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COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT.
INTRODUCTION TO
MATHEMATICS
BY
ROBERT
L.
SHORT
AND
WILLIAM
H.
ELSON
D.
C.
HEATH &
CO.,
PUBLISHERS
CHICAGO
BOSTON
NEW YORK
Copyright,
1916,
By D.
C.
Heath &
ih6
Co.
AUG 29 1916
CIA438176
INTRODUCTION
This book
of pupils.
is
it to the needs and the understanding employs the increasingly popular correlated method, combining related portions of arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. It treats these branches of mathematics more with reference to their unities and less as isolated entities (sciences). It seeks to give pupils usable knowledge of the principles underlying mathematics and ready control of them. The combined arrangement not only increases interest and motivates the work, but it also gives greater power of analysis on the part of the learner and greater accuracy in results. The early study of geometry brings analysis into play at every consequently written problems to be stated step and stage have no terrors for those who are taught in this way. Growing discontent with mathematics as traditionally taught, in view of the large number of failing pupils, has led mathematical associations to urge teachers to select and stress those For example, portions of mathematics that are vitally useful. years recommended associations have for several that all these work should be based upon the equation. In accordance with this view we have made the demonstrations in this book largely algebraic, thus making the demonstration essentially a study
mathematics, adapting
It
in simultaneous equations.
In
great
this
method
of treatment,
we have found
it
advantageous
many
In general, the book covers straight line geometry to proportion and algebra through fractional equations it is intended
j
iv
INTRODUCTION
We are
indebted to
offered suggestions
and
East
practical problems,
and especially
to Carlotta Greer, of
W. Thalman,
B. C.
proof sheets.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOOK
CHAPTER
I.
I
PAGE
Prime Factors
Oral Control of
II.
Number
Equations
Problems
10
13
.
.
III.
.17
1829
29
36
....
. .
.
Polynomials, Multiplication
Polynomials, Division
41
Review
Inequalities
.... ....
.
.46
48
54
56
64
66
....
Parallels and
.
69 99
103
120
127
.
. .
Polygons
.130
VI
CHAPTER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
VIII.
133
+ b)
(a
h)
x*
& + bx +
3
.
c2
.144
148
Solutions by Factoring
.151
155
Fractions
Multiples
159 160
166 168
Addition
Multiplication
Division
....
170
181
X.
Proportion
188
193
List of Constructions
List of
Theorems
194 198
Index
This
is especially
in
mind that
in geometry as well as in
To
The equation is method successfully, the angle values and for line values is
In lettering a figure, begin at the lower lefthand corner and read counterclockwise. This gives pupils an idea of directed lines, and
makes possible the correct drawing of the figure from description. Theorems I and II should be assumed as true until after Theorem IX. If they are then proved, the student will not be so apt to attempt to prove every theorem and problem by superposition. Note that many demonstrations have been put into the form of a set of simultaneous equations, the solution of which produces the
desired equation.
of quantities
may
amount of the work orally, and do it so often that the pupil knows what he is doing, and why he is doing it. No pupil
a large
Do
should use pencil and paper to find prime factors of (24) 2 (12) 6 9 or to find the product of 18 17.
, ,
27,
work,
rules,
and instructions
Teach pupils to use the Index, also the groups of theorems and constructions found on pages 193197.
vu
INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER
I
is
a decimal one.
Ten
units of one
One tenth of any digit makes a digit of the next lower order. The digits are 1, 2, All numbers are made up of these digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
order
of the next higher.
make one
and
other symbol,
known
16
is
equal to ten
l's
added to
That
0.
is,
16
= 10 + 6, = two
the
by the
For example, 4
9
or
2,
where the
indicates multiplication.
= 32,
= 33.
The numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 are the prime digits. A prime number is a number whose only integral factors are itself and unity.
EXERCISE
Write the following numbers in such a way that their mal composition will appear
1.
deci
145.
8.
511.
145
2. 3.
= 100 + 40 + 54. 5.
223.
987. 999.
6.
227.
9.
101.
448.
7.
863.
10.
10016.
2
2.
MATHEMATICS
In the product of two or more numbers, any one of them
number
of
them
is
is
product
= 30.
Then, 2
a factor of 30.
3 or 6
3.
A term is
(+)
or
plus
minus ( )
In the expression,
10 10
10
4.
is
+6
6
is
a term.
is
also a term.
+6
A binomial is an expression of two terms. A trinomial is an expression of three terms. A quadrinomial is an expression of four terms.
expression of two or more terms
is
An
nomial.
100
5.
+ 60 + 3
is
a trinomial.
number by a
letter or
a combination of letters.
Such
letters
may
represent either
unknown numbers
or
n may represent any number, likewise any letter or combination of letters and figures may be considered a number. a + b + c is a trinomial number ( 4), or the sum of three numbers a, b, and c. In arithmetic it is possible to express such a sum as a single number.
Thus, 2
+ 5 + 8 = 15.
In algebra, this
is
only,
x,
x,
x, b
x.
its factors.
* That
is,
a number
is
Any
factor ( 2) of
number
is
remaining factors.
Thus, in a
in 2 in 2
sc,
a
2 3
is
the coefficient of
a;,
3,
is
is
the coefficient of
the coefficient of
2
3.
3,
2.
in 2 in 2
in 2
a
a
6,
b is the coefficient of a.
6,
a
2
is
is
the coefficient of 2
6.
6,
is
6.
in ax, a
When
the product of a
number
of figures
and
letters is to
be
Thus, 2
8.
b is written 2 ab.
2 a
+3a+7
is
( 6).
the
sum
Hence,
This. is the
2 a+3 a
+7 a=
+3
ft.
(2
+ 3 + 7)
= 12 a.
when one
finds
same operation
2
ft.
as that in arithmetic
the value of
+7
ft.
= 12
ft.,
and
is
brought
still
closer to arithmetic
15 ab
ab
+7
ab
ab,
means
that 3 ab is to be subtracted
from 15
and 7 ab added
to this difference.
Hence,
Ex.
1.
15 ab
ab
+7
ab
= 19
xy
ab.
7 d. 20 xy + 4xy 7 d= (20 ay + 4 xy) 7d = 2xy 7d. Ex. 2. Add 5 a + 3 a& + 4 6 and  4 a  2 a&  4 6
Find the sum of 20 xy
+4
_4
q2
_ +
2 a&
4
52
a&
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
Find the sum of the following
1.
21# +
9a?
4# +
This work is all to be done mentally, only results of each addition being given.
2. 3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
5m 4:m + 6m 2m. 8xy + 3xy 2d. 8 a + 4 b, 4 a  2 6. 16 a + 8 a& + 5 b 5 a  3 ab + 2 6 21x + 22xy + 17y  8x + 2xy  9y and 7 11 xy 7 y 24a +48a& + 246  23a  47 a + 236*, and a + 2 ab  b 14 c + 21 cd + 10 d  9 c  12 c<2  d and 5 c 9 cd 9 d
2
2
a;
9.
319 + 2.1945.19.
3
10.
11.
12.
27
14
41
+ 2 27  4 27. 18 + 25 18  16 18  12 63  27 63  12 63.
.
18.
13.
Express 27 as a binomial.
If x
is
14.
express the
15.
16.
number
Express 47 as a binomiaL
5
y,
digit
units'
digit
z,
express the
18.
number
as a trinomial.
number.
have considered the decimal phase of our number system the prime factors are of equal importance. The prime factors of 15 are 3 and 5. 45 = 3 3 5 or 3 2 5, where the 2 indicates the number of
9.
;
We
EXERCISE
1.
2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
...30
2
.
2.
3
,
3
,
4, 5
3
,
3
,
3
,
3
,
3
,
10 3 11 3 12 3
,
;
10.
Literal
factors.
Thus,
(ab)(ab) (ab)
Similarly, (2
.
=a
a
a
.
a.
&.
a b
=a
(a6) 8
3) (2
3) (2
3)
= (2
3)
= a3 6 3 = 2 3 33 = 63
.
EXERCISE
4
:
18,27,24.
(18) ,(22)
2 2
.
6.
7.
(60)
2
.
484.
(36)
2
.
361,520.
9 3 (27) 2 729.
,
8.
9.
4.
5.
625.
(12)
2
,
(12)
3
.
10.
225
72.
6
11.
MATHEMATICS
An
expression that
is
is
more
expressions
Thus,
said to be a
15 a 2 b
common
.
them.
25a*b
10 a 3 c
5, a,
= 3 5 a a b. = &.aab.. =2 5 a a a
.
