International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, Pp. 197-199, May, 2012.

On the k-th Mean Value of Digits Summation in Base 10
Zhibin Ren
AbstractLet m be any non-negative integer, b(m) denotes the summation of base 10 digits of m . For any natural x , and arbitrary fixed exponent k N , let
k (x ) m x

Manuscript
Received: 24, Jun.,2011 Revised: 19, Oct.,2011 Accepted: 1, Apr., 2012 Published: 15, Jun.,2012

(x ) 2,k

x

log x log 2

k

1

O

1 log x

(Equ. 5)

bk (m) . The main purpose of

this paper is to study the calculating problem of
k

holds for any real number k . In this paper, we focus on the case of q write

10 , and we
10,k

Keywords
F.Smarandache, sum of base 10, Stirling number

(x ) , and use combinational methods

b(m)

B10 (m)

and

k

(x )

(x )

for

to deduce some exact formulas for it, which related the Stirling numbers.

convenience. In problem 21 of book [3], Professor F.Smaradache asks us to study the properties of sequence {b(m)} . The problem is interesting because it can help us to find some new distribution properties of the base 10 digits. R. E. Kennedy[5] and C. Cooper[6] obtained repectively for any fixed k N , then

1. Introduction
Let q be a positive integer. It is well known that any non-negetive integer m can be uniquely written in the base q-digits as:

(x ) k
and

x

9 logk x 2

k

O x log

k

1 3

x ,

(Equ. 6)

m

10n n

n

10n 1

1

10 1
i n

, 0

(Equ. 1)

10 , 0 n i consider the so-called digital sum

where
Bq (m)

0,0

1 .It is quite to

k

(10 )

n

9 x n k 10n 2

k

O n k 110n .

(Equ. 7)

n

n 1

. 0

(Equ. 2)

We are interested in the average behavior of the form
q ,k

(x )

Bqk (m),

(Equ. 3)

Professor zhang deduced two exact calculating formulas ( x ) in [6]. k The main purpose of this paper is to study the calculating problem of (x ), and use combinational k methods to deduce some exact formulas for it, which related the first Stirling numbers s(n, k ) and the second Stirling numbers S (n, k ) (See [7]).

where k is a fixed real number. In most cases, we are more interested in the cases of q 2 and q 10 . For the former one, known as the binary digital sum, it is proved by K. B. Stolarsky [1] that

2. Main Results
Let

(x ) 2,k

log x x log 2

k

1

O

log log x log x

w(n, r ) : #{b(m), m
(Equ. 4)

10n

1},

(Equ. 8)

that is, w(n, r ) denotes all the numbers of non-negative integer m which satisfies b(m) r in the base 10 digits,it is easy to know that 0 r 9n . Then the generating function of w(n, r ) can be writen as:
9n

holds for any k Coquet [2] that

0 . Subsequently, it is improved by J.

This work was supported by the Weinan Teachers University. Zhibin Ren is with P.R. China Weinan Teachers University of Mathematics and Information Science. (email: zb r@wntc.edu.cn)
.

F (n, x )
r 0

w(n, r )x r .

(Equ. 9)

198

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, Pp. 197-199, May, 2012.

From the knowledge of combinational mathematics, we know that w(n, r ) ) will be the numbers of sequence

s( k, k )kr ] w( n, r )
9n r

{a0 , a1,

, an } which satisfies the conditions as following:
n

s(k, i )r i w(n, r ).

(Equ. 17)

r k i 0

0

ai

9, 0

i

n;
i 0

ai

r,
r

(Equ. 10) Noting that
k 1 k

hence w(n, r ) equal to the coefficient of x in the expanding expression (1

x

x ) . So we have:

9 n

s(k, i )r i w(n, r )

0,

(Equ. 18)

r 0 i 0

Lemma 1. For fixed natural numbers n, and 0 r 9n, the generating function of w(n, r ) can be writen as:

so

F (n, x )

(1

x

x ).

9 n

(Equ. 11)

F (k ) (n,1)
Hence

k

s(k, i )
i 0

i

(10n ), k

{0,1,2, }.

(Equ. 19)

From Lemma, we know

w(n, r )
n0 n 1 n9 r

n n0n1 n9

.

(Equ. 12)

(10n ) k

k i 0

S (k, i)F (i ) (n,1), k

{0,1,2, }.

(Equ. 20)

Taking x
k

10n in (2), then
r w(n, r )
k 9n

This completes the proof of Theorem 1.
n . (Equ. 13)

(10 )
r 0

n

9n

r
r 0

k n0 n1 n9 r

Theorem 2. For any fixed positive integer n, and integer a with 1 a 9, then we have
k

n0n1

n9

Especially, letting x

1 in (3), we have:
10n.
(Equ. 14)

(a10n )

k

(10n )

a

k

t 1 j 0

k (t j

1)k

j j

(10n ), (Equ. 21)

(10n ) 0

9

w(n, r )
r 0

k

{0,1,2, }.

