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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SERIES

INTRODUCTION TO

MATHEMATICS
BY

ROBERT

L.

SHORT

PRINCIPAL OF WEST TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL CLEVELAND, OHIO

AND

WILLIAM

H.

ELSON

FORMER SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS


CLEVELAND, OHIO

D.

C.

HEATH &

CO.,

PUBLISHERS
CHICAGO

BOSTON

NEW YORK

Copyright,

1916,

By D.

C.

Heath &
ih6

Co.

AUG 29 1916

CIA438176

INTRODUCTION
This book
of pupils.
is

intended as an aid in the movement to vitalize

it to the needs and the understanding employs the increasingly popular correlated method, combining related portions of arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. It treats these branches of mathematics more with reference to their unities and less as isolated entities (sciences). It seeks to give pupils usable knowledge of the principles underlying mathematics and ready control of them. The combined arrangement not only increases interest and motivates the work, but it also gives greater power of analysis on the part of the learner and greater accuracy in results. The early study of geometry brings analysis into play at every consequently written problems to be stated step and stage have no terrors for those who are taught in this way. Growing discontent with mathematics as traditionally taught, in view of the large number of failing pupils, has led mathematical associations to urge teachers to select and stress those For example, portions of mathematics that are vitally useful. years recommended associations have for several that all these work should be based upon the equation. In accordance with this view we have made the demonstrations in this book largely algebraic, thus making the demonstration essentially a study

mathematics, adapting
It

in simultaneous equations.

In
great

this

method

of treatment,

we have found

it

advantageous

not to hurry the work.

Pupils gain power, not in solving a

many

problems, but in analyzing and thoroughly under-

standing the principles of a few.

In general, the book covers straight line geometry to proportion and algebra through fractional equations it is intended
j

for one year's work.


iii

iv

INTRODUCTION

We are

indebted to

many who have

offered suggestions

and
East

practical problems,

and especially

to Carlotta Greer, of

Technical High School, Cleveland, Ohio, Professor Kenneth G.

Smith, of the Iowa State College, John


Smith, and H. E. Garner, of
Cleveland, Ohio, and also to

W. Thalman,

B. C.

West Technical High School, those who so kindly read the

proof sheets.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOOK
CHAPTER
I.

I
PAGE

The Number System


Addition

Prime Factors
Oral Control of
II.

Number

Equations
Problems

10
13
.
.

III.

Positive and Negative Numbers

.17
18-29
29
36

The Four Fundamental Operations


Supplemental Applied Mathematics
IV.

....
. .
.

Polynomials, Multiplication
Polynomials, Division

41

Review

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


V.

Inequalities

Simultaneous Equations Problems Supplemental Applied Mathematics


VI.

.... ....
.

.46
48
54
56

64
66

Lines, Angles, Triangles

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


VII.

....
Parallels and
.

69 99

Graphs, the Algebra of Lines.


their Uses
Quadrilaterals

103

120
127
.
. .

Polygons

Supplemental Applied Mathematics v

.130

VI
CHAPTER

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

VIII.

Products and Factors


(a
(a

133

+ b)

(a

h)

133 135 137


138 140
142

+ by 2 X + fa; + C Common Factors ax 2 + bx + c


a
3

x*

& + bx +
3
.

c2

.144
148

Solutions by Factoring

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


IX.

.151
155

Fractions
Multiples

159 160
166 168

Addition
Multiplication

Division

Equations Supplemental Applied Mathematics

....

170
181

X.

Proportion

188
193

List of Constructions

List of

Theorems

194 198

Index

FOR THE TEACHER


Keviews
in mathematics are always necessary.

This

is especially

true in this text, which combines different branches of mathematics.

In teaching the text keep


the principal tool used.

in

mind that

in geometry as well as in

algebra problems are solved by means of equations.

To

use the equation

Hilbert notation, a small letter for


essential.

The equation is method successfully, the angle values and for line values is

In lettering a figure, begin at the lower left-hand corner and read counter-clockwise. This gives pupils an idea of directed lines, and

makes possible the correct drawing of the figure from description. Theorems I and II should be assumed as true until after Theorem IX. If they are then proved, the student will not be so apt to attempt to prove every theorem and problem by superposition. Note that many demonstrations have been put into the form of a set of simultaneous equations, the solution of which produces the
desired equation.

Emphasize the manipulation


the factors

of quantities

the use of methods of indication until there

by means of factors and is no longer hope that


p. 178).

may

disappear through division (see

amount of the work orally, and do it so often that the pupil knows what he is doing, and why he is doing it. No pupil
a large

Do

should use pencil and paper to find prime factors of (24) 2 (12) 6 9 or to find the product of 18 17.
, ,

27,

Insist that pupils study all illustrative

work,

rules,

and instructions

before beginning the examples of an exercise.

Teach pupils to use the Index, also the groups of theorems and constructions found on pages 193-197.

vu

INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER
I

The Number System


1.

Our number system

is

a decimal one.

Ten

units of one

One tenth of any digit makes a digit of the next lower order. The digits are 1, 2, All numbers are made up of these digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
order
of the next higher.

make one

and

their position is often indicated


0,

by the introduction of one


e.g.,

other symbol,

known

as nought, cipher, or zero;


six l's.

16

is

equal to ten

l's

added to

That
0.

is,

16

= 10 + 6, = two

the

position of the 1 being indicated

by the

The numbers expressed by these


the multiples of other digits.

digits themselves are often


2's,

For example, 4
9

or

2,

where the

indicates multiplication.

= 3-2,

= 3-3.

The numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 are the prime digits. A prime number is a number whose only integral factors are itself and unity.

EXERCISE

Write the following numbers in such a way that their mal composition will appear
1.

deci-

145.

8.

511.

145
2. 3.

= 100 + 40 + 54. 5.

223.

987. 999.

6.

227.

9.

101.

448.

7.

863.

10.

10016.

2
2.

MATHEMATICS
In the product of two or more numbers, any one of them

or the product of any

number

of

them
is

is

a factor of the given

product

= 30.

Then, 2

a factor of 30.

3 or 6

is also a factor of 30.*

3.

A term is
(+)
or

a number whose parts are not separated by the


sign.

plus

minus ( )

In the expression,
10 10
10
4.
is

+6
6
is

a term.
is

also a term.

+6

composed of two terms.

A binomial is an expression of two terms. A trinomial is an expression of three terms. A quadrinomial is an expression of four terms.
expression of two or more terms
is

An

also called a poly-

nomial.

100
5.

+ 60 + 3

is

a trinomial.

It is often necessary to represent a

number by a

letter or

a combination of letters.

Such

letters

may

represent either

unknown numbers

or

those supposed to be knoivn numbers.


is

This kind of notation


E.g.,

used in general arithmetic or algebra.

n may represent any number, likewise any letter or combination of letters and figures may be considered a number. a + b + c is a trinomial number ( 4), or the sum of three numbers a, b, and c. In arithmetic it is possible to express such a sum as a single number.
Thus, 2

+ 5 + 8 = 15.

In algebra, this

is

not possible unless the terms of the expres-

sion are alike or similar.


6.

Similar Terms are terms which differ in their coefficients


e.g.,

only,

x,

x,

x, b

x.
its factors.

* That

is,

a number

is

exactly divisible by each of

THE NUMBER SYSTEM


7.

Any

factor ( 2) of

number

is

the coefficient of the

remaining factors.
Thus, in a
in 2 in 2

sc,

a
2 3

is

the coefficient of

a;,

3,

is
is

the coefficient of
the coefficient of
2

3.

3,

2.

in 2 in 2
in 2

a
a

6,

b is the coefficient of a.

6,

a
2

is
is

the coefficient of 2

6.

6,
is

the numerical coefficient of a


x.

6.

in ax, a

the literal coefficient of

When

the product of a

number

of figures

and

letters is to

be

written, the multiplication sign is usually omitted.

Thus, 2
8.

b is written 2 ab.

2 a

+3a+7

is

a trinomial consisting of similar terms

( 6).

These terms may be united into one term by finding


of the coefficients.

the

sum

Hence,
This. is the

2 a+3 a

+7 a=
+3
ft.

(2

+ 3 + 7)

= 12 a.
when one
finds

same operation
2
ft.

as that in arithmetic

the value of

+7

ft.

= 12

ft.,

and

is

brought

still

closer to arithmetic

when one remembers

that only like numbers can be added.


Similarly,

15 ab

ab

+7

ab
ab,

means

that 3 ab is to be subtracted

from 15

and 7 ab added

to this difference.

Hence,
Ex.
1.

15 ab

ab

+7

ab

= 19
xy

ab.

7 d. 20 xy + 4xy 7 d= (20 ay + 4 xy) 7d = 2xy 7d. Ex. 2. Add 5 a + 3 a& + 4 6 and - 4 a - 2 a& - 4 6
Find the sum of 20 xy

+4

_4

q2

_ +

2 a&

-4

52

a&

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
Find the sum of the following
1.

21# +

9a?

4# +

8x. 21a + 9# = 30# 30x-x = 26x 26x + 3x = 29x 29z-8a = 21a.


3x

This work is all to be done mentally, only results of each addition being given.
2. 3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

5m 4:m + 6m 2m. 8xy + 3xy 2d. 8 a + 4 b, 4 a - 2 6. 16 a + 8 a& + 5 b 5 a - 3 ab + 2 6 21x + 22xy + 17y - 8x + 2xy - 9y and 7 11 xy 7 y 24a +48a& + 246 - 23a - 47 a + 236*, and a + 2 ab - b 14 c + 21 cd + 10 d - 9 c - 12 c<2 - d and 5 c 9 cd 9 d
2
2

a;

9.

3-19 + 2.19-4-5.19.
3

10.
11.
12.

27

14

41

+ 2 27 - 4 27. 18 + 25 18 - 16 18 - 12 63 - 27 63 - 12 63.
.

18.

13.

Express 27 as a binomial.
If x
is

14.

express the
15.
16.

number

the digit in tens' place and y in units' place, as a binomial.

Express 47 as a binomiaL

Express 648 as a trinomial.

THE NUMBER SYSTEM


17.

5
y,

If hundreds' digit is x, tens'

digit

units'

digit

z,

express the
18.

number

as a trinomial.

If the digits of example 17 are reversed, express the

number.

have considered the decimal phase of our number system the prime factors are of equal importance. The prime factors of 15 are 3 and 5. 45 = 3 3 5 or 3 2 5, where the 2 indicates the number of
9.
;

We

times 3 occurs as a factor.

EXERCISE
1.

Learn the following squares


1
2
,

2
,

2
,

2
,

2
,

2
,

2
,

...30

2
.

2.

Learn the following cubes


1
3
,

3
,

3
,

4, 5

3
,

3
,

3
,

3
,

3
,

10 3 11 3 12 3
,
;

10.

Literal

monomials may be separated into


a3

factors.

Thus,
(ab)(ab) (ab)
Similarly, (2
.

=a

a
a
.

a.
&.

a b

=a

(a6) 8

3) (2

3) (2

3)

= (2

3)

= a3 6 3 = 2 3 33 = 63
.

Ex. Find the prime factors of 225. 225 = (15) 2 = (3.5) 2 = 3 2 .5 2

EXERCISE

4
:

Find the prime factors of the following


1.
2.
3.

18,27,24.
(18) ,(22)
2 2
.

6.
7.

(60)

2
.

484.
(36)
2
.

361,520.
9 3 (27) 2 729.
,

8.
9.

4.
5.

625.

(12)

2
,

(12)

3
.

10.

225

72.

6
11.

MATHEMATICS
An
expression that
is
is

a factor of each of two or


factor of
.
>

more

expressions
Thus,

said to be a
15 a 2 b

common
.

them.

25a*b
10 a 3 c
5, a,

= 3 5 a a b. = &.a-a-b.. =2 5 a a a
.
.

c-

and a are the factors common

to each of the

numbers 15 a 2 b

25 a 2 6, 10 a 3 c

EXERCISE
Find the factors common
1.
2.

to the following
6.
7.

144, 729. 225, 5


(2 a)
3
,

84 s 8, 54 ate,

9.
,
.

4
.

3125 a
243 a
4
5

5
,

625 a 4 125 a3
,

3.

24 a 45
2
,

c.
2
.

8.
9.
2

10

162 a

6,
5

135 6 3
.

4. 5.

75 #

y,

#?/

a b s c% a s b 4 cz\ ab cxr

361 a4 6
12.

38a

6,

114 a8 6 3

10.

75

c%

125 cd\ 224 ad.


factors are there in
is

What

does a2 ?/
?

mean ?
2

How many

the expression

In x

y, let

x = 3, y = 5. What
6

the result ?

EXERCISE

= 0, z = 5, In the following expressions substitute x = 1, = = a 3, 6 4, and compute the value of the result 4 = 3 9 64 = 1728. 1. 3 a W = 3 3 2. 2a#+4/ + 7a; z = 2.1.0 + 4.0 _t-7.r.5 = +35 + = 35.
?/

3.

ax2z.
9.

1
z
-

4.
5.
6.

35a

2/

_6z.
10.

10834 ayz.

,/

+ 5a;
.

7.
8.

+2 2 a(3 6 + 4 2). 7 z(2 a + 5 y).


(5

6)a?.

11.

(y

+ 5a)(y + 5>

12.

(6 a)Xi

THE NUMBER SYSTEM


13
.

7
2
.

(p __

+ y)x.

15.

(3

+ 2 b + 2 z)
_
3b

14.

A=-S.

16

(15 a

2)3 #

13.

The

parenthesis as used in these examples denotes that

the quantities inclosed are each subject to the same operation.

Thus, (x + y)z means that the sum of x and y


plied by
z,

is

to be multiz

or that both x

and y are to be multiplied by

and

the

sum

of the products taken.

(2
i.e.,

+3) 2

indicates that the

sum
the

of 2

and 3

is

to be "squared,"

used twice as a factor.

(a

+ b) + (c + d)
sum
d.

is

read

to the
c

of a

and

b,

or the

sum of c and d is to be added sum of a and b plus the sum of


sum
of c

and

Likewise, (a
is

+ b) (c + d)

indicates that the


b.
\,

and d

to be subtracted

from the sum of a and


( ),

The forms

of parenthesis are
.

the

frrace
is

the bracket

[ ],

and the vinculum

The vinculum

seldom used.

EXERCISE
1.
2.

What
What What

does 12 x 2

mean

does (12 a) 2
does 12 (x) 2

mean?
mean ?

3.

Perform the indicated operations


4.

(18 a

+12 a) +

(5

a+ 2 a).

9.

5(a

+ 3a) - 2(a + 2a).


a-3 a?)] -2 [4(2 a- a)].

5.
6.

(21a+2a)-(6a+3a).
(21a-2a) + (6a-3a).

10.

4[5(a+6a)].

11. 6 [2(5

7.

(21a-2a)-(6a-3a).
3(6a-2)+4(2a?-l).

12. (5
13.

a + 18y) x

- (2 y + 3y).

8.

(8

+ 12y + 15 z) -, (x + 2 y).

MATHEMATICS
Oral Review

The area
rectangles
Length
l.

of a rectangle equals the product of the base

altitude (length

and breadth).
Breadth

and Find the areas of the following

Length
10. 11. 12. 13.

Breadth

*17"

6"

19'

15' 24'
18'

17- 6

= (10 + 7)6 = 60 + 42 = 102.


18'
6'

21'
17'

2.
3.

15'

13'

18"
19'
20'

7"

14.
15.
16.

12"

24"
21"
28'

4.
5.

V
9'
8'

32"
19' 31'

6.
7.

22'

17. 18.
19.
20.

22'

15"

12"
:

106"
115"
106'

12"

15.-

12

= 15 (10 + 2) = 150 +30 = 180.


16'
12'

12"
21'
15'
4'

8.
9.

21.
22.

112'

18"

12"
of a triangle
is

1024'

The area
angles
Base
1.
2.
3.

equal to one half the product of the


tri-

base by the altitude.

Find the areas of the following


Base
6.
7.

Altitude

Altitude

Base
11.

Altitude

16 14

10
7 8

36

18
22

37
18

19

44
46 48
21

12.
13.

25 16
16

24

8. 9.

83
24 15
'

25 32
17

4.
5.

32
24

10

14.
15.

12

10.

21

indicates inches,

indicates feet.

: :

THE NUMBER SYSTEM


The area
pronounced
of a circle is equal to 3.1416 (Abbreviation is
pi)

9
ir,

times the square of the radius.

Indicate the areas of the following circles

(D represents diameter
16.
17.
18.

B, radius
22.

A, area.)

D = 12, A =
= 18, B = 20,A=
72

= 36 ^4 = 7r-18 = 3247T.
7T

7T.

23.

24.

19.
20. 21.

D = 38, A= D = 46, J.= i? = 17, A =


729 841
.

25.
26.

27.

B = 27, A = D = 28, ^L = D = 56, J. = D = 58,A = i2 = 26, ^4 = B = 16, .4 =


is

Find the side of a square whose area


28.
29.

30.
31.

900
441

32.

361

33.

529
is
:

Find the edge


34. 35.

of a cube
36.
37.

whose volume

729
512

64 1331

38.

343 216

39.

The area of a trapezoid is equal to the product of one half the sum of the lower base (B), and the upper base (b), by the
altitude (a).

Find the areas of the following trapezoids

B
40.

a 6

10

5
b

B
41.
42.

a
4
8 15 16
5 8
47. 48.
49. 50.

B
18

a
8
9

18

10

22 24
13 14
9

16 12
13

16 15

14
13 15
11

43.

14
6 8

44.
45.
46.

24 22
15

14
18

51.
52.

17

17

Is there anything unusual about the trapezoids in examples

44 and 45?

CHAPTER
Equations
14.

II

An

equation

is

a statement that two quantities are equal.


is

The

sign of equality

=.
is

Thus, x
15.

+3=5
solve

is

read x plus 3
is

equal to

5.

To

an equation

to find the value or values of

some

letter

involved in the equation which will satisfy the

given equation.
16.

When

a number substituted for some letter in an equasides of the equation identical, the equation
is

tion

makes the

said to be satisfied.

A number which
equation.

satisfies

an equation

is

called a root of the

The number is

also said to be a solution of the equation.

Ex.
Substitute x

+ 3 = 5.

(1)

=2

in the equation.

Then,

2
sides or

+ 3 = 5.
of the equation are the

The two
identical.

members

same or

The number on the left of the sign of equality is called the The number on the right is the second first member or side. member or side. Thus, in x + 3 = 5, x + 3 is the first member,
and 5
17.
is

the second member.


of equations that concern us at present are:

The kinds

The The The


18.

equation of condition.
identical equation or identity.

geometric equation.

An

equation of condition

is

an equation that

is satisfied

only by a definite set of values.


10

EQUATIONS
E.g., in

11

+ 3 = 5,x = 2
is

is

the only value which can be found

for x,

which

a root of the equation.

+3=5
a;

is

therefore
2.

an equation of condition, the condition being that


19.

must equal

An

identity is an equation

which

is

always true for any


it.

specified values of the letters involved in


E.g., 2 a
20.

=a+a

is

true for any finite value of a.


is

The

geometric equation

an equation of two geometric

In general, the algebraic equation ( 18,19) is assumed to be true, and if its roots satisfy it the statement of equality
figures.
is verified.

The geometric equation must usually be proved

to be true ( 70).
21.

The operations used

in equations are largely those of

addition, subtraction, multiplication,


22.

and

division.
set

of

The laws governing the use of these operations are a statements assumed to be true, and known as axioms.
The Axioms
If the same number, or equal numbers, be added
to

23.
1.

equal

numbers, the resulting numbers will be equal,


2.

If the same number, or equal numbers, be subtracted from

equal numbers, the resulting numbers will be equal.


3.

If equal numbers be multiplied by the same number, or If equal numbers be divided by the same number, or equal
the resulting

equal numbers, the resulting numbers will be equal.


4.

numbers,
to divide
5.
6. 7.
8.

numbers

will be equal.

It is not allowable

by

0.

Any number Any number Any number

equals itself
equals the
is

sum of all

its

parts.
parts.

greater than any of

its

Two numbers which

are equal to the same number, or to

equal numbers, are equal.

12

MATHEMATICS
The Use
of

Axioms

24.

Ex.

1.

Solve 2 x

+ 3 = 9.
of the equation (Ax. 2).

Subtract 3 from each

member
2z 2x

or

= 9-3. = 6. = 3.
x
in the given equation.

Divide each

member by

2 (the coefficient of x) (Ax. 4).

Then,

To

verify this root, substitute 3 for

2-3 The equation


is satisfied,

9.
is

hence 3

a root.

Ex.2.

Solve

y+H=ll + ^. *
6
3

Multiply both members of the equation by

6,

the L. C. M. of the

denominators (Ax.

3).

or

6 2/+ 11

= 42/ +
=15.

15.

Subtract

4y from each

side (Ax. 2).

Then,

2?/+

11

Subtract 11 from each side (Ax. 2).

Then,

2y

= 4.
=
2.
<7i'ue?i

Divide both sides by 2 (Ax. 4)

And,
Verify by substituting y

2 in the

equation.

2+n=M. 2
6 3

Simplify each member.


12

+
6

U = 8 + 15
6

Hence, 2

is

a root of the equation.

EXERCISE

Solve the following equations and verify each root:


l.

2y

+ 7y + 3 = 12.

2.

5a>

+ 7 = 3a + rr.

_
EQUATIONS
3
-

13

^-1^ T- = 3-2A6x + -=2x

4a;

6. 4.

+
2

~-

(Ax.) + 2 =6. 8z + 2-3z = 4z + 4. 6m + 4 = 3m + 3 6.

'

+
5

'

V+
10.

+4

+ 20

^+^+4=
7a
4

11.

__ 11.

5a = 3
10
,

a 4

r-

r>

12.

6a
2

8a_,6_5a

y 19

13.

m+9
3

5m
=

m
2

..

,,
'

2
,

14
-

_.

R 6R 8R -T-2i +

u=^
OH
4

3R + 3 Q
.

15.

? + f_5 + l = ? + 3i. 6 2 4 6 3 3
X
OX 8^4
.

16.

4-^- -4-

jr>."^ 8 12

17.

*
9.

= 13. + T ?+? 3 A

18

E+
7

^ = 21.
14
7
n 7 9 2

19.

?^ +
3 3

^+
X

= + 14.
a;
i

20

OX
-

-l"

q + o-^"8 = 3 i.

OX

14
21.

MATHEMATICS
The sum
two numbers Find the numbers.
of
is 9,

and one

is

twice the

other.

Let

and

Then,
or

= the smaller number = the greater number. 2 x + x = the sum of the numbers. 9 = the sum of the numbers. 2x + x = 9 (Ax. 8), 3 x = 9. x = 3, the smaller number. 2 x = 6, the greater number.
x
2x

22.

The
is

difference

between

greater
23.

four times the lesser.

two numbers is 24, and the Find the numbers.


greater
is

The sum of two numbers is 48, and the four more than the lesser. Find the numbers.
24.

number

is

composed of two
(Exercise

four times as great as units' digit,


is 10.

The and the sum


digits.
2,

tens' digit is

of the digits

Find the number.

Ex. 14.)

composed of two digits. The tens' digit is three times the units' digit, and the number is 54 more than the sum of the digits. Find the number.
25.

number

is

The distance around a rectangle is 120'. The length of the Find the dimensions. rectangle is 10' more than the breadth.
26.

q
v

27.

Two
8',

rectangles

each have an
is

alti-

tude of

the

sum

of their areas

256,

\
yi "
29.
is

and Find length of

the difference of their lengths


each.

is 12'.

\
b

In a triangle ABC the area is 24, the Find the base (b). altitude (a) is 8.
28.

10'

Each of two rectangles has an altitude of 12'. One base more than the other, and the sum of the bases is 25'.

Find area of each.


30.
is 28'.

The sum of the bases of two triangles of equal altitude One base is 9' more than the other. The area of the
is

smaller

GO square

feet.

Find area of larger.

EQUATIONS
31.

15
;

In a trapezoid

ACDE, the area is 120


;

the lower base

B is

four times the upper base b


32.

the altitude

is 8.

Find the

bases.

to

The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal 180. The angle at A is 20 more than the

angle at B, and 50 more than the angle at C.

/
Z C is

\
equal

Find the angles.


In the triangle ABC, Z A is twice Z B, and Find the angles. to the sum of Z A and Z 12.
33.

34.

The sum

of

times the other.


35.

two numbers is 48 and one number is four Find the numbers. (Solve mentally.)
number, plus one third of the number,

If one half of a

plus one twelfth of the

number equals

eleven,

what

is

the

number
3.6.

Three

fifths of

a number, plus five thirds of the number,

minus ber?
37.

six fifths of the

number equals 4 T"t.


amount
of

What

is

the

numgives

father has a certain


to his son.

money and he

half of
left

it

Later he gives him half of what he has

and then takes back half of all he has given him, leaving the boy $ 1.87^-. How much money did the father have at
*

first?

In the following examples determine whether they are identities

If
is

or conditional equations, by substituting values for you find more than two values that satisfy the equation, an identity.

x.

it

38. 39. 40.

x*-6x + 9=(x-3)(x-3).

41.
42. 43. 44.

+ 12x = x(x4-12). a - 9= + 3)0-3). x -10x + 25 = x + 8x + 16. (x + 7)0 - 3) = x (x + 4) - 21. x - 8 x - 20 = x (x - 8) - 20. x (x - 8) - 20 = (x - 10)O + 2


x2
2
2
2

)-

16
45. 46.

MATHEMATICS

47.
48.

49.
50.

-9x + 7 = Sx -x-S. 4 x - 12 x + 9 = (2 - 3) (2 x - 3). 6z -2a+4 = 2a + 10a-5. 5# + 6a;+4 = (5a 2)(a? + 4). x - 12 + 36 = (x - 6) + 36a; + 81 =(aj + 9) + 9).
4:X2
2 2

aj

aj

a;

(a?

CHAPTER
Positive and Negative Numbers.

III

The Four Fundamental

Operations
25.

Positive and Negative Numbers.


it is

In addition to the numnecessary in algebra to

bers thus far used in computation,

extend the idea of number somewhat farther.

In many prob-

lems the numbers involved seem to have an opposite sense.

For example: If a
opposes the $ 500.
direction to that in are opposites.
sites.

man
If a

has $500 and owes $300, the $300

man
is

is

walking
is

east,

the opposite

which he

going

west.

North and south

Temperatures above and below zero are oppothis sense of opposition, positive
(

To express

+)

and

negative
the right

( )
is

signs are used in mathematics.

E.g., if

toward

then toward the


is

left is

If north is con-

sidered positive, south


are

negative.

If assets are

+,

liabilities

exercise
9
1.

AC
units to the left of

D B
how
far is
it

If

D is

four units to

the right of 0, and C two from C to D ? Does that 0, mean to you the difference between the positions of point O and point D? If A is 3 units from 0, and B is +5 units from 0, what is the distance from A to B ?
2.

A man

has $ 600 and owes $ 300.

How much

is

he

worth ?
3. 4.

A man has $ 500 and owes


A man
?

$ 700.

has $500 and owes


17

How much is he worth ? $500. How much is he

worth

18
5.

MATHEMATICS
Where on
the Cleveland- Wooster railway line
is

a place

10
6.

miles north of Cleveland ?

A man

goes 5 miles north of Cleveland, then 9 miles


miles north of Cleveland
is

south.

How many

he

How

many
7.

miles has he traveled ?

Draw

a diagram showing his

route and his last position.


If to the right is positive,

Call this point B.

Measure
respect to

measure + 6" from a point A. 9" from B. Call this point D.

Where
8.

is

D with
in

A?

b
2 s

Translate into English (a2

Write

symbols

The square
of (a)

of the result of the quo-

tient of the
9.

sum

and

(6)

by

2.

The temperature
it

at 6.00 a.m. is

+ 14

morning

grows colder

at the rate of 4

and during the an hour. Required

the temperatures at 9 a.m., at 10 a.m., and at noon.


10.

5,

Find the numerical value of the following, when a a*b_atf c = 2, d = 4


2c2

= 3,

'

11.

Translate into English

f^L+l\

Write in symbols

the cube of the result of subtracting


a.

the square of b from the square of


12.

Find the numerical value of the following, when x


\:

= \,

= ,z =

4x*+(3y-2zy.
Addition

26.

In 8,

instance the

we found the sums of similar terms, but in each sum was positive. A negative sum may arise from
For instance,
exercise 9,

the addition of a positive and a negative number.


in

example

6,

we

are adding

9 miles to

5 miles.

The

result is
to

4 miles.

That

is,

the addition

of a negative

number

a iiositive number tends

to lessen the

numerical value

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


of the sum, annul
it,

19
If a
liabil-

or change

it

from

positive to negative.

man

has $400 and owes $400, the


If he has

sum

of his assets

and

$400 and owes $700, the sum of his That is, he owes $ 300 more assets and liabilities is $ 300. than he has assets. The sum of two negative numbers is negaities is 0.

tive.

It is seen in these results that


is

when

the

sum

of a positive

and a negative number

found, the result takes the sign of

the greater absolute value.


27.
sign.
28.

The

absolute value of a

number

is its

value regardless of
6
it

For example, the absolute value of


If

is 6.

no sign

is

placed before a number

is

regarded as

positive.

negative sign must never be omitted.

EXERCISE
Find the sums of the following
1.
:

10

+5 +3
3 a 2 and
7 ab,

2.

+5 -3

3.-5 +3

4.-5 -3

5.

4a

2
.

6.
7.

8. 9.

*10.
11.
12.

13.
14.

5 ab. 8 a, 5 a. 9 -6 a - 3 a - 12 a - 5 a 3 a, 5 a, + 6 a, 4 a. 7 a 4.x, +3 a + 2 x, + x. 12a?y, <6xy x y, -2x y, + 11 xy 15a - 15a + 15x, + 5x - 5x, - 9x>, - 9a - 9a. 2a + + 4z, a 3y 2z. 4:X + 3y 5 (a + 6), - 2 (a + 6), 6 (a + b), - 9 (a + V).
2

z,

?/

* Write similar terms ( 6) in the same column. Make as many columns as you have different kinds of terms, forming the whole into one problem, by usiug + and signs. (See example 2, 8.)

20
15.

MATHEMATICS
4 (x

y)

3 (x

y),

3 (x

y)

+
+3

2 (x

y),

2(x

+ ^y-,i 2 18. fa- fft + fc, T \a-i&-fc, -fa + Jft-^c. Find the value of the following sums when x = ^, y = + \ z = ,a = -2,c = ,b = 2: 19. | a + i 6 +a \b %c, 5a f 6 + 2 20. 2(a + 6) - 3(6 - c) + (a - 6), - 500(a + b) + 5(6 - c) + (a - 6). 21. 5xy 5 x y 5 \ xy + a 22. 7(a + 2y)-7(a>-2y), - 31(s + 2y) + f(s- 2y). 23. 12yz 8xy + \a + %bc. 24. f a f 6 + f +f a--i-6 + 25c.
i

+ y) + (x-2y). - 6 (a + 6) + 1, - 5 16. 2 (a + (a + 6) + 2. (a + bf 17. 2 a,- I?, + |aj + | y


2

ft)

(a

b)

(a

+ b) .

6,

2,

_^

__ |aj

c,

c.

a??/

-|

?/.

c,

In each of the following examples, add corresponding members of the two equations to find x
:

25.

x+y= xy=
2a?

8,
4:.

When

is

found, can you find y ?

26.

#
27.

+ 3y = 8, 3y 5
2,
.

Find y

also.

4z-2?/=
3
a:

+ 2 y = 12

Find y

also.

Verify your results in examples 25-27 by substituting the values found for x and y in the given equations.
28.

Subtraction
29.
(a)
(b)

What number added What number added

to 9 gives 7 ?

to 9 gives 11 ?

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


(c)

21

(d)

What number added What number added

to 9 gives
to 9 gives

12

In each of the above examples we have the sum of two numbers and one of the numbers given to find the other number.

The Minuend is the sum of two numbers. The Subtrahend is a given number. The Difference is a required number when the minuend and
subtrahend are known.
Subtraction
is

the process of finding

what number added

to

the subtrahend produces the minuend.

In example
the difference.

(a), 7 is the

minuend, 9

is

the subtrahend,

2
and

In subtraction, the

sum

of the subtrahend

the difference must equal the minuend.


to check our result.

This fact enables us

EXERCISE
1.

11

Subtract

from

5.

Here 5 is the sum of the numbers. problem is What number added to dently 8. That is, the difference is 8.
:

is

3 gives

one of the numbers. Our This number is evi5.

Check

+ (

3)

= sum 5 = sum

of the

numbers. of the numbers.

The written work stands

-3
8
2.

From

8a

take 5 a

- 8a
+ 5a -13 a
Perform the following subtractions
3.
:

7x2y -3arV

4.

25 x

5.

13 x

6.

25x
-13x

7.

13a

25x

+25x -13 a

22
8.
9.

MATHEMATICS
From

13 ab

take 24 ab.
take a

From a

+b+c

b2

c.

(Note that there are three subtraction examples in this example, one
for each column.)

10.

11.
12.
13. 14.

15.
16.

2y + z from 10 x y 3 Subtract 2 a 3 a + 1 from 5 a 3 a 1. Subtract 10 a + 5 ab - 9 6 from 2 a - 10 a& + 8 b\ From x + 3 a 3 x + 1 take a + 2 + 2 + 1. From x* + 3 a + 3 + 1 take x - 3 + 3 x - 1. From a + 2ab + b take a - 2 ab + &
Subtract

8x

z.

-f-

2 a?

a;

a?

2 a?

From
From

2
ir

take 5

2
?/
.

17.
18.

- 5 x + 4 take 12 - 9. From 3x take - 4.x + 3x - 2x + l.


6 a2
2

2 o;

19.
20.

Subtract a from

0.

Subtract 9 x 2

+9y+9

from

0.

Note that in each of the above examples the difference is the same as if we had changed the sign of the subtrahend and added the result to the minuend.

We may then use the


the sign
tion,

following rule for subtraction.

Change

of each term of the subtrahend and proceed as in addi{The change of sign must be made mentally.)

EXERCISE
1.
2.

12
?/

What must
From x 2

be added to 9 x
take x 2
2

+9 +9
2

to give

4 x + 4. 3. From the sum of a + 2ab + b and a - 2a6 + * the difference between a + 2 ab + b and a 2 ab +
+4x+4
2

a
ft

take

b'

*In this text the difference between a and by subtracting b from a.

means

the remainder obtained

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

23

+ a b + ab + 2 3 from the sum + 3 ab + 6 and a - 3 a & + 3 ab - b\ 5. Subtract x + 3 x 4 from


4.

Subtract 2 as
3 3

fr

of a 3

+3a&
2

ft

6.
7.

Subtract 6

+c
-

from
7a

a.

Subtract 4 ft 2

-9
[6

from
2

0.
ft

8.
9.

What
[5
3
ft

shall
(3

we add

to 7

ft

+ 2)] -

3
a;

12 + 5 to + (4 -11)].
ft

produce

In examples of this tvpe perform the indicated operations


one at a time, beginning with the inner parenthesis.
tract 3
ft

First sub-

+2

from 5 ft3 then add 4 x 11 to 6 ft3


,

This gives

[5^_3ft-2]-[6ft + 4
3

ft-11].
first,

Subtracting the second trinomial from the

we have

Translate each example into English before solving


10.
11.
12.

13.

14.
15.
16.

+ (4 a + 1)]|. [12ft - {-7ft - (5 + 6 ft- 3)}]. [6 (5 a + 3) + 5 (2 a + 7)] -(6 a + 53). [25 m - (2 m + 3)] - [- 10 m - (6 m - 7)]. - (3 - 3 xif - f)~\ - + (- 3 x y + 3 - )]. (12 a + 3 6 + 2 c) - (5 a - 2 b + 6 c) - (10 a - b - 6 c).
{5a
2

[2 a

ft

[ft

2 ft ?/

[ft

ft?/

1/

4(*

+ y)-[6(aj-y)] + (a?-2y).
is 1,

17.

There are two numbers,


difference

whose
By

whose sum is 17 and x being the greater number. Find the


ft

and

y,

numbers.
the conditions,

+y=
2x =
x
2 y

17
1

(1)
(2)

x-y =
Adding
(1)

and

(2),

18

= 9.
16.
8.