.
c
to each of the
numbers 15 a 2 b
25 a 2 6, 10 a 3 c
EXERCISE
Find the factors common
1.
2.
to the following
6.
7.
84 s 8, 54 ate,
9.
,
.
4
.
3125 a
243 a
4
5
5
,
625 a 4 125 a3
,
3.
24 a 45
2
,
c.
2
.
8.
9.
2
10
162 a
6,
5
135 6 3
.
4. 5.
75 #
y,
#?/
a b s c% a s b 4 cz\ ab cxr
361 a4 6
12.
38a
6,
114 a8 6 3
10.
75
c%
What
does a2 ?/
?
mean ?
2
How many
the expression
In x
y, let
x = 3, y = 5. What
6
the result ?
EXERCISE
= 0, z = 5, In the following expressions substitute x = 1, = = a 3, 6 4, and compute the value of the result 4 = 3 9 64 = 1728. 1. 3 a W = 3 3 2. 2a#+4/ + 7a; z = 2.1.0 + 4.0 _t7.r.5 = +35 + = 35.
?/
3.
ax2z.
9.
1
z

4.
5.
6.
35a
2/
_6z.
10.
10834 ayz.
,/
+ 5a;
.
7.
8.
6)a?.
11.
(y
+ 5a)(y + 5>
12.
(6 a)Xi
7
2
.
(p __
+ y)x.
15.
(3
+ 2 b + 2 z)
_
3b
14.
A=S.
16
(15 a
2)3 #
13.
The
is
to be multiz
or that both x
and
the
sum
(2
i.e.,
+3) 2
sum
the
of 2
and 3
is
to be "squared,"
(a
+ b) + (c + d)
sum
d.
is
read
to the
c
of a
and
b,
or the
and
Likewise, (a
is
+ b) (c + d)
and d
to be subtracted
The forms
of parenthesis are
.
the
frrace
is
the bracket
[ ],
The vinculum
seldom used.
EXERCISE
1.
2.
What
What What
does 12 x 2
mean
does (12 a) 2
does 12 (x) 2
mean?
mean ?
3.
(18 a
+12 a) +
(5
a+ 2 a).
9.
5(a
5.
6.
(21a+2a)(6a+3a).
(21a2a) + (6a3a).
10.
4[5(a+6a)].
11. 6 [2(5
7.
(21a2a)(6a3a).
3(6a2)+4(2a?l).
12. (5
13.
a + 18y) x
 (2 y + 3y).
8.
(8
+ 12y + 15 z) , (x + 2 y).
MATHEMATICS
Oral Review
The area
rectangles
Length
l.
altitude (length
and breadth).
Breadth
Length
10. 11. 12. 13.
Breadth
*17"
6"
19'
15' 24'
18'
17 6
21'
17'
2.
3.
15'
13'
18"
19'
20'
7"
14.
15.
16.
12"
24"
21"
28'
4.
5.
V
9'
8'
32"
19' 31'
6.
7.
22'
17. 18.
19.
20.
22'
15"
12"
:
106"
115"
106'
12"
15.
12
12"
21'
15'
4'
8.
9.
21.
22.
112'
18"
12"
of a triangle
is
1024'
The area
angles
Base
1.
2.
3.
Altitude
Altitude
Base
11.
Altitude
16 14
10
7 8
36
18
22
37
18
19
44
46 48
21
12.
13.
25 16
16
24
8. 9.
83
24 15
'
25 32
17
4.
5.
32
24
10
14.
15.
12
10.
21
indicates inches,
indicates feet.
: :
9
ir,
(D represents diameter
16.
17.
18.
B, radius
22.
A, area.)
D = 12, A =
= 18, B = 20,A=
72
= 36 ^4 = 7r18 = 3247T.
7T
7T.
23.
24.
19.
20. 21.
25.
26.
27.
30.
31.
900
441
32.
361
33.
529
is
:
of a cube
36.
37.
whose volume
729
512
64 1331
38.
343 216
39.
The area of a trapezoid is equal to the product of one half the sum of the lower base (B), and the upper base (b), by the
altitude (a).
B
40.
a 6
10
5
b
B
41.
42.
a
4
8 15 16
5 8
47. 48.
49. 50.
B
18
a
8
9
18
10
22 24
13 14
9
16 12
13
16 15
14
13 15
11
43.
14
6 8
44.
45.
46.
24 22
15
14
18
51.
52.
17
17
44 and 45?
CHAPTER
Equations
14.
II
An
equation
is
The
sign of equality
=.
is
Thus, x
15.
+3=5
solve
is
read x plus 3
is
equal to
5.
To
an equation
some
letter
given equation.
16.
When
a number substituted for some letter in an equasides of the equation identical, the equation
is
tion
makes the
said to be satisfied.
A number which
equation.
satisfies
an equation
is
The number is
Ex.
Substitute x
+ 3 = 5.
(1)
=2
in the equation.
Then,
2
sides or
+ 3 = 5.
of the equation are the
The two
identical.
members
same or
The number on the left of the sign of equality is called the The number on the right is the second first member or side. member or side. Thus, in x + 3 = 5, x + 3 is the first member,
and 5
17.
is
The kinds
equation of condition.
identical equation or identity.
geometric equation.
An
equation of condition
is
an equation that
is satisfied
EQUATIONS
E.g., in
11
+ 3 = 5,x = 2
is
is
for x,
which
+3=5
a;
is
therefore
2.
must equal
An
identity is an equation
which
is
=a+a
is
The
geometric equation
In general, the algebraic equation ( 18,19) is assumed to be true, and if its roots satisfy it the statement of equality
figures.
is verified.
to be true ( 70).
21.
and
division.
set
of
The laws governing the use of these operations are a statements assumed to be true, and known as axioms.
The Axioms
If the same number, or equal numbers, be added
to
23.
1.
equal
If equal numbers be multiplied by the same number, or If equal numbers be divided by the same number, or equal
the resulting
numbers,
to divide
5.
6. 7.
8.
numbers
will be equal.
It is not allowable
by
0.
equals itself
equals the
is
sum of all
its
parts.
parts.
its
12
MATHEMATICS
The Use
of
Axioms
24.
Ex.
1.
Solve 2 x
+ 3 = 9.
of the equation (Ax. 2).
member
2z 2x
or
= 93. = 6. = 3.
x
in the given equation.
Divide each
member by
Then,
To
9.
is
hence 3
a root.
Ex.2.
Solve
y+H=ll + ^. *
6
3
6,
the L. C. M. of the
denominators (Ax.
3).
or
6 2/+ 11
= 42/ +
=15.
15.
Subtract
4y from each
Then,
2?/+
11
Then,
2y
= 4.
=
2.
<7i'ue?i
And,
Verify by substituting y
2 in the
equation.
2+n=M. 2
6 3
+
6
U = 8 + 15
6
Hence, 2
is
EXERCISE
2y
+ 7y + 3 = 12.
2.
5a>
+ 7 = 3a + rr.
_
EQUATIONS
3

13
4a;
6. 4.
+
2
~
'
+
5
'
V+
10.
+4
+ 20
^+^+4=
7a
4
11.
__ 11.
5a = 3
10
,
a 4
r
r>
12.
6a
2
8a_,6_5a
y 19
13.
m+9
3
5m
=
m
2
..
,,
'
2
,
14

_.
R 6R 8R T2i +
u=^
OH
4
3R + 3 Q
.
15.
? + f_5 + l = ? + 3i. 6 2 4 6 3 3
X
OX 8^4
.
16.
4^ 4
jr>."^ 8 12
17.
*
9.
= 13. + T ?+? 3 A
18
E+
7
^ = 21.
14
7
n 7 9 2
19.
?^ +
3 3
^+
X
= + 14.
a;
i
20
OX

l"
q + o^"8 = 3 i.
OX
14
21.
MATHEMATICS
The sum
two numbers Find the numbers.
of
is 9,
and one
is
twice the
other.
Let
and
Then,
or
= the smaller number = the greater number. 2 x + x = the sum of the numbers. 9 = the sum of the numbers. 2x + x = 9 (Ax. 8), 3 x = 9. x = 3, the smaller number. 2 x = 6, the greater number.
x
2x
22.
The
is
difference
between
greater
23.
The sum of two numbers is 48, and the four more than the lesser. Find the numbers.
24.
number
is
composed of two
(Exercise
tens' digit is
of the digits
Ex. 14.)
composed of two digits. The tens' digit is three times the units' digit, and the number is 54 more than the sum of the digits. Find the number.
25.
number
is
The distance around a rectangle is 120'. The length of the Find the dimensions. rectangle is 10' more than the breadth.
