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B GIAO THNG VN TI

TRNG I HC HNG HI
KHOA IN IN T TU BIN
B MN IN T VIN THNG

BI GING
H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

TN HC PHN

: H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

M HC PHN

: 13229

TRNH O TO

: I HC CHNH QUY

DNG CHO SV NGNH : IN T - VIN THNG

HI PHNG 2010

YU CU V NI DUNG CHI TIT


Tn hc phn: H thng thng tin v tinh
B mn ph trch ging dy: T-VT
M hc phn: 13229

Loi hc phn : III


Khoa ph trch: in - T Tu bin
Tng s TC: 3

TS tit
L thuyt
Thc hnh/ Xemina
T hc
Bi tp ln
n mn hc
60
60
c
iu kin tin quyt:
Mc tiu ca hc phn: Trang b cho sinh vin nhng kin thc hiu bit v h thng thng tin v
tinh v nguyn tc hot ng, cu trc chi tit v h thng v tinh INMARSAT s dng trong hng hi.
Ni dung ch yu: Tng quan v h thng thng tin v tinh. Nguyn tc hot ng v cu trc chi
tit knh thng tin trong h thng thng tin v tinh INM-C
Ni dung chi tit:
PHN PHI S TIT
TN CHNG MC
TS
LT
Xemina
BT
KT
Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng thng tin v
10
10
tinh.
1.1 Gii thiu
1
1.2 c im v cc dch v ca h thng thng tin
v tinh
2
1.3 Tn s v cc vn truyn sng trong thng tin
v tinh.
3
1.4 Khi nim v phn cc sng
1
1.5 Cc tham s k thut ca h thng TTVT
2
1.6 Cc h thng thng tin v tinh v xu th pht
trin.
1
Chng 2: K thut thu pht trong h thng
18
17
1
TTVT.
2.1 Tp m v cc nh hng ca tp m trn tuyn
thng tin v tinh
4
2.2 Cng ngh v cc c tnh ca anten v tinh
3
2.3 Cu hnh trm mt t LES
2
2.4 My pht cng sut ln trong thng tin v tinh
2
2.5 Thit b thu trong thng tin v tinh
2
2.6 Vn iu ch v truyn dn trong thg tin v
tinh.
4
Kim tra t cch ln 1
1
Chng 3: Cu trc knh thng tin trong h thng 30
24
5
1
INM-C.
3.1 c im chung cc knh thng tin trong INM-C
1
3.2 Cc loi knh thng tin trong INM-C
1
3.3 Cu trc knh TDM
6
3.4 Cu trc knh bo hiu
5
3.5 Cu trc knh chuyn in
5
3.6 Qui trnh thc hin cc cuc gi trong INM-C
3
4
3.7 Cc phng php pht hin v sa li trong INM3
C
Kim tra t cch ln 2
1
Chng 4: Cc h thng INM khc s dng trong
17
16
1
hng hi
4.1 Khi qut chung
1
4.2 H thng INM-B
5
4.3 H thng INM-M v Mini-M
5

4.4 H thng INM-F


Kim tra t cch ln 3

5
1

Nhim v ca sinh vin: Ln lp y v chp hnh mi quy nh ca Nh trng.


Ti liu hc tp:
1. K thut thng tin v tinh
2. GMDSS handbook
3. Ti liu trn mng: http//www. inmarsat.com
4. ti t nghip ca sinh vin
Hnh thc v tiu chun nh gi sinh vin:
- Thi vit hoc thi vn p.
- Sinh vin phi bo m cc iu kin theo Quy ch ca Nh trng v ca B.
Thang im : Thang im ch A,B,C,D,F.
im nh gi hc phn: Z=0,3X+0,7Y.

TRNG I HC HNG HI VIT NAM


-o0oThS. NGUYN NGC SN

H THNG
THNG TIN V TINH

Hi Phng, thng 6 nm 2010

MC LC

NI DUNG

Trang

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TINH V TINH............................3


1. Gii thiu...................................................................................................................3
1. Cu trc ca h thng................................................................................................3
2. .c im ca h thng thng tin v tinh..................................................................4
3. Cc tham s k thut ca h thng thng tin v tinh................................................4
3. CHC NNG THNG TIN V................................................................................5
CC DCH V CA H THNG THNG TIN V TINH...........................................5
4. CC H THNG INMARSAT..................................................................................5
5. Tn s v vn truyn sng trong thng tin v tinh..................................................6
CHNG 2. K THUT THU PHT TRONG H THNG THNG TIN V TINH....7
1. Cng ngh v cc c tnh ca anten...........................................................................7
2. Cu hnh trm mt t..................................................................................................7
3. My pht cng sut ln................................................................................................8
4. Cng ngh my thu......................................................................................................9
5. iu ch v truyn dn..............................................................................................10
6. a truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh..........................................................................10
CHNG III: CU TRC KNH THNG TIN TRONG INMARSAT C......................11
1. CC LOI KNH THNG TIN............................................................................11
2. Cu trc knh TDM...................................................................................................12
3. Cu trc khung knh bo hiu...................................................................................23
5 Cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu....................................................................................27
6. Cc phng php sa li trong INM-C.....................................................................28
7. Quy trnh thc hin cc cuc gi trong thng tin v tinh..........................................28
Lp : .....................................2
Lp : .....................................2
Lp : .....................................2
Lp : .....................................3
Lp : .....................................3
Lp : .....................................3
Lp : .....................................4
Lp : .....................................4
Lp : .....................................4
Lp : .....................................1

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TINH V TINH


1. Gii thiu
1. Cu trc ca h thng.

Pht

Mi trng truyn sng

Thu

* Theo nguyn l h thng thng tin v tinh gm cc khu:


Khu v tinh
Khu mt t (trm iu khin)
Khu thit b u cui
* V tinh c phn ra thnh 2 loi:
V tinh a tnh: C tc quay bng tc quay ca tri t, tm cao36.000 km.
V tinh qu o thp l v tinh m nhn t mt t n chuyn ng lin tc, thi gian cn thit
cho v tinh chuyn ng xung quanh qu o ca n khc vi chu k quay ca qu t xung
quanh trc ca n.
* Vai tr ca v tinh nh mt trm lp. Ngoi ra cn tham gia chc nng iu khin v x l thng tin
(thay i tn s thu, pht, thay i khu vc, vng ph sng...)
Yu cu v v tr ca v tinh phi tng i n nh >s dng cc ng c phc tp, c sai lch
v tr 0.1. Do c c im l bp sng rt nh gim cng sut nn vn n nh v tr rt quan
trng.
* v nguyn tc s dng 3 v tinh c th bao ph c ton b tri t. cao 36000 km cc v tinh
trng vi mt phng qu o, t 700N-700S.
Thc t s dng 4 v tinh: AOR-E
AOR-W
IOR
POR
Cc v tinh ny c sc sng trong vng 7 nm.
* Cc trm iu khin mt t:
Trm duy tr s sng ca v tinh(trm v tinh mt t).

Trm thc hin chc nng thng tin thu pht, trm cung cp dch v: V tinh - Trm Thu bao
* Ngi s dng: c nhiu dng:
Thu bao u cui b (thoi,fax, telex,...)

Thu bao di ng: trc tip lin lc vi v tinh ch khng thng qua trm mt t. V vy chc
nng c ging trm mt t (cng kt ni trc tip vi v tinh) nhng khc l khng kt ni vi cc thu
bao di ng khc.
2. .c im ca h thng thng tin v tinh.
Vng ph sng rng
Dung lng thng tin ln
tin cy thng tin cao(99.9%).
Tnh linh hot cao
a dng v loi hnh dch v nh: Fax, truyn hnh, telex, dch v di ng, dch v c nh, truyn
nh, cc dch v o hng, cu h...
Hiu qu kinh t, cc ph thng tin r.
3.

Cc tham s k thut ca h thng thng tin v tinh.

a. nhit tp m ca h thng TS: nhit tp m h thng ca 1 trm v tinh mt t gm 2 thnh


phn c bn: TS ca h thng thu v TS ca h thng fider: TS = Ta + Tfider +TR (TR: nhit tp m ca
ng dn sng)
b. H s phm cht ca trm mt t G/T: h s phm cht ca trm mt t ca thng tin v tinh l 1
gi tr quan trng ni ln kh nng hot ng ca trm c biu din bng t s gia h s khuch i
anten v nhit tp m ca h thng. n v tnh (dB/0K).
c. T s sng mang/T: C/T.
T s sng mang trn nhit tp m l t s sng mang trn nhit tp m tng ng ti u
vo ca h thng my thu. Trong :
Nhit tp m c tnh t cc tham s sau:
+ iu ch tng h ca h thng pht
+ G/T ca h thng thu trn v tinh
+ iu ch tng h ca v tinh
+ t s G/T ca trm mt t thu
C: cng sut sng mang ti u vo my thu
Cr = G.Pr
d. nhit tp m ca anten.
Cc bp ph ca anten ti mt t thu c tt c cc tn hiu ti mt t v trn khng gian. Do cc
yu t con ngi, thin nhin, mt tri, mt trng v do cc h thng viba khc to t nhiu hng khc.
Ta: nhit tp m ca nten
Pn: cng sut tp m do anten thu c vi 1 di tn s c rng B
=> Ta = B.Pn/K
e. T s sng mang trn tp m (C/N)
Mun xc nh ngng thu ca h thng ta phi xc nh c C/N ti u vo b gii iu ch ti
bng tn m tn hiu chim.
C
C 1
= . .B
N T K

C: cng sut sng mang ti u vo ca h thng (dB)


B: rng bng tn ca tp m tng ng
T: nhit d tuyt i
K: h s Bolzerman. K=1.38.10--23
f. T s tn hiu trn tp m S/N
L t s gia tn hiu thu c trn tp m ca 1 knh thng tin c xc nh ti 1 bng tn c bn
S/N = C/N + Dm
Dm: h s gii iu ch, thuc k thut c s dng trong h thng .
g. T s Eb/N0.

