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Neuromsica Hace algunos aos, la prestigiosa revista cientfico mdica The Txori-Herri Medical ournal dedic!

! su egregia " excelsa atenci!n a la msica, con sendos tra#a$os seminales so#re la denominada Neuromsica %la relaci!n msica-cere#ro& mecanismos de acci!n de la msica en nuestro cere#ro, #ases neuro'umicas del ritmo " de la meloda( " el valor de las canciones en la exploraci!n psicopatol!gica " en el diagn!stico psi'ui)trico* +spoleados sin duda por tan relevantes artculos, otros investigadores han profundi,ado, en los ltimos tiempos, en el estudio #iomdico " psicol!gico de la msica* Ho" descri#iremos dos artculos 'ue tiene 'ue ver con la relaci!n entre la personalidad " los gustos musicales* +n -../, 0entfro1 " 2osling ou#licaron en la revista Journal of Personality and Social Psychology un tra#a$o con el sugestivo ttulo de 3El do-re-mi de la vida cotidiana: la estructura y los correlatos de la personalidad de las preferencias musicales4* 5 lo largo de sus -6 p)ginas relata#an un estudio reali,ado con m)s de /7.. individuos, en el 'ue cru,a#an los gustos musicales " los elementos de la personalidad de los pro#andos* Tras mucho test, mucha encuesta " mucha calculadora, pudieron esta#lecer cuatro grupos de personalidad con sus correspondientes gustos musicales* 8a msica clasificada como reflexiva " comple$a %cl)sica, $a,,, #lues, fol9( agrada a individuos a#iertos a nuevas experiencias, inteligentes, progresistas " no mu" dados a las actividades atlticas " deportivas* 8a msica re#elde e intensa %alternativa, roc9, heav" metal(, gusta#a a otro grupo, a#ierto tam#in a nuevas experiencias " cu"os integrantes se considera#an inteligentes, sentan curiosidad por conocer cosas diferentes, asuman riesgos con gusto " eran fsicamente activos* 8os autores distinguan un tercer grupo, el de la msica optimista " convencional, integrado por el pop, la msica religiosa, el countr" " las #andas sonoras, 'ue era del gusto de individuos alegres, extrovertidos, responsa#les " dispuestos de #uen grado a a"udar a los dem)s* :egn el estudio, estas personas se consideran fsicamente atractivas " son relativamente convencionales* ;or ltimo, la msica enrgica " rtmica %rap<hip-hop, soul<fun9, electr!nica<dance( es la favorita de personas desenvueltas, parlanchinas, llenas de energa, comprensivas, " 'ue evitan posiciones e ideas conservadoras* 5un'ue la idea de 'ue los gustos musicales definen la personalidad puede parecer simplista, los participantes considera#an 'ue revelarlos supona, tras la confesi!n de los ho##ies personales propios, la forma m)s ntida de desnudar su car)cter* =no no puede por menos de relacionar esta investigaci!n con un artculo 'ue los italianos 2eroldi " asociados ha#an pu#licado pu#licaron en 6>>? en Neurology, comunicando los cam#ios en los gustos musicales de dos pacientes afectos de demencia frontotemporal* +l primer caso corresponde a un var!n 'ue antes de la eclosi!n de la enfermedad considera#a 'ue la msica pop era 3puro ruido4* 5 los dos aos del diagn!stico empe,! a or a todo volumen los temas de un grupo pop italiano durante varias horas al da* :e convirti! en un seguidor impenitente de esa #anda, cu"os discos #usca#a continuamente, " escucha#a sin cesar sus canciones, para tormento de 'uienes le rodea#an* 8a segunda paciente a la 'ue se hace alusi!n es una mu$er 'ue a lo largo de su vida no ha#a tenido grandes gustos musicales, salvo temas #aila#les 'ue los autores definen como 3 easy listening4* Tras la aparici!n de la demencia se desentendi! de sus principales intereses " ocupaciones " se aficion! a la msica pop 'ue escucha#a su nieta de once aos* 8os autores contemplaron varias hip!tesis para explicar estos cam#ios* :egn la primera, para las personas 'ue en los >. tenan m)s de @. aos, como los pacientes, la msica pop era toda una novedad, " puesto 'ue la hiperfunci!n relativa del l!#ulo frontal derecho favorece la inclinaci!n por los estmulos novedosos, esta patologa asimtrica podra determinar el cam#io de gustos musicales* :in em#argo, tuvieron 'ue desechar esta posi#ilidad, "a 'ue en am#os pacientes se apreci! idntico grado de hipoperfusi!n en am#os l!#ulos frontales* =na segunda posi#ilidad es 'ue el cam#io de preferencias se de#iera a la degeneraci!n en las corte,as frontal " temporal 'ue presenta#an los pacientes* +stas ,onas del cere#ro parecen implicadas en la percepci!n del tono, el tim#re " el ritmo, as como en el reconocimiento de estmulos familiares* Aa#e la posi#ilidad de 'ue