26.
q
v
27.
Two
8',
rectangles
each have an
is
alti
tude of
the
sum
of their areas
256,
\
yi "
29.
is
is 12'.
\
b
In a triangle ABC the area is 24, the Find the base (b). altitude (a) is 8.
28.
10'
Each of two rectangles has an altitude of 12'. One base more than the other, and the sum of the bases is 25'.
The sum of the bases of two triangles of equal altitude One base is 9' more than the other. The area of the
is
smaller
GO square
feet.
EQUATIONS
31.
15
;
In a trapezoid
B is
the altitude
is 8.
Find the
bases.
to
The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal 180. The angle at A is 20 more than the
/
Z C is
\
equal
34.
The sum
of
two numbers is 48 and one number is four Find the numbers. (Solve mentally.)
number, plus one third of the number,
If one half of a
number equals
eleven,
what
is
the
number
3.6.
Three
fifths of
minus ber?
37.
What
is
the
numgives
money and he
half of
left
it
and then takes back half of all he has given him, leaving the boy $ 1.87^. How much money did the father have at
*
first?
If
is
or conditional equations, by substituting values for you find more than two values that satisfy the equation, an identity.
x.
it
x*6x + 9=(x3)(x3).
41.
42. 43. 44.
)
16
45. 46.
MATHEMATICS
47.
48.
49.
50.
9x + 7 = Sx xS. 4 x  12 x + 9 = (2  3) (2 x  3). 6z 2a+4 = 2a + 10a5. 5# + 6a;+4 = (5a 2)(a? + 4). x  12 + 36 = (x  6) + 36a; + 81 =(aj + 9) + 9).
4:X2
2 2
aj
aj
a;
(a?
CHAPTER
Positive and Negative Numbers.
III
Operations
25.
In many prob
For example: If a
opposes the $ 500.
direction to that in are opposites.
sites.
man
If a
man
is
is
walking
is
east,
the opposite
which he
going
west.
Temperatures above and below zero are oppothis sense of opposition, positive
(
To express
+)
and
negative
the right
( )
is
E.g., if
toward
left is
If north is con
negative.
If assets are
+,
liabilities
exercise
9
1.
AC
units to the left of
D B
how
far is
it
If
D is
four units to
the right of 0, and C two from C to D ? Does that 0, mean to you the difference between the positions of point O and point D? If A is 3 units from 0, and B is +5 units from 0, what is the distance from A to B ?
2.
A man
How much
is
he
worth ?
3. 4.
$ 700.
worth
18
5.
MATHEMATICS
Where on
the Cleveland Wooster railway line
is
a place
10
6.
A man
south.
How many
he
How
many
7.
Draw
Measure
respect to
Where
8.
is
D with
in
A?
b
2 s
Write
symbols
The square
of (a)
tient of the
9.
sum
and
(6)
by
2.
The temperature
it
at 6.00 a.m. is
+ 14
morning
grows colder
at the rate of 4
5,
= 3,
'
11.
f^L+l\
Write in symbols
= \,
= ,z =
4x*+(3y2zy.
Addition
26.
In 8,
instance the
we found the sums of similar terms, but in each sum was positive. A negative sum may arise from
For instance,
exercise 9,
example
6,
we
are adding
9 miles to
5 miles.
The
result is
to
4 miles.
That
is,
the addition
of a negative
number
to lessen the
numerical value
19
If a
liabil
or change
it
from
positive to negative.
man
sum
of his assets
and
$400 and owes $700, the sum of his That is, he owes $ 300 more assets and liabilities is $ 300. than he has assets. The sum of two negative numbers is negaities is 0.
tive.
when
the
sum
of a positive
The
absolute value of a
number
is its
value regardless of
6
it
is 6.
no sign
is
is
regarded as
positive.
EXERCISE
Find the sums of the following
1.
:
10
+5 +3
3 a 2 and
7 ab,
2.
+5 3
3.5 +3
4.5 3
5.
4a
2
.
6.
7.
8. 9.
*10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
5 ab. 8 a, 5 a. 9 6 a  3 a  12 a  5 a 3 a, 5 a, + 6 a, 4 a. 7 a 4.x, +3 a + 2 x, + x. 12a?y, <6xy x y, 2x y, + 11 xy 15a  15a + 15x, + 5x  5x,  9x>,  9a  9a. 2a + + 4z, a 3y 2z. 4:X + 3y 5 (a + 6),  2 (a + 6), 6 (a + b),  9 (a + V).
2
z,
?/
* Write similar terms ( 6) in the same column. Make as many columns as you have different kinds of terms, forming the whole into one problem, by usiug + and signs. (See example 2, 8.)
20
15.
MATHEMATICS
4 (x
y)
3 (x
y),
3 (x
y)
+
+3
2 (x
y),
2(x
+ ^y,i 2 18. fa fft + fc, T \ai&fc, fa + Jft^c. Find the value of the following sums when x = ^, y = + \ z = ,a = 2,c = ,b = 2: 19.  a + i 6 +a \b %c, 5a f 6 + 2 20. 2(a + 6)  3(6  c) + (a  6),  500(a + b) + 5(6  c) + (a  6). 21. 5xy 5 x y 5 \ xy + a 22. 7(a + 2y)7(a>2y),  31(s + 2y) + f(s 2y). 23. 12yz 8xy + \a + %bc. 24. f a f 6 + f +f ai6 + 25c.
i
ft)
(a
b)
(a
+ b) .
6,
2,
_^
__ aj
c,
c.
a??/

?/.
c,
In each of the following examples, add corresponding members of the two equations to find x
:
25.
x+y= xy=
2a?
8,
4:.
When
is
26.
#
27.
+ 3y = 8, 3y 5
2,
.
Find y
also.
4z2?/=
3
a:
+ 2 y = 12
Find y
also.
Verify your results in examples 2527 by substituting the values found for x and y in the given equations.
28.
Subtraction
29.
(a)
(b)
to 9 gives 7 ?
to 9 gives 11 ?
21
(d)
to 9 gives
to 9 gives
12
In each of the above examples we have the sum of two numbers and one of the numbers given to find the other number.
The Minuend is the sum of two numbers. The Subtrahend is a given number. The Difference is a required number when the minuend and
subtrahend are known.
Subtraction
is
to
In example
the difference.
(a), 7 is the
minuend, 9
is
the subtrahend,
2
and
In subtraction, the
sum
of the subtrahend
EXERCISE
1.
11
Subtract
from
5.
Here 5 is the sum of the numbers. problem is What number added to dently 8. That is, the difference is 8.
:
is
3 gives
Check
+ (
3)
= sum 5 = sum
of the
3
8
2.
From
8a
take 5 a
 8a
+ 5a 13 a
Perform the following subtractions
3.
:
7x2y 3arV
4.
25 x
5.
13 x
6.
25x
13x
7.
13a
25x
+25x 13 a
22
8.
9.
MATHEMATICS
From
13 ab
take 24 ab.
take a
From a
+b+c
b2
c.
(Note that there are three subtraction examples in this example, one
for each column.)
10.
11.
12.
13. 14.
15.
16.
2y + z from 10 x y 3 Subtract 2 a 3 a + 1 from 5 a 3 a 1. Subtract 10 a + 5 ab  9 6 from 2 a  10 a& + 8 b\ From x + 3 a 3 x + 1 take a + 2 + 2 + 1. From x* + 3 a + 3 + 1 take x  3 + 3 x  1. From a + 2ab + b take a  2 ab + &
Subtract
8x
z.
f
2 a?
a;
a?
2 a?
From
From
2
ir
take 5
2
?/
.
17.
18.
2 o;
19.
20.
Subtract a from
0.
Subtract 9 x 2
+9y+9
from
0.
Note that in each of the above examples the difference is the same as if we had changed the sign of the subtrahend and added the result to the minuend.
Change
of each term of the subtrahend and proceed as in addi{The change of sign must be made mentally.)
EXERCISE
1.
2.
12
?/
What must
From x 2
be added to 9 x
take x 2
2
+9 +9
2
to give
4 x + 4. 3. From the sum of a + 2ab + b and a  2a6 + * the difference between a + 2 ab + b and a 2 ab +
+4x+4
2
a
ft
take
b'
means
23
Subtract 2 as
3 3
fr
of a 3
+3a&
2
ft
6.
7.
Subtract 6
+c

from
7a
a.
Subtract 4 ft 2
9
[6
from
2
0.
ft
8.
9.