Subtracting (2) from (1),

= y =

24
18.

MATHEMATICS
Given two numbers, x and
first is
y,

such that the second num-

ber added to twice the

equal to 12, and the difference


is 8.

between twice the

first

number and the second number

Find the numbers.


19.

5x + 2y = 19,
5x 2y = ll
.

(1)
(2)

Find x and

y.

20.

21.

+ 3 y = 16, a?-3y=-14 2x +3y = 17, 3.y= 14.


x
a?

(1) (2)
(1)

(2)

After x

is

found,

obtain the
(1).

value for y by substituting the value of x in equation


22.

Find the value of the difference between 5 a?+ 3 x?y5a 2


a?

and 2

3xy 2a
2

2
,

when x

= 5, y = %, a = 3.

Multiplication

30.

In addition we learned that


5

+ 5 + 5 + 5 = 5.4 = 20

Also that

(a positive

5)

+ (- 5) + (- 5) + (- 5) = (- 5)(4) = - 20.
is

This last shows that the product of a negative number by

number
e.g.,

negative.

In arithmetic,
are used,

it

does not matter in what order the factors

5-3

= 3-5.
this

We
That

shall

assume that
Then,

law holds true in algebra.

(-5)

(4)

=(4) (-5)= -20.

is,

the product of a positive


It

is negative.

number by a negative number seems then that multiplication by a negative

number

gives to the product a sign opposite to that of the

multiplicand.

Ex.

(-8).

(-5)=

+40.

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


31.

25

These rules for signs follow:

The product of two numbers of like sign is positive. The product of two numbers of unlike sign is negative.
32.

Since division
;

is

the inverse of multiplication, the same

sign rules hold

namely,
have
like signs, the quotient is positive;

When

the terms

when

unlike, the quotient is negative.

Division

may

be regarded as an application of the method

of subtraction.

Ex.

Divide 28 by

7.

This is equivalent remainder less than

to successively subtracting 7 until


7

no remainder or a

remains.

28-7 = 21, 21-7=14,


Which shows
or that 7
is

14-7 =

7,

7-7=0.

that 7

is

contained in 28 four times without a remainder,

an integral factor of 28.

Regarding division as the inverse of multiplication is the more general method. With this understanding we have the
following definitions.
33.

Division

is

the process of finding one of two factors


given.

when their product and one of the factors are The Dividend is the product of the factors. The Divisor is the given factor. The Quotient is the required factor.
It is evident

from these definitions that the product of the


is

divisor

by the quotient

equal to the dividend.

By

the use

of this principle the accuracy of the result of the division

may

be verified.

Give sign rules for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and


division.

26

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
13
(first

Find the product of the following


of the product)
1. 2.
3.

determine the sign

(4)(-3).

4.
5. 6.

(-9)(4).

(-9)(-8).

(+10)(+10). (_10)(-10). (-7)(+9).

Find the following quotients


7.

(+12)
(-15)

+ (+4).
-5-

10.
11.

(-20)-f-(-4).

8. 9.

(-12)-*- (-3).

(-112) -(16).
(144)
-s-

(+5).

12.

(-18).
is 17.

13.

The area

of a rectangle is 212, the base

Find the

altitude.

The area of a triangle is altitude. Can you construct the


14.

180, the base

is

20.

Find the

15.
is

The area

of a rectangle

is

Why ? What 24, the altitude is 4.


triangle ?
?

the base ?

How

do you account for these negative results


( 25.)

Draw
34.

this rectangle.

In multiplication
is

it is

convenient to show the number of

times a quantity

used as a factor by means of a symbol


to be

placed at the right and above a quantity.

This symbol showing to what power the number


raised
is

is

the exponent of the number.

Ex.

1.

x x x

= a?.

(2 x)(2 x)(2 x)(2 x)

= (2 x) = 16 x\
4

Similarly, x x

n factors

xn

Ex.

2.

x2 x A

=x
'

x x x x x

=x

e
.

And

xn x m

= (x x x n factors) (x-x>x m = x-X'X--m + factors = x m+n *


factors)

7i

Then

in multiplying

two

like letters

give to their product an

exponent equal to the sum of their exponents in multiplicand and multiplier.


*
...

is

read, " and so on to."

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

27

combining the factors of the multiplicand and multiplier into one product e.g., 12 18 means (2 2 3) (3 2 2) or 2 3 3 3 the product containing all the factors Similarly, 24a 2 6-15a3 of both multiplicand and multiplier.
see that multiplication is simply
;

We

=
35.

23

a2

a3

=2

3
.

32

a5

= 360 a b.
5

Since division

is

the inverse of multiplication, the exthe reverse of that in multiplication.

ponent rule for division

is

In dividing a letter by the same letter having the same or a


different exponent, give to the quotient

an exponent equal to

the exponent of the dividend minus the exponent of the divisor.

Ex.

1.

Divide Xs by x2
X2

=X

X.

Then, (x x x)

-4-

(x x)

= ,
~
.

or

When
Ex.

x 3 -T- x 2 = x s 2 = x 1 the exponent is 1, it is not expressed.


-r-

Thus, x s
2.

x2

x.

Divide a15 by a12


15

a 12

a 15-12

a3

EXERCISE

14

Find the following indicated products


(Translate each example into English before solving.)
1.
2. 3.

x5 -x\

8.

(12
a sb

c )

(-4 c ).
5
.

15 x 2

5 Xs

9.

a4 b 2

8m-

18

m\

10.

-15

a2 6 2

21 a z b\
13).
A

4.
5. 6. 7.

(15a) 3 (2a).
(a?

11.
12.
&).

(- 13 a2 b 6c)((18
c
3

+ y)

(a5

12(a

+ 6)

+ y). 3(a +

d)(- 19

d 2).
5

13.
14.

2 (27 ab xy)(- 14

6c).

_19(a-6) 4 .15(a-6r.

(-

21 afy*)(- 21 afyV).

::

28
15.

MATHEMATICS
.

What power of 12(a + b) by 12(a + 5) 2 by 12(a + 6) 3 2 is in your product? What power of 3? What power of What then are the prime factors of your product ? (a + b) ? Indicate the prime factors of these products
16. 17.

(18a3 6 4 )(18a& 2).

18.
19.

20.

- 24 p g r) ( - 2p g r) 32(a + x) by 64(a + a) 27 (c + df by 9(c + d) 125(a by 25(a 2 4 2

6
.

2
.

?/)

?/)

Find these quotients and verify your


21.
22.

results

x8 -r-x5 xA +-x.

27.
28.

729
(c

cV
i0

-s-

9 ex 8
(c

23. 24.

72 x6

-5-

9 x\
.

29.

d) 27 (a +
a5 b 3 c 2

-rs

d)\
2
.

b)

~ 9(a + 6)

441 a6 -4-21 a3
3

302

-*-

a 2 bc.

25.
26.

(_24^ )-(-3^ ).
(576a 7 6 4)--(-24a5 6 2).

31.

2 5 .5 3 -3 2 -f-2 2 .5.3.

Are examples 30 and 31 similar


32.
. .

Divide 5 4 3 5 2 4 a 7 6 by 5 3 2 4 a 7 6 y. Factor the dividend and divisor. Then divide as in

ex-

ample 32
33.

162 xAy

~ 54 xy35.

34.

135

cV
4

*
3

15 cx\

36.
is

The area

of

- 210 a^yV -* - 14 x a rectangle is 128 + y)(c + d),


?/
.

(a;

its altitude
if

8(c

+
y

cT).

What
d=4*

is

its

base

What
artyc
2
,

are its dimensions

x = l,
37.

= 2,

c= -3?
its
if

The area
its base.

of a rectangle is 384

altitude
aj

is

16# 2c.

Find

What

are its dimensions

= 2, y = 1,

c= 2?

Also if a? = 2, y = l, c = 2? Draw these rectangles, measuring from the same starting point for each.

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


38.

29
is

The base

of a triangle

Find the
c

altitude.

What

_ i? =
3

243 aV. are the dimensions when a = 3,


is
,

27 a3 cA the area

36.

Give the sign rules for addition, subtraction, multipli-

cation, division.

Give the exponent rules for multiplication and division.


Supplemental Applied Mathematics

A decimal fraction
of 10.

is

a fraction whose denominator

is

a power

This denominator

may

be written, or simply expressed

by the
that

relative position, of the decimal point.


5.
2

The
2's

factors of
5's,

10 are 2 and
is,

The
-5\

factors of 100 are

two
-5
3
.

and two

100

=2

Likewise 1000

=2

Every power of
5's

10

is

made up

of

an equal number of

2's

and

used as fac-

tors.

Therefore, to reduce a

common

fraction to & pure decimal

one must multiply both numerator and denominator by such

number
Ex.
q

as will produce

an equal number of 2 and 5 factors

only in the denominator.


1.

= -2
2.

Reduce f to a decimal. Two 5's are lacking. Multiplying both numerator and denominator by 52 or 25, we have -^ or, expressed decimally,
,

.75.

Ex.

Reduce

to .1875 a
.1875

common
2*-5

fraction:

= 1^ = ^= A. 4
2-5*

16

3.

Reduce

to decimals

\ f ^,
y
,

%, |, |f'

4.

A
;

.0625

machinist has a set of drills marked .1250; .9375; .8750. He does not recognize them as .3125 .03125
;
;

readily as

if

they were in 8ths, 16ths, 32ds, 64ths.

Reduce
decimal

them
5.

to such notation.

Reduce the following


:

sizes

of

drills

to

their

equivalents
19-16.

1-8, 3-32, 3-16, 5-16, 7-16, 9-16, 11-16, 13-16,

30
In
all

MATHEMATICS

computation in science and shop practice the decimal plays an important part.

Whether multiplication and division is carried on directly or by means of tables, the computer must know at a glance where
the decimal point
is

to be placed.

Multiplication of Decimals

Decimals are multiplied as simple numbers if one remembers the decimal composition of our system and the part the position of the digit plays in the formation of a number. In 145, and exercise the times 1 1 100 the value it would have has 1, if written in units' column where the 5 now is. The 4 has ten times the value it would have if in units' column. Then, multiplication by a digit in hundreds' column has 100 times the effect of multiplication by the same number in units' column. A similar statement holds for digits in tenths' and hundredths' columns, each move to the right decreasing the value of a digit
ten times.

In multiplication we begin at the Ex. 6. Multiply 24 by 36.


24
36

left.

720
144

864

We
units'

multiply

first

by

3.

Since this figure

is

in tens

column,

it

has ten

times the value of a figure in units' column, and our product moves one
place to the
left.

That

is,

we

are really multiplying by 30 units.


is

The

column, not the decimal point,


7.

the dividing line.

Ex.

Multiply 23.2 by

2.4. 23.2
2.4

46.4
9.28

65.68

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS

31

Always keep the decimal points in the same vertical column. When multiplying by 4, the multiplier was one place to the
right of units,

and the product y1^ as large as the product by the same figure if in units' place. This shifted our product, 9.28,

one place to the right.

Always begin

multiplication at the

left.

Find the following products


8.
9.

17

26.
14.

17. 18. 19.


20.

(2.7) (.27) (.09)

2
.

26.

.6425 (.0125).

324 324
216
-

2
.

How much
is

multiplying
ex-

10.
11.

324.
36.

3
.

necessary in

24.21 (.32).

ample
is

27, if the result

12.

9 2 (3.1416).

21.
22.

1.875
1.875

16.2.

correct

to
?

three

13.
14.
15. 16.

16 2 (3.1416).
-

1.62.

decimal places
27.
28.

24-62.5.
(.8)3.

(.92).

23.

1.875 (.162).
18.75 (1.62). 1.112 (.99).

4.261 (.7854).

24.
25.

32.15 (.625).

(1.2)3.

Division of Decimals

Here we must reverse our work of multiplication. The first figure of the divisor and its distance from units' column determine the position of the decimal point with respect to the first
figure of the quotient.
tens'

If the first figure of the divisor

is

in

column, the quotient will be ten times as small (or one

tenth as

much)

as if the divisor were units.

The

first figure of

the quotient therefore


figure of the dividend.

moves one place

to the right of the first

Ex.

29.

Divide 144. by 72.


02.
72.
|

144.

144.

Note that
fore a zero
is

7 is

not contained in

1,

the

first

figure of the quotient; there-

written for the

first figure of

the quotient.

Since this zero

32
is

MATHEMATICS
an integer,
it

to the left of

has no value and


first

may be

disregarded.

Until

the beginner has the placing of the


this zero

figure of the quotient well in

mind,

should be employed.
30.

Ex.

Divide 324. by

18.
18.
18.

324.

18

144.
144.

Ex.

31.

Divide 2.446 by

3.2.

0.76
3.2

2.446

2.24
.206 .192
.014

Ex.

32.

Divide 2.446 by

.32.

07.6

32

2.446
2.24 .206
.192

.014

Ex.

33.

Divide 2.446 by 32.


.076
32.

2.446
2.24
.206 .192
.014

Note that the position of the


the position of the
first figure

first figure

of the divisor alone controls

of the quotient.

Find the following quotients.


the quotient
is

(Use three decimal places

if

not exact.)

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


34.
35.
36.

33

31.5 -=-24,6.
6.4-5-1.6.

44. 45.

251.328-5-3.1416.

442

-5-

.09.

6.4
6.4

-f-. 16.

46.

2.24-5-22.4.

37.
38.

-.016.

47.
48.

361.

-s-=-

.19.
.23.

6.4-5-16.

5.29

39.

.225-5-15.
.225-5-1.5.

49. 50.
51.

7.29-5-2.7.

40.

7.29

-5-

.27.

41. 42.
43.

.225

-5-

.15.
-5-

.0289-5-1.7.

109.624

3.86.

52.
53.
first figure in

.0289

-5-

.17.

125.664-5-3.1416.

.0289-5-17.

Locate by inspection the

each of the following

(Remember that the number of places in the quoquotients. tient does not in any way depend upon the number of figures in the divisor.) The position of the first figure in the divisor is
all

that one needs consider.

For example, in dividing 8.432694 by .3419768321, the first figure 2 takes the same position as if we were dividing by .3, namely, in tens' column.
2
.

.3419768321
54.

8.432694
60.

48.36579-5-4.6293251.

34.76-5-38,

55.
56.

4.836579
4.836
.2793 .2793
-s-

-s-

4.6293251764.

61.

.026947321 -- .41976384.

4.6293251764847.
.217398.

62. 63.

.178643791
.243
-*-

-5-

2.9.

57.
58. 59.

-5-

.0986432791.
.986432791.

-5-

.0217398.

64.
65.

2.43

-5-

31.84-5-309.7.

.0243-5-9.864327915.

66.
is

Multiply 16346.2' by .00019, and show that the product

in miles.
67.

Divide 3 cubic feet by .00058, and show that the quotient

is

cubic inches.

34
68.

MATHEMATICS

Rolled oats requires If hours cooking on a range. If a tireless cooker is used, 15 minutes cooking on the range is sufficient.

by using the tireless cooker, if 8.6 cu. ft. of gas per hour are consumed by a gas burner, gas costing 76^ per thousand cubic feet ?
fuel is saved
69.

How much

Wheatena, or cream of wheat, requires f hours cooking

on a range, or 15 minutes cooking on a range for a fireless How much fuel is saved by using the fireless cooker, cooker. gas burner and price same as in Ex. 68 ?
70.

Corn meal mush should be cooked


if

for three hours on a


is

range, or for 15 minutes

a tireless cooker
tireless

used.

How

much
71.

fuel is saved

by using a

cooker

Uncooked
of rice

rice contains

79

carbohydrates, while boiled


lost

rice contains 24.4

%.

How much carbohydrate is

from one

pound
72.

by boiling ?

Eice boils in 20 minutes, using a gas burner consuming Steamed rice is cooked on the same burner for 5 minutes, and on the simmering burner for 45
8.6 cubic feet per hour.

minutes, the latter consuming 3.6 cubic feet per hour.


is

What

the difference in the cost of cooking ?


73.

calls for

Rice swells 3f times by boiling. If a recipe for pudding one quart boiled rice, how much uncooked rice should
?

be used

In the following equations solve for x and verify the root found
:

74.

75.
76. 77.
78.

4 = 7 x + 16. 5x- $ + 2x = x -32. 2 x a = 5 a. 2x a = b. 3x 2b + x a = a + 2x.


2x

79.

l-5 2

_5 + l,-=-2a> + 5$.
2
;

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS


80.

35

4^-3^ + ^-1 = ^-2.

8i.

?_10_2i = iX-14If + 2*.


a;

o
82.

one and one half times its width. If three feet is taken from the length and three feet is added to the width, the room will be square. Find its diof a
is

The length

room

mensions.

The sum of one third, one fourth, and one fifth of a number is 17 more than one half the number. Find the
83.

number.
84.

The
is

distance around a rectangle

is

22-|

yards.

The

2\ yards more than the width. yards in the rectangle.


length

Find the square

CHAPTER IV
Polynomials.
37.

Multiplication of Polynomials

Polynomial by Monomial.

Review multiplication
rule
for

of

monomials, 31-34.

Give

sign

multiplication.

Give exponent rule for multiplication.


addition.
38.

Give sign rule for

Illustrate each.

In

34,

monomial.

We

we found the product of a monomial by a shall now extend multiplication to cover any

number

of terms.

A polynomial is simply a sum of monomial terms. Hence, to multiply a polynomial by a number is to multiply each of its terms by that number, and find the sum of these
products.

Ex. Multiply 5 a 2 + 3 ax
5 a2
.

by 2

a.

2 a

10 a 3

3 ax
-

2 a

= =

6 a 2x,

-x .2a=-2 ax2
2

Then,

2 (5 a

+ 3 ax - x2 )

(2 a)

10 a 3

6 a 2x

2 ax 2

The work should be written

in the following

form

5 a2

+
-f

3 ax
2

x2

2 ax 2

2a
10 a 3
6
a'

Begin multiplication at the

left.

EXERCISE
Find the following products.
36

15

(Perform the numerical multi-

plication mentally, writing results only.)

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
7a + 3ab + 2b 5a
2

37
2

3.

-4.x 2

+ 2xz-5z
2

6x
4.

2.

m -3 cm + y
2

14 ad + 15 a d + 17
2

2c3 v
5.

-13a

18x2 -17a3y-242/2
12 a4

6.

In example

5,

substitute x

= l, y = 2

in your multipli-

cand, multiplier, and product.

Is the result

what you might

expect?

Any example
ple 6.
7.

in multiplication

may

be checked by substitut-

ing some numerical value for each letter as suggested in exam-

Check each

of the first five examples.

Multiply
8. 9.

32

a?z

14 xz

by 16 xz.

115xy 2 -112x sy by -12.


1024 a 2
(

10.

11.
12. 13. 14.

x + y) 2

+ 612ab- 306 b by 4 ab + 6(x + y) + 9 by (x + y).


2

+ yf + 3(x + y)-4, byl6(x + y) _24(-2/) + 14(a + &) -21 by 16. 3(x + y) + 12(x + y) + lS by(x + y).
(x
2
.

15.

Check example

14.

39.

Polynomial by Polynomial.
is to

To multiply a polynomial

by a polynomial

multiply the multiplicand by each term

of the multiplier,

and add the partial products.

Ex.

1.

Find the product of 2 a


(2 a

+3b

bj 3 a 5 b.
( 37)
.

(2

= 6 a 2 + 9 ab, + 3 b) (- 5 6) = - 10 ab - 15 & 2 +3
6)3 a

38
Adding these

MATHEMATICS
partial products

6a 2 + 9ab
we have
6a
2

- 10 ab - 15 b 2 - ab - 15 6 2
as follows
:

The work should be written

2a + 3b

3a-5b 6a + 9ab - 10 ab 6 a a& 2

15 & 2 15 b 2

The procedure

is

the same for any number of terms.


if

The

pupil will find the work more simple

both multiplicand and

multiplier are arranged according to either the descending or

ascending powers of some

letter.
2
3

Ex.2. Multiply

5x- 6x + x - 4
-6x +5x-4 _3x_ i 6 x 4- 5 x 4 x -3x*+ 18x -15x
2

by

-3x + x
x,

-l.

Rearranging according to the descending powers of

x X2 xb

2 2

4-12x

X4

x 22 x 3

4-

6 x2 13 x
l

5x + 4 + 7x + 4

EXERCISE
Find the following products.
1.
2. 3.

16

Check each
6.
7. 8.
9.

result
2

(5a + 3b)(2a+b).

(ox
(

-x +3x-2)(2x-7).
2

4.
5.

+ 2y)(5a?-3y). (7 c + 2d) (7c -3d). (7c + 2d)(lc-2d). (a^ + + l)(x-l).


(6a
2

x2

(a2

+ x + 2)(x -x + 2). +.# + #*) (a2 - xy + y*).

(a2
(a
2

a;

10.

+ 2aft + & )(a + &) - 2 a& + &*) (a - 6).


2

Are the products


11.
12.

in 9

and 10 alike
a

Multiply Multiply

+ 2 a + 4 by 5 a 30 4- 45
a'
2

- 2. 15.

as

by 5x

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
13.

39

14.

+ 6) (a + 6). (a + 2b)(a + 2b).


(a
results in

15. 16.

{x-2y)\
(x-y)(x-y).
They

Note the form of these


will be useful later.
17.

examples 13-16.

(a
(a

+ b)(a-b).

19.
20.

(4a

18.
21.

+ 26)(a-26). (16c + 15d)(16c-15d).


in

+ y)(4a>-y). (4a + 3y)(4a>-3y).

Note the form of the results

examples 17-21.
:

Write the following products by inspection


22.
23.
(c

24.

+ 2d)(c-2d). (5x + y)(px-y). (5a + y)(5aj + y).


The The
The
side of a square is a -f side of a square is side of a square is

25.

26.
27.

+ 2y)(3x + 2y). (2 a + 3 c) (2a + 3 c). (5ra + 4fc)(ora + 4&).


(3x

Solve examples 28-32 mentally


28.
6.

Find the

area.

29. 30. 31.


32.

2a

b.

Find the

area.

x + 3y.

Find the Find the


Find the

area.
area.

The The

side of a square is 6 c side of a square is

4 d\ 5 # 2 a.

area.
if

33.

In examples 28-32 find the dimensions and the area

a = 2, b = 1, c = 1, d = 3, x = 4, y = 1.

Find the areas of the following


altitude
b
34.
35.

A where 5 = base
a

and a

6# + 3?/,

5x + 7y.
a

36. 37.
38.

+ 5, x + S, a + 9 y, x + 15 a,
a

&.

x2.
x

+ 2 y. x 3 a.

40
39.

MATHEMATICS
Compute the areas
2

in

examples 34-38 when a

= 3, 6 = 1,

x = 7, y =
40.

41.
42. 43.

44.
45.

- 6. 16 x* + (8 x - 3 x + U)(5 x -2 x + 24) - 336 = ? - 4) + (x - 3 x + 4)](9 a - 6 + 1) = ? [(a? + 3 (2a + 3)(2a + 3) =? The edge of a cube is 4 a + 6 find its volume. The edge of a cube is 2 x 5 y\ find its volume. The edge of a cube is 5 x 14 6 find its volume.
2

a;

a?

Find the volumes in examples 43-45 if the letters have the same values as in example 33. Find the areas of the following trapezoids (B represents the lower base, 6 the upper base, and a the altitude).
46.
:

47.
48.

49.
50.
51.

B + y, 3x + 2y, 5 x + 2 y, 3 x + 5 y, 7 c + 3 d,
x
4
c
oj

a
2.

x-y,

2x + 3y,
3x

Ax + Ay.

y, 7x3

?/,

2c+d,
c+5d,
x

+ y. 5 + x. c d.
6 x
?/

52.
53.

- 8 d,

54.

55. 56.

+ 9 y, # + 18, c + 8,

6y, x 15,
c-5,

3d. x y. Ay x.
c

c-2.
altitude,

Find the upper base, lower base, examples 49-55, if x = 3, ?/ = 2, c = 4, d account for your negative areas ?
57.

= 5.

and area in How do you

from the length of a rectangle, and is added to the breadth, the area will be increased by 100 square feet, but if 10' be subtracted from the breadth and 10' added to the length, the area will be diminished
If 10' be subtracted

the same amount

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
by 300 square
a scale of y ^
1

41

feet.

Make

a diagram of each rectangle, using

=1

foot.

Division of Polynomials
40. Polynomial

by Monomial.

Eeview

division of mono-

mials, 32-35.
rule for division.
41. Since a

Give sign rule for division.

Give exponent

Give rule for subtraction of monomials.


is

polynomial

sum

of

monomial terms,

to

divide a polynomial by a monomial, divide each term of the

polynomial by the monomial and add the quotients thus found.


Ex.
1.

Divide 81 a 4 - 27 a2 + 18 a by 9
--

a.
*-

81 a 4

9a = 9a 3 ,

27 a 2
-4-

-f-

9 a

=-

3 a, 18 a

9a

= 2.

Then

(81 a 4

- 27 a + 18 a)
2

9 a

9 a3

- 3 a + 2.

The work should be written

as follows

9a )81a*-27a2 + 18q
9 a3

3 a

Ex.

2.

Divide 21 a4

- 18

ar*

+ 5 ar>-9 a by -3#.

-3a Q 21x4 -18x3 + 5x2 -9x - 7 x3 + 6 x2 - J z +3


Ex.
3.

Divide 4 a 2 (2
2?n

m+3) -9

o(2

m+3) +2 m+3 by 2 m+3.


+
3)
"

+ 3 )4 a 2 (2 m + 3)4 a2

9 a(2 wi

-9a

+ 2 ro + 3 +1

Note that in dividing one number by another, we are simply removing from the dividend the factors found in the divisor.
Ex.4.
45
-=-3.

45

32
2

5.

3 )3 -5

3 -5
After removing the 3 of the divisor 3

5 are left for the quotient.

42
Ex.
5.

MATHEMATICS
45 afy
-s-

9 x\
45 x?y
9x
32

= 32 =3
x )3 2

x
x.

x
x

?/.

x
5 5

x
.

x y

= 5 xy
rule for division

If one carries this principle in

mind no

by a

monomial

is

necessary.

EXERCISE
1.
2.

17

72 x y -5-24
4(a
5

afy.
3
.

3. 4.
5.
6. 7.

+ 6) 4(a + &) (128 a - 80 a + 32)- 16. 128 a -(80 a + 32) -16. 128 a - 80 x* + 32 -16. (128 x - 80 a + 32 -16.
6

[7a (2a + ^)
4

-12^(2a + ^) +15a(2a + 6)]--(2a+6).


2

8.

Divide 14 a(x

y) + 7 a
2

(as

?/)

49 cr (a

?/)

by
b.
2

-la(x-y).
9.

Divide (a Divide

10.

+ b)a + (a + 5)2 + b\a + 6) by a + 144 afy z - 729 x + 162 xyV by - 3


afr
2
2

^
2

a; ?/ *.

42.

Polynomial by polynomial.

The product

Ex.

1.

+ # + 2 by 2 a + 3 is found by x\2 x + 3)+ a?(2 a + 3) + 2(2 a + 3) = 2 + 3 or + 2 + 3 x + 4 x + 6 = 2*r + 5a; + 7a + 6. Required to divide 2 x* + 5 x + 7 a + 6 by


of x 2
ar
3 a;
3

(1)
(2) (3)

2 a

+ 3.

This means that 2 x3


sets of factors,
factor.
If 2

5 x2
is

+
3.

is

the product of two factors or


is

one of which

2 x

The problem

to find the other

x3

5 x2

is

written in form (1), division can be performed


if

as in

example

3, 41,

but

the multiplication has been completed and


is

the partial products added as in form (3), the factor required readily seen.

not so

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
It is evident

43
If

from (1) that (3)

is

made up

of partial products.

2 x

examination of (1) shows that the first term of each partial product is the product of the first term of the divisor by the corresponding term of Therefore we may form this rule the quotient.
:

+ An

is

the divisor, x 2

+x+

is

the quotient.

Arrange both dividend and divisor according to the ascending or descending powers of the same letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term oi
1.

the divisor.
3.

Multiply each term of the divisor by the quotient found


Subtract the product

in 2.
4.

arranging the difference


dividend.
5.

found in 3 from the dividend, found in the same order as the


first

Divide the

first

term of the difference by the

term

of the divisor.
6.

This gives a second term of the quotient. Proceed in this manner, considering each difference as
until the first

term of the difference is of lower degree than the first term of the divisor. 7. If there is a remainder, make it the numerator of a fraction whose denominator is the divisor, and annex with proper
a
sign to the quotient.

new dividend

Dividend
1st partial product,

Divisor
2 x

x2 (2x
x(2 x
2(2 x

+ 3) = 2 x3 +

3 x2

x2

+3 +x+

2 x2

Quotient

2d

partial product,

+ 3) =
+ 3) =
by
4.

2 x2

+3x
4x + 4x +
6

3d partial product,

Ex.

2.

Divide xs

+ 3x-2
xs xs

3 x - 2 4 x2 4 a* + 3 a 4 x - 16 x

4
2

x
2

4z

19

74

-4

19x-2
19 x

76
74

44

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
18

Verify each result


1.
2. 3.
a;

Divide x\2 x + 3)

+ 5.

+ 8 x(2 x + 3) + 15(2 x + 3) by 2 x+3. Divide a\a + b) + 2 ab(a + b) + (a + 6) by a + 6. The area of a rectangle is x + 8 x + 15. The length is What is the breadth ? What is the breadth if x = 2 ? - 2 15 by y + 3. 4. Divide 5. Divide + 2 y 15 by y + 3. 15 by y - 3. 6. Divide y + 2 7. Divide # 8 + 15 by y 3. 8. (5^-20a + 15a-30)-v--5. 9. 5^-(20a + 15a-30)---5.
2 2 2
?/

2/

?/

?/

?/

10.

5a3 -20a2 +(15a-30)---5.


2
2

5y-20z + 15a-30-5 + 3(2a;-8)-r-2. 12. 4(a + &) 2(a + b) + 4(a + b) + - 2 (a + b). 13. The radius of a circle is + 3. Find the area. 14. The area of a trapezoid is 2 x + 12 + 18 the sum of If the upper base the bases is 4 # + 12. Find the altitude. is x + 7, what is the lower base ? If x = 3, what are the
11.
2

-J-

ft

a;

dimensions?
15.
16.

Can you draw the trapezoid


2

if it is

isosceles?

Divide

^4-3^ + 3z + lbya; + 2a;-|-l.


a?

Divide

+ 3 x + 3x + lby x + 1.
2

Divide the quotient


16.

by x
17.

+ 1.

Compare

results in

examples 15 and

Divide xs
Divide

19.

18. Divide + 27 by x + 3. 8 a - 27 b by 2 a -3 6. 32 by 8 - 2. 20. Divide 21. Divide a 81 by x 3. 22. Divide x + 81 by x + 3.


3 s

a3

+1

by a

+ 1.

or

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
23.

45

Divide x2

x 12 by x 9.
of a trapezoid is 15 x 2
is

24.
is

The area
;

5x 8
25.

34 x + 16

the altitude

one base
of

a?

+ 3.

Find the other

base.

an isosceles triangle is 12 x2 + 32 # - 35 Find the altitude, then construct the the base is 6x 5. Construct the triangle when x = 2. triangle when x = 2.

The area

26.

The. area of a rectangle

is

4# + 12&+9;
2

the base

is

Find the altitude. Construct the rectangle. Compare the base and altitude of your drawing. What kind of a
2 #

+ 3.

rectangle
27.

is it?

Divide the sum of x3


2

+ 7 x + 35 x -f 19
2

and

8x

13 34 by the
a;

difference

between
(3

5x2 -\-2 x7 and


2

3 x2

_3 a _4
Perform the following operation:
a2 (2 a3
2
oj 2

28.

29.
30.
31.

+ 9 x - 71 a - 120) (2^ + 9^-71^-120)---^ + 3^-40. Divide a + 2 a& + 6 by a + b. Is a + 2 a& + 6


-s- (a?

+ 7)(> - - 12) #4 + 3 x - 40).


a
a; 2 2

a square

or a rectangle ?
32.

Define a square.
2

- 229 a + 9) h- (5 a - 1). 33. Divide 100 x* - 229 x + 9 by 4 a - 9. 34. Divide 100 a - 229 x + 9 by 25 a - 1. 35. Divide 100 x - 229 x + 9 by 5 x + 1. 36. Divide 100 x* -229 x + 9 by 2 x + 3. 37. Divide 100 x* -229 x + 9hy 2 x- 3. 38. What are the factors of 100 x* - 229 x + 9 ? of 25 x - 1 ? 39. Divide X + 6x - x-30 by x- 2. 40. Divide + 6 # 30 by x + 3. 41. Divide x + 6 x - x - 30 by x + 5.
(100 x*
2
2 4
2

of 4 a 2

-9?

a?

a?

46
42.

MATHEMATICS
What
The
are the factors of ar

+6
?

2
as

x 30 ? What

does

the product of these factors equal


43.

length,

breadth, and thickness of a rectangular

solid are x-\-b, x

+ 3,

ume. What are # = 0? x= -1?


44.

its

and as 2, respectively. Find its voldimensions when as = 3 ? x = 2? x = 1 ?

Divide

a;

45.
46.

Divide x2

64 by x 8. 64 by x + 8.

64
?

What
3 2

are the factors of x 2

47.

The volume
altitude.

of a circular cylinder is

(16

- 84 x + 120as- 25)tt.
The various symbols

The radius

of the base

is

a?

-5.

Find the
43.

Find the dimensions when x

= 3;

4;

5.

of algebra enable us to express

many

operations by using these symbols in place of words.

In other words, the symbols are the shorthand, the stenography,


of mathematics.

2x

For example If we wish to indicate the subtraction of 1 from 4 x + 7, we may write


:

(a)
(6)

from 4 x -f- 7 take 2 as (4as + 7)-(2as-l);

or

we may

write

the two expressions being identical, and read in the same way.

In the next exercise be sure you translate the algebraic lan-

guage into the English before attempting to solve the problems.

REVIEW
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

as

+ 3)(2as-7) + (3as-l)(2as+5). (2aj + 3)(3as + 2)-(4as + 15). (4as-l)(as + 4)-(as-4)(4as + l). - [3 + (3 - 1)] - [a + 3 x - (3 x - 1)].
(2as
3
2 as as 8 2

4(as-5)(as-2)-4.

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
6.
7.

47

+ 3-3-4.
-90
-5-

2+(8-s-4) -5-8.

a
9.

+ 2 -8. (2x T)x (3 x + 4)a.


6 (3. 10)

10.

Two

right triangles are equal if

two

legs of the one are

equal respectively to two legs of the other.


11.

Prove.

In a rectangle the opposite sides are equal.

Prove that

the diagonal divides a rectangle into two equal triangles.


12.

The
[(a

bisectors of the base angles of an isosceles triangle

are equal.
13.
14.

Prove.
4
-5-

+ bf + 6 b(a + 6) - 12(a + bf] (4a -^ )-(2a + 6)(2a-6).


2
2

(a

+ 6)

2
.

15.
16.

(64c 2 -25c? 2 )-(8c

+ 5fZ)(8c-5cT).
2

(5* + 2y)-(5*-2y)(5--2y).
(5a;

17. 18.
19.

+ 2?/)(5^-27/)-(25a;
2
2
.

-42/ 2).

(7-3z) -(7a + 3z)


(x

+ 5)

(a?

- 2)-(a> - 5)(a? + 2)-(a? - 5)

(a?

- 2)

-( + 5)(a + 2>
20.
21. 22.
23.

+ 5) (c + 7) (a + a& + 6 )(a - a + 6 (a + ab + & )(a + a& + 6


(a
3
.

).
2

).
T

Find the area of a trapezoid whose upper base, low er If base, and altitude are x + 7, 2 # + 8, 3^ + 2 respectively. x = 1 and the trapezoid is isosceles, construct the trapezoid.
24. 25.

Find the prime factors

of (25) 2? (24) 2 , (72) 2

26. 27.
28.

What

are the prime factors of (12) 6 ? (144) 5 ?


are the prime factors of
,
.

What

1728? of

3 (39) ?

Factor (81) 4 (8) 5 (16) 10


,

48
29. 30. 31.

MATHEMATICS
Factor 27
Factor 72 Factor 45

81

729.
-

64
s 2

36.

How many
5
.

prime factors in this num-

ber?
32.

Factor 81 (a
Factor

33.

