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 The Age of Religious Wars  12.1  First ½ of the 16th century = conflict in central Europe  Lutherans vs.

Zwingli  2nd ½: Focus shift to Western Europe: Struggle by Calvinists for Recognition  Peace of Augsburg: Did not recognize non-Lutheran Protestants outside the Holy Roman Empire  The struggle for Religious freedom intensified  Jesuits led counter offense against Protestants  Geneva: Refuge for Europe’s prosecuted Protestants  Calvinists= Political Decentralization  Adopted an organization that magnified regional and local religious authority  Board of Presbyters: Elders represented individual congregations -> Directly shaping policy  Catholics = Absolute monarchy congregation  Centralized episcopal church system in hierarchy -> Arranged people from pope to parish to priest  Stressed obedience to person at top  High clergy = Supreme  Hierarchical rule  Baroque Art  Presented life in a grandiose, three dimensional display for raw energy  Catholics – Peter Paul Rubens, Gianlorenze Bernni  Protestant work restrained  Remembrant van Rijin  Intellectuals perceived the wisdom of religious pluralism and pluralism perceived the wisdom of intellectuals more quickly than politicians  Skeptism, relativism, and individualism in religion became acceptable  Michael de Montagine: “What do I know?” = Skeptical to status quo  People looked within themselves for religious truth  Get to know about church: Who I am to kill about infant Baptists?  Religious strife and civil war were best held in check where rulers tended to subordinate religious doctrine to political unity, urging tolerance, moderation, and compromise  Religious tolerance for unity  Pollitques: Elizabeth I, Henry of Navarre, William or Orange  Wars of religion were truly international  12.2 The French Wars of Religion  French Protestants = Huguenots  Already under surveillance in France during the 1520s when Lutheran writings and doctrines began to circulate around Paris  Capture of French King Francis I by Emperor Charles V provided a motive for the first wave of Protestant persecution  Protestants graffiti the city in 1534, major arrests were made  Drove John Calvin into exile  1540: The Edict of Fontainbleau subjected French Protestants to the Inquisition  Henry II: Edict of Chateabraind: New measures against Protestants  Habsburg Valois wars ended with Treaty of Cateau-Crambesis  Marked power change from France to Spain  Henry II died in a tournament wedding

Montmorency Chaitllons (center). mother of fenture Henry IV  Prince of Conde: Converted by Calvinist wife  Religious convictions were useful to their goals Military organization of Conde and Coligny merged with religious organization of French Huguenot churches  Balanced both political and religious dissidents Calvinism justified and inspired political resistance Catherine de Medicis and the Guises Francis II’s death ->Catherine de Medici became regent for Charles IX Poissy meeting: Unsuccessfully joined Protestant and Catholic factions Main goal was to preserve the monarchy -> Sought allies among Protestants 1562: January Edict: Allowed Protestants to worship freely outside towns and in private  Duke of Guise surprised the congregation at Vassy and massacred many worshippers  Conde’s hesitation to assist Catherin put the monarchy directly under Guise control Peace of St. prince of Conde  Montmonrency Chitllon: Gaspard de Coligny  Political leaders of French resistance  Plot to kidnap Francis II in the Conspiracy of Amboise Appeal of Calvinism Huguenots dominated population in Dauphine and Languedoc  Held important geographic areas and were heavily represented among the more powerful segments of French society 2/5 of aristocrats -> Huguenots  Hoped to establish territorial sovereignty like the Peace of Augsburg John Calvin and Theodore Beza converted aristocrats  Beza: Jeanne d’Albert. Bartholemew’s Day Masacre Catherine supported the Protestants . Germain-en-Laye During the first French war of religion. leader of Protestant resistance to Philip II in Netherlands gained Coligny’s ear  Coligny used his influence to convince Charles IX of a French invasion of the Netherlands to support the Dutch Protestants  Placed France on a collision course with Spain St.-Germain-en-Laye -> Crown tilted toward Bourbon faction and the Huguenots  Coligny became Charles IX’s most trusted advisor Catherine plot with Guises against Protestants Louis of Nassau. Germain-en=Laye ended the 3rd war  Granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities Catherine wanted Catholic France.                          Francis II died a year later 3 families wanted control: Bourbons in the South. east) Guise influenced Francis II the most  Major Catholics Bourbons and Montmorency: Strong Huguenot sympathies  Bourbon Louis I. the Duke of Guise was killed  Troops in Hesse and in the Palinate fought alongside Huguenots 1567-1568 -1568-1750: Conde was killed Huguenot leadership was passed to Coligny Peace of St. but feared a Guise dominated monarchy After Peace of St. Guises (most powerful.

