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CHNG 2: CHUYN MCH QUANG CHM OBS (Optical Burst Switching)


2.1 Nguyn l OBS. Trong mt OBS network, nhiu d liu c kt hp ti ingress node (mt node bin ni d liu i vo) v c truyn i nh mt burst d liu m sau c tch ra ti egress node (mt node bin ni d liu i ra). Trong sut thi gian ng khi/tch khi (burst assembly/disassembly), d liu c gi ti cc b m cc bin m b nh RAM in l r v cha c nhiu. [2]

Hnh 2.1: Nguyn l ng khi/ tch khi ti node bin ca mng OBS

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Control Offset = T Packet

Offset1 = T-d

Offset2 = T - 2d

Control Channel OEO

OEO Data Burst

OEO

Data Channel

OOO

OOO

OOO

Hnh 2.2: S truyn ring bit ca cc tn hiu data v tn hiu iu khin. Hnh 2.2 ch ra rng vic tch ri ca cc d liu v iu khin cc tn hiu trong li ca mt OBS network. Vi mi burst d liu, mt cha mt gi iu khin (header) cha cc thng tin ca gi bao gm chiu di ca burst thng tin c truyn i v ch nh cc knh c iu khin. Do mt gi iu khin v nh hn mt burst, mt knh iu khin mang nhiu gi iu khin tng ng vi nhiu (hng trm) knh d liu. Mt gi iu khin i qua b chuyn i quang in ti mi node OBS v n l mt qu trnh in cu hnh chuyn mch quang. C mt khong thi gian offset (offset time) gia mt gi iu khin v burst d liu tng ng b p cho khong thi gian tr. Nu khong thi gian offset ln chm d liu c th c switch ton quang v khng c khong thi gian tr nhng node trung gian. Vi cch ny th khng cn RAM quang hoc khong thi gian tr cc node. Mc d nh vy tnh cht ht ca cc mc burst dn n vic cn cc ghp knh thng k m khng c trong chuyn mch knh. Hn th na n cho php cc gi iu khin t hn so vi chuyn mch gi. 2.2 Kin trc chuyn mch quang chm. Trong mng chuyn mch khi quang, burst d liu bao gm nhiu gi tin c chuyn mch qua mng ton quang trong min quang. Mt gi iu khin BHP c truyn trc burst d liu cu hnh cc chuyn mch quang trn ng i n ch ca burst. Gi iu khin mang thng tin v chiu di burst, thi im burst bt u pht. Burst d liu theo sau gi iu khin khng cn ch bo xc nhn rng ti nguyn c chim v cc chuyn mch c cu hnh dc theo ng n ch ca n. Gia gi iu khin v burst d liu tng ng c mt

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

khong thi gian lch gi l thi gian offset b li khong thi gian tr do x l v cu hnh chuyn mch ti node trung gian. [1,7] Mt OBS network bao gm cc switch chuyn mch burst quang kt ni vi cc ng link quang. Mi ng link quang c kh nng cung cp nhiu knh bc sng khc nhau da trn cng ngh WDM. Cc node trong OBS network c th l cc node li hoc cc node bin nh trn hnh 2.3. Cc node bin c nhim v tch hp cc packets vo trong cc burst v sp xp cc burst truyn i qua cc knh truyn. Cc node li c nhim v l chuyn mch cc burst t cc ng vo n cc ng ra da trn cc gi iu khin v gii quyt cc xung t.

Core Router

Edge Router

Output Traffic

Input Traffic

Hnh 2.3: Cu trc OBS network [7] Cc ingress node tch hp cc gi t cc user gi n. Cc burst c tch hp ny c th truyn ton quang qua node li m khng cn mt s lu tr tc thi no. Ti cc engress nodes, sau khi nhn c cc burst c ng khi chng thc hin qu trnh gii ng khi (disassembles) cc burst v a n ngi s dng ch. Hnh 2.4 m t tng qut qu trnh thc hin ca mt OBS network.

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2. 4: Chc nng ca OBS [1] Trong cu trc network, gi s rng mi node bin c th cung cp c hai lu lng c in v quang. Do cc node bin c th tn ti c hai node li v node bin, gi l node kt hp. - Node li: Cu trc c bn ca mt node li nh hnh 2.5 [1,5] c bn bao gm mt b kt ni quang cho OXC v mt n v iu khin chuyn mch quang SCU. SCU to v duy tr mt bng chuyn tip v chu trch nhim cu hnh cho OXC. Khi SCU nhn mt gi BHP, n c thng tin trong bng chuyn tip tm ng ra cho burst. Nu nh ng ra c th s dng c khi burst d liu n, SCU s cu hnh cho OXC cho php burst d liu i qua. Nu ng ra mong mun khng th s dng, vic cu hnh cho OXC ph thuc vo nguyn tc gii quyt xung t trong mng. Ni chung, SCU chu trch nhim phn tch cc gi iu khin, lp lch, nhn bit xung t v gii quyt, tra cu bng chuyn tip, iu khin ma trn chuyn mch, to li gi iu khin pht tip nu node ny cha phi l ch ca n v iu khin vic chuyn i bc sng. Trong trng hp ny mt burst d liu vo OXC trc gi iu khin ca n th burst ny ch n gin l b rt.

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Hnh 2.5: Cu trc node li [5] - Node bin: Cu trc c bn ca node bin nh hnh 2.6 [1,5] thc hin chc nng sp xp gi, m gi, tp hp gi ny thnh mt burst v phn chia cc gi t trong mt burst. Kin trc ca mt router bin bao gm mt b nh tuyn, mt b ng khi v mt b lp lch knh. B nh tuyn chn la cc ng ra thch hp bng cc gii thut tm ng ngn nht (v mt thi gian hay s lng hop) cho mi gi v gi n n b ng khi thch hp. Mi b ng khi cha cc gi d liu c cng mt ch ti. B lp lch to mt burst da trn k thut ng khi burst v truyn burst thng qua ng ra nh trc. Ti router bin ng ra, mt module gii ng khi tch cc burst thnh cc gi v gi cc gi n cc lp mng cao hn.