las lesiones de ciertos circuitos an por determinar acarreen un cam#io en la percepci!n de la msica ", por ende, en los gustos musicales* 8a tercera " ltima hip!tesis parte de la constataci!n de 'ue los dos pacientes escucha#an de forma reiterativa " perseverante la msica pop 'ue aca#a#an de descu#rir* +sta adhesi!n in'ue#ranta#le e inmuta#le a estmulos es tpica de la patologa frontal* 5 su ve,, la msica pop, en tanto 'ue popular " destinada a ser escuchada " apreciada por el ma"or nmero de o"entes posi#le, de#e contener necesariamente algn ingrediente 'ue la convierta en un estmulo mu" atractivo* +l fen!meno, pues, podra de#erse a la com#inaci!n del atractivo mel!dico de las canciones con una imantaci!n patol!gica en los pacientes* Nuestros autores se apresuran a aclarar 'ue con este ra,onamiento no pretenden dar a entender 'ue los amantes de la msica pop pade,can algn tipo de disfunci!n frontal* ;ero tam#in podemos invocar otra posi#ilidad* :i retomamos las tipologas msico caracteriales del artculo anteriormente comentado, los amantes de la msica pop podran definirse como propensos al conformismo, a la adaptaci!n, a lo anodino " convencional* :uena mu" mal, pero "a sa#emos 'ue todas las clasificaciones tipol!gicas tienden a la simplificaci!n extrema " la caricaturi,aci!n, as 'ue pido perd!n a los seguidores de Operacin Triunfo " productos por el estilo* :o#re gustos no ha" nada escritos, o como m)s finamente dicen nuestros neur!logos italianos, e gusti!us non disputandum est* 8as preferencias de cada cual pueden parecer extraas o incomprensi#les, pero no es sensato discutirlas por'ue no de$an de ser una cuesti!n privada* Hala* ;ues #ien& podramos decir 'ue la variaci!n de las preferencias musicales de los pacientes no refle$a#a sino el cam#io de personalidad tpico de una demencia frontotemporal* +n am#os se ha#a producido un replegamiento, un predominio de la apata* B si como los propios encuestados en el tra#a$o de 0entfro1 " 2osling sostenan los gustos musicales son un marcador de personalidad, l!gico sera 'ue con el cam#io de esta ltima variaran las aficiones mel!dicas* Nos hallamos, pues, ante un nuevo campo, el de la caracterologa musical, cu"as implicaciones son inmensas, por e$emplo, en ;sicologa Cndustrial* 8os profesionales de la selecci!n de personal de#eran de$arse de entrevistas arteras, " tendran 'ue arrinconar la pr)ctica de utili,ar tests clnicos o semiclnicos para poder determinar la persona id!nea para cada puesto* 8o 'ue ha" 'ue hacer es preguntar por los gustos musicales, 'ue siempre es menos invasivo " 'ueda m)s amiga#le* +se seguidor de 8aura ;ausini es id!neo para el puesto de oficinista, pero esa dama 'ue se emociona con 5A<DA puede 3hacer4 una excelente ert,aina antidistur#ios* :i 'uiere =d un presentador %#ueno, ahora creo 'ue se llaman 3conductor4( amistoso, marchoso, " con una atractiva imagen progre, para un sho1 de m)xima audiencia, cerci!rese de 'ue escucha sin cesar fun9" o hiphop* B si tenemos en cuenta los rasgos 'ue de#en adornar idealmente a un psi'uiatra atornillado a su silla de tra#a$o, si lo eres lector, de#eran gustarte Mo,art %cl)sico(, Ahieftains %Eol9(, 8ouis 5rmstrong %$a,,(, FF Ging %#lues(* 5nticip)ndome a tu pregunta te dir 'ue no est) claro 'ue "os #ocheros puedan catalogarse como Eol9* 8o siento* Euentes& 2eroldi A, Metitieri T, Finetti 2, Hanetti I, Tra#ucchi M, Erisoni 2F* ;op music and frontotemporal dementia* Neurolog" -...J 77& 6>/7-@* 0entfro1 ; , 2osling :D* The do re miKs of ever"da" life& the structure and personalit" correlates of music preferences* ;ers :oc ;s"chol -../J ?L& 6-/@-7@ M5#stractN* -;osted #" uan to ;:CO=C5T0C5 CN:I8CT5 at 6.<.-<-..7 6-&6?&.. ;M +pilepsia Musicognica +pileptic Disord* -../ :epJ7%/(&6//-P* Related Articles, Links

Cctal :;+AT in a case of pure musicogenic epileps"* 2elisse ;, Thomas ;, ;adovani 0, Hassan-:e##ag N, ;as'uier , 2enton ;* Aentre :aint-;aul, Marseille, Erance* 5 />-"ear-old, right-handed 1oman had sei,ures for t1o "ears 1hich 1ere al1a"s triggered #" exposure to various t"pes of music& the first occurred 1hile she listened to a tune she particularl" li9ed, Aon Te ;artiro, #" 5ndrea Foccelli* Ither triggering factors 1ere various t"pes of music such as supermar9et #ac9ground music and pol"phonic singing or instrumental music pla"ed #" famil" mem#ers* The sei,ures had a stereot"ped course& she felt anxious, tearful, then occurred slight o#tundation, during 1hich she smac9ed her lips and moved restlessl"* There 1as no complete loss of consciousness, #ut some degree of amnesia* :he never experienced a generali,ed tonic-clonic sei,ure, #ut reported rare spontaneous feelings of de$a-vu that had #egun at the same time as the induced sei,ures* There 1ere no other spontaneous attac9sJ onl" one sei,ure 1as apparentl" provo9ed, not #" music #ut #" a loud #ac9ground noise in her office* :he 1as a music lover and a singer* Cnterictal ++2 sho1ed independent slo1 1aves over the temporal regions* :everal sei,ures 1ith ++2 localisation over the right temporal region 1ere elicited after several minutes of exposure to music* Monoauricular stimulation 1ith the same music produced a sei,ure 1hen applied to the left ear #ut 1as ineffective 1hen applied to the right ear* Cctal :;+AT demonstrated right temporal h"perperfusion* M0C 1as normal* In high dose of car#ama,epine, sei,ure fre'uenc" decreased* The addition of topiramate resulted in full sei,ure control* Musicogenic epileps" is a rare form of reflex epileps"* ;ure cases, 1hen patients do not experience unprovo9ed sei,ures, are exceptional* Iur report confirms the implication of the right temporal lo#e in this epileps"* Aop"right ohn 8i##e" +urotext -../ ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports

6& Neurol :ci* -..L Dec 67J--P%6(&77-@7* The clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations* +vers :, +llger T* Department of Neurolog", =niversit" of Munster, 5l#ert-:ch1eit,er-:tr* //, L?6-> Munster, 2erman"* everssQuni-muenster*de Musical hallucinations are a 1ell 9no1n although rare phenomenon in neurological and ps"chiatric patients* Man" case reports have #een pu#lished to date* Ho1ever, an accepted common theor" on the classification and on the pathoph"siolog" of musical hallucinations is still missing* Re anal"sed all cases pu#lished to date, including t1o o1n cases, 1ith respect to their demographic and clinical features and to the possi#le pathomechanisms underl"ing the hallucinations* Cn total, 6/- cases could #e anal"sed statisticall" and separated into five groups according to their aetiolog" %h"pacusisJ ps"chiatric disorderJ focal #rain lesionJ epileps"J intoxication(* There 1as a female preponderance of P.S and a mean age of @6*7 "ears* ;atients 1ith focal #rain lesions 1ere significantl" "ounger than the other groups, the hemisphere of the lesion did not pla" a ma$or role* No s"stematic studies on treatment are availa#le* Ho1ever, anticonvulsant and antidepressive su#stances 1ere reported to #e effective most consistentl"* The pathoph"siolog" of musical hallucinations is discussed considering the theories of deafferentiation including the concept

of auditor" Aharles-Fonnet s"ndrome, of sensor" auditor" deprivation, of parasitic memor", and of spontaneous activit" in a cognitive net1or9 module* Cn conclusion, musical hallucinations are a phenomenon 1ith heterogeneous clinical and pathoph"siological #ac9grounds* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Multicase 677L@7>-& +pileps" Fehav* -..L IctJ7%7(&@@--?* The acute effect of music on interictal epileptiform discharges* Turner 0;* Department of Neurolog", Medical =niversit" of :outh Aarolina, Aharleston, :A, =:5* Turner0;Qmusc*edu This stud" 1as a prospective, randomi,ed, single-#linded, crossover, place#o-controlled, pilot clinical trial investigating the effect of Mo,artKs :onata for T1o ;ianos %GLL?( on the fre'uenc" of interictal epileptiform discharges %C+Ds( from the ++2s of children 1ith #enign childhood epileps" 1ith centrotemporal spi9es, or TrolandicT epileps"* The goal 1as to demonstrate decreased fre'uenc" of C+Ds 1ith exposure to GLL?* Eour su#$ects 1ere recruited and L-hour a1a9e ++2 recordings performed* C+D fre'uenc" per minute 1as averaged over each of three epochs per hour* Mean C+D count per epoch, standard deviations, and variance 1ere calculated* Inl" complete 1a9ing epochs 1ere anal",ed* T1o su#$ects demonstrated sufficient 1a9ing C+Ds for statistical anal"sis, consisting of three epochs of GLL?-related effects* :ignificant decreases in C+Ds per minute %//*P, 7.*@, and //*>S( 1ere demonstrated comparing #aseline 1ith exposure to GLL?, #ut not to control music %FeethovenKs Eur +lise(* ;u#lication T"pes& Alinical Trial 0andomi,ed Aontrolled Trial 67/?.66P /& Neurolog"* -..L ul 6/J@/%6(&6>.-6* Uacuum cleaner epileps"* Aarlson A, :t 8ouis +G* 0o" * and 8ucille 5* Aarver Aollege of Medicine, =niversit" of Co1a Hospitals and Alinics, Department of Neurolog", -.. Ha19ins Drive, Co1a Ait", C5 7--L-, =:5* chad-carlsonQuio1a*edu ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 67-L>@L/

L& +pileptic Disord* -../ :epJ7%/(&6//-P* Cctal :;+AT in a case of pure musicogenic epileps"* 2elisse ;, Thomas ;, ;adovani 0, Hassan-:e##ag N, ;as'uier , 2enton ;* Aentre :aint-;aul, Marseille, Erance* 5 />-"ear-old, right-handed 1oman had sei,ures for t1o "ears 1hich 1ere al1a"s triggered #" exposure to various t"pes of music& the first occurred 1hile she listened to a tune she particularl" li9ed, Aon Te ;artiro, #" 5ndrea Foccelli* Ither triggering factors 1ere various t"pes of music such as supermar9et #ac9ground music and pol"phonic singing or instrumental music pla"ed #" famil" mem#ers* The sei,ures had a stereot"ped course& she felt anxious, tearful, then occurred slight o#tundation, during 1hich she smac9ed her lips and moved restlessl"* There 1as no complete loss of consciousness, #ut some degree of amnesia* :he never experienced a generali,ed tonic-clonic sei,ure, #ut reported rare spontaneous feelings of de$a-vu that had #egun at the same time as the induced sei,ures* There 1ere no other spontaneous attac9sJ onl" one sei,ure 1as apparentl" provo9ed, not #" music #ut #" a loud #ac9ground noise in her office* :he 1as a music lover and a singer* Cnterictal ++2 sho1ed independent slo1 1aves over the temporal regions* :everal sei,ures 1ith ++2 localisation over the right temporal region 1ere elicited after several minutes of exposure to music* Monoauricular stimulation 1ith the same music produced a sei,ure 1hen applied to the left ear #ut 1as ineffective 1hen applied to the right ear* Cctal :;+AT demonstrated right temporal h"perperfusion* M0C 1as normal* In high dose of car#ama,epine, sei,ure fre'uenc" decreased* The addition of topiramate resulted in full sei,ure control* Musicogenic epileps" is a rare form of reflex epileps"* ;ure cases, 1hen patients do not experience unprovo9ed sei,ures, are exceptional* Iur report confirms the implication of the right temporal lo#e in this epileps"* Aop"right ohn 8i##e" +urotext -../ ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6L@?L/LP 7& 5nn N B 5cad :ci* -../ NovJ>>>&>7-6.-* Musicogenic sei,ures* 5van,ini 2* Cstituto Na,ionale Neurologico A* Festa, Milan, Ctal"* avan,iniQistituto-#esta*it +ight"-seven reports of patients 1ith sei,ures induced #" listening and<or pla"ing music and one personal o#servation are revie1ed* Music-induced %or musicogenic( sei,ures are currentl" classified among the reflex sei,ures precipitated #" complex stimuli* 5ccording to the availa#le information, the" are defined as focal sei,ures due to a discharge involving lateral and mesial temporal and or#itofrontal areas* The specific musical component responsi#le for sei,ure precipitation is still undetermined* 5n important role is attri#uted to the emotional aspect of music* The existence of this rare disorder should #e #orne in mind #" neurologists, 1ho should also #e a1are of the existing musical test #atteries that ma" help in understanding #etter the nature of triggering