+ b) 27 (2 x y)

s
.

If x

prime factors of this product? prime factors of (15) 3 ?

= 3 and y = 1, what are How do they differ from

the

the

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


1.

One egg weighs 2


yoke, 11

ounces.

57%

of the egg

is

white,

32

%
2.

shell.

Find the weights of the whites, yolks,


ounces.

and

shells of one dozen eggs.

One egg weighs 2

The

shells of 2 eggs
is

weigh

one ounce.
portion ?

What

per cent of the whole egg

the edible

edible portion of 2 eggs measures f of a cup. It many yolks of takes 9 whites of eggs to measure 1 cup.
3.

The

How

eggs does
4.

it

take to

make

cup

?
2-J-

Beaten whites of 4 eggs measure

cups.

What

is

the

per cent of increase in quantity of beaten over unbeaten whites ?

Beaten yolks of 3 eggs measure ^ cup. What is the per cent of increase in quantity of beaten over unbeaten yolks ?
5. 6.

One

egg, yolk

and white beaten together, measures 4


greater
is

tablespoonfuls.

How much

the increase in quantity

when yolks and whites


7.

of 4 eggs are beaten separately ?

According to Hutchison, experiments as to the difference in time of digesting eggs cooked in various ways show that 2 soft "boiled" eggs leave the stomach in If hours, and 2 hard "boiled" eggs leave the stomach in 3 hours. If 2 eggs are eaten on each of 4 days a week, how many more hours' work a month will the stomach have in digesting hard than soft "boiled" eggs ?

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
8.

49

After artificially egg was boiled for 3 minutes. digesting for 5 hours in a pepsin solution, it contained 8.3 % undigested protein. An egg was cooked in water at 180 F. for 5 minutes. It was entirely digested after 5 hours in a pepsin
solution.

An

The

edible portion of eggs contains 13.4


1

protein.
if

Find the weight of undigested protein from


Steel is 7.83 times as

dozen eggs

they

are soft "boiled" rather than soft "cooked."


9.

heavy as water.

Find the weight

of one cubic inch of steel.


10.

gas range has four burners, each of which burns .65

cubic feet per minute and two oven burners, each burning 1.032

cubic feet per minute.


stove
11.

when

all

Find the cost per hour of running the burners are on full, gas at 65 $ per thousand.
is

house

burners and two


foot in

pilot lights.
;

heated by a gas furnace containing four Each burner consumes one cubic

two minutes each pilot one cubic foot in eight minutes. Find gas bill for February at 30^ per thousand cubic feet. The pilots burned all the time. Two burners burned from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and four burners were running two hours in the morning and two hours in the evening each day.
12.

According to one authority, a family of


to

five living

on
for

$2000
food
;

$4000 per year should spend

25%

of that

sum

20

for rent

15

for operating expenses, such as fuel,

wages,

etc.,

15%

for clothing;

and 25

for higher life,

i.e.

books, travel, charity, saving, and insurance.

What amount

should be used for each item


of

if

a family has an annual income

$3000?
13.

A family
for food
;

living on

$1000
;

to

$2000 per year requires


for operating expenses

% 20 %
25

20
;

for rent

15

and 20 % for higher life. If a family lives on $ 1500 per year, what amount should be spent for each item ?
for clothing
14.

From

a family income of
for

$800
and

to

$1000 per

year,

30%

should be spent for food;


expenses;

20%

for rent;

10%

clothing;

10% for operating 20% for higher life.

50

MATHEMATICS
can be spent for each item

How much
$900?
15.

when

the income

is

45

% 10 %
?

family living on $ 500 to $ 800 per year should spend for food 15 % for rent 10 % for operating expenses
;
;

for clothing,
is

and 10
$ 650,

for higher

life.

If

a family's

annual income
item
16.

how much

should be spent for each

From an annual income


;

of less than $ 500, 60


;

should
;

be spent for food


10
/

15

for rent

for operating expenses


life.

income of a family is $ 425 per year, how much can be spent for each item per year and month ?
;

for clothing

and 10

for higher

If the

17.

The grocery

bill of

a family living on $ 3000 per year


;

should be 25
year, 45

of that

sum

of a family living on $ 700 a


in the

of that sum.

Find the difference

monthly

grocery
18.

bill of

each

20

of a twelve-hundred-dollar income should be spent

Find the difference in the amounts spent for these items by two families having these incomes.
for clothing,

and 15

of a nine-hundred-dollar income.

in a fourth barrel, or an ordinary measures 4 cups. If a family uses 5 loaves bread per week, and it takes 3J- cups of flour to make one loaf, how many months will a sack of flour last ?
19.
lb. flour

There are 49
1

sack of flour.

lb. flour

Find the cost of 4 loaves of bread, requiring 1 hour for baking and containing the following: 3^- qt. flour, 1 yeast cake, 2 tb. lard, 4 t. salt, 4 t. sugar. Flour costs $ 2.00 per one-fourth barrel; yeast 2 per cake; lard 15^ per pound (2 c. in a pound), the sugar and salt $.0024; gas 70^ per 1000 ft., the
20.

oven burner burning 39


(Tb.
21.

cu. ft.

per hour.
c.

= tablespoon,
I

t.

= teaspoon,

= cup.)

How many buy 28-inch material for handkerchiefs. cut handkerchiefs, yards would I have to buy to make 9 dozen
14 inches square
?

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
22.

51
if

What
is

is

the size of the finished handkerchief


sides ?

a i-inch

hem
23.

made on four

yard for stitching, how much would the work on 6 dozen handkerchiefs cost ?
If I paid 2 cents a
24.

How much
if

lace

would

it

take to sew around 9 dozen

handkerchiefs

you allowed 4 inches extra on each handkerand


lace 15 cents a

chief for fullness ?


25.

If the material cost 60 cents a yard,

yard,

how much would

the handkerchiefs in problem 24 cost,

including 5 spools thread at 5 cents a spool and 2 cents a yard


for stitching ?

REVIEW
Divide
1.
2.
3.
:

4. 5.
6. 7.

8.
9.

10.
11.

12. 13. 14.


15.

16.
17.

18. 19.

- 5 x + 8 x - 3 by 2 x - 1. x 4 + 5 2 by x 1. 2 a - 9 a + 8 a + 3 by a - 3. b - 3 & c + 3 5c - c by b c + 2 c + 2 c + 1 by c + 1. x + 2 # + 2 &?/ + by x + a + 4 a - 21 by a - 3. a + 4 a 21 by a 7. a + 4 a - 21 by a + 3. a + 4 a 21 by a + 7. a + 3 a + 3 x + 1 by a + 2 + 1. x + 3 # + x 1 by x + 2 a + 1. a + 6 a + 35 a - 8 - 5 a + 19 a by 3 a - 1 + 2 a # 2 ^2/ + 2 #?/ by # y\ # 2# + by x 2 xy + y - 4 + 20 - 13 y + 6 - 3 by + 3. 6 6 m + 13 m 70 m + 71 m + 40 by 3 m 7 m + 4. - 1 by z - z - 1. z - 2 z + z + z - z - 2 z - 7 a + 6 x - 35 a - 60 x - 50 by x - 10.


2
a?
2 3

cc

a;

c.

i/

?/

?/.

a?

?/

2/

?/

>

2/

?/

2/

i/

?/

2;

m
52
20.
[(a?

MATHEMATICS
1)(2
a? a; 2

+ 3)(4 - 9)] by 2 + x - 3. 21. [(3 x - 1)(3 + 1)(4 x + 5)] by 12 +11 - 5. 22. [(125 x - l)(aj + 7)(2 + 1)] by 10 x* + 3 x - 1. 23. [(a - l)(a - 2 a - 15)] by a + 2 a - 3. 24. [( a + l)(2a + 3)(4a -9)] by 2a -a-3. - 23 + 21. 25. [(2 x - 3)(5 a+ 7)(4 a- 3)(3 a?- 7)] by 6 26. [(18a; + 3a;-l)(10a; + 13a;--3)] by 6 + ll x + 3. 27. 2a; + 3a; -5a; -8a;-9by 2a; + 7-5a;. 28. a^ + y + z 3 xyz hy x y+ 29. 2 + - 6 - 4 x - 8 by x 2. - 512 by 5 - 8. 30. 125 31. b 4 y by 6 y. - 208 afy - 143 xhf + 91 + 35 y 32. 52 ar + 38 by 2 - 7 y 33. l-a by 1 - 2 a - 2 a - a - 13 a*/ - 5 by 3 - 2 + 5 # 34. 6a; 13x?y + 13 35. 2ar> - 3a; - lSar* + 14a: - 2x - 12 - 4a; + 2a; + 4. by 2 + 3 36. 16a; + 36a; + 81 by 4a; - 6a; + 9. - 30 m + 1 m + 97m - 14 37. 10m + 11 m - 53 by 2 m + 3 m 7. 38. 12a; - 11a? - 6a; - 15a; + 10 by 3a; - 5. 39. 10 y - 9y - 13 + Sy - y - 3 by 2y - y - 3. - 6x - 22a; + 26a; + 5x - 8 by 3 x - 1. 40. 21 109 + 25 41. A man died leaving an estate, worth 36 If they receive equal dollars, to his 6 x + 13 x + 5 heirs.
a;
2

a>

a;

a?

a?

2 a; 2

a;

a;

-\-

z.

a;

a;

a?

a;

a;

4 a; ?/

a;?/

a;

2 2 a; ?/

?/

a;

a;?/

a?

a;

?/

a;

4 a?

a;

amounts, find each one's share.


42.

train
a;
2

went

at the rate of 5

2 a;

+ 32 x 21
in 2 a;
2

miles per

hour for hours ?


43.

6x

7 hours. How far did it go


of a rectangle
is

5 x -f 3
37 x

The area

is

2 x4
a;

15 x?

-\-

4 x2

24

square rods.

If the altitude

3 rods, find the base.

MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
44.

53

A
2 xz

and
4

both worked the same number of days.


3

received 3a?

2 x*

2 # 5x 9x + 4 +
2

+ 6x 5
per day.
x*
5

per day while

B
2

received

7 x2

At

the end of the time


a;

they

both

received

10

13 a + 3x* 4ar* x + 4 + 1.
?
is

How many
45.

days did they work


of a triangle If the

The area

20 ar*

12

square feet.

base

2 x 4 a^ 40 x 46 # is 4 # + 2 + 6 feet, find
4 2
2

a;

altitude.
46.

x2
a?
3

13

5 x + 6 teachers 73 # + 41 6
2
a;

receive together 2
dollars.

a;

19 x + 50 x
5

What
if

is
a;

their
is

average

salary ?

What
if
6
a;

is
a?

their
is
5

average salary
4

2 ? How

many
47.

teachers
[(2
4
a;

2?
a*

- 14 x + 13 + 33 x? - 17 x - 23x - 4)6 + 5 x* -f 49 - 98 x + 23)]-*-(a? - 6 + 3 + 4)= ? <y 48. Divide the sum of 21 x + 20 xy 7 x - 30 y 1 and - 3 + 17y 5 1 by 6 - 5 + 1. 9 36 x + 21 45 49. Divide the difference between 9 57 x + 55 x by the difference between 4 x 7 + 12 and 3 and 3 + 12 x - 7. 50. Divide the sum of 3 + 3 x - 6 x - 14 and 2 a? - 7 2 11 by the sum of 3 x + 4 and 5 +9 51. [(7 a - 32 a - 13 a + 29) + (8 a + 6 a + 6 a - 9)] [(7 a + 13 a + 1) - (2 a + 15 a + 6)]. - 21 a?x* - 27 ax)] 52. [(21 a x + 4 a + 27 aa + (4 -^ [(15 a - 20 ax + 3) + (6 a - 7 as + 4)]. 53. The area of a rectangle is a -f 3 a 6 a 18. Its Find its base. altitude is a + 3. 54. The area of a triangle is 12 a 12 a + 8 a 4 a 4. Find its altitude. What are its Its base is 6 a + 4 a + 2. dimensions when a = 5. 55. The area of a triangle is 2 a a 6 a + 7 a 2. Its Find its base. What are its dimenaltitude is 2 a + 3 a 2. sions when a = 4 ?
2
2 a;
a;
2 a; 2 2 a;

a;?/

?/

a;

2/

a;

a;

a?

3 2

a?

a;

ar

a;

cc -f-

a;

a?.

-r-

a?

2 a?

2 a;

CHAPTEE V
Inequalities.

Simultaneous Equations
is

44.

The

sign of inequality

>

or

<, the opening being

toward the greater number.

Thus 9

> 5 is read, " 9 is greater than 5." 4 < 7 is read, " 4 is less than 7." 5 > 9 is read, " 5 is greater than 9."
Two
inequalities are in the
is

45.

same sense when the

first

member
member.
46.

of each

greater or less, respectively, than the second

If equal

numbers be added

to or subtracted

from both

an inequality, the resulting inequality is said to conThat is, the inequality sign is not tinue in the same sense.
sides of

reversed.

Ex. 9

> 5.

Subtract 3 from each side.

Then

9_3>5_3
or
47.

> 2.
in-

If all of the signs of

an inequality are changed, the

equality does not continue in the same sense.

That

is, if all

the signs of inequality are changed, the sign

of inequality
48.

must be reversed.

An
1.

inequality continues in the same sense after being

multiplied or divided by a positive number.

Ex.

2 x

>

10.
2,

Dividing both sides by

we have

x>5.
54

INEQUALITIES
Ex.2.

55
(1) (2)
( 46)

Subtract (2) from (1),

2x+y>8, y = 2. 2x> 6 (3)


x

Divide (3) by

2,

>3

(4)

{ 48)
3.

That

is,

to satisfy the

above conditions, x must be greater than

Transposition
49.

In

24 we solved an equation,

2x +
by subtracting 3 from each

=9
by Axiom
2,

side,

then dividing

both sides of the resulting equation by the coefficient of the

unknown number.

By
the

method

called transposition,

it is

possible to simplify

first
1.

operation.

Ex.

Solve for
c

x,

mx + c =
side,
is

b.

(1)

Subtracting

from each

mx
the

c.

(2)

Note that the equation


the
first
its

member

of

same as if we had removed -f c from (2) the equation (1) and placed it in the second member

with

sign changed.
is

Such change

called transposition.
:

This rule follows

term

may
its

be transposed

from one mem-

ber of an equation to the other if

sign

is

changed.

Then, in solving, mx -\- c = b. Transposing c, mx = b c, and dividing both members of the equation by m, the

coefficient of

se,

m
Ex.
2.

ax

+ 7 = 13 - 2 ax.
2 ax
to the first side,

(1)

Transposing the
second
side,

unknown term we have ax + 2 ax =


3 ax

and

-f 7 to

the
(2)

13

7,

= 6,
6

(3)

=r a =a

...

(4)

56
To

MATHEMATICS
verify this value of x, substitute the value of x in (1).

a
or

" 2a ' +7=13 = +


2
7

13

4.

9=

9.-

.'.

is

the abbreviation for hence.

Simultaneous Equations
50.

In examples of exercise 8 and the

last

ones of exercise 10,


is

we

note that in the former exercise one

unknown number

involved in the equation, while in the latter the values of two

unknowns must be found. The method for the solution of equations in two unknowns is to find some way of combining the two equations into one equation containing one unknown, and solving this resulting
equation.

Such process

is

called elimination.

unknowns are necessary because one equation in two unknowns has no definite solution, but has an indefinite number of solutions.
equations in two
E.g., in

Two

x+y

= 6,

if

any number
51.

y = 4; x = 3, y of pairs of values satisfying the given equation.

0,

=6$
in

1,

=5

= 2,

3; etc.,

Note that
This
is

this

equation y changes value

changes.

because x and y are so related that


6.

when x their sum

Such values must be given x and y that the equation must be kept in balance; that is, must be kept an
equation.

must always be

The unknown numbers which

are subject to change of value

in an equation are often called variables.


52.

The usual methods

of elimination are addition or sub-

traction, substitution,
53.

and comparison.
Addition or Subtraction.

First Method.

In this method

one or both equations are multiplied in such a manner that the

INEQUALITIES
coefficients of

57

identical.

unknown in both equations become One unknown number may then be eliminated by
the same

addition or subtraction of the corresponding sides of the equation.

Ex.

1.

2x + y = 9,

(1)
(2)
(3)

3x-2y = 10.
Multiply (1) by
2.

4x
3x

+ 2 y = 18
2 y

Add

(2)

and

(3),

10

(2)
(4)

Whence, and
Substitute x

Ix
x

=28
=4.
8

4 in (1),

Transposing ( 49)
or,

+ y = 9. + 8 in (5), we y = 9 - 8, F = l.

(5)

have,

Check these values

in (2),

3.4-2-1 = 10, 2 = 10. 12 Ex.2.


Multiply (1) by
3,

8x- 5y = 31, 12 + 13#=-15.


and
(2)

(1) (2)

by

2,

24 x 24 x
Subtract (4) from (3),

-15 y = 93 + 26 y = - 30 - 41 y = 123.
y.

(3)

(4)

(5)

Divide (5) by 41, the coefficient of

Whence,
Substitute value of y in (1),

= -S.

(6)

8s- 5(Transposing ( 49)

3) =31, 8z + 15=31.

(7)

8 x

= 31 - 15.
16.

Sx =
Whence, Check in
sc

(8)

(2),

12

= 2. 13 (3) = + 24 39 = 19

15.
15.

EXERCISE

Solve the following equations and verify results


1.

3aj-4y = l, Ax + 3 y = 18.

2.

5^+7^ = 29, 5t~7u = l.

58
3.

MATHEMATICS
3v- 5z = 12, 8v+10z= -38.
7y + 8a?= 31,
7.

\x + y=-.s-, |a?-f y= -f

4.

8.

12x-3y=-3.
5.

ia+i# = 6, ix + y= 2i-.
28 35

x + 5y = 29, 6x + 7y = 4:l
.

9.

- 45?/= - 17, x- 27 y = 8.
?/
.

6.

^+
54.

\x-\y=l,
i?/

10.

=5

+ 25.y = ll, 24 x + 55 = - 31
36a?

Second Method.

Substitution.

Ex.

Solve

2x +

= 9,
.

(1) (2)
(3)

3a- 2?/ = 10
Solve (1) for ?/, y Show that this is transposition.

=9-

2 x.

Substitute the value of y in (3) in (2).

Then,

3z-2(9-2x) = 3x-18 + 4x =

10.

(4)

10
?)

(How do you account for the signs of 18 and 4 x Transposing and collecting, 7 x = 28.
Substituting (5) in (3),
or,

= 4. y = 9 y = l.
x

(5)

4,

Check

2-4 + 1=9.

EXERCISE

20
:

Solve by method of substitution (verify results)


1.

4x

= 6, 3s + 4y = ll
4-

4.
.

4 J? 8fl
15 y

- 6 8 = 3, + 3 = l.
=

2.

7v=-2, llm-12i; = -13


12 ?7i-

5.
.

-8* =n, S^ 35?/ + 6 z =

3.

45-65=8JB + 3# = 3.

1,

6.

10*- 8 u
6*

+ 16u =

-i.

INEQUALITIES
55.

59

Third Method. Comparison. Solve eacli equation for the same variable and equate the
values thus found.

Ex.1.

2x +
y,

= 9, 3x-2y=10
y
y

(1)
.

(2)
(3)

Solve (1) for


Solve (2) for

2 x.

y,

y= 3 x ~
(3)

1Q
.

(4)

Equate the values of y found in

and
2

(4) (Ax. 8).

9-2x = 3 *Multiply (5) by


or,
2,

10

(5)

2^9

2 x

= 3x

10

Y
(6)

Solving (6), Substitute in (3)

18-4x = 3x- 10. x = 4. =98 = 1.


2/

Check as

before.

Ex.2.

= 31, 12^ + 13?/ = -15.


8x

5y

(1) (2)

Solve (1) for x,

%x

= 5y + 31, b-^ + 31
8

(3)

Solve (2) for

a:,

12 x

= -13?/- 15, ^_ _13 -15


*/

(4)

12

Equate the values

of x in (3)

and

(4)

(Ax. 8)
(5)

2/

_l_31__13^_l5
8

12

Multiply (5) by 24, a multiple of the denominators (Ax. 3).

Then,

15 y

93

= - 26 y - 30.

(6)

(See 53, and note that the terms of (6) are the same as those that compose equation (5), example 2, before they were combined into two
terms.)

60

MATHEMATICS
first

Transposing the unknown term to the the second member, and solving,
41 y

member, the known

to

=-

123,

V=
Substitute in (3),

-3.
8
2.

(7)

-15 + 31 x=

Check

as before.

EXERCISE

21

Solve by comparison, verifying each result:


1.

3x+6y=7, 4a?-2y = l
.

4.

15 x
13 a

-11 y = 16,

+ 11 y = 1.

2.

+ 4 = 6, = l. 2y5
2/ a?

5.

6x

ar

3 + 3 y = -, 5 x 3 y = 4.

3.

+ 15 y = 8, 43y-12x = 12.
8x

6.

3a + 3# = 2, 9a 15?/ = 2.
it

56.

In stating written problems

is

often convenient to

unknown numbers rather than form a single equation in one unknown as was done in exercise 8. Care must be taken to form as many equations as there are unknown numbers. Ex. A number is composed of two digits. One half the number is equal to twice the sum of the digits, and if 18 is added to the number the digits of the resulting number will be Find those of the original number written in reverse order.
use two or more the number.
Let

and
Then, 10
t

= the u the + u = the


t

digit in tens' place,

digit in units' place.

number.
10g
10*
Jj

(Exercise

2,

example

14.)
(1)

By
or

the conditions,

+ M = 2 (t + w),
18

10?*

t,

*)t \)u=-

18,

t- u=:-2.

(2)

INEQUALITIES
From
or
(1)

61

- 3 u = 0, 2t- u = 0.
t

(3)
(4)

= 2. Subtracting (2) from (3) Substituting the value of t found in (4) in (2)

- u = - 2,
w

and

= 4.

Whence, 10

-f

= 24,

the required number.

EXERCISE
1.

22

Find two numbers such that the sum of 3 times the first and 5 times the second is 24, and the sum of 1 of the first and
\ of the second
2.

is 2.
r

The

altitude of a trapezoid is 8

and

its

area 48 square

feet.

If the lower base is increased


feet.

4', its

area will be increased

16 square
here ?)
3.

Find

its

upper and lower bases.

(Any trouble

cubic foot of steel and a cubic foot of water together

weigh 5521 pounds. The difference between their weights is 4271 pounds. How many times heavier than water is steel ?
This quotient
is

called the specific gravity of steel.

(Rememits

ber these results.)

The perimeter of a rectangular field is 240 rods, and length is 40 rods more than its breadth. Find its area.
4.
5.

wheat is 80 rods longer than it is wide. The farmer uses a combined harvester and thresher that cuts an 11foot swath. After making 15 rounds, the indicator shows that 271 acres have been cut and have yielded 660 bushels. Find the yield per acre and the dimensions of the field.
field of
6.

times the second

Find two numbers such that n times the first added to k is c, and k times the first minus n times the
is b.

second
7.

The

difference

area 120, and the

between the bases of a trapezoid is 6, the sum of the bases 30. Find the dimensions.

Can you construct the trapezoid ?

, ,

62
57.

MATHEMATICS
When
is

a problem involves three variables the

solution

similar to that in

two

variables.

method of Care must be

taken to eliminate the same

unknown

in each equation.
it is

In solving simultaneous equations


be as

necessary that there

many

equations as there are variables in the problem.

Ex.

- y + 5z = == 15, = 3x+2y-3z = -2; 4.x 2y + 7z == 21.


2x
(2) to (3),
7

(1) (2) (3)

Multiply (1) by 2 and add the result to (2), 7 x + 7 z = 28.

(4) (5)

Add

4z

19.
z.

have two equations in x and Subtract (5) from (4), 3 s = 9,


z

We now

= = = =

3.

(6)

Substitute value of z in (5),


7

x
/

12

19,

or
Substitute (7)

x
15
?/

== 1.

(7)

and

(6) in (1),

2-2/ +
or

15,
2.

(1)

Check

as before, substituting these values in (2)

and

(3).

EXERCISE
Solve the following
1.

23

2x + 3y-4z

= 12, 2y+5z= 6, x 3x + 2y-6z = 13.


5z-3y + 2x=-9,
~)x-3z

4.

-X
2 5

4
5

25 1,3 -z = y J
4-

4'

-# + -?/ J
2

1,2

3
2

=n 0,
5 3

2.

5y 3x + 2z = 5,

2,1
3*
3
l/

+ 2y = 12.
5.

3.

3x 2y=o, 3y-2z = 25, 3z-2x=-25.

1,1,1 13 12' 4 3 2 13 1,1,1 -x + + -z =


3 2
12' ^4 1 13 ,1 ,1 -X + -V + -Z = 4'
-?/ 2*'

12

INEQUALITIES
6.

63
Each pupil

An

examination contained 15 problems.

received 7 credits for a problem solved, and 3 demerits for a

problem missed. One boy had 45 marks more to his credit than he had against him. How many problems did he miss ?

Find 3 numbers such that if 3 times the first be added to one half the sum of the second and third, the sum will be 137. If half the sum of the second and third be subtracted from the first, the difference will be 23, the sum of the three numbers
7.

being 74.
8.

If the order of the digits of a certain three-place

be inverted, the
444,

sum

of this

sum

and their difference is of the other two. Find the number.

number and the original 198. The first digit is equal

number number is
to the

9.

A merchant buys

lemons, some at 4 for 5 cents, others at

first

Again he buys as many of the kind as he had bought of the second kind, and as many of the second kind as he had bought of the first, this time spend3 for 4 cents, spending $ 2.80.
ing $2.78.
10.

How many

of each kind were purchased?

There are two terms such that the sum of seven times the and fourteen times the second is 221 while the sum of three times the first and five times the second is 9. What are the terms ?
first

11.

One
its

fifth of the

length of a rectangular lot

is

40' less

than

width.

Its perimeter is 320'.

If willow trees, ten

feet apart, are to be set out as a wind-break,

how many

will be

needed on the longer side


the corner of the
12.
lot.)

(The

first tree is to

be planted in

There are two numbers such that if the first be increased by 6 and the second diminished by 10, the numbers will be equal. But if the first be diminished by 10 and the second increased by 6, the first will then be the second. What are the numbers ?
13.

One boy

raised 14 bushels of potatoes

than another boy.

The

first

boy had 10 acres

more per acre and the second

64
had 12
14.

MATHEMATICS
acres.

Together they raised 1790 bushels. bushels per acre did each raise ?

How many

The perimeter
third side
is is

of a triangle

is 572'.

Two

sides are equal.

The
15.

20' shorter than the

sum

of the other two.

What

the length of each side ?


of 2 #

and 4 y is 4 less than the sum of 5 a? and 7 y. Half the sum of x and y is equal to 7 x. Find the values of x and y.

The sum

There are two numbers such that the sum of -^ of the 5 The sum of i of the first and of the second is 12. first and T 6 \ of the second is 24. What are the numbers ? 17. A croquet ground is 18' longer than it is wide. If its 13' more than its width be multiplied by 3, it will then be length. What are the dimensions ?
16.

18.

What

are the dimensions of a basket ball floor whose


if,

perimeter is 245',

when
by

the floor
5' ?

is

used for two games each

half fails to be a square

Solution of Inequalities

In solving inequalities the rules for solving equations hold except in some instances where change of sign takes
58.

place (44-48).

EXERCISE 24
If x be positive,

which fraction has the greater value


2

^+J?
4
1

or

*I 6*

2x + 9

62
or
true,

2x + 5

(Test

and 2 by substituting values

for x.)

Find the limits of x for which these are your results are correct.
3.

and show that

3x + 5<x

+ 2*

5.

6a-4<0.
7a?

4.

5*-p'>2* + 7.

6.

+ 14 >0.

* Solve as you would an equation.

INEQUALITIES
Find the limits
of the values
of.

65

x which satisfy the following


:

inequalities simultaneously (verify your results)


7.

+ 6 > 0. -x + 5>0.
2x
(1),
(2),

(1)

(2)
(3)

From From

x>-3.

and Then, to and -f 5.


8.

x- 5<0 (47), x < 5.


and
(2),

satisfy the conditions of (1)

x must

lie

between

24-3a>0, 16+2x>0.
5x + 10>0,
3a;- 9<0.

10.

4.x

-7 <0,

6x-2x>0.
11.

9.

5x + 2 >0,

2j;-5^>0.
y satisfy the following
(

What values of x and 12. 2x + 3y>10,

48)

3x-2y = 8.
45

Seven times the number of boys in the algebra class less number added to 13, and six times the number of boys less 22 is less than four times the number of boys added to 40. How many boys in the
13.
is

greater than five times their

class ?
14.
is

Find the

digit

such that twice the digit increased by 3

greater than one fifth the digit increased by 11.


15.

Find a multiple of 18 such that five times the number decreased by 220 is greater than three times the number decreased by 42. Is there more than one such multiple ?
Find a multiple of 16 such that one half of by 28 is less than one third of it increased by 16. than one multiple satisfy this condition ?
16.
it

decreased

Does more

17. Find a line containing an integral number of inches such that five times the length of it decreased by 165 is greater than three times its length increased by 14. Is there

more than one such

line ?

66

MATHEMATICS
Supplemental Applied Mathematics

Century Limited of the Lake Shore Railroad runs 54.5 miles per hour. Find the speed in feet per second.
1.

The

20tli

2.

There are 24 gas stoves in the domestic science kitchen.

If each stove burns 2.32 cubic inches of gas per second, find

the cost of gas for one class of pupils during a period of 80


minutes.
in use).
3.

Allow 15 minutes waste time (when stoves are not (Gas at 75^ per thousand cubic feet.)
of running a

motor in the pattern shop is .044 During a period of 80 minutes, 24 motors Find the amount of are running on an average of 60 minutes. power used. Find the cost at $ 0.0635 per Kilowatt hour.
Kilowatt per hour.
4.

The power

The Southern Talc Company


lots,

is

able to ship freight in car-

by the long ton, and charge its customers the cost price per ton F. O. B. North Carolina, and base its charges on the short ton. Find the Talc Company's profit on 10 cars of 34 tons each, shipped from North Carolina to Chicago. Freight rate $3.50 per ton.
load

weight of timber in the rough multiply length in feet by breadth in feet by thickness in inches and multiply that product by one of the following factors. For Oak, 4.04 Elm, 3.05 Yellow Pine, 3.44 White Pine, 2.97. The result is in pounds. Measure six pieces of lumber in the shops and find the weight of each piece. Make accurate drawings of each piece.
5.

To

find the

by multiplying the square of the diameter in inches by thickness in inches and this product by .06363. (Diameter) 2 (Thickness) (.06363) = weight in pounds. (Remember this formula.) Find weight of grindstone in your
6.

The weight

of a grindstone is found

shop.
7.

Make

diagram.
of one cubic foot of water is 62 V pounds.

The weight

Find the weight of one gallon.

INEQUALITIES

67

<!"

8. Stock must be ordered for making 10,000 steel pins, each diameter by 2" long. The rods for making these pins are i"

in diameter
pin.
9.

and 12-0"

long.

How many rods will


For
flavoring, 1

Allow T waste in cutting each be needed ? What will they weigh ?

spoonfuls of cocoa.
of cocoa in one box.
10.

ounce of chocolate is equivalent to 2 tableChocolate costs 22 cents a cake (8 ounces),


(-J-

while cocoa costs 25 cents per box

pound).

There are 2 cups


?

Which

is

cheaper to use
fat,

Chocolate contains 48.7%

and cocoa, 28.9%.

If

cocoa were used in place of 2 ounces of chocolate,


tablespoonfuls of butter would need to

how many be added to make the

same quantity of fat as in chocolate, butter containing 85 fat, and one tablespoonf ul weighing \ ounce ?
11.

Butter contains

85%

fat,

cream 18.5%

fat,

milk

4%

fat.

Calculate the quantity of butter necessary to use with 2 cups


of milk to produce the
fuls of butter

same quantity

of fat as 2 tablespoon-

and 2 cups of cream, one pint of cream weighing

one pound, and one pint of milk one pound and one ounce.
12.

Potatoes pared and then boiled lose 2.7% starch; pota-

with the skins on lose .2% starch. Find difference by cooking 6 potatoes, one potato weighing 4^ ounces.
toes boiled

in quantity of starch lost

13.

Boiled Irish potatoes

contain

20.9

carbohydrates.

Cooked sweet potatoes contain 42% carbohydrates. An Irish potato weighs 4^ ounces, and a sweet potato 6 ounces. Find
difference in quantity of carbohydrates in six of each kind of
potatoes.
14. Find the reciprocal of 5280. Would you rather divide a number by 5280 or multiply the same number by its reciprocal ? Which would give the larger result ? Why ?
15.

Multiply 18649 cubic inches by the reciprocal of 1728.

Is the result cubic feet ?


16.

thick.

Find the weight of a grindstone 36" in diameter and 4^-' What will it weigh after it has been worn down 2\" ?

68
17.

MATHEMATICS

A class of 15

girls

wish materials and thread for cooking

aprons.

Each apron requires 2\ yards muslin


at 5 p.

and a spool of thread


for the class ?

How

12^ per yard, much material and thread


at

How much money was spent in making the purchases example 17 ? How much does each girl pay for her share ?
18.
19.

in

If a girl earned

many would
20.

she have to

22\f a piece making these aprons, how make to earn $ 5.50 a week ?

If these aprons sold at

85^

each,

what would be the

profit per

apron

CHAPTEE VI
Lines, Angles, Triangles

59.

portion of space
solid

is

called a geometric solid.


is

The
called

boundary between the


the surface
of

and the remaining space


if

the solid.

Eon example,

the sides, bottom, and

top of a box were considered to have

no thickness, they might be called the


surface of the solid.
60.

If

two surfaces
is

intersect, their

intersection

called a line.

Thus,

if

jy

surfaces

AB and DO
XCO,
is

intersect in

XCO,

their in-

tersection,

called a line.

61.
point.

An

intersection of

two

lines is called a

Thus, F, the intersection of lines

AB

and CD,
62.

is

a point.

line

may

also be regarded as
"

""""

the path of a moving point.


63.
its

"'

The

line is said to be straight

when

it

does not change

direction at

any

point.
its

A line has
dicated,

no limit in
of
it

length.

When
a

a part of
line.

it is in-

we speak

as a

segment or sect of the


straight
of the line

Thus,
passing

A
through points

B,

AB

indicates

line

A and B.
a

The part
line.

between

A and

B is

a segment or sect of the

line

may

also be indi-

cated

by a small

letter placed
is

somewhere on the

line.

ff-g.,

read " the line a." 69

70

MATHEMATICS
64.

A
at

curved line changes

its

direc-

tion

every point.

E.g.,

the curve

O
65.

ABC
is

^ ^ have ABCDEFG is a broken line.


66.
line.

BE yS
\

broken line

composed of segments of successive


s t ra ig n t

"

F
~~J

lines

which have
in

'

different
pair,

directions

and which, pair by


point

common.

E.g.,

The word

line,

unmodified, usually means a straight

67.

plane

is

a surface such that

if

any two

of its points
line,

be joined by a straight

the

line will lie entirely in the surface.

Thus, in plane
points,
line,

MN,

if

any two

and B, are joined by a

the line will

lie

entirely within the surface.

68.

Plane Geometry treats of combinations of points and

lines all lying in the

same plane.

69.

circle is

a portion of a plane bounded


line

by a curved
is

every point of which

equidis-

tant

from a point within

called

the

center.

The curved line is the circumference. The distance from the center to any
point in the circumference
as
is

the radius,

CD.

An

arc is

any part

of the circumference, as

AB.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

71

Constructions

To draw a circle, select a point on your paper and mark it Open your dividers to the distance required for the radius C. of the circle and place the metal point in the point C. With The curved the pencil draw a curved line around the point O.
line is the circumference of the circle

and the point

is

the

center (Fig.

1).

Fig.

1.

Fig.

2.

Fig.

3.

1.
2.

Draw
Draw

a circle having a radius of one inch.

a circle having a radius of two inches.

Draw two
circles.

additional circumferences from the


Circles that
3.

same center

(Fig. 2).

have the same center are called concentric

Draw

a straight line a radius,

AB.

With
circle.

as a center

and one

half of

AB as

draw a

With 5asa

center and

the same radius,

draw a

circle (Fig. 3).