What
[5
3
ft
shall
(3
we add
to 7
ft
+ 2)] 
3
a;
12 + 5 to + (4 11)].
ft
produce
First sub
+2
This gives
[5^_3ft2][6ft + 4
3
ft11].
first,
we have
13.
14.
15.
16.
+ (4 a + 1)]. [12ft  {7ft  (5 + 6 ft 3)}]. [6 (5 a + 3) + 5 (2 a + 7)] (6 a + 53). [25 m  (2 m + 3)]  [ 10 m  (6 m  7)].  (3  3 xif  f)~\  + ( 3 x y + 3  )]. (12 a + 3 6 + 2 c)  (5 a  2 b + 6 c)  (10 a  b  6 c).
{5a
2
[2 a
ft
[ft
2 ft ?/
[ft
ft?/
1/
4(*
+ y)[6(ajy)] + (a?2y).
is 1,
17.
whose
By
and
y,
numbers.
the conditions,
+y=
2x =
x
2 y
17
1
(1)
(2)
xy =
Adding
(1)
and
(2),
18
= 9.
16.
8.
= y =
24
18.
MATHEMATICS
Given two numbers, x and
first is
y,
first
5x + 2y = 19,
5x 2y = ll
.
(1)
(2)
Find x and
y.
20.
21.
(1) (2)
(1)
(2)
After x
is
found,
obtain the
(1).
and 2
3xy 2a
2
2
,
when x
= 5, y = %, a = 3.
Multiplication
30.
+ 5 + 5 + 5 = 5.4 = 20
Also that
(a positive
5)
+ ( 5) + ( 5) + ( 5) = ( 5)(4) =  20.
is
number
e.g.,
negative.
In arithmetic,
are used,
it
53
= 35.
this
We
That
shall
assume that
Then,
(5)
(4)
is,
is negative.
number
multiplicand.
Ex.
(8).
(5)=
+40.
25
The product of two numbers of like sign is positive. The product of two numbers of unlike sign is negative.
32.
Since division
;
is
namely,
have
like signs, the quotient is positive;
When
the terms
when
Division
may
of subtraction.
Ex.
Divide 28 by
7.
no remainder or a
remains.
147 =
7,
77=0.
that 7
is
Regarding division as the inverse of multiplication is the more general method. With this understanding we have the
following definitions.
33.
Division
is
when their product and one of the factors are The Dividend is the product of the factors. The Divisor is the given factor. The Quotient is the required factor.
It is evident
divisor
by the quotient
By
the use
may
be verified.
26
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
13
(first
(4)(3).
4.
5. 6.
(9)(4).
(9)(8).
(+12)
(15)
+ (+4).
5
10.
11.
(20)f(4).
8. 9.
(12)* (3).
(112) (16).
(144)
s
(+5).
12.
(18).
is 17.
13.
The area
Find the
altitude.
is
20.
Find the
15.
is
The area
of a rectangle
is
the base ?
How
Draw
34.
this rectangle.
In multiplication
is
it is
times a quantity
is
Ex.
1.
x x x
= a?.
= (2 x) = 16 x\
4
Similarly, x x
n factors
xn
Ex.
2.
x2 x A
=x
'
x x x x x
=x
e
.
And
xn x m
factors)
7i
Then
in multiplying
two
like letters
is
27
combining the factors of the multiplicand and multiplier into one product e.g., 12 18 means (2 2 3) (3 2 2) or 2 3 3 3 the product containing all the factors Similarly, 24a 2 615a3 of both multiplicand and multiplier.
see that multiplication is simply
;
We
=
35.
23
a2
a3
=2
3
.
32
a5
= 360 a b.
5
Since division
is
is
an exponent equal to
Ex.
1.
Divide Xs by x2
X2
=X
X.
Then, (x x x)
4
(x x)
= ,
~
.
or
When
Ex.
Thus, x s
2.
x2
x.
a 12
a 1512
a3
EXERCISE
14
x5 x\
8.
(12
a sb
c )
(4 c ).
5
.
15 x 2
5 Xs
9.
a4 b 2
8m
18
m\
10.
15
a2 6 2
21 a z b\
13).
A
4.
5. 6. 7.
(15a) 3 (2a).
(a?
11.
12.
&).
( 13 a2 b 6c)((18
c
3
+ y)
(a5
12(a
+ 6)
+ y). 3(a +
d)( 19
d 2).
5
13.
14.
2 (27 ab xy)( 14
6c).
_19(a6) 4 .15(a6r.
(
21 afy*)( 21 afyV).
::
28
15.
MATHEMATICS
.
What power of 12(a + b) by 12(a + 5) 2 by 12(a + 6) 3 2 is in your product? What power of 3? What power of What then are the prime factors of your product ? (a + b) ? Indicate the prime factors of these products
16. 17.
18.
19.
20.
6
.
2
.
?/)
?/)
results
x8 rx5 xA +x.
27.
28.
729
(c
cV
i0
s
9 ex 8
(c
23. 24.
72 x6
5
9 x\
.
29.
d) 27 (a +
a5 b 3 c 2
rs
d)\
2
.
b)
~ 9(a + 6)
441 a6 421 a3
3
302
*
a 2 bc.
25.
26.
(_24^ )(3^ ).
(576a 7 6 4)(24a5 6 2).
31.
2 5 .5 3 3 2 f2 2 .5.3.
ex
ample 32
33.
162 xAy
~ 54 xy35.
34.
135
cV
4
*
3
15 cx\
36.
is
The area
of
(a;
its altitude
if
8(c
+
y
cT).
What
d=4*
is
its
base
What
artyc
2
,
x = l,
37.
= 2,
c= 3?
its
if
The area
its base.
of a rectangle is 384
altitude
aj
is
16# 2c.
Find
What
= 2, y = 1,
c= 2?
Also if a? = 2, y = l, c = 2? Draw these rectangles, measuring from the same starting point for each.
29
is
The base
of a triangle
Find the
c
altitude.
What
_ i? =
3
27 a3 cA the area
36.
cation, division.
A decimal fraction
of 10.
is
is
a power
This denominator
may
by the
that
The
2's
factors of
5's,
10 are 2 and
is,
The
5\
two
5
3
.
and two
100
=2
Likewise 1000
=2
Every power of
5's
10
is
made up
of
an equal number of
2's
and
used as fac
tors.
Therefore, to reduce a
common
number
Ex.
q
as will produce
= 2
2.
Reduce f to a decimal. Two 5's are lacking. Multiplying both numerator and denominator by 52 or 25, we have ^ or, expressed decimally,
,
.75.
Ex.
Reduce
to .1875 a
.1875
common
2*5
fraction:
= 1^ = ^= A. 4
25*
16
3.
Reduce
to decimals
\ f ^,
y
,
%, , f'
4.
A
;
.0625
machinist has a set of drills marked .1250; .9375; .8750. He does not recognize them as .3125 .03125
;
;
readily as
if
Reduce
decimal
them
5.
to such notation.
sizes
of
drills
to
their
equivalents
1916.
30
In
all
MATHEMATICS
computation in science and shop practice the decimal plays an important part.
Whether multiplication and division is carried on directly or by means of tables, the computer must know at a glance where
the decimal point
is
to be placed.
Multiplication of Decimals
Decimals are multiplied as simple numbers if one remembers the decimal composition of our system and the part the position of the digit plays in the formation of a number. In 145, and exercise the times 1 1 100 the value it would have has 1, if written in units' column where the 5 now is. The 4 has ten times the value it would have if in units' column. Then, multiplication by a digit in hundreds' column has 100 times the effect of multiplication by the same number in units' column. A similar statement holds for digits in tenths' and hundredths' columns, each move to the right decreasing the value of a digit
ten times.
left.
720
144
864
We
units'
multiply
first
by
3.
is
in tens
column,
it
has ten
times the value of a figure in units' column, and our product moves one
place to the
left.
That
is,
we
The
Ex.
Multiply 23.2 by
2.4. 23.2
2.4
46.4
9.28
65.68
31
Always keep the decimal points in the same vertical column. When multiplying by 4, the multiplier was one place to the
right of units,
and the product y1^ as large as the product by the same figure if in units' place. This shifted our product, 9.28,
Always begin
multiplication at the
left.
17
26.
14.
2
.
26.
.6425 (.0125).
324 324
216

2
.
How much
is
multiplying
ex
10.
11.
324.
36.
3
.
necessary in
24.21 (.32).
ample
is
12.
9 2 (3.1416).
21.
22.
1.875
1.875
16.2.
correct
to
?
three
13.
14.
15. 16.
16 2 (3.1416).

1.62.
decimal places
27.
28.
2462.5.
(.8)3.
(.92).
23.