mechanisms responsi#le for this uni'ue pathological condition* The implementations of the results of ongoing investigations on #rain processing of musical information 1ill advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsi#le for the transition from interictal to ictal phases of epileps"* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 6L@?66-. @& Aurr Neurol Neurosci 0ep* -../ NovJ/%@(&7.--P* 5musia and musicogenic epileps"* :parr :5* :tern :tro9e Aenter, Montefiore Medical Aenter, 5l#ert +instein Aollege of Medicine, 666 +ast -6. :treet, Fronx, NB 6.L@P, =:5* sasparrQmontefiore*org 5musia and musicogenic epileps" are clinical disorders that provide a 1indo1 into the locali,ation of music in the #rain* Alassic clinical studies of patients 1ith these disorders, coupled 1ith more recent studies emplo"ing modern neuroimaging and sophisticated neurops"chologic paradigms, have converged in helping to elucidate the complex neural s"stems that are utili,ed in decoding music* The notion of cere#ral dominance for music has #een replaced #" a concept of modular #ut interconnected net1or9s that have 1ide #ilateral locali,ation in the #rain and that are molded #oth #" genetics and experience* These disorders also provide insight into the important interface #et1een music and emotion* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial 6L7@7>.7 P& +pileps" Fehav* -../ IctJL%7(&L@L-P/* Musicogenic epileps" and epileptic music& a sei,ureKs song* Gaplan ;R* Department of Neurolog", ohns Hop9ins Fa"vie1 Medical Aenter, F Fuilding, 6 North, 0oom 6-7, L>L. +astern 5venue, Faltimore, MD -6--L, =:5* p9aplanQ$hmi*edu ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial 6L7-PL?@ ?& ;ediatr Neurol* -../ Ma"J-?%7(&/P>-?6* 5 "oung infant 1ith musicogenic epileps"* 8in G8, Rang H:, Gao ;E*

Division of ;ediatric Neurolog", Department of ;ediatrics, Ahang 2ung AhildrenKs Hospital at 8in9ou, 7 Eu-:hin :treet, G1eishan ///, Tao"uan, Tai1an* Musicogenic epileps" is a relativel" rare form of epileps"* Cn its pure form, it is characteri,ed #" epileptic sei,ures that are provo9ed exclusivel" #" listening to music* The usual t"pe of sei,ure is partial complex or generali,ed tonic-clonic* ;recipitating factors are 'uite specific, such as listening to onl" one composition or the actual pla"ing of music on an instrument* Ho1ever, simple sound also can #e a trigger* Re report a @-month-old infant 1ith musicogenic epileps"* :he manifested right-sided focal sei,ures 1ith occasional generali,ation* The sei,ures 1ere fre'uentl" triggered #" loud music, especiall" that #" the Featles* The interictal electroencephalograph" results 1ere normal* Cctal spi9es 1ere present throughout the left temporal area during continuous electroencephalograpic monitoring* Frain magnetic resonance imaging results 1ere normal, 1hereas single-photon emission computed tomograph" of the #rain revealed h"poperfusion of the left temporal area* The "oung age and epileptogenic left temporal lo#e lesion in this patient 1ith musicogenic epileps" 1ere unusual characteristics* Theoreticall", three levels of integration are involved in music processing in the #rain* The involved integration of this infantKs #rain ma" #e the sensor" level rather than the emotional level* Nevertheless, the personal musicalit" and musical st"le of the Featles might pla" an important role in this patientKs epileps"* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6-?P?/.. >& +pileps" Fehav* -..- 5prJ/%-(&6?--6?L* The Mo,art +ffect& 5dditional Data* Hughes 0* 5fter the revie1 of the Mo,art effect 1as pu#lished in this $ournal %Hughes 0* +pileps" Fehav -..6J-&/@>-L6P(, additional data from the music of Ha"dn and 8is,t have #een anal",ed that ma" account for the decrease in sei,ure activit" originall" reported during Mo,art music* +ven 1ith these added data Mo,art music continued to score significantl" higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namel", the repetition of the melod"* Ho1ever Ha"dnKs values 1ere second highest among Mo,art, * :* Fach, Ragner, Feethoven, Ahopin, and 8is,t* 6-@.>L-. M;u#Med - as supplied #" pu#lisherN 6.& Neurolog"* -..- Nov 6-J7>%>(&6L/7-?* :inging sei,ures* Dohert" M , Rilens9" 5 , Holmes MD, 8e1is DH, 0ae , Aohn 2H* 0egional +pileps" Aenter, Har#orvie1 Medical Aenter, =niversit" of Rashington, :eattle, R5 >?6>7, =:5* mdohert"Qu*1ashington*edu 5utomatisms are commonl" seen in epileps", either ictall" or postictall"* Ho1ever, most automatisms are simple, 1ith hand movements, mouth smac9ing,