At how many To draw


through the

points do these two circles cut each other ?

the diameter of a circle,


circle

draw a

straight line

and

its

center.

Mark

the points at which

this line touches

the circumference

and B, respectively.
arcs

The line AB is the diameter of the circle (Fig. 4). The diameter divides the circumference into two equal
and the
4.

circle into

two equal parts called

semicircles.

Draw the
Draw

diameter of a circle having a radius of one and

one-half inches.
5.

the diameter of a circle having a radius of two

inches.

72

MATHEMATICS
divide a circle into four equal parts,

draw a circle and its diameter (Fig. 4). Then, with A as a center and a radius a little longer than one half the diameter, draw a short arc
directly above

To

the middle of the upper arc of the circle.

Fig.

4.

With

as a center

and the same radius, draw another short

arc crossing the first and

mark

the point of intersection 0.

Place the edge of your ruler in line with the point


center of the circle and

and the

draw another diameter


(Fig. 5).

of the circle.

Mark
The

this diameter

ED

two diameters divide the circle into four equal sectors

and the circumference into four equal arcs. Each sector and each arc is called a quadrant. The two diameters make four equal angles at the center, called right angles, and are, therefore, said to

be perpendicular to each other.

They

cut each

other into two equal parts and are, therefore, said to bisect

each other.
6.

Draw
Draw

a circle having a radius of one inch and divide

it

into four equal parts.


7.

a circle having a radius of two inches and divide


;

it

into

two equal parts

into four equal parts.

To measure
circle is

angles, arcs,

and sectors the circumference of a

divided into 360 equal parts called degrees.


?

How

many
angle

degrees in a semicircle
?

In a quadrant

In a right

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES
AB, draw

73
short arcs
as a center

To

bisect a straight line, as the line

above and below the middle of the line, with and a radius a little longer than one half the line.

Then, with
arcs crossing

as a center
first

and the same

radius,

draw short

the

two.

Mark

the points of intersection


line

spectively,

and draw a straight


bisects the line

C and D, rethrough these points.


the point where the

The

line

CD

AB.

Mark

two straight

lines cut each other

(Fig. 6).

M/c

/\
~
o

x
Fig.
8.
6.

Draw Fig.
Show

6.

Then

select the proper center

and draw the

circumference of a circle to show that


circle.

AB is

the diameter of a

also that

CD

is

a diameter of the circle and that

the four angles at the point of intersection of


at the center of the circle.

AB and CD are

Show

that the four angles are

right angles.
9.

Draw

a straight line,

AB, two

inches long and bisect

it.

Select a point on this line as a center

and draw a
circle.

circle to

show that the

line

AB is

the diameter of a

Then, with

and the same radius draw another circle. At how many points do these two circles cut each other ? Mark these points and JV", respectively. Draw lines connecting with the centers of the two circles. the point What kind of figure do these lines form with the line joinas a center

ing the centers of the circles ?

formed.

Measure the relative lengths of the lines of the Can you give a reason for your answer ?

figure thus

74

MATHEMATICS
inscribe a square in a circle,

To

circle.

Draw two

diameters,

AB
0,

draw the circumference of a and CD, cutting each other


straight lines connecting

at right angles (Fig. 5).

Draw
with

with D,

with B,

B
The

and

with A.

The

figure

ADBC
meet
is,

is

a square.

points of the square where the sides

within the circumference of the circle. The square therefore, said to be inscribed in the circle (Fig. 7).
lie

c
Ruler

10.

Draw
it.

a circle having a radius of one inch and inscribe a

square in
11.

Draw a

circle

having a radius of two inches and inscribe

a square in

it.

Bisect the sides of the square and draw di-

ameters dividing the inscribed square into four small squares.


It is often necessary to

When

two

lines

draw one line parallel to another. have the same direction they are said to be

parallel.

To draw a
point

line parallel to a given line

AB,

Fig.

8,

take any

not on the line

AB.

drawing triangle on the line shortest side of your triangle.


triangle along the line

Lay the longest side of your AB. Lay a ruler against the

Now

slide

your ruler and


the ruler

AB until

the point

C touches

on the side next to your triangle. Hold your ruler fixed and slide your triangle along the ruler until the point touches the longest side of your triangle. Draw OS along this longest
side.

CS

is

the required parallel.


Fig.
7.

12.

Draw

Then draw a

line parallel to

any one of

the four sides of the inscribed square.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES
<

75

Problem
70.

To draw a

straight line equal to

a given

straight line.

A*
Given a line

MN.

To draw a straight line equal to MN. 1. Draw any line AB longer than MN. as a radius, describe an arc 2. With ilasa center and

MN

cutting AB at D. 3. AD is the required


71.

line.

An

angle

is

the figure formed by two lines drawn from a

point.

The point is called the vertex. The above angle is read ABC, the

letter at the vertex

always

being between the other two.


also be designated

The angle may


letter placed
x.

by a small

between the sides of the angle, as the angle


This

may

be written

Z x*

The

size of

an

angle does not depend upon the length of the


sides,

but upon the difference in the direction of the sides.


72.

Two

angles are said to be adjacent

when they

have a common vertex and a common side between


them.

Thus
73.

Za

and

Zb

are adjacent.

Two

angles are equal

when one can be

so applied to the

other that they will coincide throughout.


is formed at a vertex, it may be read by a single read " angle at B." Small letters denote values ; capital letters denote position only.

* Also

when only one angle

letter, as

ZB,

76

MATHEMATICS
Problem
74.

Jo

construct

an angle equal

to

a given

angle.

Given

/.ABC.
it.

To
1.

construct an angle equal to

Draw any
Take

line

MN.

2.

any point

on

MN for

the vertex of the angle.

With B as center and any radius BL, describe an arc cutting AB


3.

and

BC at L and K, respectively. 4. With BL as radius and D


an arc cutting

as

center, describe

DN at

0.

and distance as radius, describe an arc cutting the former arc at E.


5.

With

as center

LK
6.

Draw DEF.
Then

7.

NDF is
is

the required angle.


a truth requiring proof.

75.

theorem

In proving theorems the following axioms, in addition to


those in
23,

are useful
straight line can be

Ax.
points.

9.

But one

drawn between two

points.

Ax. 10.

straight line is the shortest distance between two

76.

triangle

is

a portion of a plane bounded by three


lines are called the sides of the triangle.

straight lines.

The

The

points where the sides meet are the vertices.

Three-sided figures play an important part in the study of

geometry and in
matics.

its

applications to

many problems

in

mathe-

Much

of the

work

in

in other kinds of engineering

measurement, in surveying, and depends upon the triangle.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES
I
sides

77

Theokem
77.

Two

triangles are equal

when two

and
and

the included

angle of one are equal, respectively, to two sides

the included

angle of the other.

Draw a On any
to

A ABC*
line

DE take DN

equal

AB
At

( 70).

construct

ZD = AA
sF

( 74).

On Intake

DM = AC and draw
X'
we have
(This given J)

mn.
In the above theorem,
three equations given.

part

is

called the hypothesis.)

^r

The

given equations are

AC = DM AB = DN

(Don't forget that tvhat

is

given, the parts that are given,

ZA = ZD

are the tools


with.)

you have

to

work

To prove the geometric equation,

A ABC = A DNM. (This is called the conclusion.) Proof. 1. Place A DNM on A ABC in such a manner

that

DN will coincide with


2.
3.

its

equal

AB,

D falling on A.

DM will take the direction AC because AD A A. Point if will on point C since DM= AC
fall

4.
5.

Hence line JOT will coincide with line CB (Ax. 9). Then A ABC = A DNM, since they coincide throughout.

* In reading the letters at the vertices of a triangle always read counter-

clockwise, beginning as far as

is

practicable at the lower left-hand corner,

e.g.,

ABC,

DNM in above triangles.

78

MATHEMATICS
Theorem
78.

II

Two

triangles are

equal when a side and two adjacent

angles of the one are equal, respectively, to a side

and two adjacent

angles of the other.

D<

/ M\
H
the conclusion ?

>JT

What is the hypothesis ? What Draw a A ABC. Draw a line DN equal to AB.
At At

is

D construct

an angle equal to

construct an angle equal to

Z A. Z B.
meet
at

Extend the
Given in the

sides of these angles to

M.

We

have

A ABC and DNM


DN = AB, ZD = ZA, ZN=ZB.

To prove
Proof.

in such a way that point with its equal D falling on A. will coincide AB, 2. Since Z D = Z A, side jMf will take the direction AC and ilf will fall somewhere on AC. 3. Since Z B, side A^Jf will take the direction 12(7 and

A ABC = A DNM. 1. Place A DNM upon A ABC

DN

ZN=

Jf will
4.

fall

somewhere on

_B(7.

Since 3f falls on both

AC and 2?C, it

must

fall at C, their

point of intersection.
5.

Hence

A ABC

and

DNM

coincide throughout

and are

equal.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

79

Problem
79
.

To

bisect

a given angle.

1.

Draw an
With.

angle

DCE.

and any radius CM, describe an arc and N, respectively. cutting CE and CD at and as centers and a radius greater than one 3. With
2.

as center

half
4.
5.

MN,

describe arcs intersecting at 0.

Draw CO. Then CO is


The right

the bisector of
angle.

Z DCE.

80.

If

one straight line meets another

straight line in such a

formed are equal,


Thus,

manner that the adjacent angles ( 65) the angles are called right angles and the

lines are perpendicular to each other.


if

AB

is

a straight line and

Z x = Z y,

x and y are
p*

each right angles, and


dicular to

MP

is

perpen-

AB.
abbreviation for "perpen.

(_L is the

x\y

dicular to.")
81.

-&

If one straight line meets another straight line, adjacent If these angles are not right angles, the
is

angles are formed.

one greater than a right angle than a right angle


oblique.
is

called obtuse.

The one
is

less

called acute.

Either angle

said to be

80
82. If a line

MATHEMATICS

CD meets another
Suppose y

line
less

AB, two
than
x.

adjacent angles
If

x and

y,

are formed.

CD

is

made

to rotate

\K

toward A, about
diminishes
It
is

C
CC/

pivot,

Ax

Das a and Ay in-

creases.

evident that at

D
be erected to

vv

some position
equal

DK of DC, Ax will
There can be only
line.

Ay.

one such position.

Then, one and only one perpendicular can


line at

a given

a given point in the

83.
(a)
(b)

It follows

from

82 that

Two

right angles are equal.


line m.eets
is

If one straight
82.

another straight

line, the

sum

oj
is,

the adjacent angles

formed

equal to two right angles.

That

in the figure of

A x + A y = A ADK + A KDB =
(c)

rt.

A.
line

TJie

sum of all
all

the angles

on the same side of a straight

at a given point is equal to two right angles.


(d)

The sum of
is

the angles about

any

point in a plane

equal to four right angles.

a
(e)

+ b + c + d + e +/= 4 rt. A.
sum of two
adjacent angles
lie

If the

is

two right angles, their exterior sides


the

in

same

straight line.

Let a

+b=2
E.
If

rt.

A.

Extend

PM to

AM and MB
A~
'E

were not in a straight line, the sum of c and d would not be two right angles, and this is contrary to (d).
84.

9m d

~B

Species of triangles.
right triangle
is

The

a triangle one of whose angles

is

90

LINES, ANGLES,
or

TRIANGLES
opposite
the
right

81
angle
is

a right

angle.

The

side

called the hypotenuse.


legs.

The other two

sides are called the

All triangles except right triangles are oblique triangles.


If an oblique triangle contains one obtuse angle,
it is

called

an obtuse angled

triangle.

An
angle.

acute angled triangle has each angle less than a right

Triangles are also


sides.

named according

to

their

lengths

of

scalene triangle

has no two sides equal.

An

isosceles

triangle has

two

sides equal.

An

equilateral triangle

has three

sides equal.

Theorem
85. In

III

an

isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides

are equal.

Draw

line

AB.

With

and

B as
now
with

centers and the same radius greater

than i AB, describe arcs intersecting


"*

at P.

Draw

PA

and PB.

We
ABP,

have the isosceles triangle


b

= a.
What
Proof.
is

given ?

To prove
1.

Z B = Z A.
Draw
line

PM

bisecting

APB
2.

( 79).

In

A A MP unci MBP,
h

b=a\
3.

h]

Az = Ay.

Hence,

A AMP = A3IBP

( 77).
4.

Then

AB AA, being like parts of equal figures.

82
86.

MATHEMATICS
In equal figures, corresponding lines or angles are called
It follows that in equal figures

homologous.
are equal.

homologous parts

Note.

In equal triangles equal sides

lie

opposite equal angles.


side a

Thus, in equal

A AMP
to

and

MBP,

85,

= side

b,

then

Z A is homologous

Z B.
Problem

87.

To

construct

a triangle when three sides are given.


b, c.

Let the given sides be a, 1. Draw an indefinite


line
2.

AIL On

AK take AB =
A as
B as
an

c.

3.

With

center and
arc.
^
c

b as radius, describe
4.

With

center and

a as radius, describe an arc intersecting with the former arc at 5. Draw AC and CB.
6.

C.

Then

ABC is

the required triangle.

Theorem IV
88.

Two

triangles are equal

when

three sides of one are equal,

respectively, to three sides

of the other.

Draw
x,

a triangle

ABC.

Construct a second triangle


b, c,

DEF whose

sides are equal to


e

respectively ( 87).
is

Namely, d =a,

= b,f=c.

What
Proof.

given ?

To prove

A DEF = A ABC. 1. Apply A DEF to A ABC in


c,

such a

way

that

will coincide with its equal


2.

and

F will

fall

opposite

Draw CF.

LINES, ANGLES,
3.
4.

TRIANGLES

83

A AFC, b = Then Zx = Zy
In

e.

(By Hypothesis.)

( 85).

(In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal.)

e/
t

\d
-

d*
5.

'*

6.

and Zn=Zm. Adding the equations in steps 4 and 5,


Similarly,
isosceles

AFBC is

7.

8.

Zx + Zn = Zy + Zm. Then, in A ABC and AFB, b = e a=f Z ACB, or Z x + Z n = Z .4i^B orZ?/ + Zm. Hence, A ^40B = A AFB ( 77).

(Two triangles are equal when two sides and the included angle of the one are equal, respectively, to two sides and the included angle of the
other.)
9.

But

10.

A AFB is the same as A DEF. Hence, A DEF= A ABC


The
rest.

Note.
posed to
site side.

base of a triangle

is

the side on which

it is

sup-

Any

side

may

be considered the base.

The

altitude is a perpendicular ( 80)

from any vertex to the oppo-

one.

Theorems are truths to be used. Bemember each Notice that theorems I and III are both used in proving

theorem IV.

84

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
1.
2.

25
is 8".

Construct a triangle each of whose sides

The The

sides

of

a triangle

are 3", 4", 5", respectively.

Construct the triangle.


3.

sides of

a triangle are

13',

15',
1'

16', respectively.

Draw
4.

this triangle to a scale, using i"

0".

Draw
3.

three

altitudes

of

the triangle constructed in

example
5.

Construct

a,

triangle

whose

sides are 15', 16', 28'.

Draw

the three altitudes.

Measure the three altitudes of the triangle constructed How do they compare? Is this comparison in example 1. the same in altitudes of other triangles of this exercise ?
6.

ABD In the figure ABCD, in and CDB, x = y and o = z. Compare the triangles. Give reasons for your
7.

conclusion.
8.

In the figure

ABCD,
is

in triangles
y,

ABO

and CDA, x
z,

equal to

is

equal to

ZD

is

equal to

B.

Comfor

pare the triangles.

Give

reason

your conclusion.
9.

In
z,

triangles

ABD
o.

Zx = Z
10.

and

triangles.

Zy=Z Why ?

and CDB, Compare the

If

in triangle

ABC,

so

drawn that

AD = DB,
CDB.

and CD is compare triangle

= a,

ADC with
11.

triangle

On

a six-inch base construct a


14".

triangle

whose remaining sides are each you know about this triangle ?

What do

LINES, ANGLES,
12.

TRIANGLES
is

85

The sum

of

two numbers

more than the


10, exercise 8.)
13.
is

other.

What

are

One number is four (See example the numbers ?


24.

The

difference of

two numbers

is

8,

160 more than the square of the less number. numbers.


14.

and their product Find the

The

sides of a right triangle ( 84) are as 4 to


is

3*

The
sides

square of the hypotenuse


the other two sides.

equal to the

sum

of the squares of

The hypotenuse

is 25.

Find the

and the
15.

area.

In a lever
;

AM,

P= power; F = fulcrum,
Note that
at P,
if

on which the

lever rests lever


is

W= weight.
downward

the
ffi

pressed

W tends
:

L 6-0" A It has been found that power M2 0^ to rise. times the distance, from where the power is applied, to the fulcrum is equal to the iveigJit times the distance from the weight to the fulcrum, or

P. AF=W-MF.

AF is called
If the

the power or force arm, MF, the iceight arm. 0", the weight arm 2 0", and power arm is 6' the weight 200 pounds, what power is necessary to lift the

weight
Note.
16.

In these problems, the weight of the lever

is

neglected.

With

a 4"

4",

14 feet long, used as a lever, a 100-

~^Zq"

power arm is just able to lift a weight W, when 0" from the weight. the fulcrum is 2' What weight does he lift ?

pound boy on the end

of the

* In such statements fractions are avoided

by

letting the required values be


:

represented by a multiple of the one side, and 4s the other.

unknown number. For example

Let 3s be

86

MATHEMATICS
0" long. crowbar is 5' The fulcrum is 3" from one end. A force of 20 pounds at the other end of the bar is
17.

required to pull a railroad spike from a

tie.

With what
18.

force does the spike hold ?

With the crowbar and fulcrum


17,
lb.,

as

in
lb.

example and 115

two boys weighing 100


respectively, were able

to

move a

freight car standing on a sidforce

ing.

What

was necessary

to start

the car?

The length and breadth of a rectangular tank are 3. The water in the tank is frozen to a depth equal fourth the width of the tank. The area of the bottom
19.

as 4 to
to one

of the

Find the weight of the ice. (Ice tank is 48 square feet. weighs 57J pounds per cubic foot.) Which is heavier, water Why is this necessary ? See exercise 22, example 3. or ice ?
20.
_

Five lines are drawn from a point forming


a, 6, c,
c?,

angles

e.

The sum
c is

of a

and

b is 90

is

equal to 12 more than a;

to twice d.

Find the angles.

(See

equal to &; e is equal Is the drawing 83, d.)

correct ?
21.

Divide 48 into three parts, such that the

first

part shall

be twice the second, and the third 8 more than the


22.

first.

rectangle and a square have the same altitude.


is

base of the rectangle

The
each.

areas differ

The more than the base of the square. by 64 square feet. Find the dimensions of
8'

89.

An

acute angle
angle.

is

an angle that
a. is

is

less

than a right

Ex. Angle
obtuse angle

An
Angle

an angle that
than

is

greater than a

right angle
b.

and

less

two right angles.

Ex.

LINES, ANGLES,
90-

TRIANGLES

87

When

two straight

lines intersect, the opposite angles


vertical angles.

formed are called


Thus, a and
91.
c

are vertical angles, also b


is

and

d.

An

angle

measured by comparing
unit of measure

it

with

another angle considered as the unit of measure.

The most general


angle,

is

-^ of a right

and

is

called a degree.
is

The degree

divided into 60 equal parts called minutes,


seconds.
,
f

and the minute into 60 equal parts called

The abbreviations
respectively.
92.

for degrees, minutes, seconds, are

",

The

right angle ( 80)

is

measured by one fourth of the

circumference of a

circle, or 90.

93.

If

the

sum

of

two angles

is

a right

angle, each

is

a complement of the other,


to be complementary.

and the angles are said


Thus,
"A
94.
if

ABC

is 90,

is

the complement

^
of

^?

their

sum being
is

90.

If the
is

sum

two angles

180 or two right angles,

each

the supplement of the other, and the angles are said to

be supplementary.

Thus,

if

the

sum

of angles c

and d
is

is

180, c

d/y
95.

and d are supplementary and each


plement of the other.

the sup-

It follows

from

94, that if

two supplementary angles,

as
lie

and d
c

in the figure, are adjacent ( 72), their exterior sides

in the

same straight

line.

Then

and d are supplementary adjacent

angles.

EXERCISE
1.
2.

26

Find the complement of 38

the supplement of 38.


?

Are 36

30'

and 53

30'

complementary

Why ?

; ;

88
3. 4.

MATHEMATICS
Are 130 19" and 49
41'

supplementary

Why ?
:

of these angles 30 24 15' 15'; 20"; 47 10.5' 72; 60; 30; 45;
5.

Find the complement of each

24
b.

36
;

Find the supplement


8';

of each of these angles


b.

22

96

120; 150; 24
6.

27 19' 36"; 45 4.4'; 90;

135

Find the complement of the supplement of 120 Does this last result give a simple formula ? c.
:

130

Find the supplement of the complement of: 3; 24; 28 5' 30"; 45; 90; c. Does this last result afford a means Illustrate. of simplifying other parts of this example ?
7.

8.

Angle

at

A = 36, Z = 74.

Find the supplement of


Find the complement of

their sum.
9.

Angle
Angle

at

A = 29, Z B = 31.
A = 75, Z B = 15.
Theorem V

their sum.
10.

at

Find the complement

of

their difference.

96.

Any

side of

a triangle

is

greater than the difference of the

other two sides.

Draw any
a, b,
c,

triangle

ABC,

the sides opposite A, B, C, being

respectively.

We

have

Given a any side of

To prove
Proof.
1.

A ABC, and c> b. a> c a + b>c.


b.

straight line

is

the shortest distance between two points.

( 75, Ax. 10). 2. a >c b.

(Transposing

&,

49.)

Hence, any other two sides.


3.

side, a, is greater

than the difference of the

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

89

Theorem VI
97.

The sum of two

sides of

a triangle

is

greater than the


to

sum
the

of two lines drawn from any point within the triangle


extremities of the third side of the triangle.

Draw* any triangle ABC. From any point P, within the


Call side

triangle
e
;

draw

PB and

PC.

AB,

c;

AC,

6;

PB,

PC,

d.

We

now have

Given

A ABC,

with

lines

d and

drawn from any point

within the triangle.

To prove
Proof.
1.

+b>d+
E.-f

e.

Produce
o;

BP to

Call
2.

PE,
-+-

AE,

x;

EC,y.

> e + o.
is

A
3.

straight line

the shortest distance between two points

( 75,

Ax.
o

10).
( 75, 3, c

+y>d

Ax.

10).

4.

Add

2 and

+ x + o-\-y>d + o +
'

e.

5.

Subtract o from each side of this inequality,


c

+ x + y>d + e
Ax.
6).

(46).

6.

But x

+y=b

( 23,

7.

Whence, substituting

+ y its c + & > d +


for x
e.

equal

6,

* This description of the drawing is not a part of the demonstration. Your demonstration depends solely on the three paragraphs: Given, To prove, Proof. Be sure you know what you have given you to work with and what you wish to prove. t Remember that any additional lines you draw in a figure must be dotted
lines.

90

MATHEMATICS
Theorem VII
98.

If two straight lines intersect) the vertical angles are equal


intersecting

Draw two
lines,

MN and X Y, formb,
c,

ing the angles a }

d.

We

then have

Given two intersecting


lines,

MN

vertical

and XY, and angles a, c, and


a

b,

d.

= c and b = d. 1. a + b = 2 rt. A ( 95). Proof. 2. b + c = 2 rt. A ( 95).


To prove
3.

Subtract 2 from 1

( 23,

Ax.

2),

a
or
4.

The

pupil

may prove

c = 0, a= b = d.
c.

What

is

the hypothesis in the above theorem ?

What

is

the conclusion ?

Problem
99.

To draw a perpendicular

bisector

of a straight

line.

Draw line AB. To draw a perpendicular bisector of AB, 1. With A as center and any radius greater than one half AB, describe arcs on each side of line AB. 2. With B as center and the same radius, describe arcs intersecting the arcs already
3.

drawn

at

and

at D.

4.

Draw CD. Then CD

is

the perpendicular bisector of


construction will

AB.

The reason

for this

be given in
is

102.

F, the point of intersection of

CD and AB,

called the foot of

the perpendicular.

Note that

C and D

are each equally distant from

A and

B.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

91

Problem
100.
the line.
1.

To draiv a perpendicular

to

line

at

any point

in

Draw

a line

AB.

2.

Take any point

in the line

AB.

To erect a perpendicular to line AB at P. 4. With P as center and any radius, describe arcs intersecting AB, or AB produced, at C and E. 5. With and E as centers and radius greater than one half CE, describe arcs intersecting on one side of AB. The pupil may show that the perpendicular may now 6.
3.

be drawn and that this problem

Why

is an application of must the radius be greater than one half CE ?

99.

EXERCISE
1.

27

How many
How many

points determine a line?

What

do you mean

by determine
2.

as used in this sense ?

conditions can be imposed on a line ?

What

properties besides length has a straight line ?

Theorem VIII
101.
I,

If a perpendicular

is erected at the

middle point of a

line,

Any point
Any

in the perpendicular is equidistant

from

the ex-

tremities of the line.


II.

point not in the perpendicular

is

unequally distant

from

the extremities

of

the line.

Draw From

We
I.

middle point F. P, any point in KF, draw lines PA and PB. then have,
line at its

KF A. line AB
PA

Given two lines

(x)

and

PB

(y)

drawn from any

point

P in the

perpendicular to

To prove

AB at its = y>

middle point.

92
Proof.
1.

MATHEMATICS
In triangles
o

AFP and PFB, call AF = o, FB =

b.

2.

Then,

= b (Constr.) h = h (Identical) ZAFP=ZBFP. (All rt. A are equal.) AAFP=APFB.


triangles are equal

(Two
3.

when two

sides, etc., 77.)

Then,

= y.

(In equal figures corresponding parts are equal.)

Does
II.

this

remind you of Theorem III?

Given

'

any point not in KF.

To prove
or
Proof. 1.

PA = PB*
x-\-

c^=m.

If

is

not in

KF, P'A

or

P'B must
Suppose

intersect

KF.

PA intersects KF at P.
(y).
'

Draw
2.

PB

Then,

3.
4.

But

+ c^m y=a
its

( 75,

Ax.

10).

Then, substituting x for

(101,1). equal y in

2,

#
102.
I.

+ c = m.

From

the result of

101,

we may conclude

that

point equally distant from the extremities of a line lies

in the perpendicular at the middle point of the line.


II.

Two points
Two
lines

each equally distant from the extremities of a

line determine the perpendicular at the


III.

middle point of the

line.

drawn from a point


off

in the perpendicular to

a line and cutting

equal distances from the foot of the perangles with the perpendicular, and are
is left

pendicular
equal.

make equal
*

(The proof of III

to the pupil.)

is

11 read "does not equal.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

93

Problem
103.

To draw a perpendicular

to

line

from a given point

ivithout the line.

AB and point P without AB. To draw PF AB. Construction 1. With. P as center and a radius greater than the distance from P to line AB, describe an arc intersecting AB at E and D. 2. With E and D as centers and the same radius greater
Given line

than one half


3.
4.

ED,

describe arcs intersecting at K.

Draw

PA".

PKis

the required perpendicular.

Note that P and are each equally distant from Compare EF and ED ( 101).

and D.

Theorem IX
104.

From
line

a point without a line but one perpendicular can be

drawn
ing

to the line.

Draw
Given

AB at

AB and PF1.AB, H. We have

also

PH any other line


to

meet-

PF AB, and PH any other line from P To prove PH not perpendicular to AB. Proof. 1. Produce PF to P' making FP = PF.
Draw HP'.
Eepresent Then, Ax

AB.

2.
3. 4.
5.

A PHF and PHF by = Ay{% 102, III).


is
line

x and

y,

respectively.

PFP'
Then,

is

a straight line (by construction).

6.

PHP'

not a straight

line.
9.)

(But one straight


7.

can be drawn between two points, Ax.

Then, x + y^lSO. (95) 8. Whence, 2 x = 180, and a #= 90. 9. Hence, Pi?" is not perpendicular to AB. And since is any line except PF, PF is the only perpendicular that can be drawn from P to line AB.

PH

94

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
28
is

1.

The base The

of an isosceles triangle

8", the altitude &'.

Construct the triangle.


2.

altitude of an isosceles triangle is 8", one leg is 10".

Construct the triangle.


3.

The

sides of

a triangle are 5", 12", 13", respectively.

Construct the triangle.


4.

The base
The
sides

of a triangle

is

13", the base angles each 45.


at the vertex.*
6",

Construct the triangle.


5.

Measure the angle


Explain your

of a triangle are 4",

10",

respectively.

Construct the triangle.


6.

result.

Two

sides

and the included angle of a triangle


Construct the triangle.

are 8",

12", 45, respectively.


7.

line

Draw two acute angles, a and b. At a given point on a AB, construct an angle equal to the sum of these two

angles.
8.

Draw

a triangle

ABC, and

at a given point P,

on a

line

DE,

construct an angle equal to the

sum

of the angles at A,

B, and C.

Theorem
105.

X
when
the hypotenuse

Two

right triangles are equal

and an

acute angle of the one are equal, respectively, to the hypotenuse

and acute angle of the

other.

XC

Draw

right

A ABC,

and side A'B'


is

(c')

side

AB

(c).

* The vertex opposite the base

the vertex of the triangle.

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

95

At B' construct Z B' = Z B, and draw A'C _L B'E. Represent BC, B'C by a and a', respectively, also AC, A'C by b
1

and

6',

respectively.

We

then have
rt.

Given

A ABC and A' B'C with c =


r

c',

and

Z .B = Z '.

To prove
Proof.

A ABC = A J/.B'<7 1. Place A JJ3(7 on A A' B'C


.

in

such a manner that

c will coincide
2.
3.

with

its

equal

c'.

a will fall on a'. A falls on A', then side & will coincide with side V. (But one _L can be drawn from a point to a line from a
Since
point without the line,

ZB = ZB',

104.)

4.

Hence, the

triangles

are

equal,

since

they

coincide

throughout.

Theorem XI
106.
leg

Two

right triangles are equal


re-

when

the hypotenuse

and a

of the one are equal,

spectively, to the

hypotenuse

*>

\\

and a

leg

of the other.
rt.

Draw line DH,

A ABC On

at G, erect
b.

EG _L
With

DH and equal to
ing

E as center and c as radius,


describe an arc intersect-

DH at

F.

We

then

have
Given two
gles,

right

trian-

ABC and EFG, with E cg, and b =f To prove A ABC = A ^#. Proof. 1. Apply A ^(2 to A ABC
its

in

such a manner that

/will coincide with

equal

b,

vertex

F falling at FJ

96
2.

MATHEMATICS
Since

A ACB

and ACF' are right

angles,

BCF'

is

straight line ( 83).

3.

Since

4. 5.

Then, Then,

= g A BAF is isosceles, and Z B = Z J" A ABC = A ACF ( 105). A ABC = A EFG. Why?
1 !

( 85).

Theorem XII
107.

If two unequal oblique lines drawn from a point in a


to

perpendicular

line,

cut off unequal distances


is the greater.

from

the foot

of the perpendicular, the more remote

Draw

line

AB, and

PF AB

at F, also lines

PD

and PC,

DF being
To prove

greater than CF.

Extend

PD > PC. PF to P\ making


CP.
is left

FP'

PF.

Draw

DP and

The proof

to the student ( 97).

LINES, ANGLES,

TRIANGLES

97

Theorem XIII
108.

If oblique lines are drawn from a point


is

to

a straight

line

and a perpendicular
I.

drawn from

the point to the line,

equal oblique lines cut off equal distances foot of the perpendicular.
II.

Two

from

the

TJie greater

of two unequal oblique lines cuts off the greater

distance
1.

from

the foot

of the perpendicular.

Call

AB

the given line,

P the

given point,

PF the

per-

pendicular to

AB,

PE

and

PC the

equal oblique lines.

The proof
(Prove
II.

is left

to the student.

A PFE = A PFC.) Draw PF AB, also lines PC (x) and PD (y), with x > y.

We

then have

Given

PF AB,
1.

and

line

> line y. =y
(102, III).

To prove
Proof.

CF > DF.
If

CF=DF,

But

this

is

contrary to hypothesis.
2.

If

CF<DF, x<y
if

(107).

This

is

also contrary to

hypothesis.
3.

Hence,

CF

is

not equal to or less than DF,


is

it

must be

greater than

DF.
called

This manner of proving

"The

Indirect Method."

What

is

the hypothesis ?

What

the conclusion ?

Compare

What is the relation between the hypothesis of and the conclusion of 108, I ? When the conclusion of one theorem is the hypothesis of the other, and the
102, III.
102, III,

hypothesis of the one

is

the conclusion of the other, each

theorem

is

the converse of the other

EXERCISE

29

1. The line joining the vertex of an isosceles triangle to the middle point of the base bisects the vertical angle.

98
2.

MATHEMATICS
Two
isosceles triangles

have a common base but unequal


is per-

altitudes.

Show

that the line connecting their vertices

pendicular to the base and bisects the base.


3.

If the altitude of a triangle bisects the base, the triangle

is isosceles.
4.

Two

isosceles triangles are equal if a leg

angle of one are equal, respectively, to

and the a leg and the

vertical vertical

angle of the other.


5.

The hypotenuse

of each of

Each has an angle


6.

of 31 41'.

two right triangles is Compare the triangles.

81'

6".

The hypotenuse and one

leg of a triangle are 3 yards,

and 1 yard, 2 feet, and 6 inches, respectively. The hypotenuse and one leg of another triangle are 10' 0" and 5' 6", respectively. Compare the triangles.
1 foot,

ORAL REVIEW
Give the results of the following
1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6.
7.
:

19-17.
16-15.
18

8.
9.

6.11-7.11.

16.

10. 11. 12.


13.

18.5-6-17.
24.6
24 5
.

+ 6.15. 8 17 + 7 17. 8-16 + 8-16.


9-15

+ 3-17.
+
3

4-18-3-16.
17.

27-3-4-28. 10-34-5.17.
12

14.

+ 12

8.

WRITTEN REVIEW*
1.

Two

lines

AB and CD intersect

in such a

way

that they

bisect each other.

If the extremities of these lines are joined

in order, prove that the opposite sides of the quadrilateral thus

formed are equal.


* The teacher will find
it

advantageous to use some of these before

all

thirteen theorems are proved.

LINES, ANGLES, TRIANGLES


2.

99

an equilateral triangle meet in a point, thus forming three small A. Prove


bisectors of the three angles of
'these
3.

The

A equal.

In an isosceles triangle a perpendicular is dropped from the vertex angle to the base. Prove that the perpendicular
bisects the base.
4.

The opposite

sides of a quadrilateral are equal.

Prove
Also

the diagonal divides quadrilateral into two equal

A.

prove opposite
5.

A of quadrilateral are

equal.

Two

straight lines intersect in such a


is 42.

way

that the dif-

ference between two adjacent angles

Find number of

degrees in each of the four angles formed.


6.

Two
y,

lines,

a and

b,

intersect at

D forming two

acute

x and

and two obtuse A z and iv. At D, a _L is erected to 6, dividing Z z into two parts v and t, so that Z t is 24 30'. Find
of degrees in

number
7.

x, y, z,

w.

The middle point

of the base of

an

isosceles

A is

joined,

by

lines, to

the middle points of the legs.

Prove the

A formed

are equal.
8. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is bisected. Prove the bisector of the angle bisects the base at right angles.

9.

Prom

the middle point of the base of an isosceles

tri-

angle perpendiculars are drawn to the legs.


pendiculars are equal.
10.
is

Prove the per-

Two

lines,

bisected.
to line

AB and CD intersect in such a way that AB Prom extremities A and B, perpendiculars are
CD.
Prove these perpendiculars are equal.

drawn
11.
is

Prom

the vertex of an isosceles triangle a perpendicular

drawn

to the base.

Prove triangles formed are equal.

Supplemental Applied Mathematics

grown person needs 3000 cu. ft. the functions of the body may be active.
1.

of air per hour that

If a

room 20

ft.

by

100
by 10 the air have
15
ft.

MATHEMATICS
ft.

to be completely

were occupied by one person, how often would changed to obtain pure air ?
ft.

2.
ft,

by 11 ft. by Sihave to be completely changed to obtain pure air for two


?

How

often would the air in a room 12

persons
3.

