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Fundamentalsand preliminarysizingof sectionsandjoints

Objectives
Overviewofsectionandjointstructural behaviour inadesigncontext. Tooutlinethedesignandsizingapproachfor sectionsandjoints.

Characteristicsofthinwalled structures
manufacturedwithmorethanonecomponent andjoinedtogetherbyspotwelds,seam weldsorbyanadhesive. adhesive Twotypes:
Open O the th thi thinsheet h tmetal t li isformed f dwith itha discontinuity Closed thesectionformsacompleteloop

OpenSections
Someopensections:
Anglesection Zsection Channel Lippedchannel Hatsection

Majorlimitations:
lackofTorsionalstiffnessdue totheirverylowpolarsecond momentofarea. Wharping:undertorsion transversesectionsdonot remainplane,thereisaxial displacementatvariouspoints onthesection

AngleSection
Not a suitable structural member when considered alone. The principal axes UU and VV are inclined to the faces of the angle and if bending is applied about either YY or ZZ bending will occur about both axes. Stress distribution is very asymmetric and results in large parts of the section being under stressed. d inefficient use of material

Zsection
Similar undesirable characteristics and hence is not suitable as a section on its own. Principal axes of the Z section are inclined. Angle of the principal axes U U and V V relative to the Y Y axis will depend on the relative lengths of b1, b2 and d.

Channel1/2
Suitable structural section and used in commercial vehicle chassis and body structures. Suitable for bending loads causing moments about the ZZ axis. Care must be taken to ensure that the flange width b b is not excessive as this can lead to reduced allowable compressive p stress

Channel2/2
Less satisfactory for bending about the Y Y axis because it is less stiff (has lower value for Iyy than Izz) and has an asymmetric ti stress t distribution.

Lippedchannel
Thewideflangeresults inalowstressatwhich bucklingoccurs. Improvementin bucklingstresscanbe achievedbyaddingalip tothechannel

Hatsection
Has good bending properties about both YY and ZZ axes provided the value of 2b2 is approximately equal l to t b1.

OpenSections
PolarmomentsofInertiaofsectionsJx
Angle Zsection Channel Lip pChannel Hat(e) =(a+b)*t3/3 =( (b1 +b2 +d)*t ) 3/3 =(2b+d)*t3/3 =( (2d1 +d+2b)*t ) 3/3 =(b1 +2b2 +2d)*t3/3

tissmallhenceJx willbesmaller Hencelargertwistangle


=TL/GJ TL/GJx

ClosedSections

ClosedSections
TwoZsectionswith unequallengthflanges joinedtoformaclosed rectangularsection. Secondmomentsof areaabouttheYYand ZZaxesaremuch increasedovertheopen section

ClosedSections
Combinationoftwo channels,onewithwide andonewithnarrow flanges. Thiscombinationavoids inclinedprincipalaxes andstillhassubstantial secondmomentsof areaaboutYYandZZ axes.

ClosedSections

Twohatsectionsarecombined,bothoftheseform effective ff ti structural t t lmembers b with ithgood dbending b di propertiesaboutYYandZZaxes.

ClosedSections
Hatsectionwithaflat closingplate

ClosedSections

At(a)theenclosedareais: shownat(b): A=(b1 2b2)d+4(b2 b3)t A=(b1 2b2)d Andtheperiphery: Ands=2(b1 2b2)+2d s=2(b1 2b3)+2d+4(b2 b3)

Somepassengercarsections1/2
One Shallowhat

TwoShallow h ll hat

Somepassengercarsections2/2
TwoShallow hat+shallow flat Twoshallow hat+flat

Hat+plate+Z Twohat+ angle+roof

FloorCrossBeam

Hatsectionon fl panel floor l

FloorCrossBeam
Loads
Ffp =Loadfrompassenger/seat K1 =Loadfromenginerail K2 =simplesupportsreactionwithnofixing supports

Loadingconditiononthecrossbeamis bendingandshear shear.

FloorCrossBeam
Bending e d gmoment o e t M=K2l1 Ffpl2 valuesofK2 andFfp mustbebasedonthestatic loadsmultipliedbyanyloadfactornecessaryto allowfordynamiceffects. Designingforstrengthusethestandard engineersbendingtheorytoobtainthestressin th beam the b due d to t the th bending b di moment: t f=My/I

FloorCrossBeam
Sectionp properties p tobeevaluatedincluding ga widthofapproximately20tofthefloorpanel eithersideofthehatsection b3 =b1 +2b2 +40t Safetyfactor 1.5 Forshear nonlinearshearstresstheory: =K2Ay/zI (yismomentofarea, ziswidth, width Iissecondmomentofinertia) /2dt( (asstressinb1abd b3islow) ) K2/

A A Pillar

A A Pillar
Largebendingloadswhenthe structureisloadedintorsion Fromtheroofloadstheshearforce betweenthetopofthewindscreen frameandalongthecantrailcanbe obtained. bt i d
Q1 =acrossthefront Q2 =acrossthesides proportionnofthesideframeload Q2 isthattakenbytheApillar

A A Pillar
AssumingthejointatthetopoftheApillartothe windscreen i d header h d rail/cantrail il/ t iland dth thej joint i tt toth the dash/wingarefixedsupports Bendingmomentsandstressesare Mx =Q1h/4 fbx =Mxb/2Ixx

M y = nQ2 sin * h / 2*cos


fby = M yd I yy 2

Directcompressionstress fc=nQ Q2 cos /(2b+2d)t where(2b+2d)tisapproximatelythecrosssectional area

A A Pillar
Stressplotsshow
AtA,thebendingstresses aretensilebutthedirect stressisagaincompressive sogivingareduced resultantstress

Designcriteriadescribed arebasedonthetorsion loadcondition. FortheApillarsection, criticalcasecanbethe inroofcrushtestSAE J374

Enginelongitudinalrail

Enginelongitudinalrail
Shear forces and bending g moments. Shared Loads:
Bumper FB, Radiator FR, Powertrain FPT Reaction from the front suspension RFL L.