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.6: Cu trc node bin [5] 2.2.1 Kin trc dng mc li. Trong mng chuyn mch chm quang cc chm d liu bao gm t hp nhiu gi c chuyn qua mi nt mng dng ton quang. Mt thng bo iu khin c truyn trc chm d liu vi mc ch thit lp cc chuyn mch dc theo ng i ca chm. Chm d liu c truyn theo sau gi mo u m khng i bo nhn thit lp kt ni. [6] Hnh 2.7 th hin mt mng OBS dng mc li bao gm cc nt ra v cc nt li. Mng OBS bao gm cc chuyn mch chm quang c ni vi cc tuyn WDM. OBS pht mt chm t cng u vo ti cng u ra, da trn thit k chuyn mch n c th c hoc khng c trang b b m quang. Cc tuyn WDM mang t hp nhiu bc sng v mi bc sng coi nh mt knh truyn. Gi iu khin kt hp vi mt chm cng c th truyn trn bng tn qua cng mt knh nh l d liu, hoc trn mt knh iu khin ring bit. Chm c th c c nh mang mt hoc nhiu gi IP.

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Core Router

Edge Router

Output Traffic

Input Traffic

Hnh 2.7 .M hnh mng OBS dng mt li. Mt nt chuyn mch c trng bao gm nhng thnh phn sau: Giao din u vo: Tip nhn gi mo u v chm d liu, chuyn i gi mo u thnh tn hiu in. n v iu khin chuyn mch: Phin dch gi mo u, t lch trnh v gii quyt xung t, nh tuyn, iu khin ma trn chuyn mch, to gi mo u v iu khin bin i bc sng. Cc b bin i bc sng v cc ng tr quang (ODL): ng tr quang s dng nh b m cha chm trong mt khong thi gian tr nht nh. n v chuyn mch quang: Cc chuyn mch khng gian lm nhim v chuyn chm d liu. Cc nt ra c thm chc nng to chm bi s ng khi v gii ng khi. Vi cc cch thc hin khc nhau nh c th s dng mt ngng hoc khong thi gian quy nh kt hp cc gi d liu to ra mt chm quang v gi chm vo mng.

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Cc nt li s c cc b thu WDM, cc b pht WDM, cc b ghp knh, cc b gii ghp knh v cc b khuch i nt, cc n v iu khin chuyn mch, cc b bin i bc sng, cc ng to tr, cc b chuyn mch phn chia khng gian. 2.2.2 Kin trc dng vng.

Hnh 2.8. M hnh mng OBS dng Ring Ring c th l mt mng vng th (MAN) phc v nh mng Backbone kt ni mt s mng truy nhp, v truyn dn nhiu kiu lu lng t nhiu ngi dng nh giao thc IP, giao thc ATM, Frame Relay, [6] Mi si kt ni gia hai nt OBS lin tip trong Ring c th h tr N+1 bc sng. Trong N bc sng c s dng truyn chm, bc sng th N+1 c s dng nh mt knh iu khin. Mi nt OBS c gn vi mt hoc nhiu mng truy cp. Theo chiu hng mng truy cp n Ring, cc nt OBS hot ng nh mt b tp trung. D liu t ngi s dng cn chuyn qua mng Ring c tp hp, lu tr (m) dng in ri sau c nhm li cng nhau v c truyn trong chm ti nt OBS ch. Mi chm c th c kch thc bt k gia gi tr cc i v cc tiu. Cc chm c truyn i dng tn hiu quang dc theo Ring m khng phi qua bt k s chuyn i quang in no nhng nt trung gian.

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Theo hng t Ring n cc mng truy nhp, nt OBS ngt cc chm quang c nh sn ti chnh n, chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in, x l d liu in cha ng trong chm v chuyn giao chng ti nhng ngi dng trong cc mng truy nhp gn lin vi n. 2.3 ng khi (Burst assembly). ng khi l qu trnh tp hp v ng cc gi ng vo t lp cao hn thnh burst ti bin ng vo ca mng OBS. Khi cc gi n t lp cao hn, chng c lu tr trong cc b m in theo ch v loi ca chng. Sau c ch ng khi burst phi kt hp nhng gi ny thnh cc burst da trn cng mt chnh sch ng khi. [1,2,7] Ngi ta a ra nhiu k thut ng khi trong mng OBS. Hai k thut c quan tm nhiu nht l ng khi da vo b nh thi (timer-based) v da trn mc ngng (threshold-based). Hai k thut ny c minh ho nh hnh 2.9.

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Hnh 2.9: K thut ng khi (a) da theo mc ngng threshold-based (b) da trn b nh thi timer-based. Trong phng php ng khi da trn b nh thi, mt burst c to ra trong mng theo chu k thi gian, tc l ng thi gian nh sn trong b nh thi s to ra mt burst, khng quan tm n kch thc di hay ngn. Do , chiu di ca burst bin i khi ti vo mng bin i. Trong phng php da trn mc ngng, s lng gi trong mi burst b gii hn bi s gi ti a trong mt burst. V vy cc burst c kch thc c nh s c to ra ti cc node bin mng. Phng php da trn mc ngng s khng to ra cc burst theo mt chu k thi gian no c. Phng php ng khi da trn b nh thi v da trn mc ngng th tng t nh nhau, bi l ti tc c nh cho trc th gi tr ngng v kch thc hay gi tr v thi gian timeout c th chuyn i qua li, dn n cc burst c chiu di tng t trong mi trng hp. Cc tham s ng gi burst chnh c xem xt l gi tr nh thi, T, chiu di burst ti thiu, Bmin v chiu di burst ti a Bmax. Bmin c th c tnh ton da trn thi gian x l gi iu khin burst ti mi node v t s cc knh iu khin v knh d liu trong si quang. Mt vn trong ng khi burst l la chn cc gi tr nh thi v ngng thch hp cho vic to ra mt burst ti thiu ho xc sut mt gi trong mng chuyn mch quang chm OBS. Vic chn gi tr ngng hay nh thi ti u l mt vn m v mang tnh tng i. Nu ngng qu thp cc burst ngn s lm tng s lng burst trong mng. S lng burst cng nhiu dn n s lng xung t cng ln, nhng s lng gi trung bnh mt trn xung t s thp hn. Ngoi ra vic iu khin x l cc gi iu khin s rt phc tp. Nu thi gian cu hnh li chuyn mch l ng k th cc burst ngn s dn n kh nng tn dng mng thp hn do thi gian chuyn mch cao. Mt khc nu ngng qu cao th cc burst s di lm gim s lng cc burst vo mng. V vy s lng xung t trong mng s gim so vi trng hp c

