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A Nongovernmental Review on the Relationsh

ip between Mangroves and Climate Change

2012 7

.................................................................................................................................................. 2
........................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 ............................................................................................................. 3
1.2 ............................................................................................................. 5
1.3 ..................................................................................................... 5
....................................................................................................... 7
2.1 ......................................................................................... 7
2.2 ......................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 .......................................................................................... 9
2.2.2 ................................................................................................................ 10
2.2.3 ................................................................................................ 11
..................................................................................... 12
3.1 ................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 ................................................................................................................... 12
3.3 ....................................................................................... 14
3.4 ....................................................................................... 14
3.5 ................................................................................................................... 18
3.6 ........................................................................................................................... 19
3.7 ........................................................................................................................... 19
......................................................................................... 21
4.1 ................................................................................................................................... 21
4.1.1 ............................................................................................................ 21
4.1.2 ........................................................................ 22
4.1.3 .................................................................................................... 23
4.2 ................................................................................................................................... 24
4.2.1 ............................................................................................................................ 24
............................................................................................................................. 26
5.1 ........................................................................................... 26
5.2 ...................................................................................... 27
................................................................................................................................. 29

CO2

CMCN 2001

2009 CMCN

CMCN
CMCN

NGO
SEE
CMCN

1.1

IPCC 2007

1-1 50
1750

280ppm 2005 379ppm


715ppb 2005 1774ppb
270ppb 2005 319ppb
CO2 1 3~5, 1998
100 1906 ~2005 0.74C0.18C CO2

100

3
1900 7% 1978
2006 2.7% 2006
IPCC, 2007
1993~2003
0.41mm/aBarnet et al., 2005; Webster et al.,
20051961
80%
3000m 1961~2003
1.8mm/a 1993-2003
3

3.1mm/a
20 17cmIPCC, 2007

1-1 (a)(b)()()
(c)3-419611990

(ab)(c)IPCC, 2007

IPCC2007 21 1.1~6.4
0.18~0.59m 20 0.2/10a
2000 10 0.1
4

21
20

1.2

0.2~0.8/100a 50 0.6~1.1/50a
, 20051908~2008
1.1 1986 22 2007
1951 50

30
0.9 90mm
1
2
34

1.3

2020
2030 0.5~4.2
5%~10%

20
12%

30

1990 GDP 2%
GDP 1%2001~2008
GDP 2.8%2008 2008
3100 20 90
2008 21
1500
GDP 0.25%2008
11 3375 275

2.1

2-1

(1) (2)
(3) (4)
NP (5)

IPCC2003 1990~2100
0.09~0.88 m IPCC
IPCC2007

Barrie 2002

SEAWAT2000
Chu et.al, 2005

1991 Ellison

2-1 , 2012

2.2

(1) 50
(2)
(3)

2.2.1
2010

2.0~3.0m
3.0m 0.5~1.0m1959~2006
3.23m 0.93m

1949 7
1949~1979 3.6
1980~2003 2.5

2-2

2.2.2

Bruun

10

2-3

1950 1950
100~105km2
40km2
1870 1950
40m/a

2.2.3

, 2012

11

3.1

, 2007

24 30 86
, 1996 36
22024.9 hm2

3.2

Tom, 1984

Duke et al., 1998; Jones et al., 2004; , 1997

12

Watson, 1928;
Davis, 1940; McGuinnes, 1997; Duke et al., 1998, 1997
3 3-1

, 1984

Duke et al., 1998


18.5 8.4

Wang & Wang, 2007 20


Woodroffe & Grindrod, 1991
Wang & Wang,
2007
Wang & Wang, 2007

3-1 , 2003

25.531.5
520 35.7, 1981
13

0~90Augustinus, 19951984
(Kenaelia candel) 7.5~21.2
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 21.7
10( 1999)
, 1981; , 1999

3.3
1906 2005
0.740.18 50 20 0.13
2
(Field,
1995; Ellison, 2000)