Ta s dng khi nim t s Eb/N0 khi cc sng mang trn v tinh c dng l sng mang s v t s
ny l thc o kh nng phc hi d liu s ca modem s trong s c mt ca tp m. T s ny cng
ln th t s tc li bit cng gim(BER-Bits error rate).
=> Quan h ca chng l nghch o
h. Cng sut bc x ng hng.EIRP: L cng sut bc x ti cc im ca anten theo 1 hng //
nhau.
3. CHC NNG THNG TIN V
CC DCH V CA H THNG THNG TIN V TINH
1. Chc nng.
Cung cp cc chc nng cho cc dch v thng tin c nh v cc dch v thng tin di ng (inmarsat
l 1 trong cc thng tin chuyn dng phc v cho nghnh hng hi. Ngoi ra Inmarsat cn c chc nng
bo ng in cp cu theo 2 chiu: Tu B.
chuyn tip bo ng cp cu: Tu-b-tu
Bo ng cu nn: B-Tu qua h thng safety net. Nh thit b EGC. Cc thit b ny dng thu cc
bo ng cu nn t b ti tu, ngoi ra thu cc tn hiu bo ng, thi tit, cu nn,...
Thng tin phi hp tm kim cu nn.
Thng tin hin trng: on Scene. L thng tin gia cc tu cu nn vi nhau hoc gia cc tu b nn
vi tu tm kim cu nn.
Pht thng tin an ton hng hi MSI
Cc thng tin thng thng khc
2. Cc dch v.
Cc h thng thng tin ni chung, cc h thng inmarsat ni ring

Cung cp nhiu dch v cho ngi s dng n bao gm:

Thng tin thoi, fax,..

truyn d liu data, telex.

Chc nng tng cng qun l tu.


4. CC H THNG INMARSAT
1. Inmarsat A.
Ra i nm 1982, s dng cng ngh analog, cng sut ln, hiu sut nh, cng knh, t tin, bao
gm c tranceiver, ngoi ra c c cu iu khin nten, khi thu pht.
Khi trong cabin l processor
thit b u cui my fax, telephone...
2. Inmarsrsat B.
Ra i nm 1994. Chc nng v cc dch v cng cp ging Inmarsat A nhng s dng h thng
digital dn n gn nh, cc ph r hn.
3. Inmarsat C.
L h thng thng tin v tinh ti thiu p ng y ca GMDSS, cung cp dch v telex, data, . . .
h thng ny cn kt hp my thu gi nhm tng cng EGC. S dng anten v hng, kch thc
nh
4. Inmarsat M.
Bo ng cp cu v thng tin thng thng, n bao gm: khi anten, DTE, IME, cung cp dch
thoi, fax, . . .
5. Inmarsat Mini M.
Ci tin ca inmarsat M, khng thuc h GMDSS, L h thng b sung cho Inm C, nh fax, thoi, . .
. lm vic vi v tinh th h 3.theo ch Spot beam nn cc ph r.
6. Inm E.
V tinh bng L
7. Inm F
Ging Inm B cung cp y cc dch v ca 1 vn phng trn b nh internet (khng h no c).

5. Tn s v vn truyn sng trong thng tin v tinh


1. Tn s.
Tn s 406.025 Mhz =>Cospass sarsat
Tn s 1 Ghz -60Ghz => cc h thng tin v tinh
Trong on t 1 60 Ghz ngi ta chia ra nhiu bng tn phc v cho cc mc ch thng tin khc
nh cc bng L, C, K (Ka, Ku), X, S.
Bng L: 1 - 2 Ghz (1.5 1.6 Ghz)
Bng C: 4 - 8 Ghz (4 6 Ghz)
Bng K: Ku = 12.4 18 Ghz (s dng 14/12, 14/11 Ghz dng cho cc trm v tinh: ln s dng tn
s 14 Ghz, xung s dng 11 hoc 12 Ghz
Ka = 26.5 40 Ghz (30/20 Ghz)
Bng X v S: s dng trong mt s thng tin c bit, trong radar hng hi (S: 2 4Ghz) c kh
nng phn nh mc tiu rt tt nhng kch thc nten v thit b cng rt ln
2. Qu trnh truyn sng.
Truyn sng nhng di tn no cng chu s tc ng ca nhiu (sm, st, mi trng, . . . ) l nhng
tc ng bn ngoi hoc bn thn n mang tnh t bin hoc khng c chu k
Tp m: tc ng lin tc, c chu k hoc khng c t bin nhiu v bin v thi gian.
Suy hao ng truyn xy ra do nhiu x, khc x v tn x m c im ca thng tin v tinh l
ng truyn rt di => suy hao ln
Tn s cao, bng tn ln d b suy hao, nhiu, tp m v nhng nh hng nhng bng tn khc
nhau l khc nhau. Bng tn 1 10 Ghz t b nh hng nht v c gi l ca s v tuyn.
3. Phn cc sng
* khi nim: Phn cc sng l hng dao ng ca sng in t (in trng ) trong khng gian.
* Phn loi: phn cc sng thng v phn cc sng trn.
a) Phn cc sng thng:
Phn cc sng thng l sng c bc x theo phn cc thng ng, song song vi cnh ng ca
anten loa (anten bc x).
b
a

b) Phn cc sng trn l sng khi truyn lan trong mi trng truyn c vect

E quay trn
to ra sng ny ta kt hp 2 sng phn cc thng t vung gc nhau hoc lch pha nhau 900.
* ngha.
Nu 2 h thng anten hng vo nhau nhng khng thu c tn hiu th ngh ngay ti phn cc
sng. Ch p dng cho anten phn cc ng, cn anten phn cc trn th khng c ngha.

CHNG 2. K THUT THU PHT TRONG H THNG THNG TIN V TINH


Nguyn tc: l mt h thng thu-pht ca h thng v tuyn in hc, cng bao gm: Dao ng,
khuch i, nhn chia tn s, iu ch, khuch i cng sut, . . .
Pha thu thng tin v tinh ch khc ch do c im tn hiu ca v tinh pht ra nh nn ti u vo
my thu s dng b khuch i tp m thp.
My thu v pht phi nhn thy nhau => s dng sng truyn thng, 2 anten c hng

1.

2.
3.

4.

1. Cng ngh v cc c tnh ca anten


yu cu hot ng i vi anten thng tin v tinh
h s tng ch v hiu sut tng ch ca anten phi cao
Tnh hng cao. 2 bp sng ph nh
c tnh phn cc phi tt
Tp m thp => tng nhy ca h thng
Phn loi anten (trang 63).
H thng quay bm.
m bo cho anten mt t v anten v tinh khng c php lch qu 10 => s dng:
H thng xung n: lun xc nh tm ca bp sng hng vo v tinh
h thng bm tng nc: s dng tng nc v tr anten iu khin hng sao cho mc tn hiu ln nht.
H thng iu khin theo cu hnh da trn c s d on trc v qu o ca v tinh
Tnh cht v in ca anten
2. Cu hnh trm mt t

1. S khi.

LPA

Fi

i tn
xung

K tp
m thp

Dao
ng

KCS cao

Dao
ng

Gii iu
ch

K
IF

Thit b a
truy nhp

HPA
i tn
ln
Thit b
Anten
bm

My pht cng sut ln

K
IF

Gii iu
ch

Thit b a truy nhp, iu


ch v gii iu ch

Thit b quay bm m bo quay bm v tinh vi sai lch nh, c kch thc v gi thnh tng i
ln.
h thng fi: ghp tn hiu thu pht cc knh vi nhau. N va l cc b chia, va l cc fi ng
dn sng.
LNA: b khuch i tp m thp, l b khuch i c bit, thng c t u vo khuch i
tn hiu nh t v tinh v trm mt t.
B i tn xung: bin i tn s t vi Ghz xung khong 70Mhz
Khuch i trung tn IF: l b khuch i in p, c h s khuch i ln khuch i tn hiu
ln.
B gii iu ch
Thit b a truy nhp: tch cc knh thng tin a ra cc b ch th c lp ring r. V phn thu, thu
nhn cc knh ring r c lp ghp knh vi nhau => 1 knh tn s.
B iu ch
B i tn s ln: trn a tn s t IF =>cao tn.
B HPA: B khuch i tn hiu siu cao tn =>a tn hiu ln tn s siu cao tn => fi.