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

burst ngn hn, nhng s lng gi trung bnh mt trn mi xung t s tng. V vy, cn c mt s cn bng gia s lng xung t v s lng cc gi mt trn mi xung t. Cht lng hot ng ca mt mng OBS c th c ci tin nu cc gi n c ng thnh cc burst c chiu di ti u. Tng t, k thut ng gi da trn b nh thi cng cn c cc gi tr nh thi ti u. Trong trng hp cc gi c nhng gii hn v cht lng dch v QoS, v d nh cc gii hn v tr th cn trin khai c ch ng khi da trn nh thi. Cc gi tr nh thi c chn da trn cc yu cu v tr end-to-end ca cc gi. Mt khc nu khng c rng buc v tr, c ch ng khi da trn ngng c th thch hp hn, v cc burst c chiu di c nh lm gim s mt gi do xung t burst trong mng. Vic s dng c hai phng php da trn b nh thi v da trn mc ngng s l la chn tt nht v vic ng khi s linh hot hn l ch dng mt trong hai phng php trn. Bng cch tnh ton gi tr ngng ti u, tnh ton chiu di burst ti thiu, v s dng gi tr b nh thi da trn tr gi cho php, chng ta c th chc chn rng s lng gi mt l nh nht trong khi vn m bo tr cho php. Ngoi ra k thut ng khi da trn mc d on cng c gii thiu, trong gi tr ngng ca burst hay gi tr ca b nh thi ca burst k tip c d on da trn tc trung bnh ca lu lng ti. Bng cch s dng chiu di burst d on, gi BHP c th c gi i vo mng li trc khi mt burst thc s c to ra v c th chim ti nguyn trc do c th lm gim tr do ng khi.[8] 2.4 nh tuyn v sp xp bc sng. 2.4.1 nh tuyn. nh tuyn l mt trong nhng vn c bn cho bt k phng thc truyn ti no. Trong cc nghin cu, hu ht cc nh nghin cu v mng chuyn mch quang chm OBS u s gi s l nh tuyn c nh c tnh ton bi ngun.

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Trong nh tuyn ngun, ng i c tnh ton ti node bin v tn dng vic bit trc chiu di ng i, do c th tnh ton c gi tr ti u ca thi gian offset. nh tuyn tng chng trong mng IP th khng thch hp lm v khong thi gian tnh ton ng i trn mi hop kh lu. Bn cnh , trong nh tuyn hop-by-hop, lin kt ng ra c chn ti mi node trung gian nn c th l c s lng hop ti thiu khi c yu cu v mt mt d liu. 2.4.2 Sp xp bc sng. Vic sp xp bc sng (wavelength assignment) c th cho mi burst n c th c thc hin theo mt trong hai cch. Cch 1: Burst c gn cng mt bc sng trn ton b ng i t ngun n ch ca n, to nn rng buc lin tip bc sng dc theo ton b ng i. Mt trong nhng bt li chnh ca phng php ny l mt burst tng do s khng sn sng ca bc sng c chn trn ton b ng i. Phng php trn c bit c ch nu mng OBS khng h tr cc b chuyn i bc sng ton quang ti cc node li hoc trong trng hp mng OBS nh tuyn bc sng WROBS, ni m b lp lch yu cu tp trung thc hin c nh tuyn v gn bc sng. Cch 2: Trong cch th hai, s rng buc v lin tip bc sng khng bt buc, vi gi s rng mi node OBS c kh nng chuyn i bc sng (b chuyn i bc sng ton quang). Trong phng php ny, mi node c th gn mt bc sng ra khc nhau cho mi burst n da trn tp hp cc bc sng c th s dng. Hu ht cc nghin cu hin ti u gi s rng c b chuyn i bc sng ton quang ti mi node OBS. Mt vn cn quan tm trong qu trnh nh tuyn v sp xp bc sng trong cc mng OBS l s cng bng v tn tht gia vic truyn d liu trn nhng tuyn ng di so vi cc tuyn ng ngn hn. Do thi gian offset ca mt burst gim khi burst truyn qua mng, lm cho kh nng nghn (blocking) ti cui ng i tng ln. Cho nn cn c mt gii thut phn cp burst da trn tnh

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

ton nhng burst ny s dng bao nhiu ti nguyn mng v n gn ch hay khng v da vo cp bc ny m thm mt ch u tin cho burst. 2.5 Bo hiu. Khi mt burst c truyn qua mng li quang, mt c ch bo hiu (signaling) phi c thc hin cp pht ti nguyn v cu hnh li cc chuyn mch quang cho burst ti mi node. OBS s dng bo hiu ngoi bng tn tc l truyn bo hiu trn mt knh khc vi knh truyn burst, trong gi iu khin c truyn i trc burst d liu mt khong thi gian gi l thi gian lch (offset time). Hai k thut bo hiu thng dng trong mng OBS l Tell-and-Wait (TAW) v Just-Enough-Time (JET). 2.5.1 Tell and Go (TAG) y l chin lc dnh trc lp tc (trc tip). Trong TAG, gi iu khin c truyn i trn mt knh iu khin v theo sau l chm d liu, chm d liu c truyn trn knh d liu c thi gian offset l khng hay khng ng k. Gi iu khin dnh trc bc sng v m ti mi nt trung gian trn dc tuyn cho chm d liu. Khi chm d liu n mt nt trung gian, n c m bng cch s dng FDL trong khi x l gi iu khin hon tt. Sau chm d liu c truyn trn knh dnh trc. Nu khng c bc sng no hiu lc dnh trc, chm s b loi b v mt bn tin NACK c gi v ngun. Nt ngun s gi gi iu khin khc phng thch dnh trc bc sng trn tuyn. B m quang l mt hn ch ca phng php ny. Hn th na, nu gi iu khin phng thch c gi phng thch dnh trc bng thng trn tuyn b mt, th nhng bc sng ny s khng c phng thch v iu ny gy lng ph bng thng. [1,9] 2.5.2 Just-In-Time (JIT)

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HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.10. Giao thc JIT y cng l phng php dnh trc bc sng lp tc. y, mt bc sng ng ra c dnh trc cho chm khi x l gi iu khin hon tt. Nu bc sng khng hiu lc, chm b loi b. S khc nhau JIT v TAG l vic m chm d liu ti mi nt c loi b bng vic thm vo mt khong thi gian (offset) gia gi iu khin v chm d liu. Khi bng thng c dnh trc ngay lp tc sau khi x l gi iu khin, bc sng s khng dng n t lc dnh trc c thit lp cho n khi bit u tin ca chm d liu n nt, y l nguyn nhn c thi gian offset gia gi iu khin v chm d liu. Khi gi tr thi gian offset gim th gi iu khin gn nh n ch, khong thi gian trng khng dng n cng gim. Mt thit b bo ht bng c t ti mi nt khi mi chm kt thc c s dng phng thch bc sng dnh trc sau khi truyn i chm d liu. S dnh trc bc sng trong giao thc JIT ti mt nt trung gian c th hin trong hnh 2.10. [1,9] t: l thi gian mt gi iu khin n ti mt nt OBS trn tuyn n ch. Tsetup: l lng thi gian m mt nt OBS phi mt x l gi iu khin.