If there were 500 people in a lecture hall,

how

often

would the air have to be completely changed to insure good


ventilation ?

Nine square
is

feet of floor space is allowed to each

person, and the hall


4.

11 feet high.

For good ventilation the air in a room containing one person needs to be changed every 45 minutes. What is the approximate size of the room ?
5.

It

has been found by experiment that the air in a room

cannot be changed more than three times per hour without

danger of drafts.
just large

What
to

are the dimensions of a

room that

is

meet this ventilating requirement, when one person occupies the room ?

enough

6.

It

has been found by experiment that one gas

jet,

when

changing the air in a room occupied by one person once an hour during the daytime, good ventilation is secured. How many times per hour does it need to be changed in the evening when one gas
burning, uses as
air as jet is
7.

much

two persons.

By

burning

When two

persons occupy a room, good ventilation

is

secured in

How
8.

daytime by changing the air once each half hour. often should the air be changed when 3 gas jets are
air in a

lighted ?

room occupied by one person needs to be changed once every hour in the daytime and three times every
hour during the evening.
9.

The

How many

gas jets are burning

kerosene lamp requires as

much

air

as 4

persons.

When

2 persons occupy a room, the air needs to be changed

once every 2 hours.

When

a lamp burns in the room,

how

often does the air need to be changed ?

LINES, ANGLES,
10.

TRIANGLES

101

In the daytime the air of a room containing 2 persons

needs to be changed once every 45 minutes, and in the evening once every 15 minutes. The room is lighted by kerosene lamps. How many kerosene lamps are burning in the room ?
11.

The quantity

of carbon dioxide given off as that given off

by candles

is

about twice as

much

by

gas.

If the air in a

room needs to be changed once every 1 hours when illuminated by gas, how often will it need to be changed when illuminated by candles ?
For practical purposes architects figure 30 cubic feet of minute for each person. A classroom has a ventilating The room is 28' X 23' X 15' and contains 30 pupils. system. To insure good ventilation, how much air must be driven into the room and how many times per hour must the air be changed ?
12.

air per

customary to allow 50 cubic feet of air per minute per person. In a hospital ward 56' X 9' X 12' are 8 How much air must be suppatients, a nurse, and 2 gas jets. plied per hour ? How many times must it be changed per hour ?
13.

In hospitals

it is

14. A train running 40 miles an hour strikes two torpedoes 400 feet apart. Sound travels 1090 feet per second. What time elapses between their reports at a station which the train
is

nearing ?
15.

According to some engineers, the sectional area of the box of a furnace should be equal to the combined areas of all the registers. There are 6 registers in a house, each 8 in. by 10 in. How large should the cold-air box be ?
cold-air
16.

The

cross section of a cold-air

box

is

ft.

in.

by 1
is

ft.

in.

There are 6 equal registers in the house.

What
sq. in.

the

area of each register ?


17.

The

sectional area of a cold-air

box

is

495

Each

register measures 9 in.

by 11

in.

How many

registers are

there in the house ?

102
18.

MATHEMATICS

According to other engineers, the sectional area of a coldair box should be equal to the combined areas of all the registers minus one sixth. There are 8 registers in a house, each 8 in. by 10 in. How large should the cold-air box be ?
19.

The

sectional area of a cold-air

box

is

600 sq.

in.

each

register measures 8 in.

by 10

in.

How many registers are there


box measures 20
in.

in the house ?
20.
in.

The

cross section of a cold-air

by 20

There are 6 equal registers in the house.


It is said that the
ft.

What

is

the area

of each ?
21.

ing room are 11

minimum dimensions of an ideal by 13^ ft. How many square feet are
room
of

din-

con-

tained in such a room ?


22.

An
ft.

ideal dining

by 22
23.

How
ft.

measures 17 ft. many square feet are contained in such a room ?


size

maximum

A
ft.

kitchen, according to one authority, should measure


If the range measures 2
ft.

10
6

ft.

by 12
6
in.,

by 3

ft.

14

in.,

the

in. by 3 ft. 15 in., two cupboards each 1 ft. 8 in. by and the work table 4 ft. by 5 ft. 7 in., how many square feet are allowed for " walking " space ?

sink 1
ft.

24.

It is said that stairs are well proportioned

when

2 times

the height of the riser, added to the tread, equals 24


riser of
25.

in.

The

such stairs

is

in.

What

is

the tread ?

Measure the stairs in your home. come to the ideal measurements ?


26.

How
I

near do they

have to make a bag 10"xl4" when finished, if I allow 2" for a heading and V' on Use the width of the material for the three sides for hems ?
large a piece of material

How

must

depth of the bag.

CHAPTER
Graphs, the Algebra of Lines.
109.
tions.

VII
Parallels and their Uses

In 50-56 we studied and solved simultaneous equaWe will now study these equations from a geometric
25 we determined that
if

standpoint.

In
tive,

toward the right were posibe


negative.

toward

the

left

should

Suppose

we

measure

our positive and nega-

tive values

from two lines

inter-

secting at right angles.


further, that horizontal

Suppose
measure-

ments

shall
vertical

be

^-measurements
be

X
Y
Ex.
1.
f

31

-X

and

measurements

^/-measurements,
positive
ative.

upward being and downward being neg-

Eind the point where x

= 2, y = 3.
the point

Measuring

OM = 2

and

MP = 3,

we have

satisfying the

required condition.

EXERCISE

30

In the same manner locate the following points


1.
2. 3.

= 4, y = 2. x 3, y 5. x = 2, y = 3.
x

5.

6.
7.

4.

x=

1, y = 4.
103

8.

= 1, y = 4. x= 1, = 2. x = 5, y = 1. x = 0, y = 2.
x
2/

;;

104
9.

MATHEMATICS
x = 2, y = 0.
x
10.
a;

?/

= 3.

11.

= 2, y = 0.

12.

Are these points on the same circumference ?

= 3, # = 4 x = A, y = 3; x= 3, = 4 = 4, = 3 ;r=-4 = 3; g = 3, y = 4 = - 4, y = - 3. x = - 3, y = - 4
a?
;

,y

aj

?/

;?/

aj

(Take your center at 0.)


110.

In the equation x

+y=

4t,

sum must always equal 4. values whose sum is 4. To find such


their

x and y are so related that x and y then may take any


pairs of values, solve

+ y = 4 for either # or y. We
y
Give x a set of values, say
0, 1,
if

will solve for y.


x.

2, 3,

etc.,

and find the corresponding


etc.

values ofy.
It is

If

= 0,

=4

= 1,

= 3,

convenient to write these values


See below.

in

two columns headed x

and

?/.

4(^)
1

3 (2?)

2 3

2 (C)
1

4
5

(D) (#)

-1 (F)
5 etc.

-1

Now

plot these values on the

same pair

of axes, just as

we

did in exercise 16.


In this

way we

obtain the points A,

J5,

(7,

Z>, etc.

If these points are

curve will

connected by a smooth curve, any point on the correspond to a point satisfying- an x and a y of x + y = 4.

GRAPHS, THE ALGEBRA OF LINES


The values
of x

105

and y which locate the position of a point are called coordinates of a point. The ^-measurement, e.g., OM,
is

called the abscissa, the ^/-measurement,

e.g.,

MB,
first

is

the

ordi-

nate.

The point

is

called the origin.


is

If

each term of the equation

of the

degree, the
is

curve
linear.

ABCDEF is
is

a straight line and the equation

called

This curve
equation.
111.

called the graph or geometric picture of the

The

degree of a term
letters in

is
it.

determined by the sum of the

exponents of the

In an equation the term of

highest degree determines the degree of the equation.

an expression of the fourth degree in xy and of the third degree in x. x3 3 x2 = 8 is an equation of the third degree.
is

x3y + xy 2 x3

2x

+a =b c
2

is

an equation of the

first

degree in

x.

EXERCISE

31

Find the graphs of the following equations


1.
2. 3.

4.

+y = 6. 2x+y = 8. x y=&. 4 a 3y = 12.


x

5.
6.
7.

2x y

8.

5. 3x-2y = 5. x + 4?/ = 3. x+2y = 4.


intersect.

112.

If a pair of simultaneous equations ( 50) are plotted

on the same axes, their graphs will usually


as the values that are

In this

case the coordinates of the point of intersection are the

same

found for x and y when the equations

are solved.

This explains in a geometric way the name simultaneous


equations.

The x and y must

at the

same time have values

which

satisfy both equations.

106

MATHEMATICS
:

Ex. Solve by graphs


x

2y = 5,
x

(1)
(2)

+ y=l.
(1)

From
x y
1

From
x y
1

(2)

+* +3
l
2

-1
(1)

-1
If

In the above problem the lines and (2) intersect at % 1, ?/=2.


of 53-55, the

the equations are solved

by the principles
113.

same

results are obtained.

Note that

in

these equations x and y vary.

Any
(Com-

change in one of these numbers causes a change in the other.

For
pare
in

this reason x

and y are the variables in the equation.

51.)

Letters and numbers

an equation are called constants.


is

whose values do not change The number which is inde-

pendent of the variables

called the absolute term.


intersect.

Sometimes the graphs of equations will not


equations are then said to be inconsistent.

The

Ex. Plot the equations x


a?

+ y = 4, +y=2

The graphs

of these equations do not intersect.

This

is

be-

cause the lines are parallel.


114.
Parallel Lines.

Two

straight lines are said to be parallel

when they have the same direction. It is evident that if they are drawn through two different points they are everywhere
equally distant and can never meet.
115.

Some

of the graphs of equations do not intersect because

they coincide.

GRAPHS, THE ALGEBRA OP LINES


Ex. Plot

107

2x

+ 3y = 3, 4zX + 6y = 6.

These graphs coincide. Equations of this kind are said to be See example 2, exercise 22. equivalent. Equivalent equations and inconsistent equations have no
solution.

EXERCISE
Solve by means of graphs.
also
if

32

In each case solve algebraically,


solution.

compare the result with the graphical

Note that
is

the roots are fractional, the graphical solution

only ap-

proximately correct.
1.

+ y = 7, 2x-3y=-6.
x

x_y "2 4 ==2


3#_2/ = !5
4
3
8?/

7.

4a>-7# =
6^

18,

+ 5y=-4.
l,

2.

Sx +
4

42/

= 11,
6.
^

8.

9a?-4y =
5x -4y =
4a;

s-3,7=-2.
^

6'
9.

6a? + 2y = 3.
2,

3.

+ 2?/= 13, 2 a?- y = l.


+ 2y = 5, 2x -h y = 4.
a
angle
?/

5x +
6a?-

= 13, 5y = l.

+ 5y=-2.

4.

What
10.

is

formed by the
12.

lines in

examples
14.

2, 3,

9?

2a

5 = 3, 3x l\y=4c\.

2a

+ y = 4, 2x + y = 6.
4:
9

tc

7 v = 3, w + 3 v = 4.

11.

+ 2y = l, Ax + y \.
8x

13.5x-3y = 5x 3y =

5.

What

relations exist
15.

between the three

lines

4x + 3y = 2, 3# 4^ = 5, 3x-4,y = 8.

108
16.

MATHEMATICS
5

+ u = 11, 3t-2u = 4.
t

17.

m + 3 = 19, 3 m - 4 = 3.
fc A;

18.

8 w = 5, 4 y + 5 w = 7.
6v

Parallels and their Uses

116.

Parallel lines

114)

are

of

great

importance in

geometry.
117.

We

assume that but one

line can be

drawn through

given point parallel to a given


118.

line.

Prove that in

the

same plane two perpendiculars

to the

same

line are parallel.

At points x = 4, y = 0, and Draw the line x -f y = 4. perpendiculars line. = this To prove that these erect to 4, y 0, perpendiculars are parallel, suppose that they meet if produced, then
Hint.

read Theorem IX.


( 108.)

The method

of proof

you use here

is

called Indirect.

Compare your given equation, x


with the three lines of your found in exercise 32 ?

y=
Are

4,

and x

y = 4,
relations

figure.

similar

Problem
119.
1. 2.

To draw a

straight line parallel to

a given

straight line.

Draw an

indefinite line

AB.

Choose a point
parallel.

without line

AB

through which to

draw the
3.

Draw
At

AP and

extend

it

to

some point K.

4.
5.

P construct

an angle equal to /LA.

PZ, one

side of Z.

ZPK is

the required parallel.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem XIV
120.
other.

109

Two

lines parallel to the

same

line are parallel to

each

Draw line
To prove
Proof.

a.

Draw lines
line
c.

and c parallel
a.

to a.

We then have

Giver two lines b and c parallel to line


line b
||

1.

If b

and

are not parallel they will, if produced,

meet
2.

at

some point P.
rest of the proof is left to the pupil.

The

(See

117.)

Theorem
121.

XV
of tivo parallels
is

A line perpendicular to one


line

perpendicu-

lar to the other.

Draw
a at K.

||

line

b.

Draw

line c _L line

b,

intersecting line

have Given lines a and b parallel, and line c _L line b. To prove line c _L line a. Proof. 1. Draw line m through perpendicular to 2. Then, lines b and m are to c, and b and m are 3. Then, m and a coincide. ( 117.) 4. Hence, c _L a.

We now

c.

||.

( 118.)

122.
angle.

The angle opposite the base of a (Any side may be the base.)

triangle is the vertical

The vertex of the vertical angle is the vertex of the triangle. The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular from the vertex
to the base.

An

exterior angle of a triangle is the angle

side of a triangle

formed by any and the adjacent side produced.

EXERCISE
1.

33

In an isosceles triangle draw the exterior angle at the


:

base
2.

at the vertex.

Draw

three altitudes of an isosceles triangle.

110
3. 4. 5.
6.

MATHEMATICS
Draw
Draw
Draw
three altitudes of an equilateral triangle.
three altitudes of an obtuse angled triangle.

three altitudes of a right triangle.

Draw

the three bisectors of the angles of the triangles in


5.

examples 2 to
7.

Do

the three altitudes of these triangles ever meet in a

point ?
8. Do when?
9.

Do

they always meet in a point

the altitudes and the bisectors ever coincide ?

If so,

Do

the three bisectors ever meet in a point ?

Do they

always meet in a point ? Later in the course you will be called upon to prove your above conclusion.
123. If

two

lines

AB and XFare

cut by a third line

MN,

MN

is

said to be a transversal.

This transversal makes with the other two lines eight angles which have special names,

names which
position
of

refer to the

the

angles

with respect to the lines. For example, a, b, o, s, are between lines AB

and XY, and are called


interior

angles.

The

re-

maining four are


angles.

exterior

a and
site

being on oppoof the


transalternate-interior angles,

sides

versal

are

Likewise o and

are

alternate-interior angles.
c

and

interior

on the same side of the transversal are exteriorangles. Locate the other exterior-interior angles.
s,

d and g are alternate-exterior angles.


nate-exterior angles.

Find the other

alter-

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem XVI
124.

111

If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, the alternate-

interior angles are equal.

Draw

AB

II

XY, and 30T intersecting


Let

K, respectively. then have


Given
angles
c
lis

Z KOA =
by

c,

and

AB and XFat Z YKO = d.

and

We

AB and XY cnt
d.

MN

forming alternate-interior

and

To prove
Proof.
1.

Zc=Z

d.

middle point of OK, draw a _L to ^J3, meeting ^45 at F, and at E. Let Z FZO = g and
Z, the

Through

XF

z ^zs = 2. EFXY.
*.

( 121.)

3.

In

rt.

A OFZ and Ji^Z,


g

i-

(98.)
(Constr.)
(?)

JTZ = ZO.
4.
5.

Hence, A Then, Z c

O.FZ= A KEZ.

= Z d.

( 86.)
lines.

Tliis is the

fundamental proposition in parallel

EXERCISE
1.

34 transversal, the exterior-

If

two

parallels are cut

by a
:

interior angles are equal.

(Use the equations derived from the and VII.) Note Remember in proving any geometric statement you must give authority (the why) for

Theorems

XVI

each step you take.


2.

If

two

parallels are cut

by a

transversal, the

sum
is

of the

interior angles

on the same side of the transversal

equal to

two right angles.


3.

If

two

parallels are cut

by a transversal, the

alternate-

exterior angles are equal.

112
4.

MATHEMATICS
If

two

parallels are cut

by a

transversal, the

sum
is

of the

exterior angles on the same side of the transversal two right angles.

equal to

Theorem XVII
125.

If two

lines are cut by

a transversal, and the alternate-

interior angles are equal, the lines are parallel.

Draw

a line

AB.

Draw

a line

MN intersecting AB

at

0.

Through any point

K on MN, draw line XY, making an angle


Use same notation
have
for angles as that

YKO
in

equal to

KOA.

Theorem XVI.
Given two lines

We

AB and XFcut by

MN making Z

=Z

d.

To prove
Proof.
2.
3.
1.

AB XY.
II

Through

K draw GH

II

AB.

Then,

Z 0KH=Zc.

But

Zd=Zc.

(Theorem XVI.) (By Hyp.)


(Ax. 8.)

4.
5.
6.

Then,

Z 0KH=Zcl.

Hence, lines Oil and


Therefore,

XY coincide.
Theorem XVI.
That
is,

XYWAB.
is

This theorem
changed.

the converse of

the

hypothesis and conclusion of the two theorems are inter-

Theorems

XVI

and XVII are very important.


35

EXERCISE
1.

If

two two

lines are cut

by a transversal and the exterior-

interior angles are equal, the lines are parallel.


2.

If

interior

by a transversal, and the sum of the angles on the same side of the transversal is equal to
lines are cut

two right
3.

angles, the lines are parallel.


lines are cut

If

two

by a

transversal,

and the alternate-

exterior angles are equal, the lines are parallel.


4.

If

two

lines are cut

exterior angles on the


lines are parallel.

by a transversal, and the sum of the same side of the transversal is 180, the

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


5.

113

If

two angles have

their sides parallel, each to each, they

are either equal or supplementary.

{Hint.

Produce one side

of each angle, if necessary, until the lines intersect.)


6.

If

two angles have their

sides

perpendicular, each to

each, they are either equal or supplementary.

Draw

A ABC,

also

A KOM

whose sides are perpendicular,


each to each, to the sides of

7
-}

/
-jy

A ABC. We have Given A ABC and KOM with side AB JL KO, and BCOM.
To prove

D-

\ K
D
and

AB

equal to or

\r

supplementary to
Proof.
1.

Z KOM.
draw
i;
;

* Through

DE JL KO to
2.
3.

OM,

being on opposite sides of

produce

G, and

draw 0i7 JL

GK

Call
a.

AG0E,d; A HOE,
(?)

A M0H,c, A KOM, b; A DOK,


Then

DE WBG.
Z t = Z JB.
i

And OHWBA.
Therefore

(?)
(?)

4.
5.
6.

+c==

$o.

(?)

7. 8.
9.

+c= Thent = &. AndZJS = Z6.


b
90.

(?)
(?)
(?)

If

OKweve drawn

in the opposite direction,

namely OG,

A MOG would be
7.

the supplement of

Z B.

Two

triangles have their sides mutually perpendicular.

Show
8.

that they are mutually equiangular.

Two

triangles have their sides mutually parallel.

Show

that they are mutually equiangular.


*

Are the
in a figure

triangles equal ?

Remember

that all additional lines

drawn

must be dotted lines.

114

MATHEMATICS
Theorem XVIII

126.
angles.

The sum of the angles of a

triangle is equal to two right

Given

A ABC.
Z A + Z B + Z ACB = 2 rt,
A.
(7iff
\\

To prove that
Proof.
1.

Produce side

BO

to iT.

Draw
z.

BA, and on

same

BO as J3A Let Z.ACB = x, AACM = y, AMCK = 2. x + y + % = 2 rt. A. ( 83, c.) 3. AB = z (?) 4. Z^l = (?) 5. a=a (?)
side of
2/

6.

Add

equations

3, 4,

and

5.

7.

8.

Compare equations 2 and Hence?

6.

EXERCISE
1.

36

vertex, parallel to the base.


2.

Prove Theorem XVIII by drawing a line through the (Do not draw any other lines.)
Prove two right triangles equal
if

a leg and an acute angle

of the one are equal, respectively, to the leg

and acute angle of

the other.

Prove that the exterior angle ( 122) of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles. (You will need this theorem very often.)
3. 4.

Prove that the exterior angle of a triangle

is

greater

than either of the opposite interior angles.


5. 6. 7.

How many right angles can a triangle have ? How many obtuse angles can a triangle have?
One angle
at the base of

an isosceles triangle

is

36.

Find the other angles.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


8.

115

The

vertical angle of

base angles are bisected.


bisectors.

an isosceles triangle is 120. The Find the angles formed by the

The angle formed by the bisectors of the base angles of an isosceles triangle is 100. Find the angles of the triangle.
9.

10.

One angle

of a right triangle is 45.

Compare the

legs

of the triangle.
11. (a)
(b)

Construct an equilateral triangle.


Construct an angle of 30.

12.
13.

Construct an angle of 45.

An

exterior angle at the base of an isosceles triangle


is 108.

formed by producing the base


triangle.
14.

Find the angles of the

Could the exterior angle in example 13 be 89? 90?

91?
15.

Why? An exterior

angle formed at the vertex of an isosceles


is

triangle

by producing one of the legs

129.

Find the angles

of the triangle.
16.

Find the exterior angle at the base of an equilateral


?

triangle.

Prove 6 of Exercise 35 by producing and producing BA to meet OK produced.


17.

MO to meet BC,

127.

Develop the following synopsis


triangles are equal if (a)
(p)

Two

oo

Two

right triangles are equal

if (a)

(6)

00
id)

Keep

this synopsis

always in your mind.

116

MATHEMATICS
Theorem XIX

128.

If two angles of a triangle are equal, the triangle


a line CD.

is isosceles.

Draw

At C and

D construct

equal angles.

Let
c.

the sides of these angles meet at P.

Call

PC,

d,

and PD,

We

then have

Given

To

A CDP with Z G = Z D. prove c =


cl.

Proof.
2.

1.

Draw

a perpendicular

from

P to the base.

Prove the

A formed are equal.


Theorem

XX

129.

If two sides of a triangle are unequal, the angles opposite

are unequal,

and

the greater a)igle lies opposite the greater side.

Draw A DEF making We now have

DE > DF.

Call

BE,

and DF,

e.

M E
Given

A DEF with f>e. To prove Z EFD > ZE.


1.

Proof.

On

DE take DM =
a,

e,

and draw

JFJf.

Call

Z DTtfi^

and

Z MFZ),

#.

(Note in this construction that


in the statement,
2.
3.

D is

the angle not involved

and from
(Ax.

D we measure the distance DM.)

x=

?/.

(Theorem
y.

III.)
7.)

ZEFD>
.-.

4.

Zo/^.
7/

(Ex. 36, 4.)

5.
6.

> Z ^. ,'.ZEFD>ZE.

(?)

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


EXERCISE
1.

117

37

line.

The perpendicular is the shortest line from a point to a (Draw the perpendicular and any other line from the
line.)

given point to the given


2.

Two

isosceles

triangles are equal if the base

base angle of one are equal, respectively, to


base angle of the other.
3.

and one the base and one

The hypotenuse

in a triangle

is

greater than either leg.

Find the sum of the angles XVIII.)


4.
5.

of a quadrilateral.

(Theorem

If the lines are

drawn from a point within a

triangle to

by theni is greater than the angle included by the other two sides. (Use the figure of Theorem VI, and apply Exercise 36, Example 4.)
the extremities
of one side, the angle included

Theorem XXI
130.

Any point

in the bisector of

an angle

is

equidistant

from

the sides of the angle.

Draw A DEF. Erom P, or any

Bisect Z E.

point in the bisector, draw

ED and EF,
Call

respectively, meeting
x

ED at M and EF at
have

PM and PK _L
K.

PM, d and PK,

d2

We now
bisecting

Given

ADEF,

and

PE

DEF,

also,

from any point, P, in the


respectively.

bisector, to

sides

ED

and d2 js and EF,

To prove d d 2
Proof.

Show

that

A EPK= A EMP.
sometimes called the locus
of points equi-

131.

This bisector

is

distant from the sides of the angle.

A locus may be defined


it,

as

a point or line which

fulfills

conditions imposed upon

no

118

MATHEMATICS
Thus, in

other point or line meeting these conditions.

130

no point not in the bisector


theorem.

will satisfy the conditions of the


is

The

center of a circle

the locus of

all

points in a

plane equidistant from the circumference.

EXERCISE
1.

38

Show
The

that every point within an angle, and equally dis-

tant from the sides of the angle, lies in the bisector of the angle.
2.

bisectors of the base angles of an isosceles triangle


isosceles triangle.

form with the base an


3.

The point

of intersection of the bisectors of the base

angles of a triangle lies in the bisector of the vertical angle.

Find the point in the base of a triangle w hich is equidistant from the other two sides of the triangle. Is this point ever the middle of the base ?
4.
r

5.

Show

that

if lines

are

drawn from the middle point

of

the base of an isosceles triangle respectively perpendicular to the legs of the triangle, two equal triangles are formed.
6.

If

parallels to the legs are drawn,

formed.
7.

from any point in the base of an isosceles triangle, two isosceles triangles are Are the triangles ever equal ?
that in a right triangle,
if

Show

one angle

is 30,

the

hypotenuse is twice the shorter angle of an equilateral triangle.)


8.

side.

(Bisect the

vertical

Find a point which

is

equidistant from two intersecting

lines.

If three lines intersect, but

same

point, find a point, if

do not pass through the any such exists, which is equi-

distant from all three lines.


10.

Bisect the exterior angles at the base of a triangle, and


bisectors

show that these

meet

in a point of the bisector of the

angle at the vertex of the triangle.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


11.

119

Bisect the exterior angle at the vertex of an isosceles

triangle.

Show

that this bisector

is

parallel to the base of the

triangle.
12.

Through the vertex

of

an isosceles triangle draw a

parallel to the base.

Show

that this line bisects the exterior

angle formed by extending one of the equal sides through the


vertex.

Through the middle point of one leg of an isosceles triangle draw a parallel to the other leg. Through the vertex draw a parallel to the base. Show that two equal triangles are formed. How do you find the middle point of one leg?
13.

14.

there
15.

Find a point equidistant from two more than one such point?
If

parallel lines.

Is

two lines intersect, the bisectors of two adjacent angles formed are mutually perpendicular.

Theorem XXII
132.

If two triangles have two sides of one equal respectively

to tivo sides

of the

other,

and

the included angle

of the first greater


is

than the included angle of the second, the third side of the first
greater than the third side of the second.

having sides ACQ)) and CB(a) respectively equal to MKQ) and ML(k), and Z C>/-M. We now have
Given

Draw

A ABC

and

KLM,

A ABC and KLM,


b

with

I,

7c.

ZC>ZM.
To Prove
Proof.
1.

Apply

> KL(m). A KLM to A ABC so


AB(c)

that

will coincide

with

b,

L
0.

falling at L'.

Draw CO,

bisecting

Z L'CB,

meeting

AB at
2.

Draw

OV

A0+ OL' > AL\

(?)

120
3.

MATHEMATICS
In

A CVO and

COB,
(?)

4.

Hence,

and
5.
6.

Then, Hence,

en = cb. co = CO. ZL'CO = Z.OCB. ACL'0 = ACOB, OX' = 05. ^40+ 02/ = A0+ OB.

(?)

(?) (?)

(?)
(?)

A0+0B>AU,
c>m.
of this

or

The converse

theorem

is

also true.

State the converse.

Four-sided Figures
133.
lines.

quadrilateral is a portion of a plane

bounded by four

If the opposite sides are parallel, the figure is a parallelogram.

Draw
If

the figure.
parallel

two sides are


is

and the other two

sides not parallel,

the figure
If no

a trapezoid.

Draw

a trapezoid.

In an

isosceles

trapezoid the non-parallel sides are equal.

two

sides are parallel, the figure is a trapezium.


is

A A
A A

rhomboid

a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are not


Illustrate.

equal and whose angles are oblique.

rhombus

is

an equilateral parallelogram whose angles are

oblique.
rectangle is a parallelogram

whose angles are right


is

angles.

square

is

an equilateral rectangle.
a quadrilateral a line

The

diagonal of

drawn from one

vertex to the opposite vertex.

Begin lettering a four-sided figure at the lower left-hand


corner and read counter-clockwise.

Make

a synopsis classifying quadrilaterals under three gen-

eral heads.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem XXIII
134.

121

In a parallelogram

the opposite sides are equal,

and

the

opposite angles are equal.

Draw
triangles

a parallelogram ABCJD.

Draw BD.

Prove the two

formed are equal. Then use 86. This is the fundamental theorem in parallelograms.

EXERCISE
1.

39
it

The diagonal

of a parallelogram divides

into

two equal

triangles.
2.
3.

The diagonals
Parallel
lines

of a parallelogram bisect each other.

included

between

parallel

lines

are

equal.
4.

From two

opposite vertices of a parallelogram

draw

per-

pendiculars to the diagonal drawn between the other vertices.

Show
5.

that two pairs of equal triangles are formed.

Show

that the lines connecting the middle points of the

opposite sides of a parallelogram bisect each other.


6.

The diagonals

of a

rhombus

bisect each other at right

angles.
7.

In a certain parallelogram the diagonals

bisect

its

angles.
sides.
8.

One

side of the parallelogram is

8'.

Find the other

In an isosceles trapezoid draw perpendiculars from the

extremities of the shorter base to the longer base.

Show

that

two equal triangles are formed.


9.

The diagonals

of a rectangle are equal.

10.

In an isosceles triangle

ABC,

the equal angles

and

are bisected.

These bisectors form an angle of 120. of the triangle ABC is how many times its base?

The

leg

122

MATHEMATICS
Theorem XXIV

135.

Two

parallelograms are equal if two sides and the

in-

cluded angle of one are respectively equal to two sides and the
included angle of the other.

Given HI

ABCD and HEFG with AD,


HG, HE, and Z H.

AB, and Z

A respec-

tively equal to

To prove
Proof.

O ABCD = OHEFG.
diagonals

Draw

DB and

GE.

Prove

A ADB = A HGE.
exercise 39,
1.

Then use

Theorem
136.
figure is a parallelogram.

XXV

If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal, the

Draw quadrilateral ABCD having AB = DC and AD Draw BD and prove the triangles formed are equal. Then use 125.

= BC.

EXERCISE
1.

40

If

two
is

sides of a quadrilateral are equal

and

parallel,

the figure
2.

a parallelogram.

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, the

figure is a parallelogram.
3.

Two

rectangles are equal

when two adjacent

sides of one
other.

are respectively equal to


4.
5.

two adjacent sides of the

The diagonals

of a square bisect its angles.

If the diagonals of a rectangle bisect its angles, the recis

tangle

equilateral.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem XXVI
137.

123

If a series of parallels intercept equal parts on one transon every transversal.


equal parts on line

versal, they intercept equal parts

Given

lis

AB, CD, and

EF intercepting
Ml
\m'

GH.

To prove AB, CD, and


transversal
Proof.
tively,

EF

intercept equal parts on every

17.
Let

1.

HG cut AB,
lis
II

CD, and

EF at M,

JST,

K, respec-

M'O
2.

and XFcut these and N'R respectively

at M',

N\
(?)
1 .

K', respectively.

Draw

to

MK.

MN= M'O = NK= N'R.


Now
prove
r

3.

A M ON' = A N'RK
EXERCISE

41

1.

line which, bisects one side of a triangle

and

is

parallel

to another side

bisects the third side.

(In

137, if

M'K'
with

were drawn through M, we would have a triangle


J the middle point on one side.)
2.

MKK'

The
(In

line parallel to a base of a trapezoid,

and bisecting

one of the non-parallel sides, bisects the other non-parallel


side.

137

KK'M'M is

a trapezoid.)

124

MATHEMATICS
Theorem XXVII
The
joining the middle points of two sides of a

138.

line

tri-

angle

is

parallel to the third side

and equal
,

to

one half of it.


of

Through and M' middle points We then have and AG, respectively, draw MM'

Draw
Given

A ABC.

AB

A ABC
MM'
II

with

MM'

connecting the middle points of

the two sides.

To prove
Proof.
2.

BG.

1.

Through

M draw a
will

line parallel to

BG.

This line will bisect

AG and

must therefore pass through

M'

Why ?
The parallel drawn BG.
II

3.

coincide with

MM',

therefore

MM'
4.
5.

6.

M'X AB meeting BG at Prove A AMM' = A M'XC. Then, MM' = XG=i BG.


Draw
II

X.

Theorem XXVIII
139.
sides of

The

line joining the


is

middle points of the non-parallel

a trapezoid

parallel to the bases

and equal

to

one half

of their sum.

Draw trapezoid ABGD, AB and DC being the parallel sides. Draw EF joining E and F the middle points of AD and BG,
}

respectively.

We

then have

Given trapezoid

ABCD,

with

EF

joining the middle points

of the non-parallel sides.

To prove
Proof.

EF AB and DC, also EF = i(AB + DC). A line through E AB will pass through 1.
II

II

F.

(Exercise 41,
2. 3.

2.)
II

Then
In

EF AB

and DC.

Draw DB,

intersecting

EF at M. E the middle
41, 1.)

4.

A ABD,

EM

is

drawn through

point of

AD and
5.

parallel to

Use

A BCD

(Use exercise in a similar manner.

AB.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theokem XXIX
140.

125

The

bisectors

of two of the angles of a triangle intersect

on the bisector of the third angle.

A ABC, also BM bisecting Z B and CM bisecting Z C We now have Given A ABC, and BM and CM bisecting A B and C, reDraw
spectively.

To prove that
Proof.
2.
1.

lies in

the bisector of

Z A.
AB

Since

BM bisects Z B, M
(

Draw AM.

is

equally distant from

and
3.

BC
Since

130.)

CM bisects Z C, Mis

equally distant from

BC and
is

CA.
4.
5.

( 130.)

Therefore

Then

M
lies

is

equally distant from

AB and AC.
A, and

in the bisector of
1.)

AM

the

bisector.

(Exercise 38,

141.

From theorem
is

XXIX

we may assume

that the three

bisectors of the angles of a triangle

point of intersection

meet in a point, and the equally distant from the three sides.
42

1.

In a

EXERCISE parallelogram ABCD, M,

the middle point of

AB,

is

joined to D, and M', the middle -point of

DC,

is

joined to B.

Show
2.

that the diagonal

AC is

trisected.

Show
If

that

if

the middle points of the sides of a quadri-

lateral are joined in order, the figure


3.

formed

is

a parallelogram.

the middle points of the sides of a rectangle are

joined in order, the figure formed in a rhombus.


4.

The

figure

formed by joining the middle points of the

sides of a square taken in order is a square.


5.

Show

that the two bisectors of the interior angles on the

same
angle.
.

side of the transversal of

two parallel

lines

form a right

6.

What

figure is

formed by joining the middle points of

the sides of an isosceles trapezoid taken in order?

126
7.

MATHEMATICS
Show
that the opposite angles of an isosceles trapezoid

are supplementary.

Theorem
142.
sides of
bisector

XXX
at the middle points of two
lies

The perpendiculars erected


a triangle meet
in

a point which

in the perpendicular

of

the third side.

Draw
Use

the perpendicular bisectors of two of the sides.

Join
140.

their point of intersection to the middle point of the third side,

101.

Prove in a manner similar to that used in

143.

We may

conclude that the three perpendicular bisec-

tors of the three sides of a triangle

meet

in a point equidistant

from the three

vertices.

Theorem XXXI
144.
point.

The

three altitudes of

triangle

meet in a common

Draw
Given

A ABC, and its three altitudes A ABC and the altitudes x, y,


x, y,

x, y, z.
z.

We

now

have,

To prove that
Proof.
1.

and

have a common point.

Through

MR
2
3.

II

AC;
Since

through

draw draw

MK
II

II

BC\ through

B, draw

HK

BA.
parallelograms,

xMK.
Hence x

(121.)

MBCA and ABCK are


is

BC = MA
z of

= AK
4.
5.

the perpendicular bisector of


is

MK.

Similarly y

the perpendicular bisector of

HK and

MH.
6.

But the perpendicular


in a point.
(143.)

bisectors of the sides of

A MHK
common

meet
7.
8.

But

x, y, z

are also the altitudes of

A ABC.

Therefore the altitudes of a triangle meet in a

point.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem XXXII
145.

127

Two medians* of a

triangle meet in a point of the third

median.

