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Ch. 23: Reproductive System 1. Functions of the Male Reproductive System i.

The tests produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone ii. The ducts transport, store, and assist in the maturation of sperm iii. The accessory sex glands secrete most fo the liquid portion of semen iv. The penis contains the urethra, a passageway for ejaculation of semen and excretion of urine 2. Organs of the male reproductive system a. Testes i. Produce sperm 1. Sperm are transported and stored, helped to mature, and conveyed to the exterior by a system of ducts. 2. Semen contains sperm plus the secretions provided by the accessory sex glands ii. Secrete hormones iii. Leydig cells – produce testosterone iv. Sertoli cells – produce inhibin v. Testosterone production, stimulated by increased LH (Luteinizing Hormone) from the anterior pituitary, promotes development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics vi. Testosterone stimulates protein synthesis and regulates spermatogenesis vii. Semen contains sperm plus the secretions provided by the accessory sex glands viii. LH and FSH both indirectly affect spermatogenesis ix. Testosterone stimulates the final stages of spermatogenesis x. Testosterone and DHT brings male characteristics b. System of ducts – transports, stores, helps to mature, conveys to the exterior the sperm i. Epididymis – site of sperm maturation ii. Ductus deferens – stores sperm iii. Ejaculatory ducts – carry sperm into the urethra iv. Urethra – terminal duct of the male reproductive system, serving as a passageway for both sperm and urine c. Accessory sex glands i. Seminal vesicles ii. Prostate iii. Several supporting structures, including the scrotum and the penis d. Other i. Epididymis – tightly-coiled tube connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens

Meiosis II a. Haploid cell – n = 23 chromosomes ii.ii. Two successive stages: Meiosis I and Meiosis II a. After a spermatogonium undergoes mitosis. Crossing-over i. Spermatogenesis begins during puberty and continues throughout life b. Spermatogonium i. Meiosis I a. What is the significance of crossing-over? ii. Seminiferous tubules – produce sperm. iii. termed spermatids. Meiosis 1. lined with spermatogonia 3. The other cells differentiate into a primary spermatocyte. Genetic recombination c. Consists of three stages i. each of which is composed of a single chromatid. Diploid cells – 2n = 46 chromosomes 2. b. Process by which the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce sperm b. Spermiogenesis a. 2. Two chromosomes make a pair – homologous chromosomes b. Somatic cells a. Spermatogonia contain diploid number of chromosomes (46) ii. Each haploid spermatid develops into a single sperm cell . Gamete cell i. contain 23 chromosomes. Crossing-over permits the formation of new combinations of genes from maternal and paternal chromosomes. Cells formed from meiosis II. one cell stays near the basement membrane as a spermatogonium so stem cells remain for future mitosis iii. Spermatogenesis a. Cells formed by meiosis I are haploid secondary spermatocytes iv.

Primary organs of the female reproductive system a. inhibin. such as progesterone and estrogens. The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse and is a passageway for childbirth. inhibin. Ovaries i. and normally are the sites where fertilization occurs c. development of the fetus during pregnancy. The mammary glands synthesize. Functions of the Female Reproductive System a. secrete. Acrosome – contains hydrolytic enzymes b. Mitochondria – contains enzymes for making ATP. The ovaries produce secondary oocytes and hormones. e. The uterus is the site of implantation of a fertilized ovum. progesterone. including estrogens. and eject milk for nourishment of the newborn. energy generation for motility d. and relaxin b. motility region e. Tail – flagellum. The uterine tubes transport a secondary oocyte to the uterus. or eggs. 6. Nucleus – contains the chromosomes c. Head – genetic region 5. and relaxin. b. following fertilization) and hormones. Pairs organs that produce secondary oocytes (cells that develop into mature ova. Supporting structures/organs . and labor.4. Parts of a sperm cell a. d.

Formation of gametes in the ovaries b. Before birth. Other i. Support ovulation and sperm production in males c. but a few develop into larger cells called primary oocytes 3. 1. Uterus (womb) – serves as part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the uterine tubes. Mammary glands i. Oviducts iii. and labor iv. Vagina v. and breasts d. Site of implantation of a fertilized ovum. develop of the fetus during pregnancy. Mons pubis – cushions the pubic symphysis 7. Secondary glands of the female reproductive system ii. Promotes development and maintenance of female reproductive system. Uterine (fallopian) tubes – transports the secondary oocytes from the ovaries to the uterus ii. such as seminal vesicles. Females have all the eggs they will ever have before birth i. Estrogen – ovarian hormones i. Oxytocin – hypothalamic i. Testosterone – testicular hormones 8. External organs (vulva) c.i. FSH – anterior pituitary reproductive hormones i. Meiosis I 1. most of these cells degenerate. Progesterone – prepares the uterus endometrium for implantation of the fertilized ovum and prepares mammary gland for milk secretion e. Secreted in response to uterine distention or nipple stimulation. sex characteristics. These cells begin during fetal development but do not complete it until after puberty . which give rise to cells that develop into secondary ooctyes 2. initiates uterine contraction and stimulates mammary glands to eject milk b. The semen contains alkaline substances secreted from accessory male sex glands. Cells in the ovaries differentiate into oogonia. The alkaline secretion neutralize the vaginal acids to prevent the killing of sperm so that fertilization can occur d. Reproductive hormones a. Oogenesis a. Oogenesis begins in females before they are even born c.

The larger is known as the secondary oocyte. The larger is called the ovum. The diploid primary oocyte completeles meiosis I. it begins meiosis II and then stops and then stops. meiosis II resumes. After secondary oocyte is formed. the single secondary oocyte is expelled into the pelvic cavity and swept into the fallopian tube. Meiosis II 1. The follicle in which these events are taking place – the mature follicle soon ruptures and releases its secondary oocyte. called ovulation ii. After puberty. 5. hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulate the resumption of oogenesis each month. The smaller cell produced is the first polar body which is basically discarded 7. 3.4. the smaller one is the second polar body. both with 23 chromosomes – n 6. The secondary oocyte splits into two haploid cells (n) of unequal size. If a sperm penetrates the secondary oocyte (fertilization). forming a diploid (2n) zygote. or mature egg. resulting in two haploid cells of unequal size. 2. At ovulation. . 8. receives most of the cytoplasm. The nuclei of the sperm cell and ovum unite.