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Toffset: l gi tr thi gian offset ca mt chm, c tnh l khong thi gian gia gi iu khin v chm d liu. Gi tr thi gian offset ph thuc vo: Phng php dnh trc bc sng. S lng nt m chm phi qua. TOXC: l lng thi gian OXC nh hnh cu trc chuyn mch thit lp kt ni t ng vo n ng ra. u tin, vic x l gi iu khin c hon tt trong thi gian t+TSetup, mt bc sng c dnh trc ngay lp tc cho chm vo v hot ng nh v cu trc OXC chuyn mch chm c bt u. Khi hot ng ny hon thnh lc t+Tsetup+TOXC, OXC sn sng chuyn mch chm. Ch rng chm s khng n nt OBS cho n khi thi gian l t+Toffset. V vy kt qu bc sng cn li khng dng l khong thi gian ToffsetTsetup-TOXC. Dn n gi tr thi gian offset gim trn dc tuyn n ch. 2.5.3 Just-Enough-Time (JET) y khng l phng php dnh trc lp tc, y kch thc chm c quyt nh trc khi gi iu khin c truyn i t ngun. Thi gian offset gia gi iu khin v chm d liu cng c tnh ton trn c s lng bc sng truyn gia ngun v ch. Ti mi nt, nu bng thng c hiu lc, gi iu khin dnh trc bc sng cho chm a vo trong khong thi gian xc nh. S dnh trc c to t lc khi bit u tin ca chm d liu n nt cho n khi bit cui cng ca chm d liu c truyn n ng ra. S khc nhau thi gian khng s dng bc sng gia JET v JIT, khi bc sng c dnh trc c khong thi gian xc nh, khng cn c tn hiu phng thch dnh trc bc sng dc tuyn. Khi khng c lng ph bng thng trong phng php ny. [1,9] Hot ng dnh trc t t ca JET c th hin trong hnh 2.11

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Hnh 2.11. Giao thc JET Gi iu khin n ti mt nt OBS trong thi gian t, thi gian offset l Toffset v di ca chm d liu l . Bt u tin ca chm i hi n trong thi gian t1= t + Toffset - TOXC v kt thc ti t1+ . Ti thi gian t0, nt OBS ch th cu trc OXC nh v n chuyn mch mang chm d liu, v hot ng ny hon thnh trc khi bit u tin ca chm n. V vy, trong khi giao thc dnh trc lp tc ch tha nhn ch dnh trc cho mi bc sng ng ra. Phng phpdnh trc t t cho php nhiu bn tin setup thit lp dnh trc tip theo trn mt bc sng. Mt khong trng c to trn bc sng ng ra trong khong thi gian t+Tsetup, khi hot ng dnh trc cho chm ng vo c hon tt v thigian t1 = t + Toffset - TOXC. Khi bc sng ng ra mi tht s c dnh trc. 2.5.4 Tell-And-Wait (TAW).

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Hnh 2.12: K thut bo hiu TAW K thut bo hiu TAW c th hin trong hnh 2.12 Trong TAW, mt gi BHP thit lp knh truyn c gi dc theo ng i n ch ca burst thu thp thng tin v cc knh c th s dng c ti tt c cc node trn ng i. Ti ch, mt thut gii sp xp knh truyn c thc thi v thi gian chim ti nguyn trn mi lin kt c xc nh da trn thi gian c th s dng ca knh sm nht. Mt gi BHP xc nhn c gi ngc li (t ch n ngun). Ti bt c node no trn ng i, nu knh truyn yu cu c s dng, mt gi BHP gii phng c gi n ch gii to ti nguyn c chim dng trc . Nu gi xc nhn ti ngun thnh cng, burst lp tc c gi vo mng. Tt c cc giao thc c tho lun trn l cc k thut bo hiu mt chiu ngoi tr TAW, l k thut bo hiu hai chiu. Nu chng ta so snh TAW v JET,

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

bt li ca TAW l thi gian thit lp ton trnh di, c ngha l thi gian cn thit lp knh; tuy nhin trong TAW mt mt d liu rt thp. Do , TAW tt cho lu lng nhy cm v mt d liu. Ngc li, trong JET, mt d liu cao, nhng tr xuyn sut (end-to-end) thp hn TAW. Trong TAW, mt hai ln tr truyn mt chiu t ngun n ch burst n ch, trong khi trong trng hp JET, tr ch l tng ca mt tr truyn mt chiu v thi gian offset. Khng c k thut bo hiu no cung cp s linh ng trong cc gi tr chu ng tr v mt d liu. 2.6 Lp lch knh truyn. Khi mt burst n mt node, n phi c sp xp mt bc sng trn lin kt ng ra thch hp. Trong vn ny, cc b chuyn i bc sng ton quang c gi s l c tt c cc node v vic lp lch din ra node li trung gian v nhng node ng vo. Mc ch c bn trong vic lp lch knh truyn (channel scheduling) ny l ti thiu khong cch gy ca mi lp lch trn mi knh, trong khong cch gy l khong cch ri gia hai burst c truyn trn cng mt bc sng ng ra. [1,2,5,10] Khi cc node li trong mt mng chuyn mch quang chm OBS nhn mt gi iu khin, n phi quyt nh knh no nhn chuyn cc gi burst d liu n. Vic chn cc bc sng s dng c lm bi cc thut ton sp xp. Nu vic t trc thnh cng, gi iu khin v burst d liu c gi ti cc node k tip, trong trng hp khc burst b block v thm ch b rt nu khng c Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs). Thut ton sp xp l mt vn ng quan tm trong rt nhiu trng hp. N c hiu rng hn l vic sp xp tt s c p dng lm gim kh nng blocking. Khong gy gia cc bursts c sp xp trong mt knh c gi l khong trng. Mt trong nhng mc ch c bn ca nhng thut ton ny l hiu qu ca vic chim bng thng : vn l s bng n ca cc khong trng void n thng c gi l lp y khong trng. Hn th na, nhim v ny s cng kh khn hn trong trng hp c nhiu gi tr thi gian b khc nhau v d nh thi gian b