2. cng ngh s dng.


3. My pht cng sut ln
Vi my pht s dng trong thng tin v tinh c cc c im: Tn s cao. Cng sut ln.
1. Phn loi.
2. Cu hnh.

mod
HPA

COMBINER

U/C
U/C

mod

U/C

mod

HPA

COMBINER

a. S dng 1 HPA

HPA

U/C

mod

HPA

U/C

mod

HPA

U/C

mod

b. S dng nhiu HPA


U/C: b i tn ln
Mod: iu ch
Combiner: Kt hp
a) Ghp knh ri mi khuch i => HPA cng sut ln, rng bng thng ln, s dng cho cc
trm c dung knh ln.
b) Khuch i tng knh ri a vo ghp, HPA tng knh khng yu cu bng thng rng => m
bo h s khuch i cao, ph hp vi trm c dung lng nh, s knh t nhng v pha ngi s dng,
khai thc th phc tp hn.

4. Cng ngh my thu


*c im:
Tn hiu thu rt nh, ch bng 1/1021 cng sut my pht do ng truyn di, qua vng suy hao ln
cho d cng sut pha pht c cng sut rt ln.
V vy s dng cng ngh thu cc tn hiu (khuch i tp m thp).
1. Nhit tp m.

SI/NI

S0/N0

Vo

Ra

SI / N I
S0 / N 0
2. Cc loi khuch i tp m thp.
a) Khi nim: Khuch i tp m thp lm tng S/N bng cch lm gim N, l b khuch i s dng
cc linh kin bn dn c bit c h s nhit m, phn t khuch i l Transistor
b) Cc loi khuch i tp m:
o Loi LNA loi thng s

H s nhit tp m: F =

Khi tn hiu kch thch t ln 1 diode bin dung cc thng s v in t trn n to nn in tr m


=> khuch i c tn hiu vo. V vy vic gim in tr ni ca diode bin dung s to ra c tnh ca
tp m thp.
* mt s hn ch:
Cn c mch to ra tn hiu kch thch
Kh iu chnh v ph hp vi vic sn xut hng loi. (do phi s dng ng dn sng)
Bng tn hp
tin cy km, kh bo dng.
o B LNA loi GaAs FET.
S dng hiu ng ca transistor trng ca 1 s cht bn dn c h s nhit tp m.
c im: Bng thng rng, h s khuch i ln, tin cy cao=> s dng ph bin trong k thut
thng tin v tinh.
o B LNA loi HEMT
Transistor c linh ng in t cao, s dng hiu ng cht kh in t 2 chiu vi linh ng
cao, ph hp vi cc b khuch i tp m thp lm vic vi tn hiu c tn s cao.
5. iu ch v truyn dn.
6. a truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh.
a truy nhp: 1 i thu c th cng mt lc thu c nhiu knh thng tin ca nhiu i pht khc
nhau.
1. a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s.
Trong phng php ny bng thng ca b pht p c phn chia thnh cc knh tn s khc
nhau, mi knh tn s c n nh ring cho tng i mt t v cc i ny c pht thng tin lin tc
ti v tinh m khng xy ra hin tng xung t thng tin no.
2. a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian
Trong phng php ny thng tin c pht ti v tinh c nh dng kiu gi, mi mt i mt t
pht cc bus thng tin ca mnh ti 1 khe thi gian nht nh. Do c th s dng cng tn s vi cc
i khc nhau. Khi truy nhp ti b pht p ca v tinh m khng b xung t v khng chng ln nhau.
pha thu thc hin vic tch knh thng tin ti cc khe thi gian nht nh ng vi cc i pht nht
nh
Cu trc khung TDM:
bus chun

SES 1

khong phng v

SES 2

SES 3

.....

3. a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA.


Cc i mt t truy nhp ti v tinh c th cng 1 thi im, cng tn s, cng bng thng. Cc
thng tin i pht c m ho theo 1 quy lut nht nh m ch pha thu c cc t m ng b vi
t m pha pht th mi thu c.
Thu y c th hiu l cc tn s my thu c th thu c ht nhng ch vi cc vi cc thng
tin c t m ng b vi pha pht th mi c x l a ra thng tin mong mun, cn cc thng tin
khc khng c t m ng b pha pht vn c thu nhng khng c x l (thng tin ny b chn
khu gii iu ch). Phng php ny thng s dng phng php tri ph: Cc tn hiu c th nh di
mc tp m nhng vn c th thu c.
Ngoi ra cn c phng php SDMA: Phn chia theo vng a l, cc i mt t c phn chia
theo vng khng gian, trong mi vng khng gian li c th s dng TDMA, CDMA, FDMA.
Phng php truy nhp ngu nhin: Phng php mang thng tin CDMA nhng khng c c nh
khe thi gian trc tn dng cc khe thi gian, dung lng knh.
Trong phng php ny c 2 loi: ALOHA V SALOHA.

10

ALOHA: cc gi d liu c pht ngu nhin, do d liu khng c v tinh thu ln pht
th nht, khi v pht li gi tin ny sao cho c i pht cng thu c i pht pht li gi
tin sau 1 khong thi gian tr sau (khong 0.27s) c tnh da trn c s tr ng truyn.
SALOHA: y l 1 dng ca phng php trn, trong d liu pht c chia thnh cc gi nh
sau c pht trong khe thi gian ngu nhin trong min thi gian ca n.
Phng php truy nhp theo khe theo khe thi gian ng k trc.
Cu hi cui chng
1/ Cu trc v c im ca h thng thng tin v tinh
2/ Cc tham s k thut ca h thng thong tin v tinh
3/ Cc h thng thng tin v tinh INM
4/ Tn s v vn truyn sng trong thng tin v tinh
5/ Cng ngh v cc c tnh ca anten trong thng tin v tinh
6/ Cu hnh trm v tinh mt t
7/ My pht cng sut ln s dng trong trm v tinh mt t
8/ Cng ngh my thu trong thng tin v tinh
9/ a truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh

CHNG III: CU TRC KNH THNG TIN TRONG INMARSAT C


1. CC LOI KNH THNG TIN
1. Knh bo hiu chung: NCS.
L 1 knh TDM vi chiu di khung 8.64s, knh ny c pht lin tc ti tt c cc i MES trong
khu vc bin ph trch ca i NCS, n mang theo cc thng tin v h thng, thng tin bo hiu v cc
bc in EGC.
MES t ng iu chnh knh bo hiu NCSkhi n trng thi ri (Idle), 1 i NCS c th pht
nhiu knh bo hiu chung tu thuc lu lng thng tin.
2. Knh TDM ca i LES.
Knh LES TDM c cng cu trc khung nh knh bo hiu chung NCS, knh ny pht thng tin bo
hiu hoc chuyn tip cc bc in t LES -> MES, vic truy nhp vo knh TDM theo phng thc ti
trc phc v trc hoc tu theo mc u tin ca cc gi tin.
3. Knh chuyn in.
Knh ny c s dng chuyn cc bc in thng thng t MES => LES, vic truy nhp ti
knh ny da trn phng thc TDMA hoc theo s iu khin ca i LES. Khi i MES nhn c n
nh thi gian khi u n s pht ton b bc in ca mnh khng gin on, cc i NCS s n nh 1
hoc nhiu knh chuyn in cho LES tu theo lu lng thng tin.
4. Knh bo hiuMES.
MES s s dng knh bo hiu c kt hp vi knh LES TDM hoc NCS TDM thit lp cuc
gi ti LES, cc th tc ho mng log in v ra khi mng log-out vi NCS hoc chuyn cc bo ng
cp cu ti c LES v NCS, vic truy nhp ngu nhin theo khe thi gian ng k.

11

5. Knh bo hiu lin i ISI.


LES s dng ISI trn ng truyn v tinh gi cc thng tin bo hiu, cc bc in EGC hoc cc
thng tin xng gi ti NCS, NCS cng dng cc knh ny chuyn cc thng tin h thng v cc
thng tin lin quan ti nhng cuc gi ti LES. Cc i NCS cc vng bin khc nhau c th dng cc
knh bo hiu trong mng thng tin mt t trao i cc thng tin lin quan n cc i MES hoc kt
ni cc i NCS vi trung tm khai thc mng NOC.
Ch khi chuyn thng tin t LES <-> MES phi qua v tinh, y ta coi v tinh l 1 khu trung
gian.
* c im chung ca cc knh thng tin
iu ch: Cc knh thng tin u s dng iu ch BPSK , tc 1200 symbols/s (th h 2),
600symbols/s (th h 1).
Tc thng tin v tinh: Th h 1:300 b/s
Th h 2: 600 b/s
M ho: mi 1 knh thng tin khc nhau u c x l m ho (do s dng TDMA) hoc trn,
chn vi knh TDM s dng m ho FEC => x l tro, chn (scramber)
Bng tn s dng bng L vi tn s pht khong 1.6 Ghz tn s thu 1.5 Ghz.

