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1155/2011/714248

Jiebao Sun, Dazhi Zhang, and Boying Wu

Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China Correspondence should be addressed to Jiebao Sun, sunjiebao@126.com Received 13 December 2010; Revised 13 February 2011; Accepted 24 February 2011 Academic Editor: Elena Braverman Copyright q 2011 Jiebao Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. We consider a cooperating two-species Lotka-Volterra model of degenerate parabolic equations. We are interested in the coexistence of the species in a bounded domain. We establish the existence of global generalized solutions of the initial boundary value problem by means of parabolic regularization and also consider the existence of the nontrivial time-periodic solution for this system.

1. Introduction

In this paper, we consider the following two-species cooperative system: ut vt um1 v m2 u x, t u x, 0 u a bu v d 0, cv , x, t , x, t , x, t , v0 x , x , 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

eu fv , 0,

v x, t

u0 x ,

v x, 0

where m1 , m2 > 1, 0 < < m1 , 0 < < m2 , 1 m1 m2 , a a x, t , b b x, t , c c x, t , d d x, t , e e x, t , f f x, t are strictly positive smooth functions and periodic in time with period T > 0 and u0 x and v0 x are nonnegative functions and satisfy m2 1,2 1 . um 0 , v0 W0 In dynamics of biological groups, the system 1.1 - 1.2 can be used to describe the interaction of two biological groups. The diusion terms um1 and vm2 represent the eect

of dispersion in the habitat, which models a tendency to avoid crowding and the speed of the diusion is rather slow. The boundary conditions 1.3 indicate that the habitat is surrounded by a totally hostile environment. The functions u and v represent the spatial densities of the species at time t and a, d are their respective net birth rate. The functions b and f are intraspecic competitions, whereas c and e are those of interspecic competitions. As famous models for dynamics of population, two-species cooperative systems like 1.1 - 1.2 have been studied extensively, and there have been many excellent results, for detail one can see 16 and references therein. As a special case, men studied the following two-species Lotka-Volterra cooperative system of ODEs: u t v t u t a t b t u t v t d t c tv t ,

e t u t f t v t .

1.5

For this system, Lu and Takeuchi 7 studied the stability of positive periodic solution and Cui 1 discussed the persistence and global stability of it. When m1 m2 1, from 1.1 - 1.2 we get the following classical cooperative system: ut vt u v u a bu v d cv , 1.6

eu fv .

For this system, Lin et al. 5 showed the existence and asymptotic behavior of T periodic solutions when a, b, c, e, d, f are all smooth positive and periodic in time with period T > 0. When a, b, c, e, d, f are all positive constants, Pao 6 proved that the Dirichlet boundary value problem of this system admits a unique solution which is uniformly bounded when ce < bf , while the blowup solutions are possible when the two species are strongly mutualistic ce > bf . For the homogeneous Neumann boundary value problem of this system, Lou et al. 4 proved that the solution will blow up in nite time under a sucient condition on the initial data. When c e 0 and 1, from 1.1 we get the single degenerate equation ut um u a bu . 1.7

For this equation, Sun et al. 8 established the existence of nontrivial nonnegative periodic solutions by monotonicity method and showed the attraction of nontrivial nonnegative periodic solutions. In the recent years, much attention has been paid to the study of periodic boundary value problems for parabolic systems; for detail one can see 915 and the references therein. Furthermore, many researchers studied the periodic boundary value problem for degenerate parabolic systems, such as 1619 . Taking into account the impact of periodic factors on the species dynamics, we are also interested in the existence of the nontrivial periodic solutions of the cooperative system 1.1 - 1.2 . In this paper, we rst show the existence of the global generalized solution of the initial boundary value problem 1.1 1.4 . Then under the condition that bl fl > cM eM , 1.8