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

thm khc nhau gia burst d liu v gi iu khin. Cc thut ton sp xp c th c phn loi thnh 2 nhm : khng c v c lp y ch trng. Lp lch knh trong mng chuyn mch quang chm OBS khc so vi lp lch trong mng IP truyn thng. Trong mng IP truyn thng, mi node li lu tr cc gi thng tin trong cc b m v lp lch chng mt ng ra mong mun. Trong mng OBS, khi mt burst n node li, n phi c chuyn tip n node k tip m khng cn lu tr trong cc b m trong min in. Khi mt gi BHP n node li, mt gii thut lp lch knh c a ra sp xp mt burst cha c lp lch trn mt knh d liu ng ra. B lp lch knh ly thng tin thi im burst n v chiu di burst t BHP. Gii thut lp lch knh c th cn duy tr thi im knh truyn ri gn nht LAUT hay horizon, khong cch v ch trng (void) tt c cc knh d liu ng ra. Theo l thuyt, LAUT ca mt knh d liu l thi im gn nht ti knh d liu c th c s dng bi mt burst cha c lp lch. Khong cch gap l thi gian gia mt burst cha c sp xp vi im cui ca mt burst c lp lch trc . Ch trng void l thi gian ri gia hai burst c lp lch trn knh d liu. i vi gii thut lp ch trng (void filling), thi im bt u v kt thc ca mi burst trn tt c knh d liu phi c duy tr. Nhng thng tin sau c s dng bi b lp lch cho hu ht cc gii thut lp lch bc sng: 2.6.1 Gii thut FFUC Gii thut lp lch FFUC (First Fit Unscheduled Channel) lu tr gi tr ca mt LAUT (cn gi l horizon) trn tt c cc knh d liu. Khi c burst d liu ang n, gii thut FFUC s tm kim trn tt c knh truyn theo mt th t c nh v sp xp mt knh thch hp tm thy u tin cho burst ang n ny. Mt knh truyn c xem l thch hp i vi gii thut FFUC khi gi tr LAUT ca n nm trc thi im burst n. u im c bn ca FFUC l tnh n gin ca gii thut v gii thut ch cn duy tr gi tr ca LAUTi trn mi knh. Gii thut FFUC c th c gii thch nh hnh 2.13a. Da trn LAUTi cc knh d liu D1 v D2

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

c th s dng lp lch cho burst ang n. Nu nhng knh ny c sp xp theo th t da trn ch s ca knh (D0, D1, ., Dw) th burst n c lp lch trn knh ng ra D1. FFUC l mt gii thut n gin nhng n li cho xc sut mt d liu cao v hiu qu s dng bng thng km.

(a)

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

(b) Hnh 2.13: S sp xp knh truyn sau khi s dng (a) gii thut khng lp y ch trng (FFUC v LAUC) v (b) gii thut lp y ch trng (FFUC-VF v LAUC-VF) 2.6.2 Thut gii LAUC (horizon). Gii thut lp lch knh LAUC (Last Available Unscheduled Channel) (cn gi l Horizon) gi gi tr LAUT ca tt c cc knh truyn v sp xp cho burst d liu knh c LAUT gn nht. Gii thut LAUC cng c minh ho trong hnh .Da trn LAUTi cc knh d liu D1 v D2 thch hp cho burst ang n cha c lp lch. LAUC cn quan tm n khong cch t v LAUT ca mi knh, n s chn knh no c khong cch ny nh hn; iu ny lm tng hiu qu s dng knh truyn so vi FFUC. Chng ta thy rng Gap1 > Gap2 do burst n s c lp lch ng ra c khong cch nh nht, ngha l D2 2.6.3 Gii thut FFUC-VF. im khc bit ca cc gii thut lp y ch trng ni chung l khng lu tr gi tr LAUT m lu thi im bt u v kt thc ca mi burst c lp

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

lch trn mi knh d liu. Mc tiu ca gii thut ny l tn dng khong trng gia hai burst d liu c sp xp. Knh truyn vi mt khong trng m khong cch nh nht s c chn. Gii thut LAUC-VF c gii thch trong hnh .Da trn Si.j v Ei.j tt c cc knh d liu D0, D1, D2 v D3 thch hp vi chiu di burst. Nu cc knh ny c nh s theo th t nh ch s ca tng knh, burst n s c lp lch D0. 2.6.4 Thut gii LAUC-VF Gii thut LAUC-VF (Latest Available Unscheduled Channel with Void Filling) cng lu nhng thi im bt u v kt thc cho mi burst d liu c lp lch trn tt c cc knh d liu. Mc ch ca thut gii ny l tn dng khong trng gia hai burst d liu c sp xp. Knh truyn vi mt khong trng m khong cch nh nht s c chn. Gii thut LAUC-VF c gii thch trong hnh . Da trn Si,j v Ei,j tt c cc knh d liu D0, D1, D2, v D3 thch hp vi chiu di burst. Chng ta thy c rng D3 c khong cch nh nht Gaps; do burst mi n s c lp lch trn D3. Xt t l khong thi gian ca mt burst d liu n vi khong thi gian L. u tin b xp lch tm cc knh d liu ra ngoi cho khong thi gian ni (t,t+L) sau chn knh d liu c kh thi cui cng v d nh knh c khong gy nh nht gia t v im cui ca burst d liu cui cng, c gi l starting void. Tiu chun ny c bit n nh l Minimum Starting Void hoc Min-SV. thc thi LAUC-VF tt cho tt c cc thut ton khc vi void filling, thng tin b qua cc knh d liu v voids phi c lu tr v gi updated trong cc cu trc d liu, khng ch l horizon time ca chng. Do vy , cc loi thut ton ny phc tp hn nhng thut ton khc khng c lp y khong trng. 2.7 Gii quyt xung t. [1] Trong mng OBS khi s dng cc giao thc bo hiu mt chiu nh JET, node ng vo gi i cc burst m khng c s bo xc nhn vic chim ti nguyn. C th vic chim ti nguyn s khng thnh cng ti node no trn ng truyn, dn n xung t. Xung t xut hin ti cc node chuyn mch khi hai hay