Factors for Dynamic loads The engine g rail is supported pp in the structure by y the dash panel and by the floor crossbeam situated under the front seats.

Enginelongitudinalrail
SolvingforforcesonK1 andK2 Resolvevertically: FB /2+ /2 FR /2+ /2 2(FPT/4) / )+K1 K2 RFL =0 MomentsaboutK1: FBl1/2+FRl2/2+FPTl3/4+FPTl5/4+K2l6 RFLl4 =0

Enginelongitudinalrail
Plots show high shear between the suspension reaction and the dash panel and the maximum moment is at the dash panel : need for a deeper section Design governed by bending strength requirement at th dash the d h panel, l hence h overall ll depth d th d should h ld be b large. l Stiffness may also be important and the deflection of the beam calculated. calculated This member will also be designed to absorb energy in frontal impacts

SheetmetalJoint

Shearflowaroundthesectionshowsthat asthespotweldsarespacedfurtherfrom thebeamcentreandhencetheloadwillbe reduced

Sheetmetaljoint
Ifamoment o e tMis sapp applied, ed,te tension s o intopo ofhat at andcompressioninclosingplate. ythesideflanges, g Verticalshearforceiscarriedby likecurvedshearpanels
Thetopandbottomflangeswillnotcarry any significant i ifi tvertical ti lf force. Sideflanges:loadisappliednormaltotheirplanethey willbeineffectiveinresisting gtheforce

Whenhorizontalshearforcesareappliedthe oppositewillresult.

SheetmetalJoint

Sheetmetaljoint
Spotweldjoints Nofixingmomentwhileprovidingonlyashear connection Fromtheanalysisofthisjointwecanlearn twoimportant i rules l f ford designing i i j joints: i
Avoidoutofplanebendingonthinsections. Loadthinsectionswithinplanebendingand shear.

SpotweldsLoading
Acentrecorewhichhas themicrostructuresimilar toacasting Thereissomeworkingof themetalduetothe pressureoftheelectrodes Surroundingthecoreisa heataffectedzonethat hasreducedstrength comparedtothebase material

SpotweldsLoading
Thespotweldnugget haspeeledawayfrom thebasematerial. Parentmetalissubject tooutofplanebending whichagainis unsatisfactorycausing yieldingatverylow loads

SpotweldLoading

Thesmallareacannotresistalarge twistingmomentcausedbythelong momentarm

Spotweldpatterns
Positionofcentroid
y = (3 y1 + 3 y2 ) / 8 x = (2 x1 + 3 x2 ) / 8

Forcedividedequallyn allrivets Additionalshearforce foroffsettorque

Spotweldsalongaclosedsections
=
q T T = = t 2 At 2d (b1 2b2 )t

N=

qL Fs

ShearPanels Roofpanel
Thelargestpanelinapassengercarandunder thetorsionloadcasethismaybuckledueto shear. shear ESDU02.03.18/19datasheetcanbeusedto i investigate ti t this thi phenomenon. h Thesedataisnotideal becausetheyconsider plateswithcurvatureinonedirection,butthe roofpanelhascurvatureintwodirections.

ShearPanels Roofpanel
Bucklingstress =KE(t/b)2
K=Buckling gstresscoefficeint E=modulusofelasticity T=panelthickness B=lengthofcurvedside

The coefficient K is presented as a function of the l length h a, the h radius d of f curvature R, the h thickness h k of f the h panel t and the ratio a/b (the ratio of the lengths of the panelsides). panelsides)

ShearpanelsRoof Roofpanel
Investigationsmadeintoaroofpanel980mm wideby1250mmlong,1mmthickandradius ofcurvatureof2425mmresultedinstressto causebucklingof13.8N/mm2whichisfour timeslargerthantheappliedshearstress stress. Otherapproachesare
ESDU71005:fl flat tpanels l ESDU75030:designforvibrations

Shearpanels Innerfender
ESDU71005 Fortypicaldimensions,appliedstresslevelsmayexceedbyafactor of5,hencethereisneedtoprovidestiffenerstopreventbuckling.
Thispanelinpracticehasconsiderablecurvature, curvature isrestrainedatthe edgesbyadjacentpartsandalsothemodelisaverysimplified representationofthestructure. Inpracticetheloadwillbesharedbetweentheenginerail rail,thefender toprailaswellasthepanel.

Allthesefactorswilltendtoreducetheriskofpanelbucklingbut thi does this d ill illustrate t t th theneed dt toadd ddstiffeners tiff and dswagesi inthi this partofthestructure.