nose-ru##ing, repetition of a single 1ord, or coughing, grunting, or screeching* Aomplex automatisms are less common and stri9ing* The authors report t1o cases of sei,ure-associated singing 1here song expression ma" #e recogni,a#le* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6-L-P>.. 66& Neuroscientist* -..- 5ugJ?%L(&/P--?.* Frain speciali,ation for music* ;eret, C* Department of ;s"cholog", =niversit" of Montreal 0esearch Aenter, =niversit" Cnstitute of 2eriatrics of Montreal, Aanada* Csa#elle*;eret,Qumontreal*ca Music, li9e language, is a universal and specific trait to humans* :imilarl", music appreciation, li9e language comprehension, appears to #e the product of a dedicated #rain organi,ation* :upport for the existence of music-specific neural net1or9s is found in various pathological conditions that isolate musical a#ilities from the rest of the cognitive s"stem* Aere#rovascular accidents, traumatic #rain damage, and congenital #rain anomalies can lead to selective disorders of music processing* Aonversel", autism and epileps" can reveal the autonomous functioning and the selectivit", respectivel", of the neural net1or9s that su#serve music* Ho1ever, #rain speciali,ation for music should not #e e'uated 1ith the presence of a singular Tmusical centerT in the #rain* 0ather, multiple interconnected neural net1or9s are engaged, of 1hich some ma" capture the essence of #rain speciali,ation for music* The encoding of pitch along musical scales is li9el" such an essential component* The implications of the existence of such special-purpose cortical processes are that the human #rain might #e hard1ired for music* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial 6-6>L7.7 6-& 5r' Neuropsi'uiatr* -..- unJ@.%--F(&7.7-?* The uncinated crisis of 2eorge 2ersh1in* Teive H5, 2erminiani EM, Aardoso 5F, de ;aola 8, Rernec9 8A* :ervico de Neurologia, Departamento de Alinica Medica, Hospital de Alinicas, =niversidade Eederal do ;arana, Auriti#a, ;0, Frasil* hagteiveQmps*com*#r 2eorge 2ersh1in, reno1ned composer and pianist, 1ell 9no1n for his popular 1or9s, died on the 66th ul" 6>/P due to a #rain tumor* His neurological s"mptoms first appeared on that same "ear, in Ee#ruar", 1ith a simple olfactor" partial sei,ure, characteri,ed #" an unpleasant smell of #urnt ru##er %uncinated sei,ure(* He later had a 'uic9 clinical descend, 1ith severe headache that occurred in #outs, di,,iness, coordination compromise and olfactor" sei,ures, eventuall" lapsing into a coma on the >th ul" 6>/P* Ct 1as then that a

gliomatosus c"st 1as diagnosed, 1hich on microscopic examination proved to #e a Tglio#lastoma multiformeT* Despite the surgical intervention, 2ersh1in died soon after the procedure 1ithout recovering his consciousness* Re ma9e a #rief revie1 of 2ersh1inKs neurologic disease, 1ith emphasis on the initial s"mptoms, namel" the uncinated sei,ures* ;u#lication T"pes& Fiograph" Historical 5rticle ;ersonal Name as :u#$ect& 2ersh1in 2 6-6/6>@6 6/& Alin Neuroph"siol* -..- Ma"J66/%7(&P-7-/L* :"stematic source estimation of spi9es #" a com#ination of independent component anal"sis and 05;-M=:CA* CC& ;reliminar" clinical application* Go#a"ashi G, 59i"ama T, Na9ahori T, Boshinaga H, 2otman * Department of Ahild Neurolog", I9a"ama =niversit" Medical :chool, 7-6 :hi9atacho-- chome, apan* 9V9o#aQmd*o9a"ama-u*ac*$p IF +ATCU+:& Re tried to estimate epileptic sources #" a com#ination of independent component anal"sis %CA5( and recursivel" applied and pro$ected multiple signal classification %05;-M=:CA( in real epileptiform ++2 discharges* M+THID:& ++2 data including an arra" of spi9es from / patients 1ere decomposed #" CA5, and source estimation 1as performed #" appl"ing 05;-M=:CA to the spatial information defined #" the set of CA5 components that sho1ed epileptiform activit" in their 1aveform* :ources 1ere also estimated from the same data using 05;-M=:CA #ased on eigen-decomposition of the covariance matrix of averaged spi9es, and common spatial pattern decomposition for comparison* 0+:=8T:& 05;-M=:CA #ased on CA5 could estimate generall" correct epileptic sources in the / patients, and its results 1ere #etter than those of the other methods, 1hen compared to intracere#ral data* The present anal"sis proceeded 1ithout introduction of su#$ective decision after data selection* The separation of epileptiform discharges from the #ac9ground is essential for this anal"sis, and 1as successfull" performed in the real ++2 data* AINA8=:CIN:& 05;-M=:CA #ased on CA5 appears promising for estimation of epileptic sources 1ith minimal dependence on su#$ective decisions in the process of anal"sis* Cn particular, it 1as not necessar" to select the num#er of sources* 66>P@.76L& Alin Neuroph"siol* -..- Ma"J66/%7(&P6/--L* :"stematic source estimation of spi9es #" a com#ination of independent component anal"sis and 05;-M=:CA* C& ;rinciples and simulation stud"* Go#a"ashi G, 59i"ama T, Na9ahori T, Boshinaga H, 2otman * Department of Ahild Neurolog", I9a"ama =niversit" Medical :chool, 7-6 :hi9atacho-- chome, apan* 9V9o#aQmd*o9a"ama-u*ac*$p