1.875 (.162).
18.75 (1.62). 1.112 (.99).
4.261 (.7854).
24.
25.
32.15 (.625).
(1.2)3.
Division of Decimals
Here we must reverse our work of multiplication. The first figure of the divisor and its distance from units' column determine the position of the decimal point with respect to the first
figure of the quotient.
tens'
is
in
tenth as
much)
The
first figure of
Ex.
29.
144.
144.
Note that
fore a zero
is
7 is
not contained in
1,
the
first
first figure of
the quotient.
32
is
MATHEMATICS
an integer,
it
to the left of
may be
disregarded.
Until
mind,
should be employed.
30.
Ex.
Divide 324. by
18.
18.
18.
324.
18
144.
144.
Ex.
31.
Divide 2.446 by
3.2.
0.76
3.2
2.446
2.24
.206 .192
.014
Ex.
32.
Divide 2.446 by
.32.
07.6
32
2.446
2.24 .206
.192
.014
Ex.
33.
2.446
2.24
.206 .192
.014
first figure
of the quotient.
if
not exact.)
33
31.5 =24,6.
6.451.6.
44. 45.
251.32853.1416.
442
5
.09.
6.4
6.4
f. 16.
46.
2.24522.4.
37.
38.
.016.
47.
48.
361.
s=
.19.
.23.
6.4516.
5.29
39.
.225515.
.22551.5.
49. 50.
51.
7.2952.7.
40.
7.29
5
.27.
41. 42.
43.
.225
5
.15.
5
.028951.7.
109.624
3.86.
52.
53.
first figure in
.0289
5
.17.
125.66453.1416.
.0289517.
(Remember that the number of places in the quoquotients. tient does not in any way depend upon the number of figures in the divisor.) The position of the first figure in the divisor is
all
For example, in dividing 8.432694 by .3419768321, the first figure 2 takes the same position as if we were dividing by .3, namely, in tens' column.
2
.
.3419768321
54.
8.432694
60.
48.3657954.6293251.
34.76538,
55.
56.
4.836579
4.836
.2793 .2793
s
s
4.6293251764.
61.
.026947321  .41976384.
4.6293251764847.
.217398.
62. 63.
.178643791
.243
*
5
2.9.
57.
58. 59.
5
.0986432791.
.986432791.
5
.0217398.
64.
65.
2.43
5
31.845309.7.
.024359.864327915.
66.
is
in miles.
67.
is
cubic inches.
34
68.
MATHEMATICS
Rolled oats requires If hours cooking on a range. If a tireless cooker is used, 15 minutes cooking on the range is sufficient.
by using the tireless cooker, if 8.6 cu. ft. of gas per hour are consumed by a gas burner, gas costing 76^ per thousand cubic feet ?
fuel is saved
69.
How much
on a range, or 15 minutes cooking on a range for a fireless How much fuel is saved by using the fireless cooker, cooker. gas burner and price same as in Ex. 68 ?
70.
a tireless cooker
tireless
used.
How
much
71.
fuel is saved
by using a
cooker
Uncooked
of rice
rice contains
79
%.
from one
pound
72.
by boiling ?
Eice boils in 20 minutes, using a gas burner consuming Steamed rice is cooked on the same burner for 5 minutes, and on the simmering burner for 45
8.6 cubic feet per hour.
What
calls for
Rice swells 3f times by boiling. If a recipe for pudding one quart boiled rice, how much uncooked rice should
?
be used
In the following equations solve for x and verify the root found
:
74.
75.
76. 77.
78.
79.
l5 2
_5 + l,=2a> + 5$.
2
;
35
8i.
o
82.
one and one half times its width. If three feet is taken from the length and three feet is added to the width, the room will be square. Find its diof a
is
The length
room
mensions.
The sum of one third, one fourth, and one fifth of a number is 17 more than one half the number. Find the
83.
number.
84.
The
is
is
22
yards.
The
CHAPTER IV
Polynomials.
37.
Multiplication of Polynomials
Polynomial by Monomial.
Review multiplication
rule
for
of
monomials, 3134.
Give
sign
multiplication.
Illustrate each.
In
34,
monomial.
We
we found the product of a monomial by a shall now extend multiplication to cover any
number
of terms.
A polynomial is simply a sum of monomial terms. Hence, to multiply a polynomial by a number is to multiply each of its terms by that number, and find the sum of these
products.
Ex. Multiply 5 a 2 + 3 ax
5 a2
.
by 2
a.
2 a
10 a 3
3 ax

2 a
= =
6 a 2x,
x .2a=2 ax2
2
Then,
2 (5 a
+ 3 ax  x2 )
(2 a)
10 a 3
6 a 2x
2 ax 2
in the following
form
5 a2
+
f
3 ax
2
x2
2 ax 2
2a
10 a 3
6
a'
left.
EXERCISE
Find the following products.
36
15
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
7a + 3ab + 2b 5a
2
37
2
3.
4.x 2
+ 2xz5z
2
6x
4.
2.
m 3 cm + y
2
14 ad + 15 a d + 17
2
2c3 v
5.
13a
18x2 17a3y242/2
12 a4
6.
In example
5,
substitute x
= l, y = 2
in your multipli
Is the result
expect?
Any example
ple 6.
7.
in multiplication
may
be checked by substitut
Check each
Multiply
8. 9.
32
a?z
14 xz
by 16 xz.
10.
11.
12. 13. 14.
x + y) 2
+ yf + 3(x + y)4, byl6(x + y) _24(2/) + 14(a + &) 21 by 16. 3(x + y) + 12(x + y) + lS by(x + y).
(x
2
.
15.
Check example
14.
39.
Polynomial by Polynomial.
is to
To multiply a polynomial
by a polynomial
of the multiplier,
Ex.
1.
+3b
bj 3 a 5 b.
( 37)
.
(2
= 6 a 2 + 9 ab, + 3 b) ( 5 6) =  10 ab  15 & 2 +3
6)3 a
38
Adding these
MATHEMATICS
partial products
6a 2 + 9ab
we have
6a
2
 10 ab  15 b 2  ab  15 6 2
as follows
:
2a + 3b
15 & 2 15 b 2
The procedure
is
The
letter.
2
3
Ex.2. Multiply
5x 6x + x  4
6x +5x4 _3x_ i 6 x 4 5 x 4 x 3x*+ 18x 15x
2
by
3x + x
x,
l.
x X2 xb
2 2
412x
X4
x 22 x 3
4
6 x2 13 x
l
5x + 4 + 7x + 4
EXERCISE
Find the following products.
1.
2. 3.
16
Check each
6.
7. 8.
9.
result
2
(5a + 3b)(2a+b).
(ox
(
x +3x2)(2x7).
2
4.
5.
x2
(a2
(a2
(a
2
a;
10.
in 9
and 10 alike
a
Multiply Multiply
+ 2 a + 4 by 5 a 30 4 45
a'
2
 2. 15.
as
by 5x
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
13.
39
14.
15. 16.
{x2y)\
(xy)(xy).
They
examples 1316.
(a
(a
+ b)(ab).
19.
20.
(4a
18.
21.
examples 1721.
:
24.
25.
26.
27.
Find the
area.
2a
b.
Find the
area.
x + 3y.
area.
area.
The The
4 d\ 5 # 2 a.
area.
if
33.
a = 2, b = 1, c = 1, d = 3, x = 4, y = 1.
A where 5 = base
a
and a
6# + 3?/,
5x + 7y.
a
36. 37.
38.
+ 5, x + S, a + 9 y, x + 15 a,
a
&.
x2.
x
+ 2 y. x 3 a.
40
39.
MATHEMATICS
Compute the areas
2
in
= 3, 6 = 1,
x = 7, y =
40.
41.
42. 43.
44.
45.
 6. 16 x* + (8 x  3 x + U)(5 x 2 x + 24)  336 = ?  4) + (x  3 x + 4)](9 a  6 + 1) = ? [(a? + 3 (2a + 3)(2a + 3) =? The edge of a cube is 4 a + 6 find its volume. The edge of a cube is 2 x 5 y\ find its volume. The edge of a cube is 5 x 14 6 find its volume.
2
a;
a?
Find the volumes in examples 4345 if the letters have the same values as in example 33. Find the areas of the following trapezoids (B represents the lower base, 6 the upper base, and a the altitude).
46.
:
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
B + y, 3x + 2y, 5 x + 2 y, 3 x + 5 y, 7 c + 3 d,
x
4
c
oj
a
2.
xy,
2x + 3y,
3x
Ax + Ay.
y, 7x3
?/,
2c+d,
c+5d,
x
+ y. 5 + x. c d.