sup{f x, t | x, t }, fl inf{f x, t | x, t }, we show where fM that the generalized solution is uniformly bounded. At last, by the method of monotone iteration, we establish the existence of the nontrivial periodic solutions of the system 1.1 1.2 , which follows from the existence of a pair of large periodic supersolution and small periodic subsolution. At last, we show the existence and the attractivity of the maximal periodic solution. Our main eorts center on the discussion of generalized solutions, since the regularity follows from a quite standard approach. Hence we give the following denition of generalized solutions of the problem 1.1 1.4 . Denition 1.1. A nonnegative and continuous vector-valued function u, v is said to be a generalized solution of the problem 1.1 1.4 if, for any 0 < T and any functions 0 i 1, 2 , um1 , vm2 L2 Q , um1 /t, vm2 /t L2 Q i C1 Q with i | 0, and u 1 u m1 1 t u a bu v d cv 1 dx dt u x, 1 x, dx v x, 2 x, dx u0 x 1 x, 0 dx, v0 x 2 x, 0 dx, 1.9 where Q 0, . Similarly, we can dene a weak supersolution u, v subsolution u, v if they satisfy the inequalities obtained by replacing with in 1.3 , 1.4 , and 1.9 and with an additional assumption i 0 i 1, 2 . Denition 1.2. A vector-valued function u, v is said to be a T -periodic solution of the problem 1.1 1.3 if it is a solution in 0, T such that u , 0 u , T , v , 0 v , T in . A vector-valued function u, v is said to be a T -periodic supersolution of the problem 1.1 1.3 if it is a supersolution in 0, T such that u , 0 u , T , v , 0 v , T in . A vector-valued function u, v is said to be a T -periodic subsolution of the problem 1.1 1.3 , if it is a subsolution in 0, T such that u , 0 u , T , v , 0 v , T in . This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we show the existence of generalized solutions to the initial boundary value problem and also establish the comparison principle. Section 3 is devoted to the proof of the existence of the nonnegative nontrivial periodic solutions by using the monotone iteration technique.

2 v m2 2 t

eu fv 2 dx dt

To solve the problem 1.1 1.4 , we consider the following regularized problem: u t v t div div

1 1 mum

u v v x, t

u a bu v d 0, v x, 0

cv ,

x, t QT , x, t QT ,

m2 1 mv

eu fv ,

u x, t u x, 0

0,

x, t 0, T , v0 x , x ,

u0 x ,

are nonnegative bounded smooth functions where QT 0, T , 0 < < 1, u0 , v0 C0 and satisfy

0 u0 u0

m1 1 um 0 u0 ,

0 v0 v0

, 2.5

m2 m2 v0 v0 ,

1,2 as 0. in W0

The standard parabolic theory cf. 20, 21 shows that 2.1 2.4 admits a nonnegative classical solution u , v . So, the desired solution of the problem 1.1 1.4 will be obtained as a limit point of the solutions u , v of the problem 2.1 2.4 . In the following, we show some important uniform estimates for u , v . Lemma 2.1. Let u , v be a solution of the problem 2.1 2.4 . 1 If 1 < m1 m2 , then there exist positive constants r and s large enough such that 1 m1 < m2 m2 u

Lr QT

r1 < m1 , s1 v

Ls QT

2.6 2.7

C,

C,

where C is a positive constant only depending on m1 , m2 , , , r, s, ||, and T . 2 If 1 m1 m2 , then 2.7 also holds when || is small enough.

ur dx t

4r r 1 m1 m1 r1

2

m1 r 1 /2 2

dx

r 1

a bu

cv dx.

2.8

1 um

r 1

dx

m1 r 1 /2 2

dx,

2.9

where K is a constant depending only on || and N and becomes very large when the measure of the domain becomes small. Since < m1 , Youngs inequality shows that au

r 1 cu v r 1

Kr r 1 m1 m1 r1 r 1

2

1 um

r 1

CK

r 1 / m1

, 2.10 .

