first half of his speech. This supports the issue of the responsibility of the government to be transparent in its proceedings and the right of the people to this transparency. Nixon was never outright in his explanation of the proceedings of the government during Watergate even in his resignation speech that resulted from the scandal, he was vague about it. So the media rightfully took that responsibility to respect the right of the people to this transparency. Nixon, Richard, and H.R. Haldeman. "The Smoking Gun Tape." Watergateinfo. N.p., 1995. Web. 17 Oct. 2013.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 4 This is a recorded conversation between President Nixon and White House Chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, in discussion over the recent Watergate breakin and proceeding investigation. It gives an inner look into the behind-the-scenes of the Watergate issue in the inner Nixon cabinet circle. Nixon was not being transparent about the Watergate scandal, having made a presidential statement early that stated the White House had no involvement in the Watergate break-in, when he obviously did have some involvement in the scandal because he was willing to make up a reason to end the investigation. In an interesting side note, there was an eighteen and a half gap in this tape that was never properly accounted for which some may argue hides Nixon or Haldeman directly stating their connection to the Watergate break-in. " Pentagon Papers Damage Credibility of Cold War Policy." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This article highlighted the fallout of the release of the Pentagon Papers, potentially damaging the credibility of U.S. Cold War policy. This shed light on the balance between national security interests and government transparency, in this case the foreign policy of the United States and the release of classified documents. Reagan, Ronald. "The Reagan Era Quotes." Shmoop. Shmoop, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Ronald Reagan never formally admitted his knowledge of the Iran-Contra affair, but he came as close as political correctness would allow him. However, this is still a confession, which is then built upon his insistence that a president must be an actor to remain in office. It displays the same tenacity of a president to retain his office past the moral obligations of such a position. "United States Code: Title 5a,ETHICS IN GOVERNMENT ACT OF 1978 | LII / Legal Information Institute." United States Code: Title 5a,ETHICS IN GOVERNMENT ACT OF 1978 | LII / Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. This is a legal briefing from Cornell Law on the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 in the wake of the Watergate scandal. This summarizes the different components of the law, some of which have since been repealed. The components that remain in effect include financial disclosure requirements and lobbying restrictions. This source helped us better understand the reaction of Congress to the perceived ethical violations that took place in the Nixon Administration. "U. S. Electoral College: Historical Election Results." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. This is a database provided by the National Archives of the Electoral votes from historical elections. We used this source to understand how the public reacted to the Republican party following the Watergate scandal and to calculate the number of congressional districts then voted democrat in the 1974 midterms and the 1976 Presidential race.

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"Watergate Exhibit Evidence." Watergate Exhibit Evidence. The Nixon Library and Museum, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This provided numerous sources demonstrate how the media worked to reveal what the government was trying to hide in the watergate scandal, and how their involvement contributed to exposing Nixon. The interviews and tapes give various ways of presenting the event to the public and influencing how the public interprets the event. The David Frost interviews were some of the most direct communications between the media and the government on the issue. Secondary Sources "About." Wikileaks. Wikileaks, n.d. Web. 18 Jan. 2014. As with IRE, analyzing an organization's stated mission can be invaluable to understanding the organization in general. In this case, the stated mission helped us understand the influence that the loss of mainstream media objectivity and accountability had on the Fifth Estate. "About IRE." IRE. Investigative Reporters & Editors, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. It is always helpful to see a company or organization's own mission, as they define it, as it gives a sense of the companys own morals and values. IRE is no exception, and their about page provided insight, for both us and our readers, into the basis of this forum of reporters. "About PVT. Manning." Privatemanning.org. Bradley Manning Support Network, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Due to this sites nature of specificity to Chelsea Manning, it was a welcome source of quotes and background on the topic, and increased our understanding of the controversy surrounding Manning. "The Alien and Sedition Acts." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. This site describes the reaction to perceived national security threats against the United States. The Alien and Sedition Acts were a direct response the what Americans felt was a threat to their interests. This helped us develop a better understanding of why people react to threats in the way they do, and how the media plays a role in that reaction. "The Alien and Sedition Acts: Defining American Freedom." Constitutional Rights Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 6 This source described the Alien and Sedition Acts and how they came about as a disagreement between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. The Alien and Sedition Acts proved to be an example of the necessity of the First Amendment, protecting non-libelous journalism from government scrutiny. "American President: Thomas Jefferson: Campaigns and Elections." Millercenter.