2. Cu trc knh TDM


1. Cu trc khung.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Bulletin board packet
Signalling channel
descriptor packet
Continued packet B
639
containing remainder of an
over lapping packet
byte
Example packet starting and
completing
in
this
information field
Idle
Idle
Spare capacity field with
idle characters
Idle
di khung 639 Byte
Cc gi tin c x l xo trn, chn bit chng li cm.
Cu trc khung:
Mi khung c chiu di c nh 10368 symbols.

12

Khong thi gian mi khung l 8.64s vi tc 1200symbols/s. mi khung mang theo 639 byte
thng tin.
D liu c lu tr trong b nh di dng cc gi tin, gi u tin ca khung bao gi cng l
Bulletin board mang cc thng tin v h thng phc v cho vic truy nhp ca MES.
Mt hoc nhiu gi m t knh bo hiu c kt hp vi knh TDM hin thi, phn cn li ca
khung ginh cho cc gi tin bo hiu v cc bc in thng thng
B nh ca khung gm 639 Byte, nu khng cc gi tin in y b nh th phn trng ca
b nh c in cc bits 0. Nu 1 gi tin c kch thc vt qu gii hn ca khung th s c ng
thnh 2 gi, 1 c truyn cui phn khung hin thi, 1 c truyn u khung tip theo.
Trong khung 639 byte c m ho thnh 10368 symbols, v c x l tro (scramber) chng
li cm hoc cc gi tin c lin tip cc bits 0 hoc lin tip cc bits 1 => mt ng b gia thu v pht .
S d c hin tng ny l do dy bit tin pht khng c cc im chuyn tip pha thu c th khi
phc li nh thi ph v cc bit 0, 1 lin tc ,
* Ngu nhin ho: pha pht thc hin ngu nhin ho cc bit pht theo 1 quy lut nht nh v
pha thu thc hin ng quy lut ny khi phc. Qu trnh ngu nhin ho thng dng b to m gi
ngu nhin, b to m gm 1 b ghi dch v 1 cng cng modul 2. Tu theo trng thi ban u ca b ghi
dch m b to m s to ra cc t m khc nhau. Cc t m bo m tnh ngu nhin sao cho khi trn cc
t m vi cc bit thng tin c th ph v tnh lin tc ca cc bit 0 v 1. mi qu trnh pht khc nhau
c th s dng 1 t m khc nhau, cc t m s lp li sau mt chu k ghi dch.
B ghi dch c gi tr ban u khc nhau th to ra cc t m khc nhau. Cc gi tr ban u ca b
ghi dch gi l cc vector m, thi im ban u i pht s gi VT m nh 1 th tc thit lp sau c
i pht v thu t ni dung ban u b ghi dch vt m , nh qu trnh thng tin tip theo i thu c
th thu ng dy bit ca i pht. nhng qu trnh pht khc nhau h thng c th la chn 1 vt m
ngu nhin khc
Qu trnh x l ngu nhin ho cc bit tin bng cch trn cc bit tin vi dy m gi ngu nhin.
Trong inmarsat C, mi khung c di 639 byte thng tin, thm 1 byte san bng to thnh 640 byte chia
thnh 160 nhm, mi nhm4 byte lin tip. Tng nhm ny c o tt c cc bit hoc gi nguyn cc
bit tu thuc vo n c cng modul 2 vi bit 0 hay 1 ca dy m gi ngu nhin. B to m s dch 4
byte thng tin 1 nhp v t m s lp li sau 160 ln dch tn hiu sau khi c x l ngu nhin ho c
a n b m ho.
* M ho tn hiu:
Trong inmarsat C vi phng thc FEC thng s dng m xon (vng)
Trong 1 t m xon khng phn bit gia cc bit d liu v cc bit parity v cc bit m ho c to
ra bi s trn gia bit thng tin u vo cng vi cc thnh phn hi tip trc . Thng s quan trng
ca m xon l K v R.
K: di hn ch, khng qu K t m d liu c s dng to ra 1 t m, K tng ng vi
chiu di b ghi dch ca b m ho.
R: Tc m ho
Trong inmarsat C thng:
K=7 v R= 1/2 :s bit vo b m ho l 1 th s c 2 bit d liu u ra.
Mch m ho:

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

s6

G1

s7

Dy bit vo

Dy bit ra

G2
13

C u1 = s1s3s4s6s7
u2 = s1s2s3s4s7
=> Bng m ho nh sau:
Ni dung ghi dch
u1 u2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
* x l tro:
B m ho to ra kh nng cc bit li c kh nng c pht hin v xa li pha thu, nhng
s li c th sa l rt hn ch. Khi tn hiu truyn trn ng truyn v tinh n c th gp phi hin
tng phainh. Phainh tn hiu thng bin thin chm hn tc bit do c th gy ra li trn mt
qung di cc bit, qu trnh chn c s dng khc phc hin tng ny. Vic x l chn ging nh
qu trnh ghp theo thi gian tng symbol ca t m ny vi tng symbol ca t m ny vi tng symbol
ca t m khc, ngha l cc burst thng tin c dn tri v mt thi gian sao cho nu xy ra li th cc
li ch l ngu nhin mt vi symbol no .
Xt qu trnh x l chn 7 t m, mi t m gm 7 symbol. Cc symbol c k hiu ln lt l
An1 -> An7, cc t m ln lt n1, n2, . . , n7; 2n1, 2n2, 2n3, . . .,2n7; . . .;7n1, . . . ,7n7.
Nguyn tc: c mt bng m b tr theo hng v ct. Tn hiu u vo xp theo hng, ly ra theo
ct.
n1 2n1 3n1 4n1 5n1 6n1 7n1
n2 2n2 3n2 4n2 5n2 6n2 7n2
n3 2n3 3n3 4n3 5n3 6n3 7n3
n4 2n4 3n4 4n4 5n4 6n4 7n4
n5 2n5 3n5 4n5 5n5 6n5 7n5
n6 2n6 3n6 4n6 5n6 6n6 7n6
n7 2n7 3n7 4n7 5n7 6n7 7n7
Bng nguyn tc ma trn trn.
Cc t m c c ra khi ma trn l: 1n1, 2n1, 3n1, . . , 7n1; 1n2, 2n2, . . . ,7n2; . . . ; 1n7, 2n7, . .
, 7n7.
Nh vy nu li xy ra trn mt qung 7 symbol th ch mt symbol ca tng t m ban u b li,
sau khi gii chn mt t m ch b li n do n hon ton c kh nng sa li thnh cng trong
trng hp khng chn th c th mt vi t m c th b mt..
Trong h thng INM- C, 640 byte thng tin sau khi c m ho to ra 10240 symbol a ti ma
trn chn.

161

1
2

63

unique word

unique word

F
S

hng i = 0
hng i = 1

cc ct 2 161= cc symbol t mch


m ho

14

2. Cu trc gi tin knh TDM


a) Cu trc chung.
Gi tin l cc gi d liu c lu tr trong b nh trc khi to thnh cc khung pht trn cc knh
thng tin. Do cc gi cng c cu trc nh b nh (hng, ct)
Trong mi hng tng ng 1 byte, s lng hng ph thuc kch c v loi gi.
V phn c bn cc gi tin c 3 phn:
o phn m t gi
o Thn gi
o Kim tra tng
o M t gi gm 2 trng chnh: Type v length (trng type cho bit chc nng ca gi.
Trng length cho bit di ca gi (byte), khng k phn type
o Trng thn gi: mang ton b ni dung thng tin lin quan n chc nng ca gi tin.
Trong trng hp ni dung thng tin qu di th phn thn gi c chia i v truyn trn
2 khung lin tip. khi phn kim tra tng ca khung trc b xo nhng trng length
vn gi nguyn cu trc ban u (ghi di gi tin n mang ch khng ghi di hi tin
hin thi).
o Trng kim tra tng pht hin v sa li c gi tin.
b) Cu trc gi tin knh TDM.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 type lenght

information
checksum
Gi ngn
8 7 6 543 21
1 0 type
lenght

1
2

information
checksum
Gi trung bnh
8 7 6 543 21
1 1 type
lenght

1
2
3

information
checksum
Gi di
M t gi ngn:
1 byte m t: bit 0 (gi ngn), 1 khng phi gi ngn.