IF +ATCU+:& Re propose a com#ination of independent component anal"sis %CA5( and recursivel" applied and pro$ected multiple signal classification %05;-M=:CA( as a ne1 approach to dipole source estimation of epileptiform discharges* The method is minimall" dependent on su#$ective decisions* M+THID:& Ten electroencephalographic %++2( data matrices 1ere generated #" computer, each matrix including real #ac9ground activit" from a normal su#$ect and an arra" of added simulated spi9es* +ach spi9e 1as a summation of t1o transients originating from slightl" different Koriginal dipole sourcesK* The unaveraged ++2 matrices 1ere decomposed #" CA5, and source estimation 1as performed #" appl"ing 05;-M=:CA to the spatial information defined #" the CA5 components sho1ing epileptiform activit" in their 1aveform* Eor comparison, dipoles 1ere also estimated from the same matrices using t1o existing methods& 05;-M=:CA #ased on eigen-decomposition of the covariance matrices of averaged spi9es and common spatial pattern decomposition* 0+:=8T:& Cn ever" simulated ++2 data matrix, t1o dipoles close to the original sources 1ere estimated #" the present method* Their unaveraged activities 1ere also similar to those of the original sources* The t1o existing methods gave less precise results than the proposed method* AINA8=:CIN:& 05;-M=:CA #ased on CA5 thus proved promising for source estimation of unaveraged epileptiform discharges* 66>P@.76 67& Therapie* -..6 :ep-IctJ7@%7(&@//* MThe 5mfortas phenomenonN M5rticle in ErenchN Treves 0* ;u#lication T"pes& Fiograph" Aase 0eports Historical 5rticle 8etter ;ersonal Name as :u#$ect& Ragner 0 5mfortas 66?.@/.? 6@& 5nn N B 5cad :ci* -..6 unJ>/.&6L/-7-* Music and the neurologist* 5 historical perspective* Frust A* Department of Neurolog", Harlem Hospital Aenter and Aolum#ia =niversit" Aollege of ;h"sicians and :urgeons, Ne1 Bor9, Ne1 Bor9 6../P, =:5* $c#-Qcolum#ia*edu Neurological disorders affecting musical function can produce either positive or negative s"mptoms* ;ositive phenomena include musicogenic epileps" %sei,ures triggered #" music(, musical partial sei,ures %hallucinated music as the expression of the sei,ure(, musical release hallucinations %nonepileptic musical hallucinations, usuall" associated 1ith impaired hearing(, and s"nesthesia

%hallucinated colors triggered #" musical tones(* Negative phenomena comprise the amusias, 1hich can #e receptive, expressive, or #oth, and can selectivel" involve particular components of musical processing, including pitch, interval, contour, rh"thm, meter, tim#re, and emotional response* 5musia is often accompanied #" aphasia, #ut each can occur in the a#sence of the other* Neurological disorders provide evidence that musical processing is multimodal and 1idel" distri#uted in #oth cere#ral hemispheres* ;u#lication T"pes& Historical 5rticle 66L7??-7 6P& 0 :oc Med* -..6 unJ>L%@(&/6@* Aomment on& 0 :oc Med* -..6 5prJ>L%L(&6P.--* The Mo,art effect* Hughes 0* ;u#lication T"pes& Aomment 8etter 66/?PL// 6?& 0 :oc Med* -..6 5prJ>L%L(&6P.--* Aomment in& 0 :oc Med* -..6 unJ>L%@(&/6@* 0 :oc Med* -..6 unJ>L%@(&/6@-P* The Mo,art effect* en9ins :* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial 66/6P@6P 6>& Alin +lectroencephalogr* 6>>> 5prJ/.%-(&LL-7* Cs there a chronic change of the TMo,art effectT on epileptiform activit"W 5 case stud"* Hughes 0, Eino , Mel"n M5*

Department of Neurolog", =niversit" of Cllinois Medical Aenter at Ahicago @.@6-, =:5* This report sho1s that a patient 1ith the 8ennox-2astaut :"ndrome had fe1er clinical sei,ures and also fe1er generali,ed #ilateral spi9e and 1ave complexes

over a -L-hour period 1hile exposed to Mo,art music %G*LL?( for 6. minutes ever" hour during 1a9efulness* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6./7?P?-.& 0insho :hin9eiga9u* 6>>? DecJ/?%6-(&6.@P->* M5 case of musicogenic epileps" induced #" listening to an 5merican pop musicN M5rticle in apaneseN Na9ano M, Ta9ase B, Tatsumi A* Department of Neurolog", To"ona9a Municipal Hospital* This is the second report of musicogenic epileps" in apan* 5 -/-"ear-old 1oman 1as admitted to our hospital due to the musicogenic epileps"* :he had four generali,ed tonic clonic sei,ures at 6? and 6> "ears old* :ince 6>, she had had complex partial sei,ures lasting for a#out -. seconds 1hich 1as easil" evo9ed #" listening to an 5merican pops particularl" TDreamloverT song #" Mariah Aare"* Frian M0C and interictal >>mTc HM;5I-:;+AT sho1ed no a#normalities* Cn the ictal ++2 recording, three minutes after listening to the song, sei,ure activities 1ere recorded from the right temporal region 1ith 66H, rh"thmic epileptiform activities over the right temporal region and su#se'uent delta activities over the right hemisphere* The song that induced the sei,ure had a specific meaning that might evo9e her emotion as had #een pointed out in the previous reports* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6./L>/76 -6& Alin +lectroencephalogr* 6>>? ulJ->%/(&6.>-6>* The TMo,art effectT on epileptiform activit"* Hughes 0, Daa#oul B, Eino , :ha1 28*

