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Mussolinis Italy Benito Mussolini seized power in his infamous March on Rome in 1922.

His Blackshirts were made up ex militar! thu"s who enforced his rule. He is #uoted as sa!in" $tal! wants peace and #uiet% work and calm. $ will "i&e these thin"s with lo&e if possi'le and with force if necessar!.

Weimar Repbulic

The Dawes Plan ( 192) *llies attempt to collect on the reparations from +orld +ar $ after ,erman! defaults on the loans. $t relies on forei"n in&estment% primaril! from *merica% howe&er% it is 'ecause of this that it made ,erman! dependent on forei"n markets. -hus% when the *merican stock market crashes% it destro!s ,erman!.s econom!. $t is replaced '! the Young Plan in 1929 which reduced ,erman!.s o'li"ations to pa! immediatel! and also "a&e support to ,erman! &ia *merican loans to ,erman! to help pa! 'ack the *llied loans.

Nazi Party /012*34 0ational 1ocialist ,erman +orker.s 3art!

3romoted an authoritarian s!stem of "o&ernment where'! the 1tate would dictate the economic policies of 'usiness. $t was an enem! of capitalism% socialism% and communism

with a stron" emphasis on ,erman 0ationalism. $t used the persecution of its enemies to stress the failure of democrac! and set up a ruthless authoritarian "o&ernment.

A ol! "itler ( 'orn *dolf 1chickl"ru'er in *ustria 1559. 6eteran of +orld +ar $ who was twice decorated for 'ra&er! recei&in" the $ron 7ross. 8oins the 0azi part! /then called the 1ocial 2emocrats4 in 1929 and 'ecame in its leader in 1921. #A $ #turmabteilung storm trooper Hitler.s 'rownshirts ( -he 0azis and Hitler in particular% relied on "atherin" up the misfits /"a!s% criminals% dissidents% socialists% etc4 who felt disenfranchised '! societ!.

%ult o! Personality ( hero worship of a leader throu"h mass media ( it arises in or turns into dictatorships. Hitler was a master manipulator who used the mass media of the time% radio and print media% to control the flow of information in ,erman! to create a s!stem that punishes an! dissent and "i&es its leader or leaders almost total control.

"itlers Rise to Power

The &eer "all Putsch ( 0o&em'er 192) inspired '! Mussolini.s March on Rome in :cto'er 1922 Hitler tries to seize power 'ut the coup fails and he is sent to ;ail where he writes Mein 'amp! /m! stru""le4 -his foretells man! of his intentions includin" persecution of ,erman 8ews. Howe&er% his ideas are so radical that the! are dismissed at the time as the ra&in"s of a lunatic. /$ma"ine that Hitler% a lunatic< +ho knew<4

*fter his release from prison% Hitler.s popularit! "rows% aided for the most part '! the horrendous economic conditions in ,erman!. Hitler.s speeches are witnessed '! thousands who 'elie&e he is the sa&ior of ,erman!.

Reichstag (ire ( =e'ruar! 2> 19)) ( -he Reichsta" 'uildin" catches fire Marinus &an der ?u''e a 2utch insurrectionist alon" with four communist leaders are arrested. 6an der ?u''e is tried and 'eheaded in 19)@. /ouchA4 Hitler uses the fire as a reason to pass the Reichsta" =ire 2ecree which se&erel! limits ci&il li'erties in ,erman!% especiall! to those with &iews hostile to the 0azi 3art!. -his is "enerall! seen as the 'e"innin" of the 0azi 3art!.s rise to power. +hen Hitler 'ecomes 7hancellor of ,erman! he forms the ## or #chutsta!!el) -hese are the hi"hl! or"anized elite% lo!al onl! to Hitler% whereas the 1* were lo!al to the 0azi part!. -he 11 were later used as death s#uads.

*&loo Purge+ 8une )9 8ul! 2 19)@ officiall! called :peration Hummin"'ird or 0i"ht of the ?on" Bni&es. Hitler uses his lo!al ## to wipe out the #A which now posed a threat to him.

Anschluss ( March 19)5 ,erman! incorporated *ustria into its territories% thus takin" 'ack some of the territor! that it had lost after +orld +ar $.