15

Trng type gm 2 bit: cho bit chc nng ca gi tin


trng lenght cho bit di ca gi tin
M t gi trung bnh:
phn mo u 2 byte, trong bit u ca byte l 1 ch gi khng ngn. bit th 2 l 0
ch gi trung bnh
trng type 6 bt ch kiu gi tin, chc nng gi tin
Trng lenght cho bit di tnh bng byte ca gi tin khng k trng mo u.
Gi tin di:
Trng 1 1 ch gi tin di
trng type 6 bit ch chc nng ca gi tin
Trng lenght 16 bit ch di gi tin
Phn thn gi cha ni dung thng tin gi tin
Phn kim tra tng: 2 byte kim tra v sa li.
Nu gi tin qu di th chia lm 2 phn
c) Cc gi tin knh TDM c nhiu loi.
Code
Chc nng
i pht
00H
Acknowlegment requet
LES
01H

NCS
...
...
...
...
...
...

3. Cu trc gi tin Bulletin board.


8 7 6 5 4 3 2
0 type
lenght
network version
Frame no.
signal chanels
count
E
chanel local
origin ID
status
services
random internal
checksum

2-F
spare
spare

y l dng gi ngn c pht trn knh TDM ca MES v NCS, mang thng tin lin quan ti
knh TDM v hot ng ca h thng. Gi ny c pht u tin ca mi khung v MES s dng gi
tin ny bit 2 kiu truy nhp vo knh bo hiu.
Trng network version: Trng ny cho bit nhn dng ca cu hnh mng n thng bo cho i
LES cu hnh mng hin thi gn vi 1 NCS nht nh.

16

Cu hnh mng mang thng tin v danh sch cc i LES cng cc knh TDM. Trng ny ch dng
cho knh NCS TDM cn vi LES TDM trng ny t bng 0.
Trng Frame number: gm 16 bit l mt s nh phn khng du biu th s th t ca khung hin
thi. i vi knh NCS ng b vi gi quc t UTC.
Khi pht th ngi ta pht nhiu khung lin tip vi thi gian pht khung u tin ng b vi UTC.
Trng Signal channel: 6 bit, l mt s nh phn khng du cho bit s lng knh bo hiu kt hp
vi knh TDM hin thi v ng b cho bit s lng cc gi tin m t knh bo hiu theo ngay sau
Bulletin board, tu theo lu lng thng tin ca h thng m c th c ti 40 knh bo hiu kt hp vi 1
knh TDM.
Trng Two-frame count (2-F): khe thi gian c chu k lp li l 2 khung tnh t khe thi gian u
tin ca tt c cc knh bo hiu.
Trng E: gm 1 bit, cho bit cn gi tin no tip theo gi Bulletin board v gi m t knh bo hiu
trong khung thi gian ca knh TDM hay khng.
Trng Spare: Trng d tr.
Trng Channel type: 3 bit cho bit loi knh TDM ang c pht (LES TDM, NCS TDM,
NCS/LES TDM)
Trng Local ID: 3 bit cho bit s nhn dng knh TDM ang c pht bi NCS hoc LES no nu
mi 1 i c nhiu hn 1 knh TDM th knh TDM u tin ID = 0.
Trng Origin ID: 8 bit, cho bit s nhn dng ca LES hoc NCS ang pht Bulletin board.
2 bit u cho bit nhn dng vng bin hot ng ca LES hoc NCS.
6 bit cn li nhn dng ca LES hoc NCS trong vng bin .
LES c nh s t x00 -> x43
NCS c nh s t x44 -> x63
X: vng bin
Trng Status l bit c (8bit) ch bo trng thi knh TDM ca LES.
o Bit 1. 2 .3: D tr
o Bit 5. 6. 7. 8: Tnh trng ca knh TDM (tc knh c pht trn v tinh chnh (bit 1)
hay v tinh ph (bit 0).
Trng service: 16 bit cho bit cc loi dch v c cung cp bi LES.
Rnd internal: Nu MES truy nhp vo knh TDM xy ra xung t, trng ny cho bit khong thi
gian tr ngu nhin x no v MES ch n knh N ngu nhin no pht li knh bo hiu
4. Gi m t knh bo hiu.
0 type length
A C D S L A F spare
satetellite frequency
code
14x2 bit
slot state
markers
spare
checksum

V tinh th h 1

17

0 type length
A C D S L A F spare
satetellite frequency
code
28x2 bit
slot state
markers
spare
checksum
V tinh th h 2.
Mi knh TDM c th c 1 hoc nhiu knh kt hp vi n. Tng ng vi mi knh bo hiu s c
1 knh m t v n pht trn TDM.
Gi tin ny cho bit tn s knh bo hiu, trng thi tng khe thi gian trong cc knh bo hiu pht
khung thi gian trc .
Trng A: 1 bit cho bit knh bo hiu c c s dng cho mc ch bo hiu ca thng tin thng
thng bng telex hay khng.
Trng C(1 bit): cho bit knh bo hiu c c s dng cho mt nhm ngi hn ch hay khng.
D: cho bit c c s dng cho thng tin cp cu hng hi hay khng
Slot : cho bit c th truy nhp ti knh bo hiu bng phng thc SALOHA hay khng.
L: cho bit knh bo hiu c c s dng bo ng cp cu cho i di ng mt t hay khng.
AE: cho bit knh bo hiu c c s dng cho thng tin hng khng bng INM hay khng/
Spare; d tr.
Satellite frequency code: cho bit tn s v tinh knh bo hiu kt hp knh hin thi.
Slot state markers 14x2, 28x2 bit: Tng ng mi khe thi gian trong khung thi gian bo hiu c 1
cp bit trong trng ny ca knh TDM:
+ Bit th nht cho bit gi tin pht trong khe thi gian tng ng trong knh bo hiu khung thi
gian trc c c thu thnh cng hay khng
+ Bit 2 cho bit khe thi gian m knh bo hiu c ng k hay cha

5. Gi loan bo cuc gi (anouncement).


c s dng khi 1 i di ng gi i LES hoc 1 i LES gi 1 i di ng.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

18

MES ID
LES ID
LES TDM
Service
D P
Logical channel no.
msg reference
number
Sub address
prensentation
packet
last count
Cu trc gi An. from LES to Mobile
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MES ID
LES ID
LES TDM

serrvice
D
P
Cu trc gi An. from Mobile to LES
PVSD: Dng trong cc trng hp khi c yu cu thc hin vic chuyn in t LES ti Mobile
hoc t Mobile ti LES.
LES gi Mobile:

LES

Mobile

Knh ISL
NCS
Mobile gi LES:
nu LES c knh n nh trc th mobile chuyn v knh n nh ca LES v gi trc tip bng gi
loan bo cuc gi.
Nu LES khng c knh n nh trc th mobile gi NCS bng gi An.
Mobile
an
NCS

LES
an

a) Gi tin cho cuc gi t Mobile ti LES. Trong cuc gi ny gi An. c s dng trong 2 trng
hp:
Khi LES khng c TDM c nh ngha l n hot ng ch n nh knh trc th MES pht
tn hiu yu cu thit lp cuc gi trn knh bo hiu NCS v LES tr li bng An. thng bo n sn
sng tip nhn cuc gi.
Khi LES c 1 knh TDM c nh th MES gi yu cu thit lp cuc gi trc tip ti LES. Nu v
LES bn khng th thc hin thng tin tc thi n s yu cu MES i sau 1 khong thi gian v khi c
th thng tin c th LES pht An. ti MES v n bit mes ang trc canh trn knh ncs tdm

19

MES ID: gm 24 bit ch s nhn dng i MES (9 s).


LES ID: gm 8 bit ch s nhn dng i LES(3 s)
LES TDM: gm 16 bit ch tn s v tinh knh TDM ca i LES.
Service: cho bit cc loi dch v c th cung cp bi LES.
Trng D (direction): cho bit hng thng tin l Mobile to LES hay LES to Mobile hay c hai.
hng
P: gm 2 bit cho bit mc u tin thng thng hay cp cu.
b) Gi tin cho cuc gi t LES to Mobile.
Gi An. Bao gm c thng tin n nh knh chuyn in n nh cho i MES. Ngoi cc trng
ging trn gm:
Logical channel number: Gm 8 bit cho bit s nhn dng TDM c LES dng chuyn in. S
ny cho php s nhn dng duy nht vi cc bc in c MES thu t 1 i LES nht nh.
Msg reference number: 8 bit cho bit s bc in, chun ca bc in m LES s pht.
Sub address: cho bit a ch cc cng giao tip ca thit b DCE ca MES.
Presentation cho bit m c s dng trong bc in.
Packet (8 bit): cho bit s lng cac gi tin m LES s pht.
Last count (8bit): cho bit ton b k t byte trong gi tin cui cng.
6. Gi n nh knh logic.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MES ID
LES ID
Service
D P
Logical channel no.
msg reference
number
Sub address
prensentation
packets
last count
signaling
channel
Frame offset
A spare slot no
from LES to Mobile
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MES ID
LES ID
Service
D P
Logical channel no.
Frame lenght
Duration
LES TDM
Message channel
Frame offset
A spare slot no
from Mobile to LES
Knh logic l knh TDM ca i LES hoc knh chuyn in ca i MES. c 2 knh ny u dng
chuyn cc bc in thng thng hoc cp cu gia LES v MES.
Gi n nh knh logic l 1 trong 2 cch LES ban u cuc gi ti MES.
C1: pht gi n nh knh logic

20

C2: pht gi An.