A ABC, and medians CM and AK meeting at 0. Also draw BL through 0, meeting AC at L. We now have Given A ABC with medians ^4iTand CM meeting at 0.
Draw
To prove that
Proof.
1.

is

in the

median drawn
to

to the third side.

duced at 2. In A

Draw CH parallel H. Draw AH.

AK and

meeting

BL

pro-

HBC,
is

OK HC and bisects BC.


II

It therefore bisects

BH.
3.

(?)

Since

the middle point of


II

HB, and

ilfthe middle

point of

AB, MO AH. (?) 4. Then AOCH is a parallelogram, and L is the middle point of AC. Why? o. Hence BL is a median and lies in the median.
146.

In

145, since

H0=

OB

and

L0 = \ HO,
that

is
is

the
-|

distance from

5 to
(7

JO.

Similarly

we may show
X.

the

distance from

to

M, and from

^4 to

Or the medians meet


from the vertex to

in a point f the distance, along the median,

the opposite side.

Polygons
147.

polygon

is

a portion of a plane bounded by three or

more

straight lines.
lines of a polygon are its sides.

The bounding

Any two

adjacent sides form an angle of the polygon.

polygon is named with reference to its number of sides, Thus, triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, or angles.
octagon, etc.
*

A median

is

a line drawn from a vertex of a triangle to the middle point

of the opposite side.

128

MATHEMATICS
is equilateral. is

If the sides are equal, the polygon

If the angles are equal, the polygon

equiangular.
equilateral.

regular polygon

is

both equiangular and

148.

Two

polygons are mutually equilateral

if their corre-

sponding sides are equal.

Two

polygons are mutually equiangular


is, if

if

their correspond-

ing angles are equal, that

their angles taken in the

same

order are respectively equal.

they are both mutually equilatThey are also equal if they eral and mutually equiangular. can be separated into the same number of triangles, equal each
polygons are equal
if

Two

to each,

and similarly placed.

Theorem XXXIII
149.

The sum of

the angles

of any polygon

is

equal

to twice

as

many

right angles as the polygon has sides, less four right

angles.

Draw polygon ABODE,


Given polygon

etc.

We have
sides.
etc.,

ABCD,

etc.,

having n

To prove
Proof.

Z.

A+AB+Z C+Z.D+-From any


point

=2 wrt. A 4rt.

A.

1.

within the polygon draw a

line to each vertex:


2.

It is evident that

n triangles are formed, one for each


is

side of the polygon.


3.

The sum

of the angles of each triangle


all

two right

angles,
is

and the sum of the angles of


right angles.
4.

the triangles together

2n

The sum

of the angles of all the triangles includes the

sum
5.

of the angles of the polygon,


to the polygon.

and the angles around

which do not belong

Subtracting the

sum

of the angles at

the angles of the n triangles, angles of the polygon.

we have 2 n

rt.

P from the sum of A 4 rt. A for the

( 83, d.)

PAKALLELS AND THEIR USES


Theorem
150.
T7ie

129

XXXIV
of a polygon formed by
is

sum of

the exterior angles

producing one side at each vertex of a polygon


right angles.

equal

to

four

Given a polygon with exterior angles

b, d,

etc.
rt.

To prove that the sum of these angles


Proof.
1.

is

equal to 4

A.

Let a be the interior angle of the polygon adjaA.

cent to
2. 3.

b.

Thena + 6 = 2rt.
sum
rt.

This same sum exists at each of the n vertices, therefore


of the interior

the
is

and the exterior angles of the polygon


rt.

2n
4.
5.

A.
of the interior is 2 n

But the sum

A 4 rt.

A.

(?)

Subtracting the

sum

of the interior angles

from the sum

of the interior and exterior angles,

we have

2 nit.
or

A -(2 n
4

rt.

A - 4 rt. A),

rt.

A.
43

EXERCISE
1.

Prove Theorem

XXXIII by

triangles

formed by drawing

all

the diagonals from any one vertex of the polygon.

2.

One angle

of a regular

polygon
?

is 1^-

right angles.

How
sum
of a

many
3.

sides has the

polygon

How many

degrees

is

the

of its angles ?

One angle
is

of a regular polygon is 120.

What kind
is

polygon
4.

it? 120.

An

exterior angle of a regular polygon

How

many
5.

sides has the polygon ?

Each

exterior angle of a polygon is 30.

Find the sum

of the interior angles.


6. One angle number of sides.

of a regular polygon is

rt.
-J-

Z.

Find the

Any

trouble here?

Why?

130
7.

MATHEMATICS
From one
vertex of a regular polygon 5 diagonals can be Find the sum of the angles of the polygon.
three lines belonging to any triangle meet in a

drawn.
8.

What
One

point ?
9.

Is there

more than one answer

to this question ?
is

exterior angle of a regular polygon

180.

How

many

sides has the polygon ?

angle a regular polygon can


angle possible ?
151.

What is the have ? What is

greatest exterior

the least exterior

Develop the following synopses


lines are equal, if

Two Two Two

angles are equal,

if

lines are parallel, if


is

quadrilateral

a parallelogram,

if

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


1.

A hexagonal

water tank

is 3'

6"

on a

side.

Find the

area of the cover.

In nuts and heads of bolts, the distance across the flats (the distance between the parallel sides) is f the diameter of The thickness of the head is i the distance the bolt plus l".
2.

across the

flats.

Find the distance across the

flats

and the

thickness of the head on a one-inch bolt having a square


head.
3.

A
A

hexagonal head

is

--"

on a

side.

Find the distance

across the flats


4.

and the thickness of the head.

blank.
5.

square head T\" thick is to be milled on a cylindrical Find the diameter of the blank.
3,

In example

find the

approximate diameter of the

bolt.
6.

half-inch bolt has a square head.


flats,

across the

the thickness of

Find the distance the head and the diagonal of

the head.

PARALLELS AND THEIR USES


7.

131

A
is

one-inch steel bolt

is

4" long under the head.

The

head

square.

Find weight

of these bolts per hundred.

is

The bolt 8. A square head measures f " across the flats. 5" long under the head. Find weight per hundred.
9.

The thickness
?

of a hexagonal steel

weight of heads per hundred.

What
on a

size

head is f ". Find bolt would you use

with such head


10.

A hexagonal A hole A
hole
is

head

is

"
-f

side.

Find the diameter of


this hole ?

the bolt.
11.

0.185".

Could you use a y3g " bolt in


r

Would
12.

a i" bolt be too large


is is

? i

1.284".
2.74".

The
Find

longest diagonal of the hexagsize of bolt used,

weight of nuts per hundred, number of nuts per hundred pounds. (Bolts only come in 4ths, 8ths, 16ths, 32ds, 64ths).
13.

onal head used

Whites

of eggs coagulate at 56.6 C.

Express this tem-

perature in Fahrenheit scale.

Yolks of eggs coagulate at

122 F.
14.

Express in Centigrade.
eggs are

When

made

into omelets, 1 tablespoonful of

milk and teaspoonful of butter are added to each egg. 7 eggs will make 5 portions for serving. Find difference in cost of 6 eggs and enough omelet to serve six persons, when eggs cost 30^ per dozen, milk 6/ per quart, butter 37^ per pound. One cup of milk measures 16 tablespoonfuls, and one half pound of
butter 16 teaspoonf uls.
15.

87

of milk

is

water.

1 cup of

milk weighs

8|-

ounces.

Find weight of water contained in one quart


16.

of milk.
is

3.3

of milk

albumen.
17.
tein.

What is

casein and \ the per cent of casein and albumen in milk ?


is

protein,

-f

of the protein

The

edible portion of cooked eggs contains 13.2


it

pro-

milk (liquid measure) does as much protein as is in one dozen eggs ?

How much

take to contain

132
18.

MATHEMATICS

A can
is

Which
costs
19.

of condensed milk costing 5jf contains f of, a cnp. fresh or condensed milk cheaper if fresh milk

6^ per quart?

(Dilute condensed milk one third.)


28.8
J

American cheese contains

protein.

eggs contain as

much

protein as 1 pound of cheese ?

much milk (liquid measure) in one pound of much cheese contains as much protein as 2 eggs
20.

How many How cheese? How


?

Find difference in cost of 1 dozen eggs and as much cheese as would contain the same amount of protein, cheese costing 20^ per pound and eggs 30^ per dozen.

makes 1 cup of cottage cheese which weighs 6 ounces. Find difference in cost of 1 pound (Prices same as above.) cottage and 1 pound American cheese.
21.

One quart

of sour milk

22.

Cottage cheese contains 20.9

protein.

How much
make
this

cottage cheese contains as

much
?

protein as 1

pound American

cheese

How much

sour milk will be required to

quantity of cottage cheese


23.

\ pound macaroni or 1 cup rice can be used with cheese. 1 cup rice weighs 1\ ounces, and costs 10^ per pound. Macaroni costs 15 fl per pound package. Find difference in cost.
24.

Boiled rice contains 24.4


/

carbohydrates

cooked macacooked

roni contains 15.8

carbohydrates.

How many quarts

macaroni will contain as


rice ?
25.

much

carbohydrates as 5 cups cooked

Uncooked macaroni

contains
J

74.1%
1

carbohydrates;

cooked macaroni contains 15.8


of loss in carbohydrates
26.

carbohydrates.

Find weight

from cooking

pound macaroni.

wish to make a dusting cap 18" in diameter. How much lace is needed to put around the edge, allowing one half
I

extra for fullness ?


27.

Two

inches in from the edge of the cap in

Example 26

sew beading.

How much

beading must I buy

CHAPTER

VIII

Products and Factors


152.

In exercises 5 and 14 we found the factors of monomial

products.

We

shall

now extend
and
18.

factoring to include the prod-

ucts found in exercises 16

The
153.

Difference of

Two

Squares

the

Type I. Multiply a + bby a b. (That is, multiply sum of two numbers by the difference of the same two
actual multiplication

numbers.)

By

a
a a2 a
2

b b

+ ab

-ab-b
2
.

2 2

That

is,

(a

b) (a

b)

a2

Or, stated in words

The product of the sum and difference of two numbers


to the difference

is

equal

of their squares.

Then

to multiply the

sum

of

two numbers,

as 3 x

+ 5, by

the

same two numbers, 3 x 5, one needs only to square the first number, 3 x, and subtract the square of the second number, 5, from it, giving for the product, 9 x 2 25.
difference of the

EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
2.

44

(x (x

+ y)(x

y).

3. 4.

(m

+ 3)(x-3).
133

+ x)(m x). (x + 4)(g - 4).

134
5.
6.
7.

MATHEMATICS
(2a?

+ l)(2a>-l).

8.

9. + 3)(2x-3). 10. (5a + 7)(5a>-7). 11. # 4 is the product of what two

(2x

+ 15) (14 y - 15). (17a + 19 6)(17a-19&). (16c + 25d)(16c - 25 d).


(14 y
?

numbers binomials, trinomials,


12.

or

numbers monomials ?

Are these

What

are the factors of x 2

25.

making it applicable for factoring such examples as example 12. Keep in mind that of division division by inspection. The factoring is a process dividend is given. You must find the divisor and the quotient.
13.
I,
;

Eestate the rule in Type

Factor the following


14. 15. 16.

17.
18. 19. 26.

- 25. a - 81. a - 36. 25 a - 36. 16 y - 25.


a2
2
2

20.

16y 2c 2z 2
4
a;

-25x d a\
2
2

21. 22.

-225.

289

-x\
2
.

23.
24.
2
.

16/ -25c
a4
4

25.
2
2 2

- 529 y 441 y* - 729 a\ 64 a - 196 b


361 x2
2

27. 28.
29.

30.

- 256 b = (a + 16 b )(a - 16 b = (a + 16& )(a + 4&)(a-4&). 31. 3 -2 16 m -81c 32. a + 3) -(a-3) (49) - (25) 33. (x + 7) - (x - 7) (561) - (559) 34. ( a +&) -(a-6) (625) - (576) - 21) 35. 0/ + 21) 36. (17x + 162/)(17a;-16?/) = ? 37. (21a+23&)(21a-23&) = ? 38. (24 m + 19 c)(24 m - 19 c) = ? 39. (25* + 18c)(25a;-18c) = ?
2

2
.

2
.

2
.

(2/

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


40.
41.

135

(15c

+ 26d)(15c--^b
2
.

26d)

T\a

42.

Can you
of the

factor a 2

+ 25 ? Why?
two numbers.

The square The square


154.

sum

of

two numbers.

of the difference of

Type
of

II.

Multiply a

+
b

b by a

b.

That

is,

multiply

the

sum

two numbers by the sum


a
a

of the

same two numbers.

+b a 2 + ab + ab + b2 a + 2ab + b 2
2

That

is,

(a

b)

=a 2 + 2ab +
:

2
.

Or, stated in words

(a

is

the

first

number and
is

is

the second number.)


to the

The square of the sum of two numbers


the first

equal

square of

number plus

twice the product of the first

and second, plus

the square

of the second.

Similarly, (a

-b) 2

=a 2 -2ab + b2
minus

Or, TJie square of the difference between two numbers


the square of the first,

is

equal to

twice the product of the first

and

second, plus the square of the second.

EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1. 2.
3. 4.
5.

45

(x

+ z)(x + z). (x + S)(x + 3).


(a

7.

(5a

+ 3)

2
.

13.
14.
2
.

(9

m + 7x)

2
.

8.

(5a-3)
(5 a

2
.

{IS
(5
(6

a -15b) 2
2
.

x)

2
.

9.

(a-x) 2
(a

10.
2
.

+ 4 b) (6y + 5c)\
(7x-4z) 2
(8c- Id) 2

15.

m- a)
a

16.

-5b) 2

6.

+ 2x) (a -2 a)

11. 12.

17.

(5b

-6 a)

2
.

2
.

136
18.
19. 20.
21.

MATHEMATICS

+6x+9? From what factors do you get a 8 a + 16 ? What are the factors of x - 10 x + 25 ?
From what do you
get this product
2
:

x2

How
a2
2

can you distinguish a trinomial square ?


:

Find the factors of the following


22.
23.

24.

25.
30. 31.

-6a + 9. 26. 9x +30x + 25 27. m + 12m + 36. a 4 a + 4. 28. 4c + 12c + 9. 4a + 4a + l. 9a -6^ + 1. 29. 49 d - 14 cd + c m + 4 mZcc + 4 c a - 18 a + 81 = (a - 9)(a - 9) = (a + 3) (a - 3) (a + 3)
2
9

A:

(a

-3) by Type L
32.

- 72 c d + 81 d\ find one 34. The area of a square is 25 a + 4,0 ab + 16 & Find the dimensions when a = 5, b = 3. side of the square. What is the area? 35. One side of a square is 2 # + 5?/. Find the area when x = 6 y = 1. Why ? 36. Is a + 8 a + 25 a square ? Why ? 37. Is a + 10 a + 24 a square ? Why ? 38. Is a + 10 a + 25 a square ? Draw per39. Draw a square whose side is a + 6 inches.
x*
2

- 8 x + 16.

33.

16

pendiculars at the ends of a and b and show that this square


is

made up
40.

of the square on line a, pins


is ab,

two rectangles each

of

whose areas

and a square on

line b.

Factor a4
Factor

41.
42.

16. Are your factors factorable? x* 81. What type are you using?
(81)
2

=(80+

l)

- G400 + 160 + 1 = 6561

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


Write the following squares by inspection:
43.

137

(41)

45.

(79)

47.
2

(145)
(153)
c.

49.
50.

(162)
(169)

44.

(39)

46.

(132)

48.

Trinomials

of the

form x 2

+ kx +
+5

Binomial Factors having

One Term Common.


155.

Type

III.

Multiply x
x x x2
-f

by x

+ 3.

+3
15

+ 5x +3x+ 2 x + 8x +

15
is

Note that in

this trinomial the first term

the square

of the

common term
terms, 5
terms.

(x). 3.

and

The coefficient of x is the sum of the unlike The third term is the product of the unlike

Ex. Find the product of 4 x

+3

and 4 x
2

9.
-27.

By

the rule: (4a:

-f 3) (4

- 9) = (4 x)
=
16x
2

+(3

- 9) (4 a)

-24x-27.
46

EXERCISE
Find by inspection:
1.
2. 3. 4.
5. 6.
7.

(a

+ 3)(a + 4). (c +.B)(c + 7). (2a + 5)(2a + 3). ( a + 4) (a -3).


(a

11.
12. 13. 14.
15.

(b
(c

-14) (6

+ 16).

-4)(a

+ 3).

(5a-4)(5a-4).
(m
(ft

16. 17.

8.
9.

+ 18)(m-15). - 18) + 16),


(ft
.

18.
19.
20.

10.

+ ll)(3ft-4). (c + 21)(c + 22).


(3ft

+ 115)(c-12). (d + 16)(d + 15). + 9). (2 x- 14) (2 (2a + 14) (2 a + 9). (2 a + 14) (2 x - 9). (y + 5)0/ -40). (z + 27) (z .- 5) + 28) (ft -.7-). (a - 17) (a - 15).
a;
:

..

(ft

138
21.

MATHEMATICS
From what
Factor a2
factors do

you get x2

+ 7 x + 12 ?

22.

x 12.
is the coefficient

To

get the second terms of these binomials: factor the third

term into two factors whose sum


in the second term.

of the unknown

Factor the following:


23.

X2
x2

24.
25. 26.

x2 x2
a
2

27.
28.

a2
z
c
2

-2x 8. + 6 x + 8. -6x + 8. + 2x 8. + 9 a + 20. - a -20.


_z-72.

33. 34.
35.
(2 a

a2

-9y-36. -16 a + 64.

4 a2
is

+ 16 a + 15.
common
to each

the term

binomial.)
36.

9 a2

- 15 a 14.

37.
38.
39.

25
c
4

or

+ 50 x + 21.
2
2

29. 30. 31.

+ 16o + 15. m + 8m + 16.


2 2

40.

32.

2
?/

-12?/

+ ll.

41.

- 13 c +36. m - 29 m + 100. ^ + 16^ + 64. a -10 a + 25.


4
2 2

42.
43.

a2
a2

44.

+ 3)(a-3)(a + 5)(a-5) = ? 45. a + 2a + 2. + 3a + 2. - 3a + 2. 46. a -2a + 2.


2

Polynomials having a Factor


156.

Common

to

Each Term

Type IV.

Multiply 3 a

+ 4 b + 2 c by 5 x.
10 ex

3a + 46 + 2c 5#
\5ax

+ 20bx +
The first Type IV.

Each term
is to

of the product contains the

common

factor 5 x.

very important type of factoring.


see
if

step to take in all

This is a examples

the example belongs to

Ex.

1.

Factor 4 a 2x

- 16 b x.
2

Each term contains

the factor 4 x.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


Divide by 4
#.

139

4 x)4 a 2 x

16 b 2 x -4 b
2

The

divisor

is

one factor, the quotient the other factor, or


4 a 2x

16 b 2 x

4 z(a 2
I.

-46

).

But, a 2

4 b 2 can be factored by

Type

Hence,
This
is

4 a 2x

16 b 2 x

= 4 x(a +
number

2 5) (a as 105-

- 2 5),

similar to factoring such a


3,

We

remove a factor

then have
105

= 3(35).
=
3

Factoring 35,
105
5

7.

Ex.

2.

Factor
2 a

(2

+ b)a? 2

(2 a

+ 6)8 + (2 a +6)15.
a?

+ 5 )(2a +

- (2a+5)8x+ ^ -8x +
z2
15

(2 a

6)15

Use Type
(2a

III
2

on the quotient.

Then,

b)x

(2a

+ &)8z+

(2 a

5)15

(2a

+ b)(x-S)(z-S).

EXERCISE
Factor the following

47

(Be sure that you cannot Check each answer.)


1.
2. 3.
7.

still

further factor your result.

8.
9.

4. a? - ab\ + 27 x. 5. 5^-20. a b + ab 6. (a* -&>*-5 a + 25. c*(2 m + 5) - c(2 m + 5) - 12(2 m + 5). (2 c + 7)4 c + (2 c + 7)20 c + (2 c + 7)21. 10. ax + bx + ay + by. #(# + 3) + ?/(# + 3).

a;

(<**

-&*)*

Factor the

first

two terms and the


x(a

last

two terms separately.

+ b)+y(a + b).
example
9.

The example
11.
x?
2

is

now

like

3 x 3 x + 9.

(x2 is a factor of the first

two terms

and

a factor of the last two terms.)

140
12.

MATHEMATICS
Factor (a

+ b)a + (a + 6)2 a& + (a + b)b\


2

Compare example
13.

9,

exercise 16.

x2 (2x-l)-x(2x-l)-12(2x-l).
did you use ?
2
2 2

What Types
14.
15.
16.

a\a2

-b )-b\a -b ).
2

17.
18.

19.

21.
22.

23. 24.
25. 26.
27.

32.

+ (2ra + 5)8m + (2m + 5)16. (2m + 5)m - (2 m + 5)17 m + (2 m + 5)16. (2m + 5)m - (2 m + 5)15 m {2m + 5)16. 25 a (2 x + 5) - 20 x(2 x + 5) + 4(2 +5). 20. 4 m + 24m + 36 m. 4ra + 12m + 36m. Is a + 9 a + 25 a square ? Why ? a - 12 a + 36 a (2a + l)4a +(2a + l)4a + 2+l. 28. ^ + 3 ar - 6a-18. (a -a-72)(2a -18). 29. 8 ^+12 ^-10 a -15, ( + 3) -(-3) 30. a^ + 4^-16^-64. (> + 3)V-(a + 3) 81. 31. m -4m + 7m -28. a + 3a -9a-27. 12 a + 8 a b - 21 ab - 18 b\
(2m + 5)ra
2 2 2
a?

Trinomials of the
157.

Form ax2

Type V.

.Fmd

the

product

+ bx + c of 2 x + 5 cmd 3 x + 7.

3x + 7 2.3.x2 + 3.5..x+2-7.x + 5.7

x*

(3

7)x

+
,

Notice that if the first and third terms of this trinominal are combined by multiplication, the product 2 3 5 7 x 2 comprises all the factors which make up the middle term of the product. Note also that the middle term, 29 x, is the sum of the cross products, that is, the sum of 2x 7 and

3s

-5.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


Reversing this multiplication process
type.

141

we may

factor trinominals of this

Ex. Factor 6x 2
1.

29 a;

+ 35.
and third terms, or 210 x2
.

Find the product

of the first

Factor 210 x 2 so that the sum of the factors is the middle term 29 x these factors are 14 x and 15 x. 3. Write the trinominal in the form of a quadrinominal, using 14 x and
2.
;

15 x for the middle terms

6x2
4.

-\-29x

35

= 6x2 +

14 a

+ 15 + 35.

Now

use

Type IV.

2x(3x + 7)+5(3x +
Hence,
It

6 x2

7) = (3x+ 7)(2a>+ 5). + 29x -f 35 = (3x + 7)(2x + 5).


is

does not matter whether 14 x or the 15 x

connected with 6 x2

EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
2.
3. 4. 5.

48

(2a5

+ 7)(3a> + 4). (5x + 2)(2x + (6a + 5)(2a?-3). (5a? + 3)(3a?-4).


4:).

10.

11.

12. 13.
14.

- 18) (7 x + 15). (8aj + 17)(7a-6). (4a> + 15)(9a;-14).


(10 x

(2

a?

-7) (3 a? -4).

6.
7.

(2r-7)(3aj
(2a>

+ 4).

15. 16.

8. 9.

+ 7)(3a>-4). (5a> + 2)(2a>-4). (7a> + 3)(5-8).


:

17. 18.

a- 21) (5 + 18). (7a + 15)(7s + 15). (13a?-l)(13a? + 2). (14 + 13) (13 x + 14). (14 x- 8) (14 x + 8).
(6
a;

a>

(3

a?

-75) (2 a? -4).

Factor the following

19.
6 x2
-

6 x2
20

+ 23 x + 20.
.

Then,

6 x2

4-

= 120x2 120 4G? = 15-05' 8 X. 15x + 8x = 23 x. 23 x + 20 = 6 x 2 4- 15 x + 8 -f 20. = 3x(2x + 5) + 4(2x-f5). = (2x + 5)(3x + 4).
a;

a ca

142
20.

MATHEMATICS

21.
22.

23. 24.
25.
26.

+ 22x + 20. 8 x + 22 x + 15. 10a + 19a? + 6. 12aj*-23a> + 10. 8^ + 2^-15. 15ar> + 23a-28. 15^ + 47^ + 88.
6x
2

29.

4
a2

-14 -98.
a;
2

30.

31.
32. 33. 34.

+ 18a; + 81. 36x + 60x + 25. 15x + Ux- 16. 15 6 - 14 6 -16, 15a + 34a- 16.
2
2
2

35. 36.

10x2 -x-24:.
10
2

27.
28. 38.

56a2 -17a-3.
2

4d + 12d+9. 37. 14a (2a-3)8a + (2a-3)22*+(2a-3)15.


2

- 29 x + 10. + 53a + 14.

39.

8z4 + 2ar3 -15a 2


(a 2

40.

60

x3 - 115 x2 + 50 x.

41.
42. 43.

-9)4a 2 -(a 2 -9)4a + a2 -9.


2 2

45.

4m (2m + 5)+12m(2m + 5) + 9(2m + 5). - 11 c -36c. 44. 5 2y + y-28. 24m + 14m -3ra.
3
2

Binomials having Both Terms Raised to the Same Power


158.

Type VI. Such types

arise

from the following prod-

ucts:

By

actual multiplication

+ ab + & 2 -5 a 3 + a 2 + a& 2 - a 2 b - ah 2 -b* -b\ a3


a2
a
-

ft

That

a*.
is,

a-b
as the

Note the form of the quotient: we shall speak of a leading letter and b as the following letter.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


1.

143

raised to a
2.

term of the quotient contains the leading letter power one less than its power in the dividend. The power of the leading letter becomes less by one in
first

The

each succeeding terra of the quotient. 3. The following letter appears in the second term of the
quotient and
term.
4.

its

power increases by one in each succeeding

The

signs of the quotient are all

Similarly,

a*g ~ -b* Q -b a&


5
-

= ** +
4

***

+ ^ +
+ aV +

*'

and

a -& ^^=a -6
3

a*b

ab3

&4

a-

Ex.

1.

tf--64 = a2 x 4

.a;

+ a.4 + (4)' + 4a; + 16.

Here,

a
&

is

5C,

and

is 4.

a3
Likewise,

+
+

63 6

_=

a2

aft

b%

a and a

b
divisior is all positive, the

Note that when the binomial


the

terms of the quotient are alternately

+ and

Do

not divide

sum

of the

same even powers by the sum

of the roots.

EXERCISE
Factor the following:
1.
2.

49

Xs f.
x3

3.

a8

-8.

5.
6.

a8
or
5

+ f.
7.

4.

Xs

+ 8.
6
9.

27. + 27.

4- 27.

Here a = 2a; and

= 3.
125 a3

8 a8

-27.

+ 1.

144
10.

MATHEMATICS
125 a3 -8.
17.
18.

a5

+ 243.
3

11.
12. 13.

14.
15.

m + 27. 64 m -?/ 64m + 27?/ 8 c 216 d


64
3
3

m
3 fr

-216.
3
.

19.
3
.

20. 21.

+ 512c 125 y - 729 d\


s

3
.

x6 x6

^-32.
a5 +32.

22.
23.

16.

a6

+ 27 (Regard x + 64. + 216.

as a cube.)

Trinomials which

may

be referred to Type I by the addition

and subtraction
159.

of

some number.

Type VII. x4

+ bx2 + c2
is

Usually in this type one


is

term

is

a fourth power, one

a square, and one

the product

of a square

and some number.

Ex. Factor x4
If the

+ 2 x + 9.
2
,

middle term were 6 x 2 this trinomial would belong to Type


,

II.

Adding and subtracting 4x2 we have.


x4

By Type

I,

+ 2 x 2 + 9 = x4 + 6 x 2 + 9 - 4 x 2 = (x2 + 3) 2 - (2x) = (x 2 + 3 + 2 x) (x2 + 3 - 2 x).


.

EXERCISE
Factor the following
1.
2.

50

3. 4.
5.

+ + 25. 9a + 8x + 4. a + 5 a + 49. a + 10 a + 49. a - 23 + 49.


^4
2
4

6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

- 39 a b + 49 6 a + 4. 4?/ 37?/- + 9. 4?/ + 8?/ + 9. - 65 + 10. 25


a4
4
2

4
.

Fill in the

term which will make each of the following a


12.

trinomial square:
11.

a2

+ 4a + ?

4m +28m + ?
2

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


13.
14.
15.

145

16.

17.
18.

24 c + 4. ? + 6x + 9. x + 8x + ? x + 5x + ? c -9c + ?
2
a;
a;.

19.
20.

+ 16. 9 m 18 m.
c
4 2

21.
22.

25a 2 -30ab.
25
2

- 25 ab.

23.
24.

25a 2 -20a&.
25
2

- 18

aft.

The seven types of factorable expressions should be committed to memory. Before attempting to factor any ex160.

pression, select the type to

which

it

belongs.

Hints on Factoring
1.

For

all

expressions

First try
2.

Type IV.
I,

Test binomials by Types


Test trinomials by Types

IV, VI.

3.

II, III,

V, VII.

4.

Be

snre that each factor will admit of no further factor-

ing.
5.

Several types
e.g.,

may

be needed to completely factor an

expression,

example

13, exercise 47.

Types
I.

a*-tf

II.

III.

= (a + b)(a-b). (a+b)(a+b) = a 2 + 2ab + b2 (a-b)(a-b) = a -2ab+ b2 2 (x + a)(x+b)=x + (a + b)x + ab.


.

IV.

ad+bd+cd=d(a + b+c).
c.

ax2 + bx + n n VI. a -b n n b a
V.
.
.

VII.

+ 2 x* + bx + <?.

146

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
51

Factor the following


1.

f-2y + l.
2 y -l.

3.

y*-2y-8.

2.
5.

4.
2

f + 2y-8.

50x3

+ 4,5x
2

-A5x.

6.
7.

10x\2x-3) + 45x(2x-3)-4:5(2x-3).
(341)

-(339) 2

8.

One

side of a square is 585'.

This square

is

surrounded

by a concrete walk Find the is 2388'.


9.

of uniform width,
cost of

whose outside perimeter the walk at 14^ per square foot.

One square
is

is so

placed within another that a space of

uniform width

between the sides of the outer and the inner The sides of the squares are 76" and 69", respectively. squares. How many square feet in the difference between the areas of

these squares?
10.

The area
large
is

of a square is 36 x 2

How

the square

when x

+ 84 x + 49. Find one side. = 4 ? If x were 9, would

Could you substitute a value of x that would make the area negative? Why?
the area
still

be positive ?

11.

The area

of a square is 49 a 2

28 a + 4.
?

Find one edge

when a = \.
12.

Is

a 2 + 10 a

+ 16

a trinomial square
is

Why ?
~~ w

13.

The area

of

a triangle 6
If x
Is

Find the

base and altitude.


struct the triangle.

is 2 and the triangle is isosceles, conmore than one such triangle possible?

Why?
14.

The area of a

right triangle

is

5 x2

+ 4 x 12.

Construct

the triangle
15.

when x = 2.

Find by inspection (2#

+ 3) (2a? 3)(x + 4) (a 4).

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


16. 17.

147

Factor x4

- 25 x + 144.
2

22.
23.

(4a +

=?

a4
a4

-29 a + 100 = ?
2

Factor 4 a2
f 2a?

+#+
4

18.
19.
20.

-81 = ?
?

24

+l
4
|

y_

(2m + 3) 2 -36 =
2 2

2^ + 1
5 a

/g

+1
5

(2m-5) -25m = ?
(2

V
26.
is
2
a;

+V

Y-9
a;

21.

m- 5) - (2 m + 5) = ?
2
2

Factor 5 a2
sc

+ 11 - 36.
Find
its

27.

sions
28.

The area of a when x = 4:".

rectangle

+ 7 + 12.

dimen-

Find the dimensions of a rectangle whose area


2 2/
.

is

4ar

-169
2

29.

Find the dimensions

of

rectangle whose

area

is

225 a
30.

- 289 b

2
.

Find the dimensions of a rectangle whose area


x2
a:

is

+ (3 m + 4 a) + 12 ?7ia. What are its dimensions when x = 4", m = 1", a = 1" ? How
does this rectangle compare with that in example 21
31.
?

Compare the adjacent

sides in a rectangle
.

whose area

is

25 x2 -4:0xy + 16y2
32.

Factor 9 x* + 42 #cd
Factor 4
c
2

+ 49 c d
2
2

2
.

33.
34.

- 256 c d m
4

2
.

15 a2

+ 29 a -14.
it is

In working examples under Type V,


carry out
all

not necessary to

the steps indicated in

157.
,

(15^)(-14) = -210^ 2 -210x2 = (35x)(-6x).


Connect either of these factors with 15 x2
;

for example,

148

MATHEMATICS

Factor this expression,

+ 35 #. 5 x (3 x + 7).
15 #2

Then, (3 x + 7) is one factor of 15 #2 + 29 x 14, 5 # is the first term of the othei factor. The second term of the second factor is formed by dividing 14 by + 7. The written work would appear as follows
Factor 15 a2

+ 29 a -14.
2 (15 a )
,

(-14) = -210 a;2 -210#2 = (35#)(-6#), 15#2 + 35# = (3# + 7)(5#), 15 #2 + 29 #-14 = (3 # + 7) (5 #-2).
Factor
35.

36.
37. 38. 39.

40. 41.

+ Uy-12. 10 m + m- 21. 40c + 7c-3 = 0. 6 x + #-126 = 0. 10 x + 51 ex + m c 36 x - 181 # + 225 = 0.


6y
2 2 2

42.
43.
44.

45. 46.
47.

30 x2 -27

#-21.
Solutions

48.

- 24 y - 12. 36 # - 12 # - 120. 48s + 50s + 2. 31 a - 151 a - 20. 48 a + 128 a -48. 25 a + 95 a -20. 64 m -40 m + 4.
96 y 2
2
2

by Factoring
finite

161.

If the product of

two or more
is zero.

numbers

is zero, at

least one of the

numbers

That
zero.

3) (x 4) = 0, either x 3 or x 4 If # 4 = 0, x = 4. If x 3 = 0, x = 3.
is, if

(x

must be
which

Such conditions give a method


are higher than the first degree.

for solving equations

Ex.

Solve x 2

- 4 # = 21.
member
of the equation
is 0,

Transposing so that the second

we

have,

2_4 X _21=0.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


Factoring by Type
III,

149

Placing the

first

factor

(x-7)(x + S) = 0. equal to zero, we have,


x

7.

Placing the second factor equal to zero,

= -3.

These should be the roots of the original equation. Checking for x = 7,

For x

= - 3,

72_4.7_21 = 0, 49-28-21 =0. (- 3) 2 - 4(- 3) - 21 = 0. 9+12-21 = 0.

Both roots

satisfy the equation.

EXERCISE
Find value
1.
2.

52

3.

+ 5) (x 3) (x + 1), when x = 0. 16(a? l)(a? + 2)(a?+8), when a = 1. 1625 (x + 3) (x + 5) (x - 16), when x = 5.


24 (x

Solve by factoring.
4.
5. 6. 7.

(Check each

root.)

8.
9.

10.

18.

19.
20.
21.

= -16. 12. x -x = \2. tf + 5y + 6 = 0. 13. m 4 m = 0. ^ + 70 + 6 = 0. a - 81 = 0. 14. 48^ -12a; = 0. ^-9 a - 9^ + 81 = 0. 15. yi-lly-102 = 0. 16. 9z -30z + 25 = 0. 4.x + 12 x = -9. 17. 16z + 42tf = -5. -?/ - 9^ + 9 = 0. (2 a + 7) a - (2 a + 7) 4 a + (2 a + 7) 4 = 0. {x - 16)x -(x - 16)28 x + {x - 16)49 = 0. (25 z - 225) (49 z - 289) = 0.
11.

a?-7a? + 12 = 0.

v 2-8v
2

?/

How many

roots to a first

degree equation?

second

degree? third degree? nth degree?

150

MATHEMATICS
REVIEW

Factor
1.
2.

a 4 -25.
a2

28.

9-(x -2xy + y ).
2

-11a + 30.
6
3

29. 30. 31.


32. 33.

28 a;2

3. 4. 5.
6.
7.