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. The Federalists defended the Alien and Sedition Acts because they believed an elected President should not be criticized for their actions, even if the people disagree. This ideology proved interesting because the concept ignored the democratic process that was perceived to be so key to the American system of government and prevented press from doing their job. Apple, R. W. "Lessons From the Pentagon Papers." Nytimes.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This newspaper article concisely summed up the impact of the Pentagon Papers along with providing historical context. Argo. Dir. Ben Affleck. Warner Bros, 2012. Film. This film described the Iran hostage crisis which was incorporated into the evolution of the media analysis. Axelrod, Alan. Profiles In Folly: Historys Worst Decisions and Why They Went Wrong. New York: Sterling, 2008. 100-109. Print. This source gives an overview of the whole affair with some unique examples and background information that really shows the stupidity of the whole affair. It shows why whistleblowers and the media are needed to preserve the integrity of the government. This book provides a very pro-whistleblowers view so it was interesting to compare it to a very not pro-whistleblowers source. Balkin, Jack M. "How Mass Media Simulate Political Transparency." Yale.edu. N.p., 1998. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. This source describes how the media can stimulate government transparency by energizing the public to support government accountability. It helped us understand the connection between the media, public and government in the interest of transparency. "Bill Clinton's Very Personal Reflections." The Washington Post. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. This source gave some more insight to the Monica Lewinsky affair, this time from the side of Clinton himself. Again, as with most politicians, it gave us more examples of the president skirting around questions and claiming innocence throughout, even with ample evidence against him. We used it to better explain the affair.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 7 "Bill Clinton 15 Years Ago: 'I Did Not Have Sexual Relations With That Woman'" US News. U.S.News & World Report, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. Similar to Nixons iconic crook statement, this source provided us with the defining quote of Clintons presidency, in which he blatantly lied to preserve his political image. This provided yet another example of government dishonesty, in this case, especially pertinent as it was a public statement to the people. "Brief Narrative of the Trial of Peter Zenger." Online Library of Liberty. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This website provided some historical context for the John Peter Zenger Case clearly laying out the expectations of the media at that time, a transcript of the court trial, and the effects of the trial. The information again helped in our analysis of the evolution of the media. "Bush's Top Ten Flip-Flops." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. A comprehensive account of the most infamous of Bushs policies. This was helpful in background knowledge, but was most useful in its supply of quotes by Mr. Bush himself. Taking his own words to indict him is rather effective, and we made use of this style with liberty. CBS, prod. "Woodward and Bernstein on Nixon's 'criminal enterprise'" Face the Nation. CBS. CBS, 10 June 2012. Washington Post Co. PostTV, 10 June 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. This source is a short interview that outlines Carl Bernsteins and Bob Woodwards general opinions on the topic of Watergate, and more specifically, on Mr. Nixon himself. They both are outright against the former president, painting him as a blackmailer, a liar, and a conman. The media is revealing government transparency, as transparent as it gets, to the people. And these reports were received with concern by the public, and though denied by one branch of government, were upheld in another. But when the whole government commits acts of controversial nature together and agrees to keep it a secret, and then when their actions are revealed to a shocked American public that disagrees with how the government is using the power that is derived from the public in the first place the one whom informed the American public is quickly named a fugitive of law. Even as other governments that were not part of the pact strive to protect the whistleblower. "Coleen Rowley." Americans Who Tell The Truth. AWTT, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Although biased, this source presented Rowleys beliefs and actions faithfully. It also provided a wonderful quote that led to insight on the mindset of this renowned whistleblower.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 8 Craughwell, Thomas J., and M. William. Phelps. Failures of the Presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and War in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds, 2008. Print. This book provided an overview of the whole Watergate scandal and was one of the many starting points to our research, providing a springboard leading from understanding to a more in-depth analysis. It also brought up several subsequent examples of the government not being transparent in its actions like the Iran-Contra Affair. Crawford, Jeff. "Iran-Contra: Sworn to Secrecy." Iran-Contra Sworn to Secrecy. Wordpress, 2013. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Crawford displays the iran-contra scandal in an easy-to-follow and concise manner, making it an invaluable resource for background content on the Reagan Era scandal. Crawford has credibility in claiming he was a part of the proceedings, or at least involved politically in them. This supports whistleblowing as well as providing historical context. "Cynthia Cooper (accountant)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Dec. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. A concise explanation of the whistleblowing activities of Cynthia Cooper. This provided a simple background to the respect she has garnered in the media world. Drake, Thomas, Daniel Ellsberg, Katharine Gun, Peter Kofod, Ray McGovern, Jesselyn Radack, and Coleen Rowley. "Former Whistleblowers: Open Letter to Intelligence Employees after Snowden." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media, 11 Dec. 2013. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. This is a letter from former whistleblowers to workers in the U.S. intelligence community following the Edward Snowden revelations. It tells us about the importance and consequences of whistleblowing. Elkins, Stanley M., and Eric L. McKitrick. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford UP, 1993. Print. This book offered an interesting view on the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Acts were widely condemned after they were passed but the Federalists, even President Adams, fully supported it before knowing the consequences because they were so tired of being criticized and torn apart by the Democratic-Republican newspapers. In the beginning of our research, we wondered why any administration would attempt to curb the freedoms of a nation established under the banner of freedom, liberty, and justice and this book provided the answer. "Espionage Act." Ows.edb. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. An article analyzing the relationship between the Espionage Act and the First

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 9 Amendment. It contained an explanation of what the Espionage Act entailed in addition to providing analysis to consider in addition to the material we already had. Feldstein, Mark. "Watergate Revisited ." American Journalism Review. August/September 2004 (2004): n. page. Web. 21 Oct. 2013. This article discusses how large of a role the media had in uncovering Watergate and whether its as large as people remember it to be. It made us question whether the media really fulfilled its responsibility of ensuring government transparency. Finney, Daniel P. "Watergate scandal changed the political landscape forever." USA Today [Des Moines] 16 June 2012, n. pag. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. This article provided many examples of legacies left by Watergate and opinions of distinguished people involved with the event or have studied the event. It helped us understand the very broad impact Watergate had on society with examples we can relate to especially concerning changes in media and government transparency. "Formation of the Plumbers." Watergate. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. The formation of the Plumbers helped shed light on the connection between the Pentagon Papers, the Plumbers, and Watergate. The source helped explain what the plumbers were and how they contributed to the idea of government transparency. Friedman, Ian C. Freedom of Speech and the Press. New York: Facts on File, 2005. 69-73. Print. This book detailed the transformation of the media and its role over the course of the Vietnam War and Watergate. It had information on what Woodward and Bernstein did and Nixons bad relationship with the media. Also, it included how information was made more accessible after the scandal. "The Government and Media." Government.nl. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Jan. 2014. The media helps insure government transparency, and allows an informed citizenry to make educated decisions regarding government interaction. Media should be based on freedom of expression in the publics interest. Howard, Kurtz. "Bill Clinton's Very Personal Reflections." Www.washingtonpost.com. Washington Post, 17 June 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This is a prime example of how politicians skew their words in order to retain a good image even in the face of completely incriminating evidence. "History of American Journalism." History of American Journalism. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 10 Helped us develop our ideas for how the media and government historically interact in a cyclically manner, as government eases laws restricting journalism, the media experiences a growth period. The cycle then continues with media restricting laws and a shrinkage in the role of the press. "History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website." The Alien and Sedition Acts : The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. The Alien and Sedition Acts were a key historical example of government overreach in regulating the media. This provides a key example of how the government may try to regulate what the media can say like the Nixon administration did during Watergate. Hulse, Carl. "New Idea on Capitol Hill: To Join Senate, Get Votes." Nytimes.com. N.p., 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. This source helped us make the connection between The Treason of the Senate and the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment as a direct result of the corruption revealed in the book. The Seventeenth Amendment required direct election of U.S. Senators instead of having state legislatures, often in the pockets of big business, elect the Senators. Kirk, Michael. "Bob Woodward Discusses Watergate and Wikileaks." UConn Today. (2011): n. page. Web. 21 Oct. 2013. This article reports on a talk Bob Woodward gave to students at the University of Connecticut. The most interesting parts were when he addressed Wikileaks and how the media today is not the same as it used to be. He agrees that the media is essential in ensuring government transparency. Kuhn, David P. "Bush's Top Ten Flip-Flops." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. A nice collection of conflicting statements Mr. Bush said of the course of his presidency, for reference into political discrepancies. Lee, Kristin. "The FCC and Media Democracy." The FCC and Media Democracy. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This source shed light on the formation of the FCC to regulate aspects of the news media and the government reaction to the growing industry. It covers how the Fairness Doctrine was repealed by the Reagan Administration and the eventual restoration of some laws to regulate the broadcast media. We used this source to understand how media evolved during the late 80s into the new millenium.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 11 "Lessons of Watergate Scandal Still Resonate." Project On Government Oversight. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. The Watergate Scandal lead to the increased freedom of the media to conduct hard hitting and investigative stories about the government, a journalistic goal that still exists. This source helped us better understand the optimal role of media in government transparency. "Miller Center." Response to the Lewinsky Allegations (January 26, 1998)-. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. Despite the very prevalent debate and public awareness of the Monica Lewinsky affair, in Clintons speech, provided in full by this source, he largely circumvented the issue, leaving it to the very last and addressing it only in a few sentences. In it he said his iconic phrase again, and reaffirmed the pattern of politicians refusing to admit to government scandals out of fear it would further tarnish their reputation. This helped us identify his scandal as relevant to our topic. Nelson, Steven. "Bill Clinton 15 Years Ago: 'I Did Not Have Sexual Relations With That Woman'" US News. U.S.News & World Report, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. Nelson provides a detailed, yet accessible account of the controversial Lewinsky scandal during the Clinton administration. Such an objective, yet tangible account was perfect to provide background content for the reader without offense. "New York Times v. United States (1971)." Bill of Rights Institute Americapedia NY Times v US Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. The New York Times v. United States was a supreme court case in which the court held that the New York Times had the right to publish the Pentagon Papers under the first amendment. This set precedent for future whistleblowing cases. "Nixon Presidential Library & Museum." Nixon Presidential Library & Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2014. This source provided valuable historical context on the Nixon Administration as well as provided transcripts of the tapes from the White House during the Nixon Administration. Perry, James M. "Watergate Case Study." Watergate Case Study. Columbia University Journalism, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This case study is on the Washington Post investigation into the Watergate scandal. It explores why their investigation succeeded where others didn't and how the media response to Watergate still affects journalistic practices today. It shed light on the process and depth of the Washington Post investigation as well as the journalistic aspect of the investigation.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 12 "POLITICO Photo Gallery." 10 Famous/infamous Whistleblowers. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. This source lead us the the Time Magazine from 2002, which were The Whistleblowers. "The President." The President. Nixon Presidential Library and Museum, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. This source is a basic and brief biography of Nixons presidency, including his first campaign, first term, re-election, second term, and Watergate. It is very useful as a background to Watergate, and a more comprehensive view of the Nixon administration both distanced from Watergate and directly involved in it. It again demonstrates the right of the people to transparency in government for a president to truly have the power derived from the people, the people must be aware of how that power is being used. "The Progressive Movement (1900-1918)." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. An overview of the short-lived Progressive movement. This helped us connect muckraking and its goals with the larger picture of the Progressive movement also taking place at the same time. Rawlings, Nate. "Richard Nixon's Plumbers." TIME.com. N.p., 17 May 2011. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. Richard Nixons plumbers helped us shed on how the Nixon Administration used the covert Plumbers to attempt to stop the Watergate leaks. The source helped explain what the plumbers were and how they contributed the government cover-up. "Revisiting Canada's Contribution to Resolving the Iranian Hostage Crisis." Wilson Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. This source emphasized the importance of maintaining secrecy in the Iranian Hostage Crisis. It was one of the few times where the public realized that government secrecy was crucial to the success of a mission. Rogers, Donald J. Press versus Government. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986. 27-38. Print. This book gave more details and facts to the question of executive privilege or government transparency. It also expands on The Washington Posts involvement in the scandal and the medias role in keeping the President accountable. "Sherron's Bio." Sherronwatkins.com. Sherron Watkins, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. A short biography highlighting the main points of Sherron Watkins career and life, giving due credit to her whistleblowing activities, but not making them the main point of