6 x
?/
52.
53.
 8 d,
54.
55. 56.
+ 9 y, # + 18, c + 8,
6y, x 15,
c5,
3d. x y. Ay x.
c
c2.
altitude,
Find the upper base, lower base, examples 4955, if x = 3, ?/ = 2, c = 4, d account for your negative areas ?
57.
= 5.
from the length of a rectangle, and is added to the breadth, the area will be increased by 100 square feet, but if 10' be subtracted from the breadth and 10' added to the length, the area will be diminished
If 10' be subtracted
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
by 300 square
a scale of y ^
1
41
feet.
Make
=1
foot.
Division of Polynomials
40. Polynomial
by Monomial.
Eeview
division of mono
mials, 3235.
rule for division.
41. Since a
Give exponent
polynomial
sum
of
monomial terms,
to
Divide 81 a 4  27 a2 + 18 a by 9

a.
*
81 a 4
9a = 9a 3 ,
27 a 2
4
f
9 a
=
3 a, 18 a
9a
= 2.
Then
(81 a 4
 27 a + 18 a)
2
9 a
9 a3
 3 a + 2.
as follows
9a )81a*27a2 + 18q
9 a3
3 a
Ex.
2.
Divide 21 a4
 18
ar*
+ 5 ar>9 a by 3#.
Divide 4 a 2 (2
2?n
m+3) 9
o(2
+ 3 )4 a 2 (2 m + 3)4 a2
9 a(2 wi
9a
+ 2 ro + 3 +1
Note that in dividing one number by another, we are simply removing from the dividend the factors found in the divisor.
Ex.4.
45
=3.
45
32
2
5.
3 )3 5
3 5
After removing the 3 of the divisor 3
42
Ex.
5.
MATHEMATICS
45 afy
s
9 x\
45 x?y
9x
32
= 32 =3
x )3 2
x
x.
x
x
?/.
x
5 5
x
.
x y
= 5 xy
rule for division
mind no
by a
monomial
is
necessary.
EXERCISE
1.
2.
17
72 x y 524
4(a
5
afy.
3
.
3. 4.
5.
6. 7.
+ 6) 4(a + &) (128 a  80 a + 32) 16. 128 a (80 a + 32) 16. 128 a  80 x* + 32 16. (128 x  80 a + 32 16.
6
[7a (2a + ^)
4
8.
Divide 14 a(x
y) + 7 a
2
(as
?/)
49 cr (a
?/)
by
b.
2
la(xy).
9.
Divide (a Divide
10.
^
2
a; ?/ *.
42.
Polynomial by polynomial.
The product
Ex.
1.
(1)
(2) (3)
2 a
+ 3.
5 x2
is
+
3.
is
one of which
2 x
The problem
x3
5 x2
is
as in
example
3, 41,
but
the partial products added as in form (3), the factor required readily seen.
not so
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
It is evident
43
If
is
made up
of partial products.
2 x
examination of (1) shows that the first term of each partial product is the product of the first term of the divisor by the corresponding term of Therefore we may form this rule the quotient.
:
+ An
is
the divisor, x 2
+x+
is
the quotient.
Arrange both dividend and divisor according to the ascending or descending powers of the same letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term oi
1.
the divisor.
3.
in 2.
4.
Divide the
first
term
of the divisor.
6.
This gives a second term of the quotient. Proceed in this manner, considering each difference as
until the first
term of the difference is of lower degree than the first term of the divisor. 7. If there is a remainder, make it the numerator of a fraction whose denominator is the divisor, and annex with proper
a
sign to the quotient.
new dividend
Dividend
1st partial product,
Divisor
2 x
x2 (2x
x(2 x
2(2 x
+ 3) = 2 x3 +
3 x2
x2
+3 +x+
2 x2
Quotient
2d
partial product,
+ 3) =
+ 3) =
by
4.
2 x2
+3x
4x + 4x +
6
3d partial product,
Ex.
2.
Divide xs
+ 3x2
xs xs
3 x  2 4 x2 4 a* + 3 a 4 x  16 x
4
2
x
2
4z
19
74
4
19x2
19 x
76
74
44
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
18
Divide x\2 x + 3)
+ 5.
+ 8 x(2 x + 3) + 15(2 x + 3) by 2 x+3. Divide a\a + b) + 2 ab(a + b) + (a + 6) by a + 6. The area of a rectangle is x + 8 x + 15. The length is What is the breadth ? What is the breadth if x = 2 ?  2 15 by y + 3. 4. Divide 5. Divide + 2 y 15 by y + 3. 15 by y  3. 6. Divide y + 2 7. Divide # 8 + 15 by y 3. 8. (5^20a + 15a30)v5. 9. 5^(20a + 15a30)5.
2 2 2
?/
2/
?/
?/
?/
10.
5y20z + 15a305 + 3(2a;8)r2. 12. 4(a + &) 2(a + b) + 4(a + b) +  2 (a + b). 13. The radius of a circle is + 3. Find the area. 14. The area of a trapezoid is 2 x + 12 + 18 the sum of If the upper base the bases is 4 # + 12. Find the altitude. is x + 7, what is the lower base ? If x = 3, what are the
11.
2
J
ft
a;
dimensions?
15.
16.
if it is
isosceles?
Divide
Divide
+ 3 x + 3x + lby x + 1.
2
by x
17.
+ 1.
Compare
results in
examples 15 and
Divide xs
Divide
19.
a3
+1
by a
+ 1.
or
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
23.
45
Divide x2
x 12 by x 9.
of a trapezoid is 15 x 2
is
24.
is
The area
;
5x 8
25.
34 x + 16
the altitude
one base
of
a?
+ 3.
base.
an isosceles triangle is 12 x2 + 32 #  35 Find the altitude, then construct the the base is 6x 5. Construct the triangle when x = 2. triangle when x = 2.
The area
26.
is
4# + 12&+9;
2
the base
is
Find the altitude. Construct the rectangle. Compare the base and altitude of your drawing. What kind of a
2 #
+ 3.
rectangle
27.
is it?
+ 7 x + 35 x f 19
2
and
8x
13 34 by the
a;
difference
between
(3
3 x2
_3 a _4
Perform the following operation:
a2 (2 a3
2
oj 2
28.
29.
30.
31.
a square
or a rectangle ?
32.
Define a square.
2
 229 a + 9) h (5 a  1). 33. Divide 100 x*  229 x + 9 by 4 a  9. 34. Divide 100 a  229 x + 9 by 25 a  1. 35. Divide 100 x  229 x + 9 by 5 x + 1. 36. Divide 100 x* 229 x + 9 by 2 x + 3. 37. Divide 100 x* 229 x + 9hy 2 x 3. 38. What are the factors of 100 x*  229 x + 9 ? of 25 x  1 ? 39. Divide X + 6x  x30 by x 2. 40. Divide + 6 # 30 by x + 3. 41. Divide x + 6 x  x  30 by x + 5.
(100 x*
2
2 4
2
of 4 a 2
9?
a?
a?
46
42.
MATHEMATICS
What
The
are the factors of ar
+6
?
2
as
x 30 ? What
does
length,
+ 3,
its
Divide
a;
45.
46.
Divide x2
64 by x 8. 64 by x + 8.
64
?
What
3 2
47.
The volume
altitude.
of a circular cylinder is
(16
 84 x + 120as 25)tt.
The various symbols
The radius
of the base
is
a?
5.
Find the
43.
= 3;
4;
5.
many
2x
(a)
(6)
or
we may
write
the two expressions being identical, and read in the same way.
REVIEW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
as
+ 3)(2as7) + (3asl)(2as+5). (2aj + 3)(3as + 2)(4as + 15). (4asl)(as + 4)(as4)(4as + l).  [3 + (3  1)]  [a + 3 x  (3 x  1)].
(2as
3
2 as as 8 2
4(as5)(as2)4.
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
6.
7.
47
+ 334.
90
5
2+(8s4) 58.
a
9.
10.
Two
two
Prove.
Prove that
The
[(a
are equal.
13.
14.
Prove.
4
5
(a
+ 6)
2
.
15.
16.
+ 5fZ)(8c5cT).
2
(5* + 2y)(5*2y)(52y).
(5a;
17. 18.
19.
+ 2?/)(5^27/)(25a;
2
2
.
42/ 2).
+ 5)
(a?
(a?
 2)
( + 5)(a + 2>
20.
21. 22.
23.
).
2
).
T
Find the area of a trapezoid whose upper base, low er If base, and altitude are x + 7, 2 # + 8, 3^ + 2 respectively. x = 1 and the trapezoid is isosceles, construct the trapezoid.