1572. Saint Bartholomew’s Day. Coligny and 3. nobles. the Catholic Legaue forced Henry to find religious unity Protestants led by Henry of Navarre Mid-1580’s.                      Catherine plot to have Coligny shot down after Henry of Navarre married Marguerite of Valois  Convinced Charles IX that Huguenots must be stopped from attacking Paris On August 24th. The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre Henry III was the alst of Henry II sons to wear the crown Monarchy was wedged between a Catholic league formed in 1576 by Henry of Guise and the Huguenots  Sought to steer a middle course  Received group support from neutral Huguenots and Cathoolics Peace of Bealieu in May 1576 granted Hugeunots almost complete religious freedom  7 months later. ended any planned French opposition to subdue his rebellious subjects in the Netherlands The massacre changed the nature of the struggle between the Protests and Catholics beyond French borders  Struggle for sheer survivial against adversary whose cruelty justified any means of resistance Protestant Resistance Theory  Only as Protestants faced suppression and sure defeat did they begin to sanction active political resistance  Tried to practice biblical precept of obedient subjection to worldly authority Luther: Approved resistance to emperor after Diet of Augsburg  Lutherans in Magdeburg published defense to right of lower authorities to oppose emperor’s order to revert to Catholicism Calvin: Always condemned willful disobedience and rebellion against lawfully constituted governments as unChristian  Lower magistrates had rights to oppose tyrannical higher authority John Knox: “First blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women”  Declare removal of heathen tyrant was Christian duty After massacre. and magistrates beneath the king as guardians of the rights of the body politic. Calvinists came to appreciate the need for an active defense of their religious rights Franco-Gallia of Francis hotman= Estates General of France have more power than the French king On the Right of Magistrates over their Subjects by Theordore Beza: Right to overthrow tyrannical rulers Philippe du Plessis Marnay: “Defense of Liberty against Tyrants” admonished princes. the Catholic League became dominant in Paris Day of Barricade: Henry route league with surprise attack  Had duke and Cardinal of Guise assassinated  Forced King to strike alliance with Henry of Navarre Dominican friar killed Henry III  Bourbon Huguenot Henry of Navarre took throne as Henry IV Pope Sixtus V and Phillip II  Wanted France to be Catholic and weak -> Spain rushed troops to support League  People viewed his right to succession seriously Henry was well liked  Politique  Royal policy of Catholicism (tolerant) to achieve peace  “Paris is worth a mass” Edict of Nantes: Formal religious settlement  . to take up arms against tyranny in other lands.000 Protestants were murdered in Paris Pope Gregory XIII and Phillip II of Spain greeted the news with religious celebrations  Phillip: France in civil war.