Kr r 1 m1 m1

um1 r 1 2

CK

r 1 / m1

m r 1 / m1 v 1

For convenience, here and below, C denotes a positive constant which is independent of and may take dierent values on dierent occasions. Complying 2.8 with 2.9 and 2.10 , we obtain ur 2Kr r 1 m1 dx t m1 r 1 2 CK

1 um

r 1

dx

CK

r 1 / m1

m1 r 1 / m1

dx 2.11

r 1 / m1

As a similar argument as above, for v and positive constant s > 1, we have that

s v 2Ks s 1 m2 dx t m2 s 1 2 m2 v s1

dx

CK

s1 / m2

m2 s1 / m2

dx 2.12

s1 / m2

s v 2Kr r 1 m1 dx t m1 r 1 2

1 um

r 1

dx dx

CK CK .

s1 / m2 r 1 / m1

m2 s1 / m2

dx dx

2Ks s 1 m2 m2 CK s1

2 r 1 / m1

m2 v

s1

m1 r 1 / m1

CK

s1 / m2

2.13 For the case of 1 < m1 m2 , there exist r, s large enough such that m2 1 < m1 m1 By Youngs inequality, we have that u v

m2 s1 / m2

s1 < m2 . r1

2.14

dx

r r 1 m1 K C m1

m2 s1 / m2

r1

1 um

r 1

dx dx

CK 1 , 2.15 CK 2 ,

m1 r 1 / m1

s s 1 m2 K m1 r 1 / m1 dx C m2 s 1 p2

m2 v

s1

where 1 2 m2 s 1 2 m2 m1 r 1 m2 m1 r 1 2 m1 m2 s 1 m1 , 2.16 .

m2 m1

s1 r1

s v dx K t

1 um

r 1

m2 v

s1

dx

C K 1 ,

K 2 2.17

CK where 1 m2 s1 m1 r1

r 1 / m1

CK

s1 / m2

s1 s1

m2 m1

r 1 m2

m2 s 1 r 1 m1 r 1 . m1 m2 s 1 m1 r 1 2.18

s v dx K t

ur

s v dx

C K 1 CK

K 2 .

2K ||

2.19

CK

r 1 / m1

s1 / m2

s v dx C.

2.20

Now we consider the case of 1 m1 m2 . It is easy to see that there exist positive constants r, s large enough such that 1 m1 m2 m1 s1 r1 m2 . 2.21

Due to the continuous dependence of K upon || in 2.9 , from 2.13 we have that ur t

s v dx K t

1 um

r 1

m2 p2 1 s1

dx

2.22

when || is small enough. Then by Youngs and Gronwalls inequalities we can also obtain 2.20 , and thus we complete the proof of this lemma.

m2 1 Taking um , v as the test functions, we can easily obtain the following lemma.

1 2 |um | dx dt C,

QT

QT

m2 2 |v | dx dt C,

2.23

Abstract and Applied Analysis Lemma 2.3. Let u , v be a solution of 2.1 2.4 , then u C, v C,

L QT

L QT

2.24

where C is a positive constant independent of . Proof. For a positive constant k > u0 L integrating the results over QT , we have that 1 m1 1

QT

, multiplying 2.1 by u k

m1

t1 ,t2 and

u k

m1 1

t1 ,t2

t au

m1

dx dt

QT

u k

m1

t1 ,t2

dx dt 2.25

QT

cv dx dt,

where s

m1 1

0 t1 < t2 T . Let

Ik t

u k

dx;

2.26

then Ik t is absolutely continuous on 0, T . Denote by the point where Ik t takes its maximum. Assume that > 0, for a sucient small positive constant . Taking t1 , t2 in 2.25 , we obtain 1 m1 1 1

u k t

m1

m1 1

dx dt

u k

m1 2

dx dt 2.27

cv dx dt.

From

u k t

m1 1

dx dt

Ik Ik

0,

2.28

we have that 1

u k

m1 2

dx dt

m1

cv dx dt.

2.29

m1 2

dx

m1

x, a

cv x, dx.

2.30

Denote Ak t

{x : u x, t > k} and k u k

m1 2

m1

Ak

Ak

cv dx.

2.31

By Sobolevs theorem,

1/p 1/2

Ak

u k

m1 p

dx

Ak

u k

m1 2

dx

2.32

2<p<

we obtain

m1 p 2/p m1 2

Ak

u k

dx

Ak

u k u

m1

dx

Ak

v dx

m1 /r r m1 /r Ak

Ak

ur dx

r/ r m1

dx

r m1 /r

Ak

r/ r m1

dx

1/s

C Ck

Ak

v dx ,

|Ak | s r m1 r

/sr

s r m1 r /sr

2.34

where r > p m1 / p 2 , s > pr/ p r m1 2r and C denotes various positive constants independent of . By Holders inequality, it yields Ik u k

m1 1

dx

Ak

u k

m1 1

dx

Ak

u k

m1 p

m1 1 /m1 p

dx

k .