Gi tin c s dng trong 3 tnh hung:
Khi MES pht yu cu n nh knh logic trc tip ti LES trn knh bo hiu, LES tr li chp
nhn yu cu bng cch pht gi tin n nh knh logic
Khi MES yu cu n nh knh chuyn in nhng LES bn sau n pht An. hng dn MES
tr v knh LES TDM, tip theo LES s gi tin n nh knh logic
Trong cuc gi LES to Mobile khi kt thc vic chuyn in nhng vn cn cc bc in khc
cn chuyn th LES s pht tin n nh knh logic thay v pht tn hiu xo cuc gi.
a) Cuc gi t Mobile to LES.
Frame lenght (8bit): cho bit s lng ti a cc gi tin trong khung thi gian(mi khung ti a 5
gi tin, mi gi ng 2048 symbol.
Duration: cho bit ti a c bao nhiu khung m MES c php s dng khi chuyn in.
LES TDM: cho bit tn s knh v tinh ca i LES.
Message channel: (16 bit) cho bit tn s v tinh knh chuyn in ca MES.
Frame offset: s ca khung thi gian knh chuyn in m MES s pht cc bc in ti LES.
A (AM/PM): cho bit khong na thi gian trong ngy. mt ngy pht 10.000 khung, t 0 -> 4999
pht bui sng, khung 5000 -> 9999 pht bui chiu.
Spare: D tr.
Slot N: cho bit khe thi gian khi u MES pht ton b bc in ca mnh.
b) Cuc gi LES to Mobile
Message referrence: s chun bc in m LES pht ti MES.
Sub address: a ch cc cng giao tip.
Signalling channel: Tn s knh bo hiu.
Slot no.: cho bit s khe thi gian m MES s dng pht gi tin xc nhn trn knh bo hiu.
7. Gi tin Request status.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
MES ID
LES ID

PR request status
Trong cuc gi Mobile to LES khi MES pht yu cu gi tin chuyn in nhng LES khng th ngay
lp tc thit lp cuc gi hoc khng chp nhn(t chi ) cuc gi. N s s dng gi tin ny c th pht
trc tip trn knh LES TDM hoc chuyn tip trn knh NCS TDM.
MES ID (24 bit): ch s nhn dng ca i MES
LES ID (8 bit): ch s nhn dng ca i LES
PR (1bit c)
Request status: a ra l do ca vic tr hon hoc t chi bao gm l do sau:
01H: b nh i LES y
02H: a ch c yu cu khng hot ng
03H: Tc nghn thng tin v tinh
04H: Tc nghn thng tin v tinh
08H: i MES cha c login
09H: i MES cha c ng k.
0AH: i LES ch n nh knh TDM
0BH: Yu cu a ra khng hpj l
0CH: i LES khng hot ng

8. Gi EGC
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

21

Service
code
C p
repetition
Message sequence no
Packet sequence no
Presentation
LES ID
address
information
CRC
Infomation
Mi bc in EGC c kch c t 1 -> 65.280 byte. Nu cc bc in ln hn 256 c chia ra v
mi phn (gi) c 256 byte d liu, mi phn tng ng vi 1 gi tin EGC. Mi gi tin EGC u c phn
mo u 2 phn thng tin.
Phn mo u c tn hiu kim tra tng ring v c my thu.
EGC s dng quy nh c nn in cc bc in EGC b thu li hay khng. Cc gi EGC thng do
cc i NCS pht trn knh bo hiu chung NCS TDM ti cc i MES.
Service code (8 bit): cho bit cc loi dch v ca EGC.
C (1 bit): cho bit c cn gi tin EGC no tip theo gi tin hin thi hay khng.
P (2 bit): cho bit mc u tin ca bc in EGC:
Routine
Safety
Urgent
Disstress
Repetition (5 bit): cho bit s ln pht li bc in hin thi
Message sequence number (6 bit): s th t bc in c pht bi LES hoc NCS.
Packet sequence number (8 bit): cho bit s th t ca mi gi tin trong bc in EGC.
Presentation: M hin thi c s dng trong EGC.
LES ID: s nhn dng i LES
Address: Cho bit a ch ti (theo vng bin ) ca gi tin.
Information: mang ton b ni dung thng tin ca bc in EGC c di c th t 1 => 256 byte
CRC: kim tra tng

...

k+1

...

13

14
22

d liu m hoa

uw

632 TDM symbol


740 TDM symbol
Khung 1. Cu trc khung v tinh th h 1 tc 600symbol/s.

...

uw

k+1

...

13

14

d liu m hoa

316 TDM symbol

370 TDM symbol


Khung 2.
Cu trc khung v tinh th h 2. Tc 1200 symbol/s

3. Cu trc khung knh bo hiu


1. Cu trc khung.
MES s dng knh bo hiu : Pht yu cu knh chuyn in
Bo ng cp cu
Log in hoc log out
Mi i LES hoc NCS c th c 1 hoc nhiu knh bo hiu. Tu thuc lu lng thng tin v knh
bo hiu c chia s cho nhiu ngi dng nn s dng phng php truy nhp ngu nhin theo khe
thi gian. Trong khong thi gian mi khung bo hiu 8.64s, mi khung c chia 14 khe (v tinh th h
1) hoc 28 khe (v tinh th h 2).
Mi i pht khc nhau s pht cc gi tin theo tng bus vo cc khe thi gian ngu nhin khc nhau
v do tnh ngu nhin nn c th xy ra xung t thng tin gia cc i. Khi NCS hoc LES s yu cu
MES pht ligi tin sau mt thi gian tr nht nh nu cc i c lp nhau th kh nng xy ra xung t
ln 2 l t. Mi bus mang thng tin c di 15 byte nu khng thng tin th cc bus thng tin ny s
c in y bi cc bit 0, cc gi tin ny c trn, m ho thnh 252 symbol d liu cng thm 64
symbol ca t duy nht (UW) to thnh 1 bus hon chnh pht trn ng truyn vi tc 600 symbol
(v tinh th h 1) v 1200 symbol (v tinh th h 2).
2. Cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu.
a) Cu trc khung gm 4 phn.
M t gi, thn gi, kim tra tng, b xung.
M t gi gm c 3 trng chnh
Priority:
Continuation (1 bit): cho bit cn gi tin no tip theo hay khng
Type (6 bit): cho bit chc nng ca gi tin bo hiu
Thn gi: mang ton b ni dung thng tin ca gi tin tu theo chc nng m c kch c
khc nhau.

23

kim tra tng: tn hiu kim tra pht hin li cho ton b gi tin theo phng thc ARQ,
phn kim tra tng c t cui cng th phn kim tra tng t ra ngay sau phn thn
gi.
B xung l cc bit 0 c thm vo gi tin trong trng hp phn thng tin ca gi tin
khng ch 120 bit, phn b xung ny khng c tnh vo phn kim tra tng.
b) Gi tin xc nhn in (acknowledgment).
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
logical channel no.
Errored packet no.
Errored packet no.
.......
.......
.......
Errored packet no.
Check sum

1
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
15

Gi tin c s dng MES xc nhn cc bc in c chuyn t LES ti MES trong cuc gi


LES to Mobile.
P C type: trng mo u loi gi ngn.
Logical channel no.(8 bit): Cho bit s nhn dng knh TDM m i LES s dng
chuyn in ti MES. Khi i MES s dng s nhn dng ny xc nhn in vi cc
bc in ca i MES , thng c gi tr t 1 -> 255.
Cc trng Errored packet no.(8 bit): Ch ra s th t ca cc gi tin thu b li v c th c
ti a 11 gi tin li c xc bo trong 1 ln xc nhn. Trong trng hp s gi tin thu li
nh hn 11 th cc trng cn li c in y bng cc bit 0. Nu s gi tin thu li ln
hn 11 th i MES khng c xc nhn thm gi xc nhn tip theo m phi ch n
chu k xc nhn sau. i LES khi thu c xc nhn s phn loi cc gi tin thu li v tip
tc xc nhn li cc gi tin pht li y. MES s tip tc xc nhn ti khi khng cn gi tin
no b li LES s nhc li cc gi tin cho n ht.
Trong trng hp pht nhiu ln vn b li th s ngng kt ni.
c) Gi tin tr li loan bo.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
1
MES ID
Checksum
Fill

2
.
.
.
.
.
.
15

Trong cuc gi Mobile to LES i MES s pht tn hiu yu cu chuyn in trn knh bo hiu trc
tip ti LES nhng LES bn khng th ngay lp tc p ng yu cu ca MES nn sau mt khong
thi gian khi sn sng LES s pht tn hiu loan bo cuc gi trn knh NCS TDM yu cu MES
ni li cuc gi. MES s s dng gi tin tr li loan bo sn sng thc hin thng tin.

24

d) Gi tr li vic n nh knh logic.


