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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


PEPERIKSAAN SEMESTER DUA SESI 2007/08

KOD MATA PELAJARAN NAMA MATA PELAJARAN

: :

SMF 3333 AERODYNAMICS

KURSUS
MASA TARIKH

:
: :

3 SMT
2 hours 30 minutes November 2007

ARAHAN KEPADA CALON:

Answer 4 questions.

KERTAS SOALAN INI TERDIRI DARIPADA MUKA SURAT

Question 1 Show that form where w = f(z) is a complex potential function. Using transformation of the , where , show that the flow over a circle of radius a (where ) can be

transformed into the flow over an ellipse. A number of irrotational flows are given by complex potential function in the usual notation as follows: (i) (ii) (iii)

Find the stream function and the potential function for these complex potential functions and describe the flow represented by each function. Answers:

Flow around cylinder with radius a is given by

A circle of radius a,

will transform using

as follows,

Using relationship cos2 " + sin 2 " = 1, gives which is an equation for an ellipse

!
Therefore flow over a cylinder will transform into a flow over an ellipse.

i) and Uniform flow along x-axis

ii)

, and Source flow from the origin iii)

, and Doublet flow

Question 2 Refer to the illustration of flow around a cylinder in Fig. 1. The stream-function for inviscid flow around a cylinder is given as:

The radial and axial velocities are given by: .

(i) (ii)

Figure 1. Calculate the radial and axial velocity. State the maximum velocity and the position(s) it occurs? State the position(s) of the stagnation point(s). Prove the cylinder has no lift.

Maximum velocity occurs when

i.e

and

i.e

At stagnation point

and

Simultaneous solving for

, gives

If the cylinder has no lift, Vorticity,

which means the vorticity

is zero.

=0 Therefore the cylinder has no lift

Question 3 For thin aerofoil theory applied to a camber line z(x), the vortex distribution

along the chord line leads to the condition of tangency of flow to the camber line in the form of

Show that

and the aerodynamics center is at the quarter chord for all thin aerofoil.

A particular camber line has upper surface pressure distribution at ideal angle of attack given by

Prove that the equation of the camber line is

and that the center of pressure is fixed at Answer

Is the same as fourier cosine series where, where Therefore , and

Moment coefficient about the quarter chord (prove)

is independent of !, so the quarter chord is the theoretical a.c.

Second parts

Compare to Therefore

Integrate

with when

Center of pressure

As before

When

fixed at aerodynamic center,

Question 5 Consider an incompressible flow, laminar boundary layer growing along the surface of a flat plate, with a chord length c, as sketch in Fig. 2.For an incompressible flow, laminar, flat plate boundary layer, the boundary layer thickness " at the trailing edge of the plate is

And the skin friction drag coefficient for the plate is

Where Reynolds number is based on chord length,

y
Velocity profile u=u(y)

" Figure 2 x
c

Assume that the velocity profile through the boundary layer is given by a power-law variation

Calculate the value of n, consistent with the information given above. Using the lower value of n, determine whether the flow is rotational or irritational. Answer: Look at Example 2.2

With

With lower value of n

The flow is irrotational if

. Look at example 2.5. The flow is rotational.

Question 6 A Joukowski airfoil is formed by displacing a circle of radius 1 by !x = -0.08 (real axis) and !y = 0.05 (imaginary axis) as in Fig. 3. Find, a) Vortex strength " if ! = 0o, and V" = 10 m/s b) CL at ! = 0o and ! = 10o y
y z plane

cylinder
#

0.05 -0.08

x stagnation point

-# x

Figure 3

In complex terms the flow past a cylinder with lift is written: where

, .or

The appropriate vortex strength to impose the Kutta condition must be determined. Consider the lifting flow about a cylinder. The velocity in the # direction is, when Here, R is the radius of the cylinder surface. This velocity is zero on the surface of the cylinder at the stagnation points. At the these points .

If the field is rotated by ! to simulate an angle of attack, Since the chord length of the Joukowski airfoil is 4b, the lift coefficient can be written,

Making the assumption that b $ R,

b = 0.9187 a) Vortex strength " if ! = 0o, and V" = 20 m/s

$ = 4%V"R&sin(!+') = 4%(20)(1)sin(2.87) = 12.566


b) CL at ! = 0o and ! = 10o CL = 2%sin(2.87) = 0.31415 CL = 2%sin(10 + 2.87) = 1.40