1 m1 1 /m1 p

2.35

Ck Then

1 sp r m1 pr 2sr m1 1 /2psrm1

Ik t Ik Ck

1 sp r m1 pr 2sr m1 1 /2psrm1

t 0, T .

2.36

m1 1

Ak t

dx h k

m1 1

|Ah t |.

2.37

m1 1 m1 1

h Ck

1 sp r m1 pr 2sr m1 1 /2psrm1

2.38

1 sp r m1 pr 2sr m1 1 /2psrm1

2.39

1 d

sup|Al

t|

0,

2.41

1 / m1 1

It is the same for the second inequality of 2.24 . The proof is completed.

10

1 um t

QT

dx dt C,

QT

m2 v t

dx dt C,

2.43

1 Proof. Multiplying 2.1 by /t um and integrating over , by 2.3 , 2.4 and Youngs inequality we have that

4m1 m1 1

2 QT

m1 u t

1 /2

dx dt

1 u um dx dt t QT t

1 2

2 1 |um x, 0 | dx

1 2

2 1 |um x, T | dx

QT

m1 u

m1 1

a bu

cv

u dx dt t 2.44 x, T | dx cv

m1 1 2

1 2

1 |um

1 x, 0 | dx 2

2 m1 1 /2

1 |um

2m1 2 u m 1 1 QT 1 2

a bu

u2

m1 1 /2

dx dt cv 2 dx dt

2 1 |um x, 0 | dx

2m1

1 /2

QT 2

a bu

2m1 m1 1

2 QT

m1 u t

dx dt,

QT m1 1 /2 2

dx dt C,

2.45

1 um t

QT

dx dt

4m2 1 m1 1

2 QT

1 1 um

m1 u t

1 /2

dx dt C.

2.46

It is the same for the second inequality. The proof is completed. From the above estimates of u , v , we have the following results.

Abstract and Applied Analysis Theorem 2.5. The problem 1.1 1.4 admits a generalized solution.

11

Proof. By Lemmas 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4, we can see that there exist subsequences of {u }, {v } denoted by themselves for simplicity and functions u, v such that u u,

1 um1 um , t t

v v,

m2 v vm2 , t t m2 v vm2 ,

m1 1 um u ,

as 0. Then a rather standard argument as 23 shows that u, v is a generalized solution of 1.1 1.4 in the sense of Denition 1.1. In order to prove that the generalized solution of 1.1 1.4 is uniformly bounded, we need the following comparison principle. Lemma 2.6. Let u, v be a subsolution of the problem 1.1 1.4 with the initial value u0 , v 0 and u, v a supersolution with a positive lower bound of the problem 1.1 1.4 with the initial value u0 , v0 . If u0 v0 , u0 v0 , then u x, t u x, t , v x, t v x, t on QT . Proof. Without loss of generality, we might assume that u x, t L QT , u x, t L QT , v x, t L QT , v x, t L QT M, where M is a positive constant. By the denitions of subsolution and supersolution, we have that

t 0

um1 dx d u a bu

m1

u x, t x, t dx

u0 x x, 0 dx

t 0

t 0

cv dx d, 2.48 u x, t x, t dx v 0 x x, 0 dx

u t

t 0

u dx d u a bu

cv dx d.

where H s is a monotone increasing smooth approximation of the function H s dened as follows: H s 1, s > 0, 0, otherwise.

2.50

12

It is easy to see that H s s as 0. Since um1 /t, um1 /t L2 QT , the test function x, t is suitable. By the positivity of a, b, c we have that u u H um1 um1 dx

t 0 t 0 t 0

uu

H um1 um1 dx d t

2

dx d

2.51

a u u H um1 um1

c u v u v H um1 um1 dx d,

t 0

C Qt

, c x, t

C Qt

. Letting 0 and

H u m1 um1 u m um

dx d 0,

2.52

we arrive at u x, t u x, t dx C

t 0

u u

v u u

u v v dx d.