1999 2
2.5

3
4 10
35

Ellison, 1994

3.4

20 17cmIPCC, 2007
-
14

2~3
5m

Jatap & Nagle, 2007; Gilman et al., 2008; Doyle et al., 2010

Chen et al., 2005; He et al., 2007Lovelock &


Ellison, 2007; Doyle et al., 2010

, 1995; , 1997; , 1998

Scavia et al., 2002;


Rogers et al., 2005; Gilman et al., 2008; Teh et al., 20081927 1995 69
14cm
50%Ross et al., 2000
100 8cm
100 12cm

100 25cm , 1997Ellison


1993 9cm/100a
100 14.3cm

1950 10000hm2 1990


4667hm2 53%
, 1997
15

Ellison, 1993

3-2 (a)(b)

16

30
2.6mm/a 30
2009 80~130mm, 2009
100 4~6mm/a
Day et al., 1999

, 2007
Bruun,
1962; , 2003, 2005 2003 2006
, 2007
2010
20 80 2001
3-3

3-3

2009
2008 21mm 14mm 16mm 11mm
4.1-57mm/a ( 3-1), 1997

17

3-1 , 1997

210
Pb

mm/a
4.1
6.2
18-40
57
15

1995
1995
1981
1965
1995

3.5

2004 3 2004
10 3 2005 2~3 5
5 2005 8
5 Katrina2006 3 Larry
2006 11

Emanuel2005 Webster 2005


30
75%20 70 10 20 90
18
Landsea, 2005; Knaff et al., 2006; Chan, 2006

Ren et al., 2006; , 2007; , 2006


,
2007; , 2006
, 2007; , 2007
18

3.6
2001

2003
2002 775 19.77%

2004

1998

2004 5
40
40 106
2008
2004

3.7

19

2008 50
2013.6
24 777.9
58
95% 40% 70%

10
2006~2007
5000
200 , 2009 240
2230 13 860
200 hm2
30% 1200 , 2009

3-4

20

4.1
4.1.1

2008

> > Acanthus ilicifolius>


> 2008

, 2010
2009 2008 2
>>>>>>
Laguncularia racemosa>>>
Cerbera manghas>Heritiera littoralis>
Pongamia pinnata>Thespesia populnea1994

-2~0 0Bruguiera
sexangula var. rhynochopetala 0-2
-21998
-2.3~6.8
Ceriops tagal
Sonneratia albaLumnitzera racemosa
21

4.1.2

, 1998;
, 1991; , 20032005 1

4-1

4-1

1958

12

1985 9

25 23

15

40
22

1986 7

1996 9

2003 7

22

8m

100m

350

4650 m


2004

Ranong

2008 9

(16 )

Ranong

70 km

70%

1
2

2000 1999
11~12

50~100m

2009
40%
100m 2.5~4.0m 80%,
199650m 1m 0.3m

4.1.3

23

1956-1962 6 40cm
2 1 2.07~4.07
4.1~57mm/a

, 1997

4.2
4.2.1

CO2

CO2 , 1995 70a


CO2 O2 2051.5 g/m2.a 1492. 1 g/m2.a
55a 3935. 5 g/m2.a 2826. 2 g/m2.a
Fahka CO2 10037.6 g/m2.a 4-2

1995
1113.41 g/m2.a798.51 g/m2.a 1473.43 g/m2.a 4-3
2008 CO2
24

CO2 3.95

4-2

20
55
70
Fanka hancheel
Fahka
Fahka
Rochery

CO2
g/m2.a
3131.2
3935.5
2051.5
6424.2
10037.6
8833.0
3747.3
3336.7

O2
g/m2.a
2277.2
2826.2
1492.1
4672.0
7300.1
6424.0
2725.3
2426.7

1995
1995
1995
(Lugo 1974)
(Lugo 1974)
(Lugo 1974)
(Lugo 1974)

Eong 1980

4-3 g/(m2.a), 1995

684.88
441.22
786.68

428.53
357.29
686.75

1113.41
798.51
1473.43

H2S
H2S CO2

3700Tg
14~17Tg

25

5.1

2007
2010

2010

26

5.2

30

1)

3S

2)

27

3)

4)

200
100

5)

28

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