Turks advanced deep into Austria and their fleets dominated the Mediterranean  1568-1570. Venice. but less food and fewer jobs  Spain: Division of social classes widened  Peasantry (backbone) became most heavily taxed Efficient Bureaucracy and Military Phillip II shrewdly organized the lesser nobility into a loyal and efficient national bureaucracy  Managed his kingdom by paper and pen  Learned and pious catholic Supremacy in the Mediterranean First ½ of Phillip’s reign. Lutheran.3 Pillars of Spanish Power Phillip II Heir to Western Habsburg Kingdom  Charles V gave Austria.             Treaty of Vervins ended hostilities between France and Spain  Recognized minority religious rights in a Catholic country (religious truce)  Changed a hot war to a cold war Imperial Spain and Phillip II 12. assisted by Council of State. and Hungary to Phillip’s uncle  Populous and wealthy Castile gave Phillip a solid home base  Bullion from Spanish colonies in the New World provided additional wealth  Silver mines paid King’s mercenaries Increased Population  Europe became richer -> More populous  Trigger inflation  More people and money. Holy League of Spain. Bohemia. became regent  Council headed by Cardinal Granvelle  Hoped to check Protestant gains by internal church reforms  Break local autonomy of provinces and establish centralized royal government  Merchant towns were Calvinist  People were used to variety and toleration  William of Orange opposed Spanish overlords  Placed politics>religion  Catholic. Genoa. armies under Don John Austria dispersed Moors in Grenada  May 1571. and the Pope under Don John forced to check Turkish belligerence in the Mediterranean  Don John’s fleet engaged the Ottoman navy under Ali Pasha off Lepanto  Resilient Ottomans would maintain their base in Cyprus and gain control of the eastern Mediterranean  Philip’s armies suppressed resistance in neighboring Portugal The Revolt in the Netherlands Failed in the Netherlands Cardinal Granvelle  Netherlands=Richest part of Europe  When Phillip left. Margaret. and Calvinist  1561L Cardinal Granvelle: Planned ecclecistical reorganization  Tighten control of Catholic hierarchy over the country to accelerate consolidation as a Spanish ward  Removed from Office by William of Orange . attention focused on Mediterranean and Turkish threat Spain always against Islam  1560’s.

no longer obey  Union of Utrect  Phillip no longer ruler  French duke of Alencon to beomce king  Failed. disposed. succeeded by Maurice  Continue Dutch resistance with French and England help  Phillip II signed secret Treat of Joinville with Guises and sent troops into France in 1590  Eventually defeated in English channel  Proccupation with France and English -> Drive out all soldiers by 1593  1593: France and England recognize independence . forcing to pay for revolt  Opposition -> Could not be collected  Persecution and taxation made people flee  Resistance and Unification  William of Orange emerged as a leader of a broad movement for independence of the Netherlands from Spain  Political resistance in the Netherlands gained organization and inspiration by merging with Calvinism  Capture of Port City of Brin by “Sea Beggars”  William of Orange hired  Captured other seaports in Zealand and Holland ->Spark Rebellions against Alba  Pacification of Ghent  Spanish mercenaries ran amok in Antwerp in 1576 (Spanish Fury)  10 Catholic Southern Provinces – 7 Protestant Northern Provinces unified to oppose Spain (Pacification of Ghent)  Declare regional sovereignty in matters of religion  Permit political get-a-long  4 Provinces held out -> Union of Brussels  Don John took command of Spanish land and lost  Perpetual Edict: Removal of Spanish troops from Netherlands in 20 days  Union of Arras and Union of Utrecht  Don Hon and Alexander Farnese of Parma received power in Southern provinces  Union of Arras = Peace with Spain  Union of Utrecht = Response to Counter Reformation  Netherlands Independence  Phillip II declared William of Orange an outlaw  Speech to Estates General announced Phillip a tyrant. The Compromise  Opposition to Queen Maragaret’s government  Phillip II forced decrees of council of Trent on Netherlands  Louis of Nassau led opposition  Compromise: Resist decrees of Trent and Inquistion  Called “beggars” = Calvinists rioted  The Duke of Alba  Rebellion failed because nobility did not support it  Dispatched by Phillip II to suppress revolt  Council of Troubles reigned over land  Spanish levied new taxes. and return to France  Spanish attempts to reconquer went into 1580’s  William of Orange assassinated.