=niversit" of Cllinois Medical Aenter, Ahicago @.@6-, =:5* The TMo,art +ffect,T using the ;iano :onata in D Ma$or %G*LL?(, 1as examined in patients 1ith sei,ures* Cn -/ of -> instances significant decreases in epileptiform activit" 1ere noted from patients even in coma, 1ith status epilepticus or 1ith periodic laterali,ed epileptiform discharges %;8+Ds(* The effect ma" #e immediate or re'uire L.-/.. sec to manifest itself* The change in the amount of ictal activit" in one patient in coma 1as from @-S #efore the music to -6S during Mo,art* 5mplitudes of these discharges also have often decreased* +xamples of ;8+Ds on #oth temporal areas are sho1n in 1hich the effect 1as onl" on the left temporal area #ut in other patients onl" on the right temporal area* Frain maps during the music sho1ed theta and alpha activit" decreased on the central areas, 1hile delta 1aves increased on the frontal midline area* The #asis of this effect is li9el" that the superorgani,ation of the cere#ral cortex 1ith its highl" structured radial columns seen throughout

#oth hemispheres ma" resonate 1ith the superior architecture of Mo,artKs music* >@@..6. --& 5dv Neurol* 6>>?JP7&-P/-?6* Musicogenic epileps"* Hif9in F2, Hatorre 0 * +pileps" Alinic, Montreal Neurological Hospital and Cnstitute, Oue#ec, Aanada* ;u#lication T"pes& 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial >/?7L-P -/& +pilepsia* 6>>P Ee#J/?%-(&-..-P* Musicogenic epileps"& revie1 of the literature and case report 1ith ictal single photon emission computed tomograph"* Rieser H2, Hunger#uhler H, :iegel 5M, Fuc9 5* Department of Neurolog", =niversit" Hospital Hurich, :1it,erland* ;=0;I:+& Re report a case of musicogenic epileps" 1ith ictal single photon emission computed tomograph" %:;+AT( stud" and discuss the findings of this patient in the context of P@ cases 1ith musicogenic epileps" descri#ed in the literature and seven other cases follo1ed in Hurich* M+THID:& Re anal",ed the ?/ patients according to the precipitating musical factors, t"pe of epileps", presumed locali,ation of sei,ure onset, and demographic data* 0+:=8T:& Eourteen of ?/ patients %6PS( had sei,ures triggered exclusivel" #" music* 5t time of examination, music 1as the onl" 9no1n precipitating stimulus in @7 of ?/ patients %P?S(* Uarious characteristics of the musical stimulus 1ere significant, e*g*, musical categor", familiarit", and instruments* AINA8=:CIN:& Musicogenic epileps" is a particular form of epileps" 1ith a strong correlation to the temporal lo#e and a right-sided preponderance* 5 high musial standard might predispose for musicogenic epileps"* Moreover, the ma$orit" of cases do not fall into the categor" of a strictl" defined Treflex epileps",T #ut appear to depend on the indermediar" of a certain emotional reaction mediated through lim#ic mesial temporal lo#e structures* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 0evie1 0evie1, Tutorial >.L?@P/ -L& Neurol Neurosurg ;s"chiatr"* 6>>6 DecJ7L%6-(&666L-@* Uariations on a theme--singing as an epileptic automatism* Meier9ord H, :horvon :*

=niversit" Department of Alinical Neurolog", National Hospital for Neurolog" and Neurosurger", 8ondon, =G* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 6P?/>-> -7& +pilepsia* 6>>6 Nov-DecJ/-%@(&?6.-7* oan of 5rc* Eoote-:mith +, Fa"ne 8* Department of Neurolog", =niversit" of Aalifornia :an Erancisco* Eor centuries, romantics have praised and historians and scientists de#ated the m"ster" of oan of 5rcKs exceptional achievements* Ho1 could an uneducated farmerKs daughter, raised in harsh isolation in a remote village in medieval Erance, have found the strength and resolution to alter the course of histor"W H"potheses have ranged from miraculous intervention to creative ps"chopath"* Re suggest, #ased on her o1n 1ords and the contemporar" descriptions of o#servers, that the source of her visions and convictions 1as in part ecstatic epileptic auras and that she $oins the host of creative religious thin9ers suspected or 9no1n to have epileps", from :t* ;aul and Mohammed to Dostoevs9", 1ho have changed 1estern civili,ation* ;u#lication T"pes& Fiograph" Historical 5rticle ;ersonal Name as :u#$ect& oan of 5rc 6PL/67-@& Cnt Neurosci* 6>?> ulJLP%6--(&67>-@L* Musicogenic epileps"* Ui,ioli 0* Ahair of Neuroph"siopatholog", 0ome =niversit" 8a :apien,a, Ctal"* The pro#lem of musicogenic epileps" is reconsidered #" the author in the light of a case of temporal lo#e sei,ures 1ith secondar" generali,ation precipitated #" an" t"pe of music* The inclusion of musicogenic epileps" in the chapter of reflex epilepsies is discussed and criti,ised #" the author considering that music sets in motion too man" structures and cannot #e reduced to crude perception of rh"thm and melodies* Ct is considered that three levels of integration are involved in music& a sensor" level %the lo1est one( an emotional and 1a9ing level %the second one( and finall" a highest level, allo1ing aesthetic appreciation* Ct is the opinion of the author that musicogenic epileps" has to do mostl" 1ith the lim#ic #rain, that is 1ith the second level of integration* Musicogenic epileps" therefore should #e #etter included in the