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
MES ID
Logical channel no.
packet
Checksum
Fill

1
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
15

MES s dng gi tin ny tr li loan bo cuc gi ca LES chuyn ht mt bc in nhng


vn cn cc bc in tip theo, khi n s pht gi tin n nh knh logic thay v gi tin xo cuc gi v
LES s s dng gi tin ny tr li MES.
Logical channel number (8 bit): cho bit s nhn dng knh TDM ca i LES.
Packet (8 bit): cho bit s lng gi tin m MES chuyn ti LES.
e) Gi tin yu cu truy nhp mng.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
1
MES ID
Class
version number
Checksum
Fill

2
.
.
.
.
.
.
15

Trc khi 1 i MES mun s dng 1 mng thng tin no trong h thng chuyn in hoc 1
dch v no , n phi tin hnh truy nhp ti i ch ca vng bin m MES ang s dng bng th
tc Log in.
Gi ny cho NCS bit MES ang lng nghe trn knh NCS TDM no n pht cc tn hiu loan
bo ti MES iu chnh ti knh TDM khc nhau nu cn thit. tuy nhin trong trng hp bo ng cp
cu th bt k knh no cng c chp nhn.
Class (8bit): cho bit loi i MES
Version number: cho bit s nhn dng cu hnh mng hin thi c bit bi i MES.
Cu hnh mng gm: Danh sch cc i LES trong khu vc bin trn knh TDM v cc
loi dch v. khi MES khng bit s nhn dng cu hnh hin thi n cho tt c cc bit ca
Version bng 0 in y.
Sau NCS s cho bit s nhn dng ca mng cho i yu cu log in

25

f) Gi bo ng cp cu.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
MES ID
LES ID
position
nature
course
speed Su Pu Cu

1
2
.
.
.
.
.

Checksum

15
Cu trc gi tin bo ng cp cu.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C
type
MES ID
LES ID
logical channel no.
reason
Checksum
Fill

1
2
.
.
.
.
.
15

Cu trc gi tin cng p xo cuc gi


3. Cc phng thc truy nhp knh bo hiu
C hai phng thc: ng k trc v khng ng k trc khe thi gian
ng k trc khe thi gian:
LES hay NCS ng k trc 1 khe thi gian truy nhp cho MES
Trong phng thc khng ng k khe thi gian th MES truy nhp ngu nhin theo
SALOHA.

26

5 Cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu


1. Cu trc chung.

End for N=0


End for N=0

End for N=0

End for N=0

End for N=0

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Message packet
no.1
0
Message packet
no.2
0
Message packet
no.3
0
Message packet
no.4
0
Message packet
no.5
0

1
127
128
1
2
.
.
.
.
.

Cu trc ging TDM


640
Truy nhp theo phng thc TDMA
Khc nhau l di khung khng c nh m ph thuc di bc in. mi khung knh chuyn
in c N + 1 gi tin => s gi tin ln nht = 4 + 1 = 5.
mi mt gi tin gm 128 byte d liu
TS =

128 + 2048 ( N + 1)
GX 600

Nu di bc in ln, s lng gi tin > 4 th d liu c pht trn nhiu khung lin tip nhau.
Khung u tin ghp thm phn mo u gm khi phc sng mang v khi phc nh thi.
2. Cu trc gi tin.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Packet number
1
C R
lenght
2
logical channel no.
.
Presentation control
.
last count
.
address
data
.
Checksum

.
127

27

15

Gi tin th nht.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Packet number

1
2
.
.
.

data
Checksum

.
.
127

Gi tin th hai.
Mi gi tin knh chuyn in gm 127 byte c nh, trong byte u tin cho bit s th t ca
bc in v 2 byte cui cng l kim tra tng. Ngoi ra cn mt s phn mo u, phn d liu. Trong
mt bc in c th c nhiu gi tin. Cc gi tin tip theo gi th nht khng cn phn a ch. Cu trc
gi tin :
S th t gi tin (8 bit): s th t cc gi tin trong 1 bc in
phn mo u:
Trng C: cho bit kiu bc in c MES yu cu
R (1 bit): cho bit MES c yu cu xc nhn vic chuyn in ti thu bao hay khng.
Lenght (6 bit): cho bit di tnh bng byte ca phn mo u.
Presetation control: cho bit cch thc m ho bc in IA5, DATA, IAT2.
Last count: cho bit s lng byte trong gi cui cng bc in.
Addresss: Tu theo bc in cho bit s fax, s a ch ca PSTN
Data: mang ton b thng tin ca bc in
6. Cc phng php sa li trong INM-C.
Phng php sa li gm:
FEC: pht cc bc in mang tnh thng bo.
ARQ: Pht cc bc in mang tnh kt ni lin lc.

7. Quy trnh thc hin cc cuc gi trong thng tin v tinh


C 3 giai on: Thit lp kt ni
Chuyn in
Xo ng kt ni.
1. Cuc gi LES to Mobile
a. Thit lp kt ni LES to Mobile gm cc bc sau:
1)
Kim tra s c mt ca MES trong khu vc bin hot ng ca LES trc khi chp nhn
cuc gi ca thu bao
LES khng t gi MES, ch khi no c 1 thu bao gi MES, LES ng vai tr kt ni
Khi LES nhn c mt yu cu ca thu bao n kim tra s nhn dng ca MES c hp l khng
LES kim tra MES truy nhp mng hay cha.
LES quay li thng bo cho thu bao l chp nhn cuc gi
2) Pht loan bo cuc gi ti MES trn knh NCS TDM
Sau khi thu ton b bc in t thu bao mt t LES yu cu NCS pht loan bo cuc gi ti MES, cng
nh cho bit tnh trng hin thi ca MES v NCS tr li LES bit tnh trng ca MES v cho bit LES

28

c th loan bo cuc gi hay khng. Loan bo cuc gi c th pht sm nht tu thuc vo MES bn hay
ri. ni dung ca loan bo cuc gi l n nh knh logic.
3)
Thit lp knh logic. Khi MES thu c loan bo cuc gi, bo n bit ang c in cn
chuyn t LES, do n chnh tn s thu ti knh TDM ca LES. Trong gi tin Bulletin board v gi m
t knh bo hiu ca TDM. MES s chn ra 1 khung thi gian ngu nhin cha c s dng v pht tn
hiu tr li loan bo cuc gi trn knh bo hiu ti LES. LES sau khi thu c tn hiu tr li t MES
n s pht thng bo tnh trng bn ca MES ti NCS xem nh knh logic c thit lp.
b. Chuyn cc bc in thng tin.
Sau khi knh logic c thit lp LES s bt u chuyn in ti MES. Cc bc in c chia lm cc
gi nh d dng cho vic kim tra li v c th truyn cng cc gi tin bo hiu khc. Cc gi tin u
nh s th t d dng nhn in pha thu. Sau khi ton b cc gi tin c chuyn LES s pht gi
tin yu cu xc nhn ca MES ng thi ch ra khe thi gian dnh cho vic xc nhn . MES s pht gi
tin tr li yu cu xc nhn vo khe thi gian n nh knh bo hiu. Sau khi thu xc nhn ca MES, LES
s pht li cc gi tin b li v tip tc yu cu xc nhn ca MES, qu trnh ny lp li ti khi MES thu
thnh cng. Kt thc vic chuyn in nu LES vn cn in chuyn n s pht li gi tin n nh
knh logic. nu ht in LES pht gi tin
c. Giai on xo ng kt ni.
Mi khi hon thnh vic chuyn in knh logic cn c xo v MES cn c tr v trng
thi ri. Bt u LES pht gi tin xo ng kt ni khi MES chuyn v canh nghe trn NCS TDM.
Sau mt khong thi gian tr LES s pht bo trng thi ri ca MES ti NCS v NCS xc lp tnh trng
ri cho MES sn sng cho cc cuc gi tip theo
2. Cuc gi Mobile to LES.
a. Thit lp kt ni Mobile to LES gm cc bc sau:
1) MES thng bo vi LES n c bc in cn chuyn, yu cu knh logic. MES sau khi hon thnh
nh dng bc in n s iu chnh ti knh TDM ca LES hoc NCS. MES bit c knh TDM nh
vo cu hnh mng trong gi Bulletin board. Sau khi iu chnh v knh TDM ny n s pht gi tin yu
cu knh logic lin knh bo hiu kt hp vi knh TDM. nu LES c knh TDM c nh th n s c
chuyn trc tip ti LES. Trong trng hp ny nu LES khng th ngay lp tc tip nhn cuc gi n s
pht gi bo tm hon cuc gi ti MES v MES chuyn v knh NCS TDM ch.
Nu LES khng c knh TDM c nh th gi tin c chuyn tip qua NCS ti LES. Khi c
knh TDM th LES s xng loan bo cuc gi ti MES trn knh NCS TDM. Khi thu c loan bo
MES s iu chnh v knh LES TDM v pht gi tin tr li loan bo trn knh bo hiu kt hp vi knh
TDM.
2) LES sau khi thu c gi tin yu cu knh chuyn in s tr li loan bo trong ch n nh knh
theo yu cu . n s pht bo cho NCS v cuc gi ang c thc hin. Da vo thng bo ny NCS xc
lp MES vo danh sch bn v LES sau pht gi tin n nh knh chuyn in ti MES.
b. Giai on chuyn cc bc in t MES to LES.
Sau khi knh chuyn in xc lp, MES s chuyn ln lt cc gi tin trn knh chuyn in ti LES
v sau khi thu ton b cc gi tin LES s pht mt gi tin xc nhn. Gi tin ny ch ra cc gi tin thu li
v tn s dnh cho vic pht li cac gi tin li hoc LES c th pht mt gi tin n nh knh logic thay
cho gi tin xc nhn, khi MES s phi pht li ton b bc in trn knh mi. Khi tt c cc gi c
thu thnh cng th LES s pht gi tin xo ng kt ni.
c. Xo ng kt ni
Trong trng hp LES pht gi tin xo ng kt ni khi LES thu thnh cng cc bc in, sau
MES canh nghe trn knh NCS TDM, LES pht gi tin thng bo tnh trng ri cho NCS, NCS a MES
vo danh sch i ri chun cho cc cuc gi tip theo.
Cu hi cui chng
1/ Cc loi knh thng tin trong INM-C
2/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh TDM.
3/ Qu trnh s l cc gi tin trong khung knh TDM
4/ Cu trc cc gi tin knh TDM
5/ Cu trc gi tin bulletin board
6/ Cu trc gi tin m t knh bo hiu