'ristallnacht ( cr!stal ni"ht or ni"ht of 'roken "lass Be"an the e&enin" of 0o&em'er 9th and lasted well into the mornin" of 0o&em'er 19th 19)5. -ri""ered '! the assassination of Crnst 6om Rath '! ,erman 8ew Herschel ,r!nszpan. Much like the assassination of the *rchduke =erdinand !ears earlier% this e&ent alone is not responsi'le for the ,erman hostilit! a"ainst the 8ews% 'ut rather was the culmination of !ears of oppression of the 8ews resultin" from a lon" standin" campai"n of anti 1emitism. *s a result% a'out )9%999 8ews were deported to concentration camps.

Warsaw ,hetto -prising ( -he 0azis had herded the 8ews into the "hettos to "et them read! for deportation to the camps. $n 8anuar! 19@)% a small "roup of 8ews armed mostl! with hand"uns attacked the ,ermans. -he ,ermans re"rouped and came 'ack in *pril where the 8ews du" in and defended a"ainst a far more powerful ,erman arm! trained for 'attle% e#uipped with machine "uns and other weapons until 8une when the!

surrendered. * total of 1> ,ermans were killed and another 9) woundedD more than 1)999 8ews were killed.

-he most foolish mistake we could possi'l! make would 'e to permit the con#uered Castern peoples to ha&e arms. Histor! teaches that all con#uerors who ha&e allowed their su';ect races to carr! arms ha&e prepared their own downfall '! doin" so. $ndeed $ would "o so far as to sa! that the underdo" is a sine qua non for the o&erthrow of an! so&erei"nt!. 1o letEs not ha&e an! nati&e militia or police. ,erman troops alone will 'ear the sole responsi'ilit! for the maintenance of law and order throu"hout the occupied Russian territories% and a s!stem of militar! stron" points must 'e e&ol&ed to co&er the entire occupied countr!. *dolf Hitler *pril 11% 19@2% #uoted in Hitlers -ische"esprache $m =uhrerhaupt#uartier 19@1 19@2. FHitlerEs -a'le -alk at the =uhrerEs Head#uarters 19@1 19@2G% 2r. Henr! 3icker% ed. /*thenaum 6erla"% Bonn% 19H14

Regulations Against .ews/ Possession o! Weapons No0ember 112 1345 With a basis in 641 o! the Weapons 7aw o! 15 March 1345 8Reichsgesetzblatt I2 p)9:;<2 Article III o! the 7aw on the Reuni!ication o! Austria with ,ermany o! 14

March 1345 8Reichsgesetzblatt I2 p) 94=<2 an 63 o! the (>hrer an %hancellor/s ecree on the a ministration o! the #u eten?,erman istricts o! 1 @ctober 1345 8Reichsgesetzblatt I2 p 1441< are the !ollowing or ere A 61 .ews 86; o! the (irst Regulations o! the ,erman %itizenship 7aw o! 1B No0ember 134;2 Reichsgesetzblatt I2 p) 1444< are prohibite !rom acCuiring2 possessing2 an carrying !irearms an ammunition2 as well as truncheons or stabbing weapons) Those now possessing weapons an ammunition are at once to turn them o0er to the local police authority) 69 (irearms an ammunition !oun in a .ew/s possession will be !or!eite to the go0ernment without compensation) 64 The Minister o! the Interior may maDe eEceptions to the Prohibition in 61 !or .ews who are !oreign nationals) "e can entrust other authorities with this power) 6B Whoe0er will!ully or negligently 0iolates the pro0isions o! 61 will be punishe with imprisonment an a !ine) In especially se0ere cases o! eliberate 0iolations2 the punishment is imprisonment in a penitentiary !or up to !i0e years)

6; (or the implementation o! this regulation2 the Minister o! the Interior wai0es the necessary legal an a ministrati0e pro0isions) 6: This regulation is 0ali in the state o! Austria an in the #u eten?,erman istricts) &erlin2 11 No0ember 1345 Minister o! the Interior (ricD

Worl War II +orld +ar $$ officiall! 'e"an on 1eptem'er 1 19)9 when ,erman! in&aded 3oland. Britain and =rance% finall! 'ackin" up a promise to defend an all!% declared war on ,erman!. +ithin a week% more countries leapt into the fra! as 7anada% 0ew Iealand% 1outh *frica% and *ustralia ;oined the war.