2.53

Let u, v be a supsolution with a positive lower bound . Noticing that x y x y with x, y > 0, we have that

t 0

C xy , xy y

1

xy ,

u u

v u u

u v v dx d C

t 0

uu

v v dx d, 2.55

t 0

v x, t v x, t

dx C

uu

v v dx d.

2.56

Abstract and Applied Analysis Combining the above two inequalities, we obtain u x, t u x, t v x, t v x, t

t 0

13

dx C

uu

v v dx d.

2.57

By Gronwalls lemma, we see that u u, v v. The proof is completed. Corollary 2.7. If bl fl > cM eM , then the problem 1.1 1.4 admits at most one global solution which is uniformly bounded in 0, . Proof. The uniqueness comes from the comparison principle immediately. In order to prove that the solution is global, we just need to construct a bounded positive supersolution of 1.1 1.4 . aM fl dM cM / bl fl cM eM and 2 aM eM dM bl / bl fl cM eM , since Let 1 bl fl > cM eM ; then 1 , 2 > 0 and satisfy aM bl 1 Let u, v that cM 2 0, dM eM 1 fl 2 0. 2.58

ut um1

0 u a bu

cv ,

v t v m2

0 v d

eu fv .

2.59

That is, u, v 1 , 2 is a positive supersolution of 1.1 1.4 . Since u, v are global and uniformly bounded, so are u and v.

3. Periodic Solutions

In order to establish the existence of the nontrivial nonnegative periodic solutions of the problem 1.1 1.3 , we need the following lemmas. Firstly, we construct a pair of T -periodic supersolution and T -periodic subsolution as follows. Lemma 3.1. In case of bl fl > cM eM , there exists a pair of T -periodic supersolution and T -periodic subsolution of the problem 1.1 1.3 . Proof. We rst construct a T -periodic subsolution of 1.1 1.3 . Let be the rst eigenvalue and be the uniqueness solution of the following elliptic problem: then we have that > 0, x >0 in , > 0 on , M max x < .

x

x ,

0,

x ;

3.1

3.2

3.3

where > 0 is a small constant to be determined. We will show that u, v is a time independent, hence T -periodic subsolution of 1.1 1.3 . Taking the nonnegative function 1 x, t C1 QT as the test function, we have that u 1 t um1 1 u a bu cv 1 dx dt

QT

u x, 0 1 x, 0 u x, T 1 x, T dx u a bu u a bu u a bu u a bu u a bu u a bu

QT

cv

QT

QT

cv 1 dx dt cv 1 dx dt 2

QT m1

QT

1 dx dt 1 1 dx dt div 1 1 dx dt 2

2 2 2

QT

QT

QT

QT

QT

QT

1 dx dt.

2

QT

QT

eu fv 2 dx dt 2m2

QT

2 dx dt. 3.5

We just need to prove the nonnegativity of the right-hand side of 3.4 and 3.5 . Since 1 2 0, |1 |, |2 | > 0 on , then there exists > 0 such that 2

2

0,

x ,

3.6

Abstract and Applied Analysis where {x | dist x, }. Choosing min al dl , bM M2/m1 fM M2/m2 ,

15

3.7

m2 T 0 T 0

2

2

1 dx dt 0 2 dx dt 0

T 0

u a bu v d

cv 1 dx dt, 3.8

T 0

eu fv 2 dx dt,

which shows that u, v is a positive time independent, hence T -periodic subsolution of 1.1 1.3 on 0, T . Moreover, we can see that, for some > 0, x > 0, Choosing min al , 2bM M2/m1 al 4M2 m1 /m1

1/ m1

x \ .

3.9

dl , 2fM M2/m2

dl 4M2 m2 /m2

1/ m2

, 3.10

2/m2 1 /m1 2/m2

1 2 1 /m2

2/m1

2 0

2

m2

3.11

QT

cv 1 dx dt 2m1

m2

QT

2

2

1 dx dt 0, 3.12 2 dx dt 0.