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

nhiu burst n u mun ra cng mt ng ra ti cng mt thi im. Khi cc mng chuyn mch gi in, xung t c gii quyt vi k thut lu tr v chuyn tip, trong cc gi c lu tr v sau c gi i khi ng ra sn sng. iu ny c th thc hin c nh kh nng ca cc RAM in [12]. Tuy nhin, khng c cng ngh RAM quang sn sng trong cc mch OBS. Do cc chuyn mch OBS s dng cc phng php khc nhau gii quyt nhng xung t khng th trnh khi nh vy. Gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS c th c thc hin trong ba min: min bc sng, min thi gian v min khng gian. Min bc sng: th hin ngha ca chuyn i bc sng, mt chm c th c gi i trn knh bc sng ng ra khc nhau. Min thi gian: bng vic s dng mt FDL m, mt chm c th c lm tr cho n khi nghn c gii quyt. Tri vi vic m trong in, FDL ch cung cp mt tr xc nh v d liu a vo FDL cng mt kiu m chng ng k. Min khng gian: bng vic s dng nh tuyn chuyn hng. Khi cc phng php gii quyt xung t trn khng thnh cng, th mt burst c th b rt. Mt phng php gp phn gii quyt xung t v gim lng d liu mt trong mt xung t l phn on burst. Trong phn on burst, ch cc phn ca burst chng ln vi cc burst khc s b rt. Cc phng php gii quyt xung t trn c th c s dng kt hp vi nhau tng cht lng hot ng cho mng. 2.7.1 B m quang Bng cch kt ni cc dy tr FDL theo tng hay song song, mt b m c th c to ra gi mt burst quang trong mt khong thi gian khc nhau. Tuy nhin do lm tr mt burst i 1ms cn trn 200km si quang, cc node khng th x l c hiu qu trong iu kin ti cao hoc lu lng t bin.[13,14]

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.14: B m quang Cc b m quang c th c phn loi c th hn thnh cc kin trc hng ti (feed-forward), hi tip (feedback) v hn hp (hybrid). Trong kin trc hng ti, mi dy tr kt ni mt ng ra ca mt phn t chuyn mch ti mt tng vi mt ng vo ca mt phn t chuyn mch khc trong tng k tip. Trong kin trc hi tip, mi dy tr kt ni mt ng ra ca mt phn t chuyn mch ti mt tng n mt ng ra ca mt phn t chuyn mch trong cng mt tng hoc mt tng trc . Trong kin trc hn hp, cc b m hng ti v hi tip c kt hp. Ty theo v tr ca cc b m, cc chuyn mch gi ch yu c phn loi thnh ba thnh phn cu hnh chnh: m ng vo (input buffering), m ng ra (output buffering) v m chia s (shared buffering). 2.7.2 Chuyn i bc sng. Chuyn i bc sng l tin trnh chuyn i bc sng ca mt knh ng vo thnh mt bc sng khc knh ng ra. Chuyn i bc sng lm tng kh nng s dng li bc sng, ngha l cng mt bc sng c th s dng li mng nhng kt ni khc nhau trn cc lin kt si quang khc nhau trong mng. Vic gii quyt xung t bng cch chuyn i bc sng c minh ha trong hnh di:

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.15: Chuyn i bc sng Sau y l mt s loi chuyn i bc sng: Chuyn i ton b (full conversion): bt k bc sng no u c th c chuyn i n bt k bc sng ra no; v vy khng c s rng buc v tnh lin tip bc sng trn cc kt ni xuyn sut. Chuyn i c gii hn (Limited conversion): vic chuyn i bc sng c gii hn, khng phi tt c cc bc sng n u c th c chuyn n bt k bc sng ra no. S gii hn ny s lm gim chi ph ca chuyn mch trong khi chp nhn mt s lng xung t. Chuyn i c nh (Fixed conversion): y cng l mt dng ca chuyn i gii hn, trong mi knh ng vo c th c kt ni n mt hay nhiu knh ng ra c xc nh trc. Chuyn i mt phn (Sparse wavelength conversion): trong mng c th bao gm cc node c chuyn i bc sng ton b, c gii hn, c nh v khng c chuyn i bc sng. Tuy nhin hin nay cc b chuyn i bc sng ch c thc hin trong mi trng phng th nghim v cng ngh ny vn cha c hon thin v phm vi chuyn i bc sng cn hn ch. Cng ngh ny cng yu cu phn cng ph,

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

v d nh cc b chuyn i bc sng v cc laser cho vic chuyn i bc sng v phn mm iu khin. 2.7.3 nh tuyn chuyn hng. Trong nh tuyn chuyn hng, xung t c gii quyt bng cch nh tuyn burst d liu n mt ng ra khc thay v ng ra d nh ban u. Hnh sau m t vic gii quyt xung t bng cch nh tuyn chuyn hng.
5

ng i ngn nht c chn ban u

ng i sau khi chuyn hng

Hnh 2.16: nh tuyn chuyn hng nh tuyn chuyn hng c th c xem nh gii quyt xung t trong min khng gian, c th c trin khai m khng c bt k gii hn no. nh tuyn chuyn hng l mt dng nh tuyn ng. Khi burst n li OBS m bc sng ng ra nh ban u khng sn sng n s c chuyn mch n ng ra khc thay th. Theo cch ny, cc burst n ti mt node xung t c phn b n cc node ln cn ca n v vic tn dng lin kt ton mng v cht lng hot ng ca mng c ci tin. nh tuyn chuyn hng c mt s khuyt im:

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Cht lng hot ng ca n ph thuc mnh m vo topo mng, v khng hot ng hiu qu khi ch tn ti mt s lng nh ng i thay th. Xc sut mt burst s ln vt mc trong trng hp khng c chuyn hng do cc burst c chuyn hng lm tng tc nghn mng ni chung. Do cc mng OBS vi nh tuyn chuyn hng nn hot ng trong cc tnh hung ti nh. Trong nh tuyn chuyn hng, d liu n s i theo mt tuyn di hn n ch ca n lm tng tr v gim cht lng tn hiu. Hn na, c th d liu b lp vng v hn trong mng, lm tng thm tc nghn. Do cn trin khai mt s c ch ngn chn chiu di ng i vt tri. Cc c ch nh vy c th bao gm mt b m s hop ti a hoc mt tp cc hng chuyn c rng buc. Cc node m ti xut hin chuyn hng, cng nh cc ty chn cho port chuyn hng, c gii hn ngn nga loop trong mng. Vn khc l phi duy tr thi gian b thch hp. Mt cch n gin l loi b nhng burst d liu c thi gian b khng thch hp. Cc b m s dng dy tr FDL c th c p dng tng thm thi gian b trong cc node trung gian trc chuyn hng, tuy nhin n li lm tng tnh phc tp ca lp quang. nh tuyn chuyn hng nn s dng chung vi cc phng php gii quyt xung t khc lm tng thm hiu qu ca mng 2.7.4 Phn on burst. Trong cc phng php chuyn mch khi quang ang tn ti, khi xung t gia hai burst khng th gii quyt thng qua cc phng php trn th mt trong cc burst b rt ton b d phn chng ln gia hai burst c th l rt nh. i vi nhng ng dng khng yu cu nghim ngt v tr nhng c yu cu cao v mt gi th rt mt vi gi chng ln tt hn rt ton b. iu ny c th thc hin bng cch phn on burst, tc l ch loi b nhng on xung t vi nhng burst khc. u im ca phng php ny l c th xem xt n cc mc u tin ca tng burst t cho php gii quyt xung t u tin.

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Trong phn on burst, mt burst bao gm nhiu n v truyn ti nh hn gi l on. Mi on bao gm nhiu phn mo u v phn ti trng ca on. Mo u bao gm cc trng cho cc bit ng b, thng tin sa li, thng tin v ngun v ch n v chiu di ca on trong trng hp cc on c chiu di thay i. Chi tit header on c th hin trong hnh sau. Phn payload ca on c th mang nhiu thng tin d liu, v d nh cc gi IP, cc cell ATM, hoc cc khung Ethernet.

Hnh 2.17: Chi tit header on Khi hai burst xung t vi nhau trong mng OBS, ch c mt s on ca burst chng ln ln burst khc mi b rt. Burst n trc gi l burst b xung t hay burst ban u v burst n sau l burst n xung t.

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.18 : M t gii quyt xung t bng phn on burst Mt vn khc trong phn on burst l quyt nh nhng on no rt khi xung t xy ra gia hai burst. C hai cch xc nh on no nn rt khi s dng phn on c gi l tail-dropping (rt phn ui) v head-dropping (rt phn u). Trong tail-dropping, cc on ui chng ln ca burst ban u b rt, v trong head-dropping, cc on u chng ln ca burst xung t b rt. u im ca tail-dropping so vi head-dropping l kh nng cc gi n ch ng th t, nu cc gi b rt c truyn li mt thi gian sau. Chnh sch head-dropping s dn n nhiu kh nng cc gi n ch khng ng th t tuy nhin u im ca head-dropping l n bo m rng, mt khi burst n mt node m khng b nghn th burst c m bo i qua node m khng b ginh bi cc burst sau.

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.19: Rt on gia hai burst xung t Chnh sch tail-dropping c th c sa i khi xc nh on no rt. Trong chnh sch ny, ui chng ln ca burst ban u b rt nu s lng cc on trong phn ui chng ln nh hn tng s lng cc on ca burst xung t. Nu s lng cc on trong ui chng ln ln hn th ton b burst xung t s b rt. Phng php ny lm gim kh nng mt burst ngn ginh vi mt burst di v cng ti thiu ha s gi mt trong xung t. Mt vn ny sinh khi ui ca mt burst b loi b l header cho burst c th c chuyn tip trc khi phn on xut hin, s vn cha thng tin chiu di burst ban u. V vy cc node tip theo s khng bit rng b ct cho nn c th cc on ui b ct trc s xung t vi nhng burst khc dn n mt gi khng cn thit. Mt gii php n gin l node ang ct burst s to v gi i mt trailer hay mt thng ip iu khin theo sau, bo cho cc node tip theo trn ng truyn bit im kt thc ca burst b ct. Trailer c to ra trn min in ti chuyn mch li ni gii quyt xung t v thi gian to trailer c th c bao gm trong thi gian offset. Ch trailer ch cn thit khi phng php tail-dropping c sa i c p dng. Nu thc hin head-dropping th header ca burst b ct c th c cp nht ngay tc khc ti node xung t.

Hnh 2.20: S dng trailer i vi phn on burst, c mt tham s h thng c nh hng quan trng l thi gian chuyn mch. Nu khng thc hin bt k c ch m hay tr no, thi

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

gian chuyn mch l mt php o trc tip ca s lng gi mt do tt nghn trong khi cu hnh li chuyn mch. Do thi gian chuyn mch chm s dn n mt gi cao. 2.7.5 Phn on kt hp vi chuyn hng. Mt m rng c bn ca phn on burst l thc hin phn on burst kt hp vi chuyn hng. Thay v loi b cc xung t chng ln ca mt burst trong xung t, c th chuyn hng ton b burst xung t hoc chuyn hng cc on chng ln ca burst n ng khc vi ng ra d nh ban u. Vic thc hin phn on kt hp vi chuyn hng lm tng kh nng ti ch ca burst v nh tng cht lng hot ng ca mng. Khi mt burst chuyn hng, mt ng ra chuyn hng phi c la chn. Cc ng ra chuyn hng khc nhau c th c xc nh bng cch s dng chnh sch gn ng ra c nh, chnh sch ny chn ng ra da trn ng i ngn nht tip theo. Chng ta ch xem xt mt ng ra chuyn hng v chn ng ra dn n tuyn ng ngn nht ti ch th hai.

Hnh 2.21: Chnh sch phn on v chch hng cho 2 burst xung t Vic chn burst no (hay on no ca burst) chuyn hng trong xung t c th c thc hin theo mt trong hai cch. Cch th nht l chuyn hng burst vi chiu di cn li ngn hn (tnh theo thi gian chuyn mch). Nu ng ra thay th ang bn, burst c th b rt. Cch th hai l gn u tin cho burst.