-he ke! pla!ersJ

,ermany

A ol! "itler ( =uhrer of ,erman!

"ermann ,oering ( 3resident of the Reichsta"% successor to Hitler% and leader of the ?uftwaffe /,erman airforce4

"einrich "immler ( Reichsfuhrer 11 ( Head of the police% intelli"ence ser&ice% and o&erseer of the concentration camps

.ose! ,oebbels ( 0azi 3ropa"anda Minister

Wa!!en?## ( 7om'at arm of the 11

7u!twa!!e ( ,erman air force

&litzDreig ( li"htnin" war Hi"hl! coordinated mechanized and mo'ile warfare

Frwin Rommel (K-he 2esert =ox ,erman =ield Marshall 7ommander of &ictorious ,erman forces in 3oland in 19)9% =rance in 19@9% and then *frica from 19@1 19@). He was hi"hl! respected and often i"nored orders for his men to kill 8ewish 3:+s. $n fact% prisoners were often treated humanel! '! his men.

-nite #tates

,eneral Dwight D Fisenhower ( :ne of onl! fi&e H star "enerals. He was 1upreme 7ommander of the *rm! in the Curopean -heater and commander durin" the $n&asion of 0ormand!.

,eneral Douglas MacArthur ( o&ersaw the operations in the 3acific -heater

,eneral ,eorge # Patton ( 2istin"uished himself in tank warfare.

&attle o! #talingra ( 8ul! 19@2 ( 8anuar! 19@)% the lar"est 'attle of the warD *lmost H99%999 Russian troops killedD more than >H9%999 ,ermans killed.

%oncentration camps ( ,erman and *merican Auschwitz ( the lar"est and most infamous of the 0azi concentration camps. :ri"inall! esta'lished to house the 3ols 'ut later included Curopean 8ews and enemies of the 0azis. 1ome camps were forced la'or camps% such as 2achau and Belsen% while others such as -re'linka were extermination camps. -he ,ermans started 'uildin" concentration camps in the earl! 19)9s. C&idence exists of camps as far 'ack as 19)2. Howe&er% the order for the first official extermination camp was passed in 19@2. American camps More than 199%999 citizens of 8apanese ancestr! were forci'l! remo&ed from their homes and forced into internment camps. -he "o&ernment considered an!one with 1L1Mth 8apanese 'lood to 'e 8apanese. =urthermore thousands of *mericans of ,erman and $talian descent were forced to relocate as well.

-he Cnd of the +ar

7ode talkers ( -he *merican militar! used man! nati&e *mericans in the war for their uni#ue lan"ua"e that the 8apanese could not 'reak. -he marines used 0a&a;o% 7omanche% 7hoctaw% and 7herokee. In0asion o! Norman y ( *llied in&asion of the 'eaches of 0ormand! 8une M 19@@D officiall! known as :peration :&erlord or 2 2a!. -his is the decisi&e 'attle of the war as the sur"e of *merican forces into 'attle helps win the war for the *llies. The Atomic &omb The Manhattan ProGect $ secret pro;ect durin" the war led '! ph!sicist Robert @ppenheimer to de&elop the atomic 'om'. Pots am Declaration? issued 8ul! 2M 19@H '! the Nnited 1tates% Britain% and 7hina that 8apan surrender unconditionall!. -he! refused% re#uestin" to keep their emperor. -he polic! of uncon itional surren er up until this point was unheard of in war. -wo 'om's code (named (at Man+ and *7ittle &oy+ ( ?ittle Bo! was dropped on "iroshima from the Fnola ,ay on *u"ust M 19@H killin" 1@9%999 people. =at Man was dropped on the cit! of NagasaDi *u"ust 9 19@H from the Bockscar killin" a'out )9999 people and woundin" thousands of others. -housands more died from radiation da!s later. -he 8apanese militar! had 'een destro!ed '! 8une 19@H and the! offered onl! token resistance a"ainst the *llies. =urthermore% the *merican militar! were instructed not to 'om' the cities of Hiroshima and 0a"asaki 'ecause the! wanted to 'etter "au"e the new weapon.s effecti&eness. *t war.s end more than M2%999%999 million people perished includin" more than @9%999%999 ci&ilians.