with no higher control  Elizabeth & 2nd Archbishop John Whitguft no tolerate  Conventicle Act: Conform church of England or exile  Declaration of Relations with Spain  Duke of Alba to Netherlands -> Convenient for Spanish to invade England . Stasbourg. a law onto itself. Hugh Latimer. Geneva  Waited for Protestants to oppose  Exposed to more radical Protestant beliefs  Elizabeth I  Assisted by Sr. 12 year’s truce  England and Span 12.4  Mary I  Acted beyond worst fears of the Protestants  1554: Married Phillip II of Spain. and Thomas Cramner were executed for heresy  100’s of Protestants either join at Martydom. William Cecil  Guided religious settlement through Parliament that prevented religious differences from tearing England apart  Politque  Merged centralized episcopal church system that she finely controlled with broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual  1559: Act of Supremacy opposed Mary’s anti-protestant legislature (Elizabeth’s right as supreme governor)  Act of Uniformity: Every church to have a 2nd version of the Book of Common Prayer. Michael Parker. sister of Henry VIII  Elizabeth acted calm in assassination plots  Elizabeth showed little mercy to those who threatened her rule  Dealt cautiously with Puritans: Purify every part of popery and make its protestant Doctrine more precise  Went against:  Retention of catholic ceremonies and vestments  Continuation of episcopal system of church governance  Puritans not true separists  Popular support  Worked with Parliament to get alternative: Semiautonomous congregations governed by representative presbyteries  Congregationalists: Fully autonomous church. 1609: Peace with Spain. and subject to religious tests  1563: 39 Articles made Protestantism the official religion of the Church of England  Catholic and Protestant Extremists  Elizabeth avoided by middle way  First archbishop of Canterbury. a symbol of Militant Catholicism to English Protestants  Parliament repeal Protestants Statutes of Edward and return Catholic doctrines  Great Protestant Leaders: John Hooper. represented this ideal  Jesuits and catholic extremists plotted against her  Spanish encouraged  Elizabeth remained unmarried  Catholic extremists hoped to replace with Mary Staurt  Unblemished way to her throne by grandmother Margaret. or burned at the stake during Mary’s reign or flee the continent  Frankfurt. attend Church every week.

Queen of Scots  Return to Scotland after death of Phillip II  Practice Private mass and Catholic practices despite Protestant Reformation  John Knox fumed publicly and got support from Elizabeth  Elizabeth did not like because “First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women”  1568: Public scandal sent to England  Lover earl of Brothwell suspected of killing Lord Darnley  Court: Earl Brothwell marry -> Surrender throne to James VI of Scotland  International symbol of possible Catholic England  1583: Sir Francis Walsingham uncover murder plot against Elizabeth involving Spanish ambassador Bernandino de Mendoza  After deportation. lest territorial rights to be overturned  Not loath to turn to Catholic France or kings of Denmark and Sweden for allies  After Council of Trent. 1587 -> Ships sail for England  Caught up with invasion barges in Calais and Dunkirk  English and Netherland ships helped by Spanish wind  Gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere  Spain never recovered 12. Protestant believe plot to turn church back to pre-Reformation times  Imperial diet demanded strict observance of Constitutional rights of Germans .       Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth for heresy in 1570  England signed mutual defense act with France  Sir Francis Drake regularly prey on Spanish  Circumnavigate world  After St.5 30 Years War 30 Year’s War: Most destructive wars of religion in the Holy Roman Empire  Devastation: Hatred for each other and sacrifice all for beliefs Preconditions for the War Fragmented Germany  Germany land of 360 autonomous political entities  Peace of Augsburg gave each significant sovereignty in their borders  Own tolls. English support of Protestant Resistance in France and the Netherlands rise  1586: Uncover another plot. Babington plot  Mary complicity  Execute Mary despite consequences  Dash Catholic hopes of bloodless reconversion of England The Armada  Sent by Pop Sixtus V by Phillip II  Francis shelled part Cadiz and raided port of Portugal -> Postponed invasion  Mary 30. Elizabeth only protector of Netherlands  Treaty of Nonsuch: English soldiers and Calvary into Netherlands Mary. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. tariffs. and money -> Land travel and trade impossible  Great power pretentions  Central location: Europe’s highway for merchants  Rulers pressed in on Germany because each held some land or legal privileges  German princes import and export beyond borders to consolidate the Holy Roman Empire.