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Trong trng hp ny, burst u tin thp hn s c chuyn hng hoc c phn on. Khi kt hp phn on burst vi chuyn hng, c hai cch c bn a ra chnh sch gii quyt xung t, l phn on trc hay chuyn hng trc. Trong chnh sch phn on trc, nu chiu di cn li ca burst ban u ngn hn burst xung t, th burst ban u s c phn on v ui ca n c chuyn hng. Trong trng hp ng ra thay th khng sn sng, th phn chuyn hng ca burst ban u s b rt. Nu burst xung t ngn hn chiu di cn li ca burst ban u th burst xung t s c chuyn hng hoc rt. Trong chnh sch chuyn hng trc, burst xung t chuyn hng nu ng ra sn sng. Nu ng ra khng sn sng v nu chiu di cn li ca burst ban u ngn hn chiu di ca burst xung t th burst ban u s c phn on v ui ca n bi rt. Nu burst xung t ngn hn th burst xung t b rt. Mt u im ca vic phn on burst trong cc mng chuyn mch khi quang l n c th cung cp mt mc sai bit cho vic h tr cc yu cu cht lng dch v QoS khc nhau. Khi hai burst xung t vi nhau, c th s dng u tin ca burst xc nh burst hay on no b rt. V d, nu mt burst u tin cao n mt node v thy rng mt burst u tin thp hn ang c truyn trn ng ra mong mun ca n, th burst u tin thp hn c th c phn on, v ui ca n c th b rt truyn burst u tin cao hn. Mt khc nu mt burst u tin thp n mt node v thy mt burst u tin cao ang c truyn th burst u tin thp s b b. Khi kt hp phn on vi chuyn hng cn c th t c mc sai bit cao hn. S la chn chuyn hng burst xung t mi n hay ui ca burst hin ti ang c truyn, c th c thc hin da trn u tin. 2.8 Cng ngh OBS over MPLS 2.8.1 Cng ngh MPLS MPLS l thut ng vit tt ca Multi-Protocol Label Switching. Nguyn tc c bn ca MPLS l thay i cc thit b lp 2 trong mng nh cc thit b chuyn mch ATM thnh cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LRS (Label switching

- 39 -

GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

router). LRS c th c xem nh mt s kt hp gia h thng chuyn mch ATM vi cc b nh tuyn truyn thng, cc nhn c gn vi mi gi IP, t bo ATM hoc khung lp hai. MPLS kt ni tnh thc thi v kh nng chuyn mch lp hai vi nh tuyn lp ba. Cng ngh MPLS l mt dng phin bn ca cng ngh IPoA (IP over ATM) truyn thng, nn MPLS c c u im ca ATM tc cao, QoS v iu khin lung v ca IP vi mm do v kh nng m rng. . [23] Nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc MPLS c th c m t tng qut bng hnh sau.

Hnh 2.22: Nguyn tc hot ng ca MPLS Bc 1: Mng t ng to ra mt bng nh tuyn vi cc router c kh nng thc hin cc giao thc MPLS ng vo, nh giao thc OSPF hoc IS-IS, trong sut h thng mng. Label Distribution Protocol 1 (LDP) s dng giao thc nh tuyn trong bng gn cc gi tr cho cc thit b k cn nhau. Hot ng ny to cc Label Switching Paths (LPSs), cu hnh li ng i gia cc im n. Bc 2: Cc gi vo ti nhng Label Switching Router (LSR) ng vo xc nh cc yu cu lp 3 nh cht lng dch v v iu khin bng thng. Da trn

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

nhng i hi v nh tuyn Edge LSR la chn v gn nhn vo gi iu khin v gi cc gi i tip. Bc 3: LSR trong mng li c nhn trn cc gi thay th chng bng mt nhn mi v ghi vo trong mt bng v gi tip cc gi i. Hnh ng ny c lp li trong tt c cc nt li. Bc 4: LSR ti cc ng ra g cc nhn c gi iu khin v gi tip chng i n ch cui cng. 2.8.2 Cng ngh OBS over MPLS Cc c im ni bt ca c ch ny l chuyn tip kiu chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS cng nh c lp iu khin truy nhp trung gian gia cc lp quang v IP. Cc gi IP n c kt hp thnh cc chm d liu ti router IP vo v c chuyn ti qua mng li quang ti Router IP ra ch. Khng c b m hoc m quang rt hn ch ti cc kt ni cho quang trong mng ng trc quang. [24] Chuyn mch quang chm s dng MPLS

Hnh 2.23: Mng trc truyn dn IP over OBS WDM s dng MPLS Cc lung d liu bn c nh c th c thit lp gia cc cp Router vora khc nhau s dng k thut MPLS. MPLS c th ng vai tr quan trng trong

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

k thut lu lng v ci thin bng thng mng da trn OBS nh sau: Mi kt ni quan cho trong mng trc s c thng tin trao i nhn v cc tuyn tnh ton trc trong c s thng tin nhn (LIB) ca n. LIB c th c thit lp bng cch s dng cc k thut chun nh cc giao thc nh tuyn vi cc m rng ca k thut lu lng phn phi thng tin v min quang (bng tn kh dng trong bc sng, s bc sng trn cp quang) v giao thc phn phi nhn nh tuyn cng bc (CR-LDP) hay giao thc t trc ti nguyn (RSVP) phn phi cc nhn. Bt c khi no router vo c chm d liu cn pht th n s tham chiu LIB ca n xc nh nhn ph hp. Nhn ny c trong gi iu khin ny n trc chm d liu ny. Khi gi iu khin i ti mt nt trung gian bt k th cc hnh ng sau s c thc hin: Nhn trong gi iu khin c s dng ch thng tin chuyn tip chm d liu trong LIB nh giao din ra v u tin hoc thng tin v QoS. Kt ni cho c thit lp chuyn mch chm d liu tng ng vi gi iu khin trong phm vi ton quang. lm c iu ny, thng tin trong gi iu khin v chiu di v offset ca chm d liu c s dng b sung vo thng tin chuyn tip ly ra t LIB. c bit offset c s dng xc nh vic chuyn i t bc sng vo trn mt si cp quang sang mt bc sng ra trn mt si cp quang khc. chuyn tip cc chm d liu lin tip ca cng mt kt ni (LSP) trn cc bc sng khc nhau ti mt si cp quang, nhn ch xc nh vic chuyn i cp quang vo sang cp quang ra, cn thng tin s dng chuyn i bc sng, ch ra trong trng hp c va chm th gi iu khin vi yu cu t trc c c php u tin hay khng). Gi iu khin sau phi tri qua vic trao i nhn (v gn thm thng tin v bc sng) v c chuyn tip trn knh iu khin ring ca si cp quang ra do LIB ch nh. S chc nng ca kt ni cho quang h tr OBS v s dng chuyn tip kiu MPLS c ch ra trong hnh

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GVHD: TS. L QUC CNG

HVTH: CAO NHT BNH

Hnh 2.24: S chc nng kt ni quang cho h tr OBS v MPLS

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