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 13 the article. In general, this was informational in the life of the woman that became known as such a major whistleblower of her time. "Sherron Watkins." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. A concise explanation of Watkins role in the Enron fraud that allows understanding of the whistleblowing that occurred without the slew of auditing jargon associated with it. It was very useful in creating a concrete example of whistleblowing in easy to express terms. Simkin, John. "Mark Felt." : Biography. Spartacus Educational, Sept. 1997. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. This source is a brief biography of Mark Felt, better known as Deep Throat, the confidential source that provided Bob Woodward with much of his inside information on the Watergate scandal. It provides his position (and thus means of retrieving this information), an incentive, and his long chronicled denial of being Deep Throat. This biography better explains the motive behind revealing the scandal to the public and at the same time puts into question the right of Felt to leak such confidential information. Smith, Kelly. "New Report: Does Kentuckys Unbridled Learning School Accountability Program Leave Minorities Behind?" Bluegrass Institute. N.p., 06 Dec. 2013. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. The Alien and Sedition acts limited the ability of the citizenry to speak out against government actions. This would have effectively allowed the government to exist without government transparency. Smith, Sean. "Watergate." Boston College Chronicle 08 May 1997, n. pag. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. This newspaper article describes the considerable impact Watergate had on various aspects of society including politics, the media, and reforms. It gives many tangible examples of events and legislature that arose because of Watergate including a statement on how a free press could provide some government transparency. Stencel, Mark. "The Reforms." Washington Post 13 June 1997, n. pag. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. This article describes seven specific pieces of legislature that were enacted in direct response to happenings of Watergate. It brings tangible proof to our claim that Watergate resulted in an increased sense of responsibility in the government to be transparent in its actions. "Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government ." Thomas Jefferson Informed Citizenry. Politheo.com, n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 14 A collection of quotes by Thomas Jefferson mentioning various topics. It supported our claim that an informed public is crucial to a well-functioning government. Tate, Julie. "Judge Sentences Bradley Manning to 35 Years." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 22 Aug. 2013. Web. 05 Jan. 2014. This source shed light in the consequences and impact of whistleblowing. The Manning case provides a good example of how the government today reacts to whistleblowing activity. "The Trial of John Peter Zenger." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. The John Peter Zenger case showed that the media had to take responsibility to cover government actions. This source provided historical context for the landmark case that laid the groundwork for the First Amendment and the role of the press in the United States going forward. "U.S. Congress Passes Espionage Act." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. This This Day in History provided historical context for the Espionage Act, outlining what it was, why it was passed, and some later effects of it. It led to us discovering that a common thing linking many present day whistleblowers included being charged with the violation of the Espionage Act. Voltmer, Katrin. "The Media, Government Accountability, and Citizen Engagement."Harvard.edu. N.p., N.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2014. PDF file. One of our most valuable secondary sources. It mentioned the close relationships between the government, media and the people while focusing on the responsibilities of the media to ensure government transparency. Furthermore, it went into the weaknesses of mass media therefore providing a well-rounded analysis of everything the media is and has the potential to be. Waggoner, Jason. "Crime and Ambition: Richard Nixon and Watergate." Ashbrook. Ashbrook, Apr. 1994. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. This source is an editorial detailing the Nixon administrations role in the Watergate scandal and its effects on the general American public and later presidents. It follows specifically Richard Nixons role in Watergate, and why he became the only president to date to resign from office. It better helps us to understand what the specific role of Nixon himself was in Watergate, and gives us a crucial background to understand the effects on the American people--- the loss of faith in government that still affects us today, generations removed from that scandal.