29

7/ K tn v nu chc nng ca cc gi tin trong knh TDM


8/ Cu trc khung knh bo hiu
9/ Cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu
10/ K tn v chc nng cc gi tin knh bo hiu
11/ Cc phng php truy nhp knh bo hiu
12/ Cc phng php pht hin v sa li trong INM-C

30

CU HI NTP
1/ Trnh by c im v cc dch v ca HTTTVT
2/ Cc tham s k thut ca h thng thng tin v tinh
3/ Cc yu t nh hng n tuyn thng tin v tinh
4/ Trnh by k thut ghp knh v iu ch trong thng tin v tinh
6/ Khi nim v phn cc sng v cc loi phn cc sng trong thng tin v tinh
7/ Cu trc mt trm pht v tinh mt t..
8/ c im thit b thu trong thng tin v tinh.
9/ Trnh by cc loi anten v c im ca tng loi anten s dng trong thng tin v tinh.
10/ Trnh by cc loi knh thng tin s dng trong h thng INM-C
11/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh TDM trong h thng Inm-C
12/ Qu trnh s l cc gi tin knh TDM.
13/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh TDM trong Inm-C
14/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin Bulletin board.
15/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh bo hiu trong Inm-C
16/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu trong Inm-C
17/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh chuyn in
18/ Trng by cu trc gi tin knh chuyn in.
19/ Trnh by cc phng php pht hin v sa li trong thng tin v tinh.
20/ M t qu trnh din ra trong cuc gi v tr li cuc gi t MES ti LES v t LES ti MES.

THI
PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 01

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Trnh by c im v cc dch v ca HTTTVT

2.

Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh chuyn in.

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 02

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Cc phng php truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh

2.

Qu trnh x l gi tin knh TDM Inm-C

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 03
Lp : .

( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )


1. Trnh by v cc tham s k thut ca HTTTVT

3. Trnh by cu trc khung knh bo hiu trong Inm-C

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

Trng B mn k

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 04

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Trnh by cc yu t nh hng n tuyn thng tin v tinh

2. Trnh by cu trc khung knh chuyn in Inm-C

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 05

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Trnh by k thut ghp knh v iu ch trong thng tin v tinh

2. Trnh by cc loi anten v c im ca tng loi s dng trong thng tin v tinh.

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 06

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Khi nim v phn cc sngv cc loi phn cc sng trong thng tin v tinh.

2.
M t qu trnh din ra trong cuc gi v tr li cuc gi t MES ti LES v t LES ti MES
trong Inm-C
Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 07

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Cu trc mt trm pht v tinh mt t.

2.

Trnh by cu trc gi tin bulletin board trong Inm-C

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 08

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

c im thit b thu trong thng tin v tinh

2. Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh TDM Inm-C

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

S : 09

Trng B mn k

Lp : .
( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )
1.

Trnh by cu trc khung knh TDM trong Inm-C

2.

Trnh by cc phng php pht hin v sa li trong thng tin v tinh.

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

PHIU THI : .
Mn hc : THIT B THU PHT VT

S :10
Lp : .

( Thi gian lm bi 90 pht )


1.

Trnh by cc loi knh trong thng tin v tinh Inm-C

2.

Cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu Inm-C


.

Hc sinh khng c cha , xo v lm bn phiu thi

Trng B mn k

P N
1/ Trnh by c im v cc dch v ca HTTTVT
Tr li: - Nu cc c im ca h thng thng tin v tinh.
- Nu cc loi dch v trong thng tin v tinh, kh nng pht trin.
2/ Cc tham s k thut ca h thng thng tin v tinh
Tr li: - K tn v phn tch ngha ca cc tham s (Bao gm c cng thc tnh)
3/ Cc yu t nh hng n tuyn thng tin v tinh
Tr li: - Phn tch cc yu t nh hng n suy hao ng truyn
4/ Trnh by k thut ghp knh v iu ch trong thng tin v tinh
Tr li: - K thut ghp knh v cc phng php ghp knh thong thng tin v tinh: Ghp knh FDM,
ghp knh TDM.
- Cc phng php iu ch trong thng tin v tinh: Khi qut v cc phng php iu ch
tng t, iu ch s.
5/ Cc phng php truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh.
Tr li: - Khi qut v cc phng php truy nhp trong thng tin v tinh.
- Trnh by v cc phng php truy nhp: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA, truy nhp ngu
nhin.
6/ Khi nim v phn cc sng v cc loi phn cc sng trong thng tin v tinh
Tr li: - Nu khi nhim v phn cc sng.
- Trnh by chi tit v cc loi phn cc sng trong thng tin v tinh: Phn cc sng thng, phn
cc sng trn - v th thi gian ca tng loi.
7/ Cu trc mt trm pht v tinh mt t..
Tr li: - V cu trc trm pht v tinh mt t (Cho 2 cu hnh)
- Gii thch hnh v, nu u nnhwc im ca tng loi, phm vi s dng.
8/ c im thit b thu trong thng tin v tinh.
Tr li: - Nu vn tt c im ca tuyn thng tin v tinh.
- Trnh by cc loi my thu tp m thp s dng trong my thu thng tin v tinh.
9/ Trnh by cc loi anten v c im ca tng loi anten s dng trong thng tin v tinh.
Tr li: - Nu cc loi anten trong thng tin v tinh.
- c im v cc tham s ca tng loi - Phm vi s dng.
10/ Trnh by cc loi knh thng tin s dng trong h thng INM-C
Tr li: - Trnh by 5 loi knh trong h thng INM-C
- V s biu din cc loi knh trong h thng INM-C
11/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh TDM trong h thng Inm-C
Tr li: - V cu trc khung knh TDM
- Trnh by cu trc v chc nng cc gi tin trong khung knh TDM
12/ Qu trnh s l cc gi tin knh TDM.
Tr li: - Tm tt cc gi tin trong khung knh TDM
- Trnh by qu trnh s l cc gi tin trong khung knh TDM (gm 3 bc s l)
13/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh TDM trong Inm-C
Tr li: - Trnh by cu trc chung ca cc gi tn: (gm 3 phn.)
-V cu trc v m t 3 loi gi tin trong knh TDM: gi ngn, gi trung bnh, gi di.
14/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin Bulletin board.
Tr li: - V cu trc gi tin, nu chc nng ca gi tin.
- M t cc trng trong gi tin.
15/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh bo hiu trong Inm-C
Tr li: - V v trnh by cu trc khung.
- M t qu trnh s l 15 byte thnh 252 symbol.
16/ Trnh by cu trc gi tin knh bo hiu trong Inm-C
Tr li: - Trnh by cu trc chung gi tin knh bo hiu
- Nu tn v chc nng cc loi gi tin trong knh bo hiu.

17/ Trnh by cu trc khung knh chuyn in


Tr li: - V cu trc khung. M t cc gi tin trong khung.
Trnh by qu trnh s l cc gi tin trong khung.
18/ Trng by cu trc gi tin knh chuyn in.
Tr li: - V cu trc cc loi gi tin.
- M t cu trc v chc nng cc trng trong cc gi tin.
19/ Trnh by cc phng php pht hin v sa li trong thng tin v tinh.
Tr li: - Nu cc phng php pht hin v sa li dng trong thng tin v tinh.
- Trnh by vn tt phng php sa li dng m viterbi
20/ M t qu trnh din ra trong cuc gi v tr li cuc gi t MES ti LES v t LES ti MES trong h
thng Inm-C
Tr li: - V lu thc hin trong 2 trng hp.
- M t cc knh v cc gi tin s dng trong qu trnh thc hin cuc gi.