24. 25.
26. 27.
28.
What
What
1728? of
3 (39) ?
48
29. 30. 31.
MATHEMATICS
Factor 27
Factor 72 Factor 45
81
729.

64
s 2
36.
How many
5
.
ber?
32.
Factor 81 (a
Factor
33.
+ b) 27 (2 x y)
s
.
If x
the
the
ounces.
57%
of the egg
is
white,
32
%
2.
shell.
and
The
shells of 2 eggs
is
weigh
one ounce.
portion ?
What
the edible
edible portion of 2 eggs measures f of a cup. It many yolks of takes 9 whites of eggs to measure 1 cup.
3.
The
How
eggs does
4.
it
take to
make
cup
?
2J
cups.
What
is
the
Beaten yolks of 3 eggs measure ^ cup. What is the per cent of increase in quantity of beaten over unbeaten yolks ?
5. 6.
One
egg, yolk
tablespoonfuls.
How much
According to Hutchison, experiments as to the difference in time of digesting eggs cooked in various ways show that 2 soft "boiled" eggs leave the stomach in If hours, and 2 hard "boiled" eggs leave the stomach in 3 hours. If 2 eggs are eaten on each of 4 days a week, how many more hours' work a month will the stomach have in digesting hard than soft "boiled" eggs ?
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
8.
49
After artificially egg was boiled for 3 minutes. digesting for 5 hours in a pepsin solution, it contained 8.3 % undigested protein. An egg was cooked in water at 180 F. for 5 minutes. It was entirely digested after 5 hours in a pepsin
solution.
An
The
protein.
if
dozen eggs
they
heavy as water.
cubic feet per minute and two oven burners, each burning 1.032
when
all
Find the cost per hour of running the burners are on full, gas at 65 $ per thousand.
is
house
pilot lights.
;
heated by a gas furnace containing four Each burner consumes one cubic
two minutes each pilot one cubic foot in eight minutes. Find gas bill for February at 30^ per thousand cubic feet. The pilots burned all the time. Two burners burned from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and four burners were running two hours in the morning and two hours in the evening each day.
12.
five living
on
for
$2000
food
;
25%
of that
sum
20
for rent
15
wages,
etc.,
15%
for clothing;
and 25
i.e.
What amount
if
$3000?
13.
A family
for food
;
living on
$1000
;
to
% 20 %
25
20
;
for rent
15
and 20 % for higher life. If a family lives on $ 1500 per year, what amount should be spent for each item ?
for clothing
14.
From
a family income of
for
$800
and
to
$1000 per
year,
30%
20%
for rent;
10%
clothing;
50
MATHEMATICS
can be spent for each item
How much
$900?
15.
when
the income
is
45
% 10 %
?
family living on $ 500 to $ 800 per year should spend for food 15 % for rent 10 % for operating expenses
;
;
for clothing,
is
and 10
$ 650,
for higher
life.
If
a family's
annual income
item
16.
how much
should
;
15
for rent
income of a family is $ 425 per year, how much can be spent for each item per year and month ?
;
for clothing
and 10
for higher
If the
17.
The grocery
bill of
should be 25
year, 45
of that
sum
of that sum.
monthly
grocery
18.
bill of
each
20
Find the difference in the amounts spent for these items by two families having these incomes.
for clothing,
and 15
of a ninehundreddollar income.
in a fourth barrel, or an ordinary measures 4 cups. If a family uses 5 loaves bread per week, and it takes 3J cups of flour to make one loaf, how many months will a sack of flour last ?
19.
lb. flour
There are 49
1
sack of flour.
lb. flour
Find the cost of 4 loaves of bread, requiring 1 hour for baking and containing the following: 3^ qt. flour, 1 yeast cake, 2 tb. lard, 4 t. salt, 4 t. sugar. Flour costs $ 2.00 per onefourth barrel; yeast 2 per cake; lard 15^ per pound (2 c. in a pound), the sugar and salt $.0024; gas 70^ per 1000 ft., the
20.
cu. ft.
per hour.
c.
= tablespoon,
I
t.
= teaspoon,
= cup.)
How many buy 28inch material for handkerchiefs. cut handkerchiefs, yards would I have to buy to make 9 dozen
14 inches square
?
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
22.
51
if
What
is
is
a iinch
hem
23.
made on four
yard for stitching, how much would the work on 6 dozen handkerchiefs cost ?
If I paid 2 cents a
24.
How much
if
lace
would
it
handkerchiefs
yard,
REVIEW
Divide
1.
2.
3.
:
4. 5.
6. 7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
16.
17.
18. 19.
cc
a;
c.
i/
?/
?/.
a?
?/
2/
?/
>
2/
?/
2/
i/
?/
2;
m
52
20.
[(a?
MATHEMATICS
1)(2
a? a; 2
+ 3)(4  9)] by 2 + x  3. 21. [(3 x  1)(3 + 1)(4 x + 5)] by 12 +11  5. 22. [(125 x  l)(aj + 7)(2 + 1)] by 10 x* + 3 x  1. 23. [(a  l)(a  2 a  15)] by a + 2 a  3. 24. [( a + l)(2a + 3)(4a 9)] by 2a a3.  23 + 21. 25. [(2 x  3)(5 a+ 7)(4 a 3)(3 a? 7)] by 6 26. [(18a; + 3a;l)(10a; + 13a;3)] by 6 + ll x + 3. 27. 2a; + 3a; 5a; 8a;9by 2a; + 75a;. 28. a^ + y + z 3 xyz hy x y+ 29. 2 +  6  4 x  8 by x 2.  512 by 5  8. 30. 125 31. b 4 y by 6 y.  208 afy  143 xhf + 91 + 35 y 32. 52 ar + 38 by 2  7 y 33. la by 1  2 a  2 a  a  13 a*/  5 by 3  2 + 5 # 34. 6a; 13x?y + 13 35. 2ar>  3a;  lSar* + 14a:  2x  12  4a; + 2a; + 4. by 2 + 3 36. 16a; + 36a; + 81 by 4a;  6a; + 9.  30 m + 1 m + 97m  14 37. 10m + 11 m  53 by 2 m + 3 m 7. 38. 12a;  11a?  6a;  15a; + 10 by 3a;  5. 39. 10 y  9y  13 + Sy  y  3 by 2y  y  3.  6x  22a; + 26a; + 5x  8 by 3 x  1. 40. 21 109 + 25 41. A man died leaving an estate, worth 36 If they receive equal dollars, to his 6 x + 13 x + 5 heirs.
a;
2
a>
a;
a?
a?
2 a; 2
a;
a;
\
z.
a;
a;
a?
a;
a;
4 a; ?/
a;?/
a;
2 2 a; ?/
?/
a;
a;?/
a?
a;
?/
a;
4 a?
a;
train
a;
2
went
at the rate of 5
2 a;
+ 32 x 21
in 2 a;
2
miles per
6x
5 x f 3
37 x
The area
is
2 x4
a;
15 x?
\
4 x2
24
square rods.
If the altitude
MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS
44.
53
A
2 xz
and
4
received 3a?
2 x*
2 # 5x 9x + 4 +
2
+ 6x 5
per day.
x*
5
B
2
received
7 x2
At
they
both
received
10
13 a + 3x* 4ar* x + 4 + 1.
?
is
How many
45.
The area
20 ar*
12
square feet.
base
2 x 4 a^ 40 x 46 # is 4 # + 2 + 6 feet, find
4 2
2
a;
altitude.
46.
x2
a?
3
13
5 x + 6 teachers 73 # + 41 6
2
a;
receive together 2
dollars.
a;
19 x + 50 x
5
What
if
is
a;
their
is
average
salary ?
What
if
6
a;
is
a?
their
is
5
average salary
4
2 ? How
many
47.
teachers
[(2
4
a;
2?
a*
 14 x + 13 + 33 x?  17 x  23x  4)6 + 5 x* f 49  98 x + 23)]*(a?  6 + 3 + 4)= ? <y 48. Divide the sum of 21 x + 20 xy 7 x  30 y 1 and  3 + 17y 5 1 by 6  5 + 1. 9 36 x + 21 45 49. Divide the difference between 9 57 x + 55 x by the difference between 4 x 7 + 12 and 3 and 3 + 12 x  7. 50. Divide the sum of 3 + 3 x  6 x  14 and 2 a?  7 2 11 by the sum of 3 x + 4 and 5 +9 51. [(7 a  32 a  13 a + 29) + (8 a + 6 a + 6 a  9)] [(7 a + 13 a + 1)  (2 a + 15 a + 6)].  21 a?x*  27 ax)] 52. [(21 a x + 4 a + 27 aa + (4 ^ [(15 a  20 ax + 3) + (6 a  7 as + 4)]. 53. The area of a rectangle is a f 3 a 6 a 18. Its Find its base. altitude is a + 3. 54. The area of a triangle is 12 a 12 a + 8 a 4 a 4. Find its altitude. What are its Its base is 6 a + 4 a + 2. dimensions when a = 5. 55. The area of a triangle is 2 a a 6 a + 7 a 2. Its Find its base. What are its dimenaltitude is 2 a + 3 a 2. sions when a = 4 ?