French.                 Emperor rule only to degree where he used force Religious Division  Religious conflict accentuated political divisions  Population in H.E was equally divided Peace of Augsburg attempted to freeze landholdings (ecclesiastical reservation)  Catholics and Lutherans gain control in each other’s areas  Increase suspicion Lutherans more successful to securing their rights to warship in Catholic lands Catholics demanded every ecclesiastical worker who converted to be deprived of office and return land to Catholic control  Protestants ignored Calvinism and the Palatinate Calvinism was political and religious leaven on eve of war  Gained foothold when Federick III became Elector Palinate and made Catholicism official religion Heidelberg turned into a German Geneva  Staging area for Calvinist penetration into the empire  1609: Palatinate Calvinists headed a strong Protestant defensive alliance from Spain’s enemies Lutherans fear Calvinists because they threaten Peace of Augsburg  Outspoken Catholic Criticism of Eucharist doctrine shocked Lutherans Maxmillian of Bavaria and the Catholic League  Jesuits won Stasbourg and Osnabruck 1609: Maxmillian I organized Catholic league against Calvinist Elector Federick IV’s army  When league form command under Johann von Tilly. and Dutch encouragement: Picked up Protestant banner of resistance .R. Sea  English. stage was set for the War 4 Periods of War Drew in every European nation The Bohemian Period  Broke out after Habsburg Ferdinand heir to throne  Determined to restore traditional faith to Habsburg  Revoke freedoms of Bhoemian protestants  Broadened by Rudolf II in his ‘Letter to Magesty”  Protestant Nobility respond to Ferinand’s act by throwing his regents out the windows of the royal castle  “Defenstration of Prague”  1619: Holy Roman Emperor=Ferdinand II  Bohemians declared Calvinist elector Palatine Federick V their king  Escalated into international war  Spain sent armies to Ferdinand  Maxmillian: Title Palinate from Federick  John George: Territory gain in Palinate  Ferdinand’s army under Tilly routed Federick V’s troops at the Battle of White Mountain  1622: Subdued & Catholicized Bohemia  Maxmillian of Bavaria: Conflict to NW Germany The Danish Period Ferdinand II: wanted reconquest and Catholicization Christian IV of Denmark  Extend Danish influence over coastal towns of N.

French. Entered Germany. humiliated by Maxmillian and retreat  Perdinand picked up Albrect of Wallenstein  Gained territory by joining Ferdinand in conquest of Bohemia  Carried Ferdinand’s campaign into Denmark  Ferdinand issue Edit of Reinstitution in 1629  Reaffirm illegality of Calvinism  Order of return of all church lands Lutherans had acquired  The Swedish-French Period  French openly entered war  13 years. but no power to prevent  France and Spain war until 1569  Perpetuated German division and political weakness . won a victory at Breitenfeld that changed the course of the war  Military genius  Had both infantry and cavalry emply fire and charge tactics  Died at hands of Wallenstein’s forces during the Battle of Lutezen  Cause a brief standstill  Wallenstein’s independence led to imperial success  1634: Ferdinand had Wallenstein assassinated  Wallenstein strike bargains with Protestants for his services  Peace of Prague in 1635: German Protestant states reached compromise with Ferdinand  France and Netherlands Resist   Treaty of Westphalia  1648: Ended all hostilities in the Holy Roman empire  First general peace in Europe  French: Diplomatic language  Repudiated Ferdinand’s Edict of Reinstitution  Ruler of the land determines religion  Calvinists became reoncqized  Independence of Netherlands and Swiss Confederacy recognized  Bavaria: Elector state  Sweden and France found many opportunities to meddle in German affairs  Pope oppose. Spanish. and Swedish soldiers battle for fun  Germans devastated  The Swedish Period  Gustavus Adolphus II of Sweden became the new leader of Protestant forces within the empire  Controlled by: Cardinal Richlieu: Foreign policy to protect French interests by keeping Habsburg armies tied down in Germany  Dutch  Alliance with electors of Brandenburg and Saxony.