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Ward, Stephen J.A. "Researching Ethics: Codes of Journalism Ethics."Journalismethics.info. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. Journalistic ethics plays an important role in how the press pursues stories, in the 1950 they adopted a code of ethics to ensure integrity in all of their work. We used this to better understand the expansion of responsible journalism in the twentieth century. Washington Post Co. "The Watergate Story: Timeline." Washingtonpost.com. Washington Post Co., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. This source is a basic timeline of the Watergate scandal, based off of and supported by the corresponding articles in the Washington Post at that time. In terms of helpfulness, this is really useful as a baseline to fit other events into and get a general feel for how the government and media played off of each other. In reference to our thesis, again, this is simply a sweet little baseline to hinge everything off of. Short and to the point, without all the fluff. It details the steps the government took to avoid transparency in Watergate, and the steps the media and the public took to force the government to own up to its responsibility of transparency in its proceedings to its people. "Watergate." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 08 June 2012. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. The Washington Post watergate page provides archived articles from their original reporting as well as new reflection stories. They helped us with general background information and the Washington Post investigation. "Watergate Exhibit Evidence." Watergate Exhibit Evidence. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. This source is from the Nixon Presidential Library. It provides key Nixon Administration documents and recording from Watergate including the formation of the plumbers, his enemies list and political espionage. "The Watergate Files - Home Page." The Watergate Files - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2014. Historical context about Watergate that helped us gain a deeper understanding of the events leading up to and following the scandal and the Washington Post investigation. This source gives a concise explanation of the scandal and the Nixon Administration response. "What Is the USA Patriot Web." What Is the USA Patriot Web. DOJ, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. This information provided by the U.S. Department of Justice summarizes the different aspects of the USA Patriot Act (S. 98-1 and H.R. 357-66). It includes information on the different investigative powers that are authorized under the bill, intelligence and

Daebelliehn, Mattson, Waxham, Xiao 16 information sharing protocols, updated regulations for crimes involving cyber warfare, and punishments for acts deemed to be terrorism. This source helped us develop a greater understanding of how national security interests are balanced with first amendment rights, shedding additional light on the Espionage Act of 1917. "Where Are Muckraking Journalists Today?" Nieman Reports. N.p., N.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. This contributed greatly to our analysis of the evolution of the media, especially the relationship between the muckrakers and the government. Initially, we thought the government was completely against the muckrakers revealing its dirty little secrets but this source brought up the positives behind that relationship too, therefore helping us produce a more-rounded analysis of the early 1900s muckrakings actual place in the evolution of the media.. "White House History Classroom | Grades 9-12." White House History Classroom | Grades 9-12. N.p., N.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. Provides historical information about the White House during the Nixon Administration. This source helped us understand the using of taping devices in the White House and their role in the Watergate Scandal.