-a o 6 + 49a + 14a& 4a -7ca -4d + 7cd. a -17 a + 72. a + 16 c - 8 ca.


27a
4 2 3
.

34.
35. 36.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12.
13. 14.

3 ca + 2c7i 5 6a 10 M. 5bx 106 + 4c?a 8d. 24 6 + 37 6-72. a + 15 a -100. 16a 6 + 24a& + 36 6 64 + 8. Treat as a bi2

ma mb +

6a

b.

+ 17 -3. 125 a + 6 8a + 20 a + 4ac. 9a + 30a + 25. a -17a + 42. 2a + 21a + 55. 8a - 10a -33. 36 + 12 + 1. Treat
a;
6

as a

trinomial.
37. 38. 39.

12b 2
49 a
2

-476 -65. -21 a -10.


3

4a
41.

nomial.
15.
16. 17. 18.

+ 48z + 64. 84 / + 4 z - 42 y z - 2 z\ 729 v - 529 w


9z2
z

2/

9a2

+ 9a + 2. - 81 x 121
4

42.
43.

625z
a
a;
2

-216w
-

4
.

2/

^oo.
2

6a2 - a -2.

44.
45.

19.
20.

21.
22.
23.

24.
25.

26. 27.

+ 3 b - 154. + 26 + 133. 5 m -26 m -24. a -19 a + 78. 5 a + 9 a -18. l-125m x + y 2 xy 4. 5 a?/ 3 a + 4 a -30 a + 225
b2
A; 2

A:

46.
47. 48. 49.
50.
51.
52.
.

-2a-143. 8a -12a - 10a + 15. 121a -132a 6 + 366


4

10a2

+ 49 a -33.
3

729 a 8 -841.

?/

arty.
2

?/

?/

53. 54.

+ 4 aa 70 aa 169a + 390a6 + 2256 y - 64. 6 a + 162 a. 4a + 30a + 50.


2 aa 4
2
.

2
.

4ar2

+ 16a;+

15.

2x2

-5a- 25.

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


55. 56.

151
2
.

49 x i
2

57.
58.
59.

60. 61.

62

63.

64.
65.

+ 45 x y + 25 y\ x + 6 a - 247. 70^2/ -982/ - 140 x x + a - 1. 9a + 30a + 25. 2 an 4 n 4 a - 6. + a;-6. x -x -6. a 7 # + 6. a z + 12xz 13.
2
2 2

66.
67. 68. 69. 70.
71. 72. 73. 74.
75.

IS x2

- 3 xy - 4,5 y
b\

2/z.

6 a2

a;

-41a- 56. 75 a 6 - 108 c d\ -z # - 2 #?/ + a a 9 x + 9. 30 a - 89 a + 35. 40 + 26-26 5aV-4a ^- 96 z 4:X xy 3y


2 2
2

?/

2
.

Supplemental Applied Mathematics


1.

10-inch steel pipe

is

10.19" inside diameter, 10.75"


lineal foot.

outside diameter.
2.

Find weight per


is

A A
-|"

9-inch pipe

8.937" inside diameter and 9.625" outlineal foot.


is

side diameter.
3.

Find weight per

steel
4.

steam pipe is 12.750" outside diameter and Find the inside diameter. thick.
inside diameter of a 2-inch pipe
is

made

of

The

2.067".

If water

is

forced through this pipe at the rate of 10' per second,


gallons can the pipe deliver per hour ?

how

many
5.

A 6-inch

main, inside diameter 6.065", in the same system

main above would deliver how many gallons per hour? Could you use the result obtained in example 4 in solving this problem, and have a fairly accurate result ?
as the 2-inch
6.

A pump

delivers 23.5 gallons of water per stroke

and
is

is

16 strokes per minute. What weight of water livered per hour ? (Water weighs 621 pounds per cubic
set for
7.

de-

foot.)

single cylinder

pump

3^" in diameter and 6" stroke

makes 22 strokes per minute.


gallons per hour ?

What

is

the discharge in

152
8.

MATHEMATICS

technical

school
is

81"

10i".

The stock

needs 75,000 sheets of paper 17" x 22", 16 pounds to the ream of

500 sheets, and costs 6f ^ per pound. How many reams must be ordered and what is the cost ? (This is a problem in mental
arithmetic.)

30,000 cards 5" x 4" are to be cut from stock 17" x 20". Weight 30 pounds to ream, price 12 ^ per pound. How much
9.

stock was bought ?


ference which
10.

What

did
is

it

cost ?

Does

it

make any

dif-

way

the stock

cut ?

In a fuel test 100 pounds of coke was found to contain 6.01 pounds of ash and .583 pound of sulphur. The balance was carbon. What per cent of carbon was there?
11.

Air

is

.001276 times as heavy as water.


?

What
is

is

the

weight of the air in your classroom


12.

If a

body

falls freely in space,

the distance fallen

equal
is

to

g times the square of the time in seconds, where g

the

force of gravity (32.15 feet).

The equation
s

for this law


2
,

is

usually written
the distance in feet.
is

= | gt

where

s is

A
13.

stone dropped into a canon

seen to strike the water at

the bottom of the canon in 8 seconds.

How

deep

is

the canon ?

stone dropped over a precipice fell for 10 seconds be-

fore striking the ground.


14.

How

far did

it fall ?

An

aeroplane was sailing 1000 feet above the ground


of the officers dropped a 120
it

when one

lb.

bomb
ground

overboard.
?

How
15.

long did

take the

bomb

to reach the

56 hurdles 5 feet long just reach across a


hurdles 4 feet long would be needed ?

field.

How

many
16.

For bronze bearings the Pennsylvania Eailroad uses the

following alloy, 77

copper, 8

tin,

15

lead.

How many

pounds of copper,
of bearings ?

tin

and lead are used in making 900 pounds

PRODUCTS AND FACTORS


17.

153

In one lot of 402 castings, 24 were spoiled, in a second 500 castings, 38 were spoiled, in a third lot of 321, 22 were spoiled. In which, lot was the largest percentage of loss
lot of

due to spoiled castings


18.

In testing our shop drive, 9.24 horse-power went to the The motor lathes and .75 horse-power went to the grindstone. delivered 11.2 horse-power. What per cent of the power went to the belting and shafts ?

For the same set of articles my competitors' prices are $ 3, $ 3.30, $ 3.55 and $3.70. His trade discounts are 25 %, 7|, 5 and 2. My list prices for the same set are $ 6.10, $ 6.70, $ 7.20 and $ 7.50 and my trade discount is 60 %, 7^, 7, 5 and 2. In making a bid how do the net prices compare ?
19.

My

competitor and I handle hardware.

Three men can set up a line shaft in 8 days. men can set up the same shaft in 3 days ?
20.
*

How many

men are at work installing the machinery in a They work for 8 days and finish half the work. The work must be completed in 5 more days. How many men must be added ?
21.

Fourteen

shop.

22.

200

men were

completing the work on the Technical


to be completed Oct. 5.
still

High
done.

School.

The job had

On

Oct. 1,

the contractor found that there were

How many men


One cup ground

could he lay

off

500 days' work to be and finish the job on

time?
23.

coffee

makes 6 cups

boiled.

-|

cup

boiled coffee serves 1 person.

How many

level tablespoonfuls

of ground coffee should be used for each person ?


24.

If coffee costs 35 ^ per

pound and there are

4-i-

cups per

pound, find cost of enough beverage for one person.


25.

For

filtered coffee

difference in cost of

Find -| cup is used with 5 cups water. enough boiled and filtered coffee to serve

6 portions.

154
26.

MATHEMATICS
To
clear 1 quart coffee,

^ white of egg or several egg

shells

may

be used.

It takes 11 yolks or 9 whites of eggs to

Assuming the yolks can be used for other purposes, eggs selling at 30^ per dozen, and 1 quart coffee used daily, how much can be saved in a month by using egg
measure 1 cup.
shells to clear the coffee ?
27.

Tea made from Ceylon

tea leaves contained 8.6


;

tannic

acid after five minutes' infusion


thirty minutes' infusion.

10.88

tannic acid after

Find the difference in the quantity of tannic acid extracted from tea leaves steeped for 5 and 10 minutes during a month, if \ pint tea is used daily and 1 pint of the beverage weighs 1 pound.
28.

tea contained 6.8


J

tannic acid after five minutes'

infusion and 16.3

tannic acid after forty minutes' infusion.

Find the difference in the quantity of tannic acid extracted from the tea leaves after steeping 5 and 40 minutes during a month if f pint tea is used daily.
29.

Green tea leaves contain 10.64


/

tannic acid

black tea
of

leaves contain 4.89

tannic acid

1 cup tea leaves weighs 2

ounces.

If 1 teaspoonful tea leaves is used in

making a cup

tea each day, find the difference in the quantities of tannic

acid extracted from black and green tea during a month.

One

cup tea leaves measures 48 teaspoonfuls.


30.

house-boat

is

26' long, 12' wide, 10' high,


it

and weighs
is,

6 tons.

much water does

To what depth will it draw ?

sink in the water, that

how

CHAPTER IX
Fractions
162.

A fraction
the

is

an indicated division.

It is written in the

form -,
b'

number above the


number below the

line being * the

numerator or

dividend, the
divisor.

line being the

denominator or

A
sign

fraction

may be

positive or negative (see Chapter III), the


is

indicating that the quotient


is

to be added, the sign

indicating that the quotient

to be subtracted.

Thus,

~~
A

means that the quotient arising from


result is

4 2

must be subtracted, the

+ 2.
The and the these signs may be changed

We

see that three signs are involved in every fraction.

sign of the numerator, the sign of the denominator,

sign of the fraction.

Any two

of

without changing the value of the fraction.


Thus,

+1aa+6

-4
2

-4 -2~

-2
~~

And

a -3 a6

__ a + 3_
a

a+6

a+6
fractions.

Such changes often simplify operations with

Principles of Fractions

163.
1.

The following

principles govern operations in fractions

Multiplying the numerator of a fraction by a

number

multi-

plies the fraction.

155

156
This depends on axiom

MATHEMATICS
3, 23,

x
5,

Multiply both sides of the equation by some number,

we

have,

2.

Multiplying the denominator of a fraction by a number

divides the fraction.

The pupil may show


3.

that this principle depends on

axiom

3.

Multiplying both numerator and denominator of a fraction Why ? Axioms ? by the same number does not change its value.
4.

Dividing the numerator of a fraction by a number divides

the fraction.

= Q.
d
5.

Then - =-%
d
5

The pupil may explain use

of axioms.

Dividing the denominator multiplies


pupil

the fraction.

The
6.

may

illustrate.

Dividing both numerator and denominator by the same


the value

number does not change

of the fraction.

Explain.

Reduction
164.

Principles 3 and 6 are involved in the reduction of

fractions, 3 in reduction to higher terms, 6 in reduction to

lower terms.

Ex.

1.

Reduce f

to higher terms.
5 6
'

= 4~24*

20

Ex.

2.

Reduce

|-

to 48ths.

6=2-3;
2- 3 )2*
.

48
3

= 24

23

'

FRACTIONS
Hence, multiplying both numerator and denominator by 2 3 or
5 8
'

157
8,

we

have,

= 40

48
is

Ex.

3.

Reduce
.

a a+6
a 2__ a q

to

a fraction whose denominator

a2_ a

_ 42

_42=( a + 6)(a-7). + 6 )(q + 6)(g-7)

a-7
Hence, multiplying both numerator and denominator by a
a

7,

we

have,

-3_
+6

(a
(

- 3) (a - 7) _ a - 10 a + 21 a 2 -a-42 + 6)(a-7)
2

EXERCISE
1.

53

Reduce

to 144ths

T\, T
3
g-,

|, ^g,

-j^-.

2.
3.
4.

Reduce
Reduce Reduce

to 512ths to 19ths
:

^,

1
-g

^.

\, \.

to fractions

whose denominator

is

a2 a

12.

5.

6.

7.

q-7 4* a+ a 2a-3 Reduce to (4 a + 12 x + 9)ths 2a + 3 2a + 3 Reduce to (4 a 12 a+9)ths 2x-3 5) + 5) (# + l)ths Reduce to 2 Ax-1 2x+l 5' a? -25' ^ + 6^ + -4as-5'
q

+4

3*

(as

(as

as

+1
-(a;

8.

Reduce

to

-4
9.

(4a l)(2aj + 5)(3# l)ths: 3x+2 8^ + 5


2
]

+ 2)

8^+18^-5' 12x -7x+l


Reduce
to (4 a 2

6a;

+13a;-5'

12a?-7a?+l

- 9) ths 5x + 2 2os + 4 5a? + 2 2aj + 3' 2a; + 3' -2a + 3

( 162.)

158
10.

MATHEMATICS
Reduce
to 14 (a 2

- a - 72) ths -5 8a?-l


.

11

165.

Reduction
1.

to

lower terms.
to lower terms. 36 54

Ex.

Reduce f f

= 22
2

32 33
'

common to both numerator and denominator. Dividing both numerator and denominator by 2 3 2 (principle 6), we have
see that 2

By inspection we

3 2 are factors

=2
54

32

22

32

2 *

2-3-J

Ex.

2.

Reduce

a2
a2

- 9 a + 20

to lower terms.

a2

-q-12 = (q-4Xa + 3) -9a + 20 ( a -4)(a-5)


common
factor a 4,

Dividing both numerator and denominator by the

we have
a
2

-9a+

(a

-4) (a-4)0-f

3)
5)

_a+3
a

20

(a 4) (a

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
2.
3 6 1*

54

to lower terms:
*
4.

80 144*

5 fi b
'

2 16*

36

7 ''
ft

34 102*
_8_5_

Q *

95 133*
544* . 3 2

54
2 8 9*

64
5

*'

12*

72 2T6'

'

119*
^
2

10 XV

"

11.

12.

17.

-9 m+1 13. a -6a + 9 m +l m 64 m +2m+ 14. m 16 m + 64 m 1 4c + 4cd-l,5d ift


a2
2 2 2
4

+ 3^-10 2z + 3z-U
2

16.

8e3 -27d 3 4c 2 -9d2


3

8c 3 -27d3
|

12

- 27 d + 18 c d + 27 cd
8
c
3

* The bar

as here used indicates division of both numerator and denomina-

tor of the fraction.

FRACTIONS
19 12
c
3

159
'

+ 12 c d - 45
2

ccZ

2
'

12c3 +48c-d
21.
2

+ 45cd

2Q
'

9y2 + 18yz -16z 2


18 ys

+ 3ti y z - 32 yz
2

9y 2 -12?/z + 4z 2
9?/

-4z

22.

2Tys -8z 3

23.

24.

- 12 yz)(9 y z + 6 yz + z )' 6y ~13yz + 6z 3y + 19yz~Uz (y + 7z)9 y - (y + 7 z) 12 yz + Q + 7 z) 4 z


(18 y
2

'

3?/

+ 19?/z-14z
4
2/

(3y-2z)9y 2 + 18^z(3y-2z )- (3?/--2z)16z -8yz 3)(3 2/-2z) 2 (27


Multiples

166.

common

multiple of
e.g.,

two or more numbers


a

is

a mul-

tiple of each of them,


16.

48

is

common
all

multiple of 12 and

A common
1.

multiple must contain

the factors of the

numbers involved.
Ex.

Find a common multiple


18

of 18
.

and

24.

24

=2 = 23

32

3.

The different factors concerned are 2 and 3. The common multiple of these numbers must be made up of the product of 2 at least three times as a factor and 3 at least twice as a factor. That is, a number cannot contain 18 an integral number of times unless it has as factors 2 32 It cannot contain 24 an integral number of times unless it has as factors 2 3 3. To contain both 18 and 24 it must at least have the factors 2 3 3 2 The common multiples of 18 and 24 are, therefore,

23. 3 2

2 4 -3 2
144,

2 3 -3 3

2*-3 3
312,

23

32

5, etc.,

or

72,

216,

360,

etc.

The lowest common multiple contains all the the numbers involved the least number of times.
167.

factors of

160

MATHEMATICS
find the
1. c.

To

m.,

form a product of
and give

all

the different factors

of the given numbers,

to each factor the highest expo-

nent found in any of the numbers.

Ex.

1.

Find the

1.

c.

m. of 45, 48, 54.

= 32 54 = 2
45

5.
.

33
.

48

=
.

2*

3.
5.

The

1. c.

m.

is,

therefore,
1.

24

32

Ex.

2.

Find the

c.

m. of a 2

- 9,
.

a2

- 6 a + 9,

a2

+ 3 a - 18.

The

1. c.

m.

is

-9=(a+3)(a-3). + 9 = (a- 3) 2 2 a + 3 a - 18 = (a - 3)(a + 6). (a - 3) 2 (a + 3) (a + 6).


a2
a 2_6a
1. c.

How many
Ex.
3.

times will this


1.

m. contain a 2

-f

3a

18

Find the

c.

m. of x

- 1,
1.

+ 9, a - 5.
is

These numbers are

all

prime, their

c.m.

their product, or

(x-l)(x2 + 9)0-5).

EXERCISE
Find
1. 2.
5. 6.
7.
1. c.

55

m.
7i

ns
a2

+2
a2

2
,

ns

-n.

3.

72,

48,
18,

27. 30.

-9, a 2 -

20,
15,
2

a- 12. - 16, 3a - 6 a -24.


2

4.

120,

3 x2

-13 x -10,
2 2

a 2 -25, 12.
2

8.
9.

10.

+ 12a + 3, 4a -4a + l. z -27, z + 3z + 9, z _9. m + 3m-10, 2m + 7m-15, 2m -7m + 6. x + 3, a 3, x 6.


4a -l, 12x
3
2 2 2 2 2

Addition
168.

must be of the same denomination before they can be added. To reduce fractions to
Fractions, like other numbers,

FRACTIONS
the same denomination, the lowest

161
multiple of their
(

common

denominators must be found, and principle 3

163) employed.

Ex.

1.

Add /
the
1.

ft,

T\.
.

By

167,

c.

m.

of 24, 18, 16 is 2*
1.

32

In such

work

as reducing to
2*

c. d.

always divide by

factors.

32
3,

24

?.

Multiplying 7 and 24 by 2
7

we have

7-2-3
24

42
144

24
Similarly, J
5

2 2*

=
__

5
'

=
__

40
144'
,

'

18

183 16
-

and d

3 16

32
-

27

32

144

Then,

24

! + A + A = i?
18 16

iO
144

_27
;

_109
144

144

144

Ex.

2.

Find the sum of


a

+2
-25
a
2

2a
3 (a
(a
2

1
5).

-10 a + 25
a2 a
2

-2a -15)
2
.

_ 25 =

5) (a

3 (a

3 (a

+ 5)

(a

3) (a

5)

-10a + 25= (a - 5) - 2 a - 15) = 3 (a - 5) (a + 3). c. m. = 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a ~ (a 2 - 25) = 3 (a + 3) (a - 5).


1.

6)

2.

Then
3 (a

a+2 =
a
2

3 (a 3 (a

-25

+ 2) (a + 3) (a - 5) + 5) (a + 3) (a-5) 2

'

5) (a

3) (a

5)

(a 2

10 a

+ =

25)

3 (a

5) (a

+
(a

3),

and
a2

g 10 a

3a(q + 5)(a +
3 (a

3)

25

5) (a

5)

'

and
3 (a 2

Hence,

a 2_25

+ 2_ a 10a + 25

2g-l = (2.g-l)(q + 5)(g-5) - 2a - 15) 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a - 5) 2 2a - 1 a


3(a 2 -2a-15)

'

162

MATHEMATICS
3g (g + 5)(g + 3) + 3) (a - 5) + 3) (a - 5) 2 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a - 5) 2 _ (2a-l)(a + 5) (a - 5) 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a - 5) 2 3 2 3 2 3 ^ 3 a - 57 a - 90 + 3 a + 24 a + 45 a - 2 a + a ,+ 50 a 2 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a - 5)

3 (a

+ 2)

(a

3 (a

5) (a

25

(Note the change of sign in the for such negative numerators).


_

last

numerator.

Why

Always watch

4 a3
3 (a

+ 25 a2 + 38 a -115 + 5) ( a +3)(a-5) 2
x

'

Ex.
1.

3.

Find the sum of


(x

-\

3)

c.

m.

- 2)

(x

3) (x

- 4).
4

Then,

-i
x

cc

?3 +x

- 4) - 2 (g - 2) (a - 4) + 3 (x - 2) (x0-2) (or 3) (x - 4) 2 - 7x + 12-2x + 12x- 16 + 3x - 15x + 6 ~ =x


=
1 (^

- 3)

(x

(x-2) (z_3)(x-4)
3) (x

_
(z

y2

(x

10 x

- 2)

+2 -

'

4)

EXERCISE
Find the following sums
:

56

1,1
#
+-

a
a
fi

x+2 # 1
-

11
2
! 1

+5
O.

+6

a6

c+1
c 4

c-1
c+-4
8

tf-4:
a;

4.

#2
9.

a;

2 + 9 5 _J 4 -a;-12 a;*-16
-I
2
2

x+5 #+1 2' x+ #+3 x 6 x+ 9


5
a;

9
'

-25
. 1

8.

m m+1

+ 5c' m + m. m1
c
2
,

^ + 7 + 12

"
FRACTIONS
163

10

4#
x

JL
y

6# +
x x
,

J
6
1

ii
'

2x ~

2x-5
#

x2

12.

xy 2

+y
a?

y
1

-\-

13.

_^ + -^ +# +x
1 1
2

14.

a
15.

__ + J=*._l. 6 6+a
2a
a2
!
b2

a
.

-\-

, _ 16.

x 1 + #
a;

3x

6 x2
1

f-

1
3 #

#
6
a? 2

+#
+ 2y

1
y
2

18

16i/-y 2

2-y
6

2-3y 2+y
20.

19.

_L+&_^.
a
a
ft)
2
,

+6

+ (a

- 6> (a + b)
g

2
.

21

(a(a

+ b)
spy

22
'

2
'

+& ab
g

a+b

23

5 (x

x2
24.

+
1

+ y) +3y

5(a?-y)
2

x2

2 a
2.^
25.

+3

1.6 2a-3 +
4a2

+ 2xy-3y
9

+1

+ 5a?
a?

2a:-l
2a?

l-2a/
2

26.

2a

+1- 4+ - 1 1-4 x

+3.

164
27
x2

MATHEMATICS

+1

x*--l

=^ +3x +g +3+4 - 4x (aj2_i)(aj + 3) m+3 j2_ ^ + 7 a 3a._h 3 ^3 + 3o;2_^_3


4fl?
3

cc

If the

degree of the numerator

is

equal to or greater than that of the

denominator, the fraction


tic,

is improper, and may be reduced, as in arithmeby dividing the numerator by the denominator. Then

x3

+ 3 x 2 -x - 3

xs

3 x2

-x-3
form

Always reduce the


28.

result to its simplest

1
a2

+X

^+
-

*
#2

29
*

30

+l a-3 a+-2 a + 5 a+b + a ~fr a+b ab By 3 c 5y + 3c 25 - 9 5^-3


,

?/

32

33.

34

35.

37.

38.

5y-3c 5^/ + 3c -9c 5y-3c 2 c +7 c- 4 4&+8c-5 2c + Hc-6 2c + 5c-3 3 m + 13 m - 10 3 m + 17 m + 10 3 m + 17 m + 10 3 m + 13 m - 10 a - a- 56 a - 25 a + 14a + 49 a -2a-35 Sab 2a + 2b 2a-2b ab a b a+b a+b ab 4 ab ab a + b a b 3c + 5 9c + 25
.

25?/ 2
2

2 2

__5

9c -25*
2

FRACTIONS
39

165

a-2
jb

+2
2

x+2 *-2

g?-4
a; 2

+4
a;

a; 3
a;

+5

a? a;

-2a:-35

a;

-10a:
c2

+ 21

+ 2a:-15

41.

-i

^+ 4
a:

-8
:

Express as a single fraction


42.

4+^>.
+5
2
a2

43.

2 2 -9 a2 + 9

2>

44
45.

+9

a
2

-9
a?

+ 25 5a -125
.

4R "
48.

2~8"8

11_1_17_85 8*

3 6

47.

204 5 x

41

_
1

_i
'

25

51'

75
169.

a a;

49.

81

76

,14 + 95

To reduce

a fraction to a whole or mixed

number

principle 6

must be employed. We choose the denominator of the fraction as the number by which the numerator and
K

denominator must be divided.


/v*J

/y>2

Ex. Reduce

/v

R
to a

whole or mixed number.

Dividing both numerator and denominator by 2 x 2

3 x + 7,

we have
This result
170.
is
is

^z
2

+ ^4

15 *

4(2z 2

-3z+7)
two terms are
integral.

115

a mixed number, and the


is

first

An

algebraic expression

integral if its

denominator

numerical.

That

is, if its

denominator

is 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.

3 - are inIn the result of the example in 169, f a? and \ tegral algebraic expressions, though not integral arithmetic

expressions.

31

166

MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
57

Reduce to whole
.,

or

mixed numbers
*

5.

10

+1 4 x-1 X + 5x + 6 x+2 X + 5x + 6 x3 7 v?-hx + VZ 3x + l x + 3a? + 3x + l 2 x+ rf X -1 x-2 x 2 #


4.^
2 2

xs

+5x -7x+9
2

8.

8^+64y 2a + 4?/ + 81 #+3 s+2 g+1 #+2 #+3


3
a;

g^

+3 +4

_|_

rately, then

(Reduce each fraction sepaadd the results.)

(Reduce to mixed numbers, then combine.)


a?

4-

1]L
a:

4 5

#+5
a;

a? a;

+6

+2 +3

a;

a;

+3 +4

2# + 5
a?

+2

Multiplication

171.

Multiplication of fractions involves principles 1 and 6


1.

Ex.

Multiply if by

5.

25

25
5

(Never use cancellation.)

18-5_
25

18- 5
25

_ 18
5

Ex.

2.

Multiply ff by
18
3

3.

_18.3_54
25

25

25

Ex.

3.

Multiply
ct

-+ by a + 4. a iZ

a+2
(a-4)(a +
3)

.(a v

+ 4) =

+ 4) _ a 2 + 6 a -f 8 (a-4)(a + 3) a 2 - a- 12*
[a

2) (a

FRACTIONS
Ex.
4.

'

167

Multiply
2

+2
,

by a

-4
.

_ + *-

(a

- 4) =

("

+ *)(-*) = ^2

(Principle 6 .)

Ex.5. Multiply f by T %.
8 8

But our multiplier

is

1 y - of

4.

Hence our product


-.

is

15 or

^^ =

(Principles 2

and

6.)

15

EXERCISE
Simplify, using factoring:
1.

58

-28.

2.

196
4.

289

51.

361

_
6.

m + 6m + 8
1
!

(wr

K + om).
,

14.4. 28
'

2D'

nn 10.

V + 86 _166 -8& + l 46-1 3 6 + 24


2

8.

(a
c

+ 2)

(a 2
2

5a + 6)

11.

16 6
12. ""

+5
2

- 10 c 4- 16 c ~ 25
2

5 a3

98 63
"

75
'

c<

t^o

125 ac

28 ab

13.

14.

15.

m + 5 m + 6 m + 7 m 4- 10 m+1 m+5 m + 4m + 4 m + 4 m + 3 1Q c 2_21 c _iq 3c -8c-3 4c + llc + 6 12c + 13c + 3 2c -c-10 5c -13c-6' c + 7c + 6 \A 12c + 17 c 3 c 10A c + 8c + 12
2

m "

'

168

MATHEMATICS

18

a;

+ a?y + x - 81
2 2

2
?/
.

2/

(a?

+ 9?/ - ?/)(^ -fay +


a?
2

2
2/

19.

+^+iy, +
x

fx \x
21.

+3 +5
,

+ 5\ A x + 3J\
+3A
,

a;
2

a;

+8 x+I +6 +9
a;

+5

^2

+8

a?

4-

15 \

Division

172.

Division depends on principles 2 and


f-v-3.
9 5
.

6.

Ex.1,

3 _

32

_3
5

5.3
o 2

5.3

Ex.

2.

Divide
*2

T2 x
a;

-4
1

by J

a;

- 1.
+ l)(*-l)
_

-l

-4'^

_ n "^

(s

( x + 2)(x-2)(x-l)

x+1 2

Ex.

3.

Divide f by ||.

1:21=
8

8-21
is

But our

divisor

is

T^th of 21, heuce our quotient


21.

12 times as large as

though the divisor were


I 8

Hence,
12 or

_gW __\
"

I^]j^
8-21
7

-2 2 .3

12

\8

21^
1

2 3 -3. 7

What

divisor

was used

produce to F
2

from

22

3
?

23

Therefore, to divide a fraction by a fraction invert the terms


of the divisor

and proceed as

in multiplication.

FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
Simplify the following
1
"

169

59

14 15

.
"

6
'
'

-288(a-& 2)
289(a -6)
a 2_25
.

36(a-fr 2) 2
51 (a 2

- 6)
'

102_ _._ 17 j ^ 105


.

i
'

a2
2

-8a-f 15

"

102 A 105
-1

.
:

/- 17\
A V 30 y
I _>

8
"

tr

50 a 2 6

_^
""

15 a& 2
"

-9 a -6a+9 a - 17 a + 16 ~2 - K a a b _^a + b
a
2
'

33 c3
5

44
.
'

'

aT&^a^'
z
3

169(^ + ,V) 2

13(a?+y)

lU(x-yf
11.

l^{x-yf

1Q
'

-27
2

& + 3z + 9
Sz s + 27z

'

10c 2 + 17c

+3

2c

+ 13c-7

2c 2 + 17c + 21 10c 2 -3c-l

12.

^ + 10^ + 21 ^ a + 12 + 36 or + 3 x - 28
'

TTTT-

13.
(a?

8az

a:

+2a
4
aa;

11
15 *
1 y_

11
16

+y

x-y

1
2/

X
X
17.

+
a

-0
2/

+y
#
c

-
X

x
19.

+ +
y

18.
?/

+c

__b
c

b-c

Divide b

- cby

c-b.
is

20.

+ x + 2y -f-f x 2y +y
ar
2

* Division written in this form

called a complex fraction.

170

MATHEMATICS
l^jx-yf
a2
b
22.
A
.
.

17 2 (x-

2
?/)

a
o

'

or
b_

a
b
24.
2

aba

-. b

_a

^__9 4-^
2

23.

Transform

Transform

b a+b
a

into

+ mt0 2c-x
^c
o
a;
.

#
x

2c_ 1

a
Fractional Equations

173.

Equations involving fractions are solved by


then solving as in exercise

first

reduc-

ing to integral equations by means of principles of

167,

and

Axiom

3,

8.

Ex.1. Solve
Thel.
c.

lI = 5--.
X

x ( 167). Multiplying both sides of the equation by x (Ax. 3),


is

m.

'2x
X z
j

x)

We
or

have,

2 x + 7 = 5 x 2, 3 x = 9, (Ax. x = S.

4.)

Check

this root

by
2

substituting in the given or original equation.


-

3
3

+ 7 = 5-g, 3'

or

^ = 5-1. 3
2

Ex.

2.

Solve
1.

^
c. c.

a-2
m.

= ^? - i.
a?-3

m. =(a-2)(se-3)2.

Multiplying by

1.

2x2 -8x+6 =
Transposing,

2^-8x + 8-x + 5x-6.


2
a;

Factoring by Type III, (a


Solving by
161,

5 + 4 = 0. - 4) (x - 1) = 0. X = 4 or
x2

1.

FRACTIONS
Check
or
2
for x

171
1

= 4.

4-1 ^ 4-2 4_2 4-3

2'

12'
l_2 1-3
=
2
1

For x
or

= 1,

1_1 1-2

Ex.3.

a-

a>-5
1.

+4

-a;-20

c.

m.

= (x 5)(x-}-4).

Multiplying by

1.

c.

m. x

4:

Transposing,

+ x-5 = 3x-6. x = 5. x = 5.
1

Check
or

5_5

+ 9 1,1 - + - = _.
5

3-5-6 52_5_20

But it is not allowable to divide by zero. Hence 5 is not a root. The equation has no
equation of condition.
It is

solution.

It is

not an

simply a statement that two numbers are


is

equal, 14, but the statement

not true.

EXERCISE 60
Solve and verify the following:
1.

V-a

5.

^ + l=:3x +
1
1

2.

A =8 2x
5

x-1
1
"

x-2
1

3^+2 x -3x+2 5x- 9


2
2
.

3.

_16
X

8.

a-1 a-2 a -3a+2' 4 = 6x-15 2^,3^ + 2a-l 5 15


!

4.

= 11.
X

(Unite the

first

and third

fractions be-

fore clearing the equation of fractions.)

172
l
9.

MATHEMATICS
18
7
.
1

10 x
21

6x 3.5a? =
5 3
2a;

Li

X*

in
'

+5
4

1=

+4
9

11

'

.,

12.

5i
6
3a;

1 2
a;

8/ oj 8^
f

5\

7 =A 0. +
,

3)

32

JLo.

+ l = 2x 1
3

2
14

JL 2x

_^ = -A.
24
3aT
Ql

nK

2# + 4
3

a-3
4

+2
3

3
a;

16

+ '25
x
'

= 10 ~ x _ 2
4
a;

18.

+3_x2_1 _3 4~ 12 2 3 4 *- 2 3a; - 5 = 5. 4+ 11 13
,

._

5-3a;
4 3

3-5a;_3
3
2

5a;

20.

+ 4a; + 3a; + 2i = 0.
4
'

21.

i
22.

+ 4 n3

T=T+
4

26.

4rl

- 3JL2 = 3JL9 + 5
3

23.

3 ZLl

3^ 5_ + 3 = ^i + 2i 2 4 6

FRACTIONS
24.

173

3- 5 - 2x =i- A - 7x + ^+l
5

10

2o.

__

5 17 a

10a +

2_5a +7

_
o.

26.

g + 3 + 5(2 a! + 10) = 2a! + 24


2
5

27.

5(2 a?

+ 10) = 2a
5

5^ + 3
2

28.

^
2

+ + + JL = 82. 4 3 10
?!

29

13 6

+ 7 -^+8 = 25 + 9 + 38>
7

30

5a +
2

2a _ 3a + 9
3
11

on

a-1
2
7 1

-13 a
12
3
1

x-2
3

oo 32.

1.

10
33.

4y

5y
a;

8 l3 a._ 9 2 __ 3_2

^ + Lf^-l5 + 22. 2
= ^_32.
2

34.

5
35.

^ 5

+ 31-^ = 9.
7

2a:
'

3a;

+4_6 +5
a;

5 ? 2
a;

2<c-l"
3

15
Solve for
x.

37.

^ = 4a;-2a.
a
a;

38.

+ - = ? + ?.
a

Solve for

a;,


174
39

MATHEMATICS

4y-l
6

+ 7 ^ $y + 7 4 y -8 12
2y

40.

41.

L^ = lL Solve fort -a 4 + a a 3a a a? +a
t
t
t

6a?

+ 14s + 8 == 4(3a
3

-5)(s
6

+ 4)
'
.

a?

x
6

TCO.

+
z
2

b (a + 6)
a
2
25

44.

15
9

* 2 -f 5

2i

- 25
2

+3z

5 - 3z
2 2

45.

m 2m+1 m+3
1

3m + m 2 = 19 m + 3 m + 1 m 9 m3
2

46.

m a
4
*

2m + a
5

= 2.

Solve for m.

47

+ l __ 2z + 3 _ 3z-5 = 12z-4
3

10

15
A;

48.

fc

+a

5& a,2ft + 3a = 7 + 2a
1

2a
5z

4a

6a

al for Solve
o

k.

10 a
2

Ae% 49.

+ 2d
Id
2

2z

d + 8d = 15 z - 21 d z + 9d
2
!

al Solve

for

z.

50.

-JL + i - ir-26 ^_5 ^-6 y -lly + 30


2

51.

m5
6k

1,1 m
-J-

5m -23 m 11 m + 30
2

52

27c

*A;

=
ft 2

8 ( fe2

~ 4)

2-fc

3ft

-10*

FRACTIONS
53.

175

3-2

-4
two

z-3
fractions,

(Combine the

first

then the second two fractions before

clearing the equation of fractions.

54.

55.

ob.

_.

+ m y - y= -J + . c m c m d-3 d- _ d-l d-2 d- d-5~d-2 d-3 #+1 a-2 = 2x + 8 x+3 x 4 x+4


c

j-

57.