Theorem 1. For any fixed positive integer n, then
k

Proof. Since b(m
then (Equ. 15)
k

t10n )
bk (m)

b(m)

t, 0

t

9,

(10 )
i 0

n

k

S (k, i)F (n,1), k {0,1,2, },
(k )

(i )

(a10n )
m 10
n

b k (m)
10
n

m 2 10

n

where F (n,1) denotes the value of k-th derivative of generating function F (n, x ) in x Proof. Since
n (b 1) (k )

1.

+
(a 1)10
n

b k (m)
m a 10
n

(Equ. 22)

Then we have:

Fb(k ) (n, x )
r 0

wb (n, r )x r
k n (a 1 0 ) m 1 0
n

bk m (

)
m
n

bk m (
1 0

n

10 )

n (b 1)

r (r
r k n (b 1)

1)

(r

k

1) wb (n, r )x r

k

b k [m
m 10
n

(a

1)10n ]

(Equ. 23)

[s(k, 0)
r k

s(k,1)r

s(k,2)r 2
k

(a10n )
m 10n

bk (m)
m 10n

[b(m)

1]k

s(k, k )r k ] wb (n, r )x r k .
let x

(Equ. 16)

1 in above expression, then
m 10
n

[b(m)
s(k,2)r 2

(a

1)]k

(Equ. 24)

F (r ) (n,1)

9n

[s(k, 0)
r k

s(k,1)r

International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG) ©

Zhibin Ren: On the k-th Mean Value of Digits Summation in Base 10.

199
n k

k

(a10n )

k

(10n )

a

[b(m)
t 1 m 10n

(t

1)]k

(x )
i 1 m a 10i i

[b(m)

ai

1

a1

a 0 ]k

(10n ) k

a

k

t 1 m 10n j 0

k (t j

1)k j b j (m)

n i 1 m a 10i j0 i j1 js k

k! j j a 0a 1 j0 ! j1 ! ji ! 0 1

ai i 11 10 i (m)

j

j

n

k

(10n )

a

k

t 1 j 0

k (t j

1)k

j m 10n

b j (m)

i 1 j0
n i 1 j0 j1

j1

ji k

k! j j a 0a 1 j0 ! j1 ! ji ! 0 1
ai i 11
j

ai i 11
m ai 10i

j

10 s (m)

j

(10n ) k

a

k

t 1 j 0

k (t j

ji k

k! j j a 0a 1 j0 ! j1 ! ji ! 0 1

ji

(ai 10i ).

(Equ. 30)

1)k

j

(10n ). j

(Equ. 25)

This completes the proof of Theorem 3.

This completes the proof of Theorem 2. Theorem 3. For any positive integer x, let

3.

References

x

an 10n
n k

an 110n

1

a110
a 0a 1 ji ! 0 1
j j j

a0 , then we have
(ai 10i ), (Equ. 26)

(x )
i 1 j0 ji k

k! j0 !

ai i 11

ji

k

{0,1,2, }.
0, 0 ai 10, 0 i n 1,1 ai 9.

where an proof. Let

xn
Since

x, x i

1

xi

aibi ,1

i

n.

(Equ. 27)

[1] K. B. Stolarsky, "Power and exponential sums of digital sums related to binomial coe_cientparity," (1977) SIAM J. Appl. Mafh., vol. 32, pp. 717-730. [2] J. Coquet, "Power sums of digital sums," (1986) J. Number Theory, vol. 22, pp. 161-176. [3] F.Smarandache, "Only problems, not Solutions," (1993) Xiquan Publ. House, Chicago, pp.22. [4] C.Cooper, & R.E.Kennedy, "Digit sum sums," (1992) J. Inst. Math. Comp. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 45-49. [5] C.Cooper, & R.E.Kennedy, "Sums of powers of digital sums," (1993) The Fibonacci Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 341-345. [6] Zhang Wenpeng & Yi Yuan, "On a problem of F. Smarandache[J]," (2002) Smarandache Notions Journal, vol. 13, no. 1-2-3, pp. 186-190. [7] I. Tomescu, & S.Rudeanu, "Introduction of Combinatorics(M)," (1975) England: Collet's Press. Zhibin ren was born in ShaanXi province, P.R. China, in 1968. He received the B.Sc. degree from Yan An University in 1991. He is the author or coauthor of more than thirty national and international papers and also collaborated in several research projects. He is with Number Theory Research Group. His current research interest is Intelligent Information Processing.

b(m
then

i10 )

n

b(m)

i, 0

i

9,

(Equ. 28)

k

(x )
m x

b k (m)

n i 1 xi m xi

b k (m)
1

n i 1 0 m a 10i i

b k (m

ai 1 10i

1

a1 10

a 0 ) (Equ. 29)

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