dismissed chapter of affective epileps" of Frat,* -P>//L6 -P& 5ust Eam ;h"sician* 6>?P :epJ6@%>(&6/.7* Musical epileps"--a neurological oddit"* Aol'uhoun ;* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports /@P7/@? -?& Full N B 5cad Med* 6>?@ :epJ@-%P(&P7>-@7* :igmund EreudKs disli9e of music& a piece of epileptolog"* 0oth N* ;u#lication T"pes& Fiograph" Historical 5rticle ;ersonal Name as :u#$ect& Ereud : /7//6>. ->& Aan Med 5ssoc * 6>?L Nov 67J6/6%6.(&6-77-?* Musicogenic epileps"* Frien :+, Murra" T * 5 case of musicogenic epileps" is reported in 1hich the sei,ures 1ere precipitated #" singing voices* Ct 1as found that some singersK voices 1ere particularl" epileptogenic and that some of their songs, #ut not others, 1ould precipitate a sei,ure* 5 stud" of the ToffendingT songs and singers did not reveal a common 9e", chord, harmonic interval, pitch or rh"thm, and the emotional feeling or intensit" of the music did not seem to #e relevant* Ho1ever, the voices that caused the sei,ures had a throat", TmetallicT 'ualit"* :uch a singing voice results from incorrect positioning of the lar"nx such that it is not allo1ed to descend full" during singingJ conse'uentl", the vo1el sounds produced must #e manipulated #" the lips or $a1 to #e distinguished* This trait is most common in singers 1ith a lo1 voice range 1ho sing softl" and use a microphone* Ct is not seen in trained operatic or musical theatre singers* The results of repeated testing sho1ed that the sei,ures in this patient 1ere caused #" listening to singers 1ho positioned the lar"nx incorrectl"* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports @L>?@P?

/.& 5rch Neurol* 6>?L IctJL6%6.(&66.--/* :ei,ures induced #" singing and recitation* 5 uni'ue form of reflex epileps" in childhood* Hers9o1it, , 0osman N;, 2esch1ind N* 5 --"ear-old #o" of a#ove-average intelligence experienced sei,ures, manifested #" ticli9e turning movements of the head, 1hich 1ere induced consistentl" #" his o1n singing--not #" listening to or imagining music* His sei,ures 1ere also induced #" his recitation and #" his use of sill" or 1itt" language such as punning* The neurologic examination sho1ed onl" a right-sided Fa#ins9iKs sign* :ei,ure activit" on an ++2 1as present in #oth temporocentral regions, especiall" on the right side, and 1as correlated 1ith clinical attac9s* 5 computed tomographic scan 1as normal* ;heno#ar#ital therap" did not reduce sei,ure fre'uenc"* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports @LPP--6 /6& 5nesthesiolog"* 6>?/ 5prJ7?%L(&/??* Eacial pain induced #" music* Banagida H* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports 8etter @?/P>?/ /-& Neurosurger"* 6>?- unJ6.%@ ;t 6(&P//-@* The case of 2eorge 2ersh1in* 8$unggren F* ;u#lication T"pes& Fiograph" Historical 5rticle ;ersonal Name as :u#$ect& 2ersh1in 2 P.7.P7? //& : 5fr Med * 6>?6 an 6.J7>%-(&L>-7-* Musicogenic epileps"* Ferman CR* Musicogenic epileps" is a form of temporal lo#e epileps", and #elongs to the

group of reflex epilepsies* Aonvulsions are generall" triggered #" a specific passage of music* Ct is not as rare as is generall" assumed, and ph"sicians and neurologists 1ere a1are of the condition as earl" as the latter part of the 6>th centur"* Man" of its sufferers have a#ove-average musicalit"* Cn some patients autonomic manifestations are conspicuous, #ut their role as preciptation factors is not clear* +lectro-encephalographic studies have sho1n conclusivel" that musicogenic epileps" is not h"sterical* Most #ut not all of its victims respond 1ell to anti-ictal medication* ;s"chotherap" has a place in the treatment of some patients* ;u#lication T"pes& Historical 5rticle P..@6.@ /L& Neurolog"* 6>?. :epJ/.%>(&6..6-L* :ei,ures induced #" pla"ing music* :utherling RR, Hershman 8M, Miller O, 8ee :C* 5 @P-"ear-old organist and minister 1ith dia#etes mellitus had stereot"ped focal sei,ures of the left lo1er face, $a1, and nec9* 5ttac9s occurred spontaneousl" or 1ere induced 1hen he pla"ed a specific h"mn on the organ* The sei,ures 1ere not induced #" reading, singing, hearing, or pla"ing the h"mn silentl"* The patient had interictal 1ea9ness of the left lo1er face and left side of the tongue* Eocal sei,ures 1ere recorded on an electroencephalogram %++2( at the right temporofrontal area* This patient illustrates partial sei,ures induced #" pla"ing music* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports @PP7-L@ /7& Ahir Irgani Mov* 6>P? Nov-DecJ@L%@(&@>6--* MDelitalaKs stories* 5n untuned violin* The "ear 6>L?N M5rticle in CtalianN Delitala E* -@-?L7 /@& Fol 5soc Med ; 0* 6>P? Ma"JP.%7(&6L/-7* Musicogenic epileps"* 0ivera 0e"es 8* ;u#lication T"pes& Aase 0eports -P?@6.