QT

eu fv 2 dx dt 2

QT

2/m1 2/m2 1 x , 2 x is a positive time independent, These relations show that u, v hence T -periodic subsolution of 1.1 1.3 . 1 , 2 , where , 1 , 2 are taken as those in Corollary 2.7, it is easy Letting u, v to see that u, v is a positive time independent, hence T -periodic subsolution of 1.1 1.3 . Obviously, we may assume that u x, t u x, t , v x, t v x, t by changing , appropriately.

16

Lemma 3.2 see 24, 25 . Let u be the solution of the following Dirichlet boundary value problem u t um u x, t f x, t , 0, x, t 0, T ,

3.13

x, t 0, T ,

where f L 0, T ; then there exist positive constants K and 0, 1 depending only upon 0, T and f L 0,T , such that, for any xi , ti , T i 1, 2 , |u x1 , t1 u x2 , t2 | K |x1 x2 | Lemma 3.3 see 26 . Dene a Poincar e mapping Pt : L L L L , Pt u0 x , v0 x : u x, t , v x, t t>0 , |t1 t2 |/2 . 3.14

3.15

where u x, t , v x, t is the solution of 1.1 1.4 with initial value u0 x , v0 x . According to Lemmas 2.6 and 3.2 and Theorem 2.5, the map Pt has the following properties: i Pt is dened for any t > 0 and order preserving; ii Pt is order preserving; iii Pt is compact. Observe that the operator PT is the classical Poincar e map and thus a xed point of the Poincar e map gives a T -periodic solution setting. This will be made by the following iteration procedure. Theorem 3.4. Assume that bl fl > cM eM and there exists a pair of nontrivial nonnegative T -periodic subsolution u x, t , v x, t and T -periodic supersolution u x, t , v x, t of the problem 1.1 1.3 with u x, 0 u x, 0 ; then the problem 1.1 1.3 admits a pair of nontrivial nonnegative periodic solutions u x, t , v x, t , u x, t , v x, t such that u x, t u x, t u x, t u x, t , v x, t v x, t v x, t v x, t , in QT . 3.16

Proof. Taking u x, t , u x, t as those in Lemma 3.1 and choosing suitable B x0 , , B x0 , , , k1 , k2 , and K , we can obtain u x, 0 u x, 0 . By Lemma 2.6, we have that PT u , 0 u , T . Hence by Denition 1.2 we get PT u , 0 u , 0 , which implies P k 1 T u , 0 PkT u , 0 for any k . Similarly we have that PT u , 0 u , T u , 0 , and hence P k 1 T u , 0 PkT u , 0 for any k . By Lemma 2.6, we have that PkT u , 0 PkT u , 0 for any k . Then u x, 0

k

lim PkT u x, 0 ,

u x, 0

lim PkT u x, 0

3.17

exist for almost every x . Since the operator PT is compact see Lemma 3.3 , the above limits exist in L , too. Moreover, both u x, 0 and u x, 0 are xed points of PT . With

17

the similar method as 26 , it is easy to show that the even extension of the function u x, t , which is the solution of the problem 1.1 1.4 with the initial value u x, 0 , is indeed a nontrivial nonnegative periodic solution of the problem 1.1 1.3 . It is the same for the existence of u x, t . Furthermore, by Lemma 2.6, we obtain 3.16 immediately, and thus we complete the proof. Furthermore, by De Giorgi iteration technique, we can also establish a prior upper bound of all nonnegative periodic solutions of 1.1 1.3 . Then with a similar method as 18 , we have the following remark which shows the existence and attractivity of the maximal periodic solution. Remark 3.5. If bl fl > cM eM , the problem 1.1 1.3 admits a maximal periodic solution U, V . Moreover, if u, v is the solution of the initial boundary value problem 1.1 1.4 with nonnegative initial value u0 , v0 , then, for any > 0, there exists t depending on u0 , v0 , and , such that 0uU , 0vV , for x , t t. 3.18

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NSFC 10801061 , the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities Grant no. HIT. NSRIF. 2009049 , Natural Sciences Foundation of Heilongjiang Province Grant no. A200909 , and also the 985 project of Harbin Institute of Technology.

References

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