There

is

3 than one sixth


58.

number such that one fifth of What is the number ? of it.


of a fraction
is

it is

greater

by

The denominator
If 9
is

5 more than the nu-

merator.

added

to the
is

the denominator, the result


59.

numerator and 7 subtracted from 1. Find the fraction.

Find three consecutive numbers which will satisfy these conditions if the smallest is multiplied by six and three subtracted from the product, this product divided by the greatest
:

number
60.

will give a quotient of five.

have two proper fractions. The denominator of each is one more than its numerator, the numerator of the first, the numerator of the second, and the denominator of the second are consecutive numbers, and when the greater fraction is subtracted from the lesser the quotient is %. Find the fracI
tions.
61.

Divide 48 into two parts, such that the fraction formed


is ^.

by these parts
62.

Ohio cities are 120 miles apart. Two trains running between these cities have a difference in rate of 5 miles per hour, and the difference in time it takes them to make the run is 20 minutes. Find the rate of each train.
Divide 48 into two such parts that ^ the plus -| the second is 20.
63.
first

Two

part

176
64.

MATHEMATICS
From
a tank one half full of crude
oil

1000 gallons are

drawn out and 75 gallons are lost by evaporation and leakage. The tank is then one third full. How much does the tank hold

when
65.

full ?

machinist and his helper receive together $ 42.80 for a certain piece of work. If the machinist is worth 2\ times as much as his helper, how much does each receive ?
66.

The width
216
feet.

of a rectangle

eter

is

is f of its length. Find the area of the rectangle.

The perimof that

One fourth of a certain number plus one twelfth number equals 16. Find the number.
67. 68.

If 42
is
i-,

ence
69.

two numbers, and \ of what are the numbers ?


is

the

sum

of

their differ-

The sum
is

of the angles of a triangle


if

is

180.

Find the

angles of a triangle

the

first is

25 more than the second,

and the third


70.

three times the

first.

Find the angles of a triangle if the first angle is double the second, and the third is 9 less than three times the first.

boy spent one fourth of his money, and then received $ 2. He spent one half of what he then had, and found he had $ 7 remaining. How much had he at first ?
71.

Three sons were left a legacy, of which the eldest received | the second -i, and the third the remainder, which was
72.
,

$ 200.
73.

How much
A,

did each receive

B and C own
many
as A,

10,000 head of cattle.

B owns
?

three

times as

and C owns \ as many as are owned by


does each

and
74.

together.

How many

own

If you were earning a salary, and spent \ of it for board, i and of the rest for other expenses, and saved annually, $ 280,

how much were your earnings ? 75. The sum of the angles of

a triangle
first

is

180.

Find each

angle if the second angle is twice the is 30 more than the second.

and the third angle

FRACTIONS
76.

177

A local

train loses six of its passengers at the first stop,

one third of the remainder at the second stop, one half of the remainder at the third stop, and the 30 who then remain ride
to the

end of the
started ?

line.

How many

passengers on the train

when
77.

it

In example 74, the first station is -^ as far out as the is 36 miles beyond the second, the fourth 49 miles beyond the third, and the length of the run is 117 miles.
second, the third

At 2 $ per mile per passenger, how much did the railway company receive ?

number exceeds the sum of its one and one fifth by 13. What is the number ?
78.

third, one fourth,

tank can be filled by one pump in 8 hours, and by a second pump in 14 hours. How long does it take to fill the tank when both pumps are working ?
79.
oil

An

Let x = the time when both pumps are working.

Then x
- is the

is

the

amount
of

of

work both pumps do


first

in 1 hour.

amount

work the

pump

does in 1 hour, and


in 1 hour.

14
80.

is

the 8

amount the second pump does


Solve.

Then

+=1
14
oil

tank 20' in diameter can be filled by one pump in 177^ hours, and by a second pump in 64 hours. How long does it take to fill the tank when both pumps are working ?
*

An

81.

In example 78, the cylinder of the larger


is

pump

is

10"

in diameter, the stroke of the piston

12",
is

and there are 15

strokes of the

pump
?

per minute.

What

the capacity of the

tank in cubic feet


82.

In gallons ?

Separate 45 into two such parts that one part divided by


9.

the other will give a quotient of 2 and a remainder of


83.

Separate 45 into two such parts that one part divided by

the other will give a quotient of 5 and a remainder of 37.

178
84.

MATHEMATICS

Separate 45 into two such parts that one part divided by the other will give a quotient of 5 and a remainder of 48.
85.

Two men, 58

miles apart, start at the same time to travel

toward each other.

The

first travels

7 miles in 2 hours, the


far does the first one

second travels 15 miles in 4 hours. travel before they meet ?


86.
tor.
is

How

The denominator
If 5
|.
is

then
87.

of a fraction is 5 less than the numeraadded to the numerator, the value of the fraction Find the fraction.

Two men, A and

B, 58 miles apart, start at the same

time to travel toward each other.

travels 7 miles in 2 hours

and B travels 15 miles in 4 hours. A meets with an accident and is delayed 20 minutes. How far does B travel before they meet?
88.

Separate a into two parts such that one part divided by


c.

the other will give a quotient of g and a remainder of


89.

Separate 42 into three parts such that the second shall


first

be four times the


90.

and the third 4 times the second.

Separate
the

into three parts such that the second shall be

m times
91.

first

and the third

times the second.

A has
.

$ 1200 out at interest, part of 6


at 6

and the balance

at 5

The part

brings as

much

interest in 4 years as
is

the part at

5%

brings in 6 years.

What

his total

amount

of interest per year ?

92

4(58-^)
15

^2^
'

7
28
58

Multiplying by 105,

- 28 x =
58 x

30
28
28.

x.

= =

58.

(Indicate such products and save computation.)

, q 93
-

2i-x_ q ,5x "l6~~ + 48'

5*-2
6

+5Z + 13

15a;-5 7<c-6 _ 18
'

FRACTIONS
REVIEW

179

In solving the following equations, use two unknown quantities wherever possible, 50
:

1.

father's age
it

and 4 years ago


2.

4 times as great as that of his son was six times as great. What are their ages ?
is

now

$6

is

changed into 51

coins.

If each coin

is

either a

quarter or a dime,
3.

how many

of each are there ?

train leaves a station

and travels at the rate of 40

miles an hour.
station

Two

hours later a second train leaves the

and travels in the same direction at the rate of 55 miles

an hour.

Where

will the second train pass the first ?

4. A room is 2 feet longer than it is wide, and if its length were increased by 4 feet and width diminished by 3 feet, its area would remain the same. What are the dimensions ?

5.

could dig a trench in 15 days, and

could dig
it ?

it

in

20 days.
6.

How many

days would

it

take both to dig


;

How
7.

John has 14 $ less than Henry much money has each ?

together they have 60 ^.

The sum

of

two numbers

more than the


8.

smaller.

and the larger What are the numbers ?


is

63,

is

17

Divide $ 2200 among A, B, and C, in such a way that B shall have twice as much as A, and C shall have $200 more than B.
9.

I take a trip of 90 miles, partly


If I go 42 miles farther

by

train

and partly by

trolley.

by

train than

by

trolley,

how
10.

far do I go

by each ?
If the second

Three boys together have 140 marbles.

has twice as
third,
11.

many as the first, but only how many marbles has each boy ?
The
difference
is 19.

half as

many

as the

between the squares of two consecutive


integers.

integers
12.

Find the

The length and breadth


;

of a rectangular floor differ

by

5 feet

the perimeter

is

60

feet.

Find dimensions and

area.

180
13.

MATHEMATICS

Five boys agreed to buy a boat, but one of them withdrew, when it was found that each of the remaining boys had Find cost of the boat. to pay $ 200 more. Divide $ 351 among three persons in such a way that for every dime the first receives, the second shall receive a
14.

quarter and the third a dollar.


15.
it lost.

ball nine has played 64

games and won 12 more than

How many
John solved a

games has
certain

it

won ?
of examples,

16.

number
many.

and William
96.

did 12 less than twice as

Together they solved

How many did each solve ? 17. A farmer paid $ 94


each
cost, if the

for a horse

and a cow.

horse cost $ 13 more than twice as

What did much as

the cow ?

pounds of coffee at 30^ a pound must be mixed with 12 pounds of coffee at 20^ a pound to make a mixture worth 24 $ a pound 9
18. 19.

How many

How many pounds of


lb.

tea at 60 $ a
to

with 25
a pound
20.

of tea at

40^ a pound

pound must be mixed make a mixture worth 45^


and

A man

hired 4

men and

3 boys for a day for $ 18

for another day, at the same rate, 3

How much
9

did he pay each

man

4 boys for $ 17. and each boy per day ?

men and

21. If a bushel of oats is worth 40 ^ and a bushel of corn is worth 35 fl how many bushels of each must be used to produce a mixture of 100 bu. worth 48 $ a bushel ?
22.

A man
him
is

can row 12 mi.

down stream
is

in 2 hrs., but

it

takes

6 hrs. to return.

What

his rate in still water,

and

what
23.

the rate of the current ?


;

rows 20 mi. down stream and back in 8 hrs. he can row 5 mi. down while he rows 3 mi. up stream. Find rate in still water, and rate of stream.
24.

A man

Find two numbers whose sum


:

is

54,

and whose sum and

difference are in the ratio of 9

5.

FRACTIONS
Supplemental Applied Mathematics
1.

181

The
is

specific gravity of ice (ratio of the

weight of a cubic

foot of ice to that of a cubic foot of water)

is .92.

How much
What
1'

water

there in a cake of ice

3'

10.5"

10.5" ?

will

the ice weigh ?


2.

What

is

the third dimension of a cake of ice


?

1',

weighing 50 pounds
3.

piece of iron 4"


liters of

x 8" x
it

1' is

placed in a tank of water.

How many
4. One much ? 5.

water did

displace ?

cubic foot of steel immersed in water weighs

how

and that of ice is .92. Find the difference in weight between one cubic foot of sea water and one cubic foot of ice.
specific gravity of sea

The

water

is

1.025,

6.

A piece
liner.

ocean
7.

X How much
of ice 3'

1'

dropped overboard from an of the ice is submerged in the ocean ?

1' is

A tank of water

18'

8'

and 6 deep
f

is

frozen to a depth
?

of 7".
8.

Find the value of the

ice at

42

fl

per hundred pounds

feet

Air is 14.43 times as heavy as hydrogen gas. 8500 cubic hydrogen have been pumped into a balloon. What weight will it lift ?
of
9.

8.3

In testing 100 pounds of steam coal there was found pounds of ash, .932 pounds

sulphur.

What was

the per cent of

carbon
10.

The span
pitch
of

of a roof

is

42

The

iC

is

30.

The
angle

member* CE bisects the ACB. Find the lengths of


members
used.

all

the

* The pieces used in forming a roof truss are called " irons," or " angles."

members," "angle

182

MATHEMATICS
Find the lengths of the angles if the roof in example 11 is of the form of the truss shown in the accompanying
11.

figure.

(EFG

is

equilateral.)

12.

A
of

li" rainfall on 20
land
is

acres

how many

barrels of
13.

water?

school building has eight drinking fountains, each

flowing 1 gallons per minute. These are supplied by a whose cylinder is 4" in diameter and 10" long. How
strokes per minute

pump many

must the pump make

to

keep these fountains

running
14.

square of the distance

The illumination given by any J $2 -^ =

light

is

inversely as the

^.
di

12

A light

6 feet from a table

is

How much more light does the 15. A 16 candle power and a
is 3'

moved 3 table now

feet

from the

table.

receive ?

4 candle power electric light The 4 candle power are placed on opposite sides of a screen.

from the screen. At what distance must the 16 candle power be placed that each side of the screen may receive the same amount of light ?
16.

A chandelier directly over a table contains four 16 candle


lights.

power carbon filament

These lights are 4 -6" from the ceiling. A new chandelier fitted with four tungsten lights 3-6" from the ceiling is put in. These tungsten lights give 1-Jtimes as much light as the old 16 candle power. Does the table receive more or less light and how much ?
17.

16 candle power electric light


sufficient light.

is

above a table

and does not give


is

attached to the socket

To remedy this defect a wire and brought down to a reading lamp


is

containing a tungsten burner which

18" above the table.

How much

more

light does the table receive ?

FRACTIONS
18.
cast.

183
per lineal foot after
it is

In cooling iron shrinks about

-J-"

A casting

cooling.
19.

must be 2-1" in length and 1-8" square What were its dimensions when cast ?
is

after

A
A

gas engine cylinder


is its size

to be 4" in diameter

and 4"

long.
20.

What

before cooling ?
is

gas engine

cylinder

to be

3-J-"

in diameter

and
it

4" long.
cast.
21.

Find dimensions

of the

pattern from which

is

What

size bolt

would you use

in a 0.344" hole ?

22.
23.

What

size bolt

would you use

in a 1.491" hole ?

was standing behind a target during target practice. Those doing the firing were 1 mile away and the velocity of their projectiles was 1150' per second. Did the projectile strike the target before the sound reached there? What was the 4 LiLir difference between the time the sound of firing and the projectile reached the target ?
,

A man

24.

Estimate the weight per lineal foot

,/p
j

of the Steel
figure.

Tee Eail in the accompanying Disregard the round corners con;

tfl

_3

sider
25.

them
If a

as angles.

sn

45,

plumber needs to change the direction of a pipe by he calls the hypotenuse AC of the triangle ABO equal to
T

BC + ^ BO. W hat
easier
to

is

the error

when

BO = 30" ?
method

Which

is

compute, the steam

fitter's

or the correct

method ?
In estimating material for a bias ruffle a dressmaker calls the length of the bias f the width of the goods. What is the error when the goods is 27" wide ?
26.

plumber makes a 45 turn across a hallway 10' wide. The hall is 46' long and is piped the entire length. What
27.

length of pipe

is

used

184
28.
if

MATHEMATICS
In example 27, how

many

feet of pipe

would be needed

a 30 angle were used in


29.

making the

cross over ?

In a triangle

ABC,

right-angled at B,

ZA
is

is 30.

such triangles

many mechanics
is

estimate that

AC is
10'?

In 1^ times
Is this

AB.
Let Let

How

nearly correct

this

when
and

AB

method

as easy to

compute as the correct


then x then

one, namely,

2x = AC,

= BC,
2

AB = V(2xf- {xf.
a
,-

AB = a,
A

V (2 x) x

== a,

30.

house

is

26 feet wide.
rafters,

The pitch

of the roof

is 30.

Find the length of the


extensions at the eaves.
31.
30.

no allowance being made for

The width

of a house

is 28'

and the roof has a pitch of


if

length rafters must the carpenter cut 14" beyond the house at the eaves ? project
32.

What

the rafters

goods necessary to

Use dressmaker's rule in finding the number of yards of make a 6-inch bias ruffle for a skirt 4 yards around. The goods is 27"
wide and no
is to

strip of ruffling

be less than 35" in length.

A S"B
ruffling for this 4-yard skirt.
is 8".

Let AF be the piece of goods, 36", the length of then each strip of ruffling. It will

AK=
AB
is

therefore require 6 strips of

The

cut

along the selvage

The amount

of goods required

therefore

6x8"

plus

the 27" (width of goods

MO)

wasted at the corner, or 2\ yards.

33. Find the cost of two 3" bias ruffles made from goods 30" wide and costing 95^ per yard, the skirt being 4 yards

around.
34.

Silk

may be purchased

" on the bias."

ing for the waste at the corner

This avoids payFind the cost of three 1^" bias

FRACTIONS
ruffles

185
and

to be used on a 6-yard silk skirt, silk 21" wide

costing $1.10 per yard.


35.

The braces

for a billboard are to

have an angle of 60
if

with the ground.


foot of the brace
36.

What
is 8'

length must the braces be cut from the board ?


is

the

A
its

piece of steel
length.

l\ n by

5".

It

weighs 225 pounds.

Find
37.

The volume

of a cube is .512 cubic foot.

Find

its surface.

The water in an irrigating ditch flows 3|- miles per hour. It must supply a 160-acre farm with 1" of water per
38.

week.
39.

What
Water

is is

the area of a cross section of the ditch ?

flowing through an 8" water main at the rate of

10' per second.

How many

barrels of water will

it

deliver per

hour
40.

farmer had a pond of 6 acres which was frozen to a depth of 10". He sold the ice to a dealer at 12^ per hundred
pounds.
41.

How much

did he receive ?

each 18".
42.

One diagonal of a rhombus and a side of the rhombus are Find the other diagonal, the angles, and the area.
bar of copper 4"
is

How
43.

long

the wire ?

X 6" X 3' is drawn into What does the coil weigh ?


box
is

a i" wire.

than the combined areas of the hot-air pipes. One hot-air pipe is 10" in diameter, one is 8", and the remaining six are each 6". Find
of a cold-air to be
less

The area

the area of the cold air box.


44.

From

a town

C one

train goes north at 32 miles

One hour

later a second train goes east at

an hour. 30 miles an hour.

How
45.

far apart are they 3 hours after the first train started ?

From

town C a

train goes north at 32 miles an hour.


first at

5 hours later a second train follows the


hour.

40 miles an

How

far apart are they 8 hours after the second train

started ?

188
46.

MATHEMATICS
Chocolate contains 12.9

%. How much chocolate will furnish as much protein as \ pound cocoa*7 47. Chocolate contains 48.7% fat, and cocoa, 28.9%. One How many cups cocoa half pound cocoa measures 2 cups. will furnish as much fat as \ pound chocolate ?

protein

cocoa, 21.6

48.

As

to the quantity of fat,


if

which

is

cheaper to use, cocoa

or chocolate,
costs 25jt?
49.

8 ounces chocolate cost 22 $ and \ pound cocoa

If halibut costs

18^ per pound and 17.7%

is refuse,

find cost per


50.

pound

of edible portion.
;

Haddock
fish,

cheaper
51.

12^ per pound 51 halibut or haddock ?


costs

is

refuse.

Which

is

Boned and dried codfish sells for 16 fi per pound; dried From the latter there is a loss of codfish for 10^ per pound. cheaper? Which is 20%.
52.

Whitefish contains 12.8


per pound.
12.7

protein

43.6

is

refuse.

It

sells for 16jt

Porterhouse steak contains 19.1


It sells for

protein

is

refuse.

food contains more protein for less


53.

30^ per pound. money ?

Which

Bass contains 9.3% protein; 54.8% is refuse. It sells Which kind of fish is cheaper, whitefish for 12 ^ per pound.
or bass ?

Herring contains 11.2 % protein 42.6 % is refuse it sell for 10 P per pound. Perch contains 7.3 % protein 62.5 % is waste; it sells for 10^ per pound. Winch fish contains
54.
;
;

more protein
55.

for less

money

?
;
;

Pike contains 7.9 % protein 57.3 % is refuse it sells for 12^ per pound. Pound steak contains 27.6% protein; it sells for 16^ per pound. Which is the cheaper food ?

Canned salmon sells for 18 ^ per can it weighs 1^ pounds 19.5% protein, 14.2% waste. Sardines sell for 25^ per can, which weighs 11| ounces they contain 23.7 % protein T and 5 % waste. W hich is cheaper to use ?
56.
;

contains

FRACTIONS
57.

187

Dried beef contains 39.2% protein. It costs 30^ per pound. Which is cheaper, dried beef or salmon ?
Express graphically the edible quantities of haddock, halibut, whitefish, bass, herring, perch, pike, and canned salmon that can be purchased for 25^.
58. 59.

Express graphically the quantities of protein per pound

in these fish.

CHAPTER X
Proportion
174.

Eeview
to

173 and exercise 60.


is

The

relation of one

number
is

another

often

expressed in fractional form.


ratios.

These fractions are known as


written
f.

Thus, the ratio of 2 to 3

This was
to 2
:

first
3,

written 2-r-3, then the division


the fractional form
is

sign

was modified

now

con-

sidered best.

proportion is the equality of

two

ratios.

It is therefore

simply a fractional equation of two terms.

Thus.b

- is
d

a proportion.
d.

This

is

read a divided by

b is

equal to

divided by

The numerators are the antecedents. The denominators are the consequents. The first antecedent and the last consequent are the extremes. The first consequent and the second antecedent are the mean&
Thus, a and d are extremes and b and
c

the means.

Properties of Proportion
1.

The product of the extremes


easily

is

equal

to the

product of the

means.
This
is

proved by clearing the equation (proportion)

a_ b~
of fractions.

d"

Whence,

ad

be.

188

PROPORTION
2.

189

If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers, a proportion may be formed making one product
the

means and

the other

product the extremes.


xy

Thus,
Dividing by y

mc.

m,

=m
c,

Had you

divided by y

the proportion would have been

^
c 3.

= .
y

(See

6,

174.)

If four quantities are in proportion, they are in proportion

by composition.
Let

= .
d
f

Then,

?
a

+ = +"i
i.

or

=c+

(?
.

4.

If four quantities are in proportion, they are in proportion

by division.
Let

= 2.
l

Then,

_ 1 = '_

or

a-b ^ cb

d
t

5.

If four quantities are in proportion, they are in proportion

by composition Let

and

division.

= .
= i.
d

(1)

By
By

3,

dt$
b

(2)

4,

^& = c-<*.
= tA a b c d
(4)

Dividing (2) by (3)

190
6.

MATHEMATICS
If four quantities are in proportion, they are in proportion

by alternation.
Thus,
if

^
b

= ^then^ = -.
d
c

175.

In a mean proportion the means are equal.

a Thus, x
Solving x

= - is
cc

a mean proportion.

= \rad.
mean
proportional between a and d
is

That
product.

is,

the square root of their

The

last

consequent of a mean proportion

is

a third proportional to the

other two numbers.

Thus

in

= -,
d

is

a third proportional to a and


is

x.

The fourth proportional


portion as y
b
(1

the last consequent in such a proalike.

c =-

where no two terms are

d'

EXERCISE
1.
2. 3.

61
9.

Find a mean proportional between 4 and

Find a mean proportional between 16 and

25.

Find a mean proportional between 289 and 256.


289 _ x x ~256'

or,

= V289

256

But \/ab

= Va V6

Then,

jc

= V289 V256 = 17 16 = 272.


.

4.
5.

Find the mean proportional between 121 and

729.
line

Two
What

lines

are 196'

and

25',

respectively.

Find a

equal to their
6. 7.

mean
the

proportional.

is

mean proportional between


to 2
f

1.44" and 2.56".

Find a fourth proportional

3', 8'.

PROPORTION
8.

191

Find a fourth proportional

to 5, 9, 15.
6, 9, 3.

9.

Find a fourth proportional to Find a fourth proportional


2
-

10.

to 5, 7, 9.
6
,

Note that in such proportions as


tion.

For since
consequent

6=3-2
is

(the

first

- x may be obtained by inspecx numerator), x must be 3 3 (the first

denominator).
first

Or, reading vertically instead of horizontally, since

the

1| times the first antecedent, the second consequent

must be 1\ times the second antecedent.


11. 12.
13.

Find a third proportional


Find a third proportional Find a third proportional

to 2, 8.
to 5, 15.

to 5, 9.

14.

Find a mean proportional between .0529 and 529.

15.

Find a mean proportional between

and

x
16.

Find a mean proportional between

x
2 x2

+7
3x

ar

+ 8*_7
2
a;

2x4-5 -^

and

17.

Find a fourth proportional to x2


2

+ 9 + 20,
sc

3x

28,

and 2 x
18.

+ 19 a + 45.
if

In a semicircle,

a perpendicular

is

dropped to the

diameter, from a point in the circumference, the perpendicular


is

mean

proportional between the segments of the diameter.


of the circle
is 8. is

The diameter
19.

20 and the perpendicular

'to it

from the circumference

Find the segments of the diameter.


of a diameter

The segments

AB and BC

AC are 4"

and

9" respectively, find the length of the perpendicular to erected at B and extending to the circumference.
20.

AC

2x + S = 5a + ll 2x 3 5x 11

Solve using
^

1U} 6

bef ore c i ear i n g

of fractions.

192
(s (x

MATHEMATICS

+ 7)-(3y-l) 5x7y=: 9.

+ 7)+(3y-l) = 7
2

174, 5, on the first equation before clearing it of fractions.) Ratio plays a very important part in science, though the ratio idea is often disguised to such an extent by the scientific notation that the pupil

(Use

thinks in other terms than those of ratio or measurement.


feels that the specific gravity

of Specific Gravity disappear when one simply the ratio of a volume of some substance to an equal volume of some substance taken as a standard.

For example, the mysteries

is

The standard for liquids and solids is water. One cubic centimeter (c.c.) of water weighs
621 pounds.

gram, or

1 cu.

ft.

weighs
is

For gases the standard


Ex.

is

usually hydrogen
is

sometimes

air,

which

14.44 times as heavy as hydrogen,

used.
lb.

cubic foot of steel weighs 490

Find

specific gravity of steel.

Specific gravity of steel


It is

= 7.84.
decimal form, not as a

customary to write
fraction.
to be

specific gravity in a

common
Units

remembered

1"
1 liter

=2.54

centimeters.
(c.c).

1
1

= 1000 cubic centimeters kilogram = 1000 grams.


water weighs 1 gram.

c.c.

1 liter hydrogen weighs 0.09 gram.


Specific gravity air
22.

(hydrogen standard)

is 14.44.

Ice weighs 57.5 pounds to the cubic foot.

Find

its spe-

cific gravity.

23.

The

specific gravity of

oak

is 0.8.

Find the weight of

1 cubic foot.
24.

A cubic foot of lead weighs 706 pounds. A

Find

its specific

gravity.
25.

cubic foot of copper weighs 550 pounds.

Find

its

specific gravity.

26.

The

specific gravity of

aluminum

is 2.6.

Steel

is

how

many

times as heavy ?

LIST OF CONSTRUCTIONS
Page
70-

To draw a straight

line equal to

a given straight line

75

74.

To construct an angle equal


To
bisect

to

a given angle

76

79.

a given angle

79
sides are given

87.

To construct a triangle when three

82

99.

To draw a perpendicular bisector of a straight

line

90

100.
103.

To draw a perpendicular
To draw a perpendicular

to

a line from any point in the line a line from a given point with-

91

to

out the line

93
line parallel to a given straight line

119.

To draw a straight

108

193

LIST OF

THEOREMS
Lines

Theorem VII
98. If two straight lines
intersect, the vertical

Page
angles are equal
.

90

Theorem VIII
101. If a perpendicular is erected at the middle point of a line, I. Any point in the perpendicular is equidistant from the extremis
ties

of the

line,

II.

Any

point not in the perpendicular

is

unequally distant from

the extremities

of

the line

91

Theorem IX
104.

From a

point without a line but one perpendicular can be

drawn

to the line

93

Theorem XII
pendicular

107. If two unequal oblique lines drawn from a point in a perto the line cut off unequal distances from the foot of the
is

perpendicular, the more remote

the greater

96

Theorem XIII
108. If oblique lines are drawn from a point to a straight line and a perpendicular is drawn from the point to the line, I. Two equal oblique lines cut off equal distances from the foot
of the perpendicular, II. The greater of two unequal oblique distance from the foot of the perpendicular
lines cuts off the greater

97

Theorem XIV
120.

Two

lines parallel to the

same

line

are parallel

to

each other

109

Theorem
121.

XV
is

line

perpendicular

to

one of two parallels


194

perpendicu-

lar to the other

109

LIST OF

THEOREMS
a transversal, the alternate-

195
Pagb

Theorem XVI
124.

If two parallel

lines are cut by

interior angles are equal

Ill

Theorem XVII
125.

If two

lines

are cut by a transversal, and the alternate-

interior angles are equal, the lines are parallel

112

Theorem XXI
130.
the sides

Any

point in the bisector of an angle

is

equidistant

from
117

of the angle

Theorem XXVI
137. If a
series

of parallels intercept equal parts on one transver123

sal, they intercept

equal parts on every transversal

Theorem XXVII
138.
is

The
to

parallel

joining the middle points of two sides of a triangle the third side and equal to one half of it
line

124

Theorem XXVIII
139.

The

line joining the


is

middle points of
bases

the non-parallel sides


to

of a trapezoid

parallel

to the

and equal

one half of their

sum
Lines which Meet in a Point

124

Theorem XXIX
140.

The

the bisector

bisectors of two of of the third angle

the angles

of a triangle

intersect

on

125

Theorem
142.

XXX
middle points of the sides perpendicular bisector

The perpendiculars erected

at the

of a triangle meet in a point which of the third side

lies in the

126

Theorem XXXI
144.

The

three altitudes of a triangle meet in a

common point

127

Theorem XXXII
145.

Two medians

of a triangle meet in a point of

the third

median

127

196

MATHEMATICS
Triangles

Theorem
77.

Pagb

Two triangles

are equal
to

when two

sides

and

the included angle

of one are equal respectively


the other

two sides and the included angle of

77

Theorem
78.

II

Two

triangles are equal

when a
to

side

of the one are equal respectively


the other

a side

and two adjacent angles and two adjacent angles of


78

Theorem
85.
equal

III

In an

isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are

81

Theorem IV
88.

Two

triangles are equal

when

three sides

of one are equal

re-

spectively to three sides

of the other

82

Theorem
96.

V
88

Any

side

of a triangle

is

greater than the difference of the

other two sides

Theorem VI
The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than two lines drawn from any point within the triangle to the
97.
the

sum of
89

extremities

of

the third side

of the triangle

Theorem
105.

X
the

Two

right triangles are equal

when

hypotenuse and an

acute angle of the one are equal, respectively, to the hypotenuse acute angle of the other

and
94

Theorem XI
106.
the

Two

right triangles are equal


to

one are equal, respectively,

hypotenuse and leg of the hypotenuse and leg of the other


the

when

95

Theorem XVIII
126.
angles

The sum of

the angles

of a triangle

is

equal

to

two right

114

LIST OF

THEOREMS

197
Pagb

Theorem XIX
128. If two angles of a triangle are equal,
the triangle is isosceles

116

Theorem
are unequal,

XX
the angles opposite
.

129. If two sides of a triangle are unequal,

and

the greater angle lies opposite the greater side

116

Theorem XXII
132. If two
the

triangles have two sides

of one equal respectively


is

to

two sides of the other, and the included angle of the first greater than

included angle of the other, the third side of the first than the third side of the second

greater

119

Parallelograms

Theorem XXIII
134. In a parallelogram
opposite angles are equal
the opposite sides are equal,

and

the

121

Theorem XXIV
135.

Two parallelograms

are equal if two sides


to

angle of one are respectively equal

two sides

and the included and the included


122

angle of the other

Theorem
is

XXV
the figure

136. If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal,


a parallelogram

122

Polygons

Theorem XXXIII
149.

The sum of

the angles

many

right angles as the

of any polygon is equal to twice as polygon has sides, less four right angles
.

128

Theorem
150.
angles

XXXIV

The sum of the

exterior angles

ducing one side at each vertex

of a polygon formed by propolygon is equal to four right a of


129

INDEX
Abscissa, 105. absolute term, 106. absolute value, 19. acute angle, 79, 86.
Circle, 70.

circumference, 70.
coefficient, 3.

acute-angled triangle, 81.


addition, 16.
of fractions, 160. adjacent angles, 75.

common common

factor, 6, 138.

multiple, 159.
87.

complementary angles, complex fractions, 168.

algebraic expression, integral, 164. alternate exterior angles, 110. alternate interior angles, 110. altitude of triangle, 83, 109. angle, 75. acute, 79, 86. alternate-exterior, 110. alternate-interior, 110.
bisector, 79.

concentric circles, 71. conditional equation, 10. consequents, 188. constants, 106. coordinates, 104.

curved

line, 70.

Decimals, 29.
degree, 105. diagonal, 120. diameter, 72.
difference, 21.

complementary, 87.
exterior, 109, 110.

exterior-interior, 110.
interior, 110.

of squares, 133.

obtuse, 79, 86. of polygon, 127.


right, 79.

prime, 1. dividend, 25.


digit,

division, 25.

by

zero, 171.

supplementary, 87. supplementary adjacent, 87.


vertical, 87.

fractions, 167.

polynomials, 41.
divisor, 25.

antecedent, 188. applied mathematics, 29, 48, 68, 100,


130, 151, 180. arc, 70. axioms, 11, 76.

Elimination, 56. equation, 10. condition, 10. equivalent, 107.


fractional, 170.

Base of

triangle, 83.

geometric, 11.
identical, 11.

binomial, 2. square of, 135.


bisector of angle, 79. of line, 90. brace, 7. bracket, 7.

inconsistent, 106.

root of, 10. simultaneous, 56, 105. solution of, 10. equiangular polygon, 128.

198

INDEX
equilateral polygon, 128. equilateral triangle, 81. equivalent equations, 107.

199
29, 48, 66, 98,

Mathematics applied,
130, 151, 181. means, 188.

exponent, 26.
exterior angle, 109. extremes, 188.

method, indirect, 97. minuend, 21.


minutes, 87.

mixed numbers,
Factor,
factors,
2, 133.

factoring, hints on, 145. common, 6, 138.

prime,

5.

fractional equations, 170. fractions, 155. addition, 160. complex, 168. decimal, 29. division, 167. improper, 163. multiplication, 165. reduction, 29, 155.

164. multiple, common, 159. multiplication, 24, 35. fractions, 165. polynomials, 35. sign rule, 25.

Negative numbers, 15. number, mixed, 164.


negative, 15.
positive, 15.

prime, 1. system, 1.

Oblique angle, 79.

Geometric equation,
solid, 69.

11.

surface, 69.

geometry, plane, 70. graphs, 103.

oblique angle triangle, 81. obtuse angle, 79, 86. obtuse angle triangle, 81. oral review, 8.
ordinate, 105. origin, 105.
Parallel lines, 106.

Hints on factoring, 145. housekeeping problems, 34, 48, 67, 98,


131, 153, 184.

improper

Identical equation, 11. fractions, 163. inconsistent equations, 106.

independent term, 106. indirect method, 97.


inequalities, 54.

parallelogram, 120. parenthesis, 7. perpendicular, 79. perpendicular bisector, 90. plane, 70. polygon, 127.

mutually equilateral, 128.


regular, 128.

solution of, 63. inscribed, 74. integral expressions, 164. interior angles, 110. isosceles trapezoid, 120.
isosceles triangle, 81.

polynomial,

2.

division, 41.

multiplication, 36. positive numbers, 15.

prime

digit, 1.

factor, 5.

number,
Line, 69.

1.

principles of fractions, 155.

broken, 70. curved, 70.


parallel, 106.
sect, 69.

problems, housekeeping, 34, 48, 67, 98,


131, 153, 184.

shop, 29, 49, 66, 98, 130, 151, 181. proportion, 188.

segment, 69.
locus of points, 117. lowest common multiple, 159.

Quadrant, 72. quadrilateral, 130.

200
quadrinomial,
quotient, 25.
2.

INDEX
subtrahend, 21.

Radius, 70. reading of figures, 120.


rectangle, 120.

supplementary angles, 87. surface, geometric, 69. straight line, 69.

Term,

2.

reduction of fractions, 29, 157. regular polygon, 128. review, oral, 8.

degree of, 106. terms, similar, 2. theorem, 76.


transposition, 36. transversal, 110. trapezium, 120. trapezoid, 120.
triangle, 76.

rhomboid, 120. rhombus, 120.


right angle, 81. right triangle, 81. root of equation, 11. rule, sign, 19, 22, 25. subtraction, 22.

Scalene triangles, 81. seconds, 87. sect of line, 69.

acute, 81. altitude, 83. base, 83. equilateral, 81.


isosceles, 81.

segment

of line, 69.
29, 49, 66, 98, 130, 151,

oblique, 81. obtuse, 81.


right, 81.

semicircle, 72.

shop problems,
181.

sign rule, addition, 19.


division, 25.

scalene 81. vertical angle, 109. vertices, 76, 109. trinomial, 2.


;

multiplication, 25. subtraction, 22. similar terms, 2. simultaneous equations, 56, 105. solid, geometric, 69. solution, equations, 11. factoring, 148. inequalities, 63. square, 120. of binomial, 135. substitution, 58. subtraction, 20. rule, 22.

trinomial square, 135.

Value, absolute, 19.


variables, 56, 106. vertical angles, 86. of triangle, 109. vertices of triangle, 76. vertex, 75. of triangle, 109.

vinculum,

7.

Zero, 1. zero division, 171.