2
2 a;
a;
2 a; 2 2 a;
a;?/
?/
a;
2/
a;
a;
a?
3 2
a?
a;
ar
a;
cc f
a;
a?.
r
a?
2 a?
2 a;
CHAPTEE V
Inequalities.
Simultaneous Equations
is
44.
The
sign of inequality
>
or
Thus 9
> 5 is read, " 9 is greater than 5." 4 < 7 is read, " 4 is less than 7." 5 > 9 is read, " 5 is greater than 9."
Two
inequalities are in the
is
45.
first
member
member.
46.
of each
If equal
numbers be added
to or subtracted
from both
an inequality, the resulting inequality is said to conThat is, the inequality sign is not tinue in the same sense.
sides of
reversed.
Ex. 9
> 5.
Then
9_3>5_3
or
47.
> 2.
in
That
is, if all
of inequality
48.
must be reversed.
An
1.
Ex.
2 x
>
10.
2,
we have
x>5.
54
INEQUALITIES
Ex.2.
55
(1) (2)
( 46)
Divide (3) by
2,
>3
(4)
{ 48)
3.
That
is,
to satisfy the
Transposition
49.
In
24 we solved an equation,
2x +
by subtracting 3 from each
=9
by Axiom
2,
side,
then dividing
unknown number.
By
the
method
called transposition,
it is
possible to simplify
first
1.
operation.
Ex.
Solve for
c
x,
mx + c =
side,
is
b.
(1)
Subtracting
from each
mx
the
c.
(2)
member
of
same as if we had removed f c from (2) the equation (1) and placed it in the second member
with
sign changed.
is
Such change
called transposition.
:
term
may
its
be transposed
sign
is
changed.
Then, in solving, mx \ c = b. Transposing c, mx = b c, and dividing both members of the equation by m, the
coefficient of
se,
m
Ex.
2.
ax
+ 7 = 13  2 ax.
2 ax
to the first side,
(1)
Transposing the
second
side,
and
f 7 to
the
(2)
13
7,
= 6,
6
(3)
=r a =a
...
(4)
56
To
MATHEMATICS
verify this value of x, substitute the value of x in (1).
a
or
13
4.
9=
9.
.'.
is
Simultaneous Equations
50.
last
we
unknown number
unknowns must be found. The method for the solution of equations in two unknowns is to find some way of combining the two equations into one equation containing one unknown, and solving this resulting
equation.
Such process
is
called elimination.
unknowns are necessary because one equation in two unknowns has no definite solution, but has an indefinite number of solutions.
equations in two
E.g., in
Two
x+y
= 6,
if
any number
51.
0,
=6$
in
1,
=5
= 2,
3; etc.,
Note that
This
is
this
changes.
Such values must be given x and y that the equation must be kept in balance; that is, must be kept an
equation.
must always be
traction, substitution,
53.
and comparison.
Addition or Subtraction.
First Method.
In this method
INEQUALITIES
coefficients of
57
identical.
unknown in both equations become One unknown number may then be eliminated by
the same
Ex.
1.
2x + y = 9,
(1)
(2)
(3)
3x2y = 10.
Multiply (1) by
2.
4x
3x
+ 2 y = 18
2 y
Add
(2)
and
(3),
10
(2)
(4)
Whence, and
Substitute x
Ix
x
=28
=4.
8
4 in (1),
Transposing ( 49)
or,
+ y = 9. + 8 in (5), we y = 9  8, F = l.
(5)
have,
in (2),
(1) (2)
by
2,
24 x 24 x
Subtract (4) from (3),
15 y = 93 + 26 y =  30  41 y = 123.
y.
(3)
(4)
(5)
Whence,
Substitute value of y in (1),
= S.
(6)
3) =31, 8z + 15=31.
(7)
8 x
= 31  15.
16.
Sx =
Whence, Check in
sc
(8)
(2),
12
= 2. 13 (3) = + 24 39 = 19
15.
15.
EXERCISE
3aj4y = l, Ax + 3 y = 18.
2.
58
3.
MATHEMATICS
3v 5z = 12, 8v+10z= 38.
7y + 8a?= 31,
7.
\x + y=.s, a?f y= f
4.
8.
12x3y=3.
5.
ia+i# = 6, ix + y= 2i.
28 35
x + 5y = 29, 6x + 7y = 4:l
.
9.
 45?/=  17, x 27 y = 8.
?/
.
6.
^+
54.
\x\y=l,
i?/
10.
=5
+ 25.y = ll, 24 x + 55 =  31
36a?
Second Method.
Substitution.
Ex.
Solve
2x +
= 9,
.
(1) (2)
(3)
3a 2?/ = 10
Solve (1) for ?/, y Show that this is transposition.
=9
2 x.
Then,
3z2(92x) = 3x18 + 4x =
10.
(4)
10
?)
(How do you account for the signs of 18 and 4 x Transposing and collecting, 7 x = 28.
Substituting (5) in (3),
or,
= 4. y = 9 y = l.
x
(5)
4,
Check
24 + 1=9.
EXERCISE
20
:
4x
= 6, 3s + 4y = ll
4
4.
.
4 J? 8fl
15 y
 6 8 = 3, + 3 = l.
=
2.
5.
.
3.
4565=8JB + 3# = 3.
1,
6.
10* 8 u
6*
+ 16u =
i.
INEQUALITIES
55.
59
Third Method. Comparison. Solve eacli equation for the same variable and equate the
values thus found.
Ex.1.
2x +
y,
= 9, 3x2y=10
y
y
(1)
.
(2)
(3)
2 x.
y,
y= 3 x ~
(3)
1Q
.
(4)
and
2
10
(5)
2^9
2 x
= 3x
10
Y
(6)
Check as
before.
Ex.2.
5y
(1) (2)
%x
= 5y + 31, b^ + 31
8
(3)
a:,
12 x
(4)
12
of x in (3)
and
(4)
(Ax. 8)
(5)
2/
_l_31__13^_l5
8
12
Then,
15 y
93
=  26 y  30.
(6)
(See 53, and note that the terms of (6) are the same as those that compose equation (5), example 2, before they were combined into two
terms.)
60
MATHEMATICS
first
Transposing the unknown term to the the second member, and solving,
41 y
to
=
123,
V=
Substitute in (3),
3.
8
2.
(7)
15 + 31 x=
Check
as before.
EXERCISE
21
3x+6y=7, 4a?2y = l
.
4.
15 x
13 a
11 y = 16,
+ 11 y = 1.
2.
+ 4 = 6, = l. 2y5
2/ a?
5.
6x
ar
3 + 3 y = , 5 x 3 y = 4.
3.
+ 15 y = 8, 43y12x = 12.
8x
6.
3a + 3# = 2, 9a 15?/ = 2.
it
56.
is
often convenient to
unknown numbers rather than form a single equation in one unknown as was done in exercise 8. Care must be taken to form as many equations as there are unknown numbers. Ex. A number is composed of two digits. One half the number is equal to twice the sum of the digits, and if 18 is added to the number the digits of the resulting number will be Find those of the original number written in reverse order.
use two or more the number.
Let
and
Then, 10
t
number.
10g
10*
Jj
(Exercise
2,
example
14.)
(1)
By
or
the conditions,
+ M = 2 (t + w),
18
10?*
t,
*)t \)u=
18,
t u=:2.
(2)
INEQUALITIES
From
or
(1)
61
 3 u = 0, 2t u = 0.
t
(3)
(4)
= 2. Subtracting (2) from (3) Substituting the value of t found in (4) in (2)
 u =  2,
w
and
= 4.
Whence, 10
f
= 24,
EXERCISE
1.
22
Find two numbers such that the sum of 3 times the first and 5 times the second is 24, and the sum of 1 of the first and
\ of the second
2.
is 2.
r
The
altitude of a trapezoid is 8
and
its
area 48 square
feet.
4', its
16 square
here ?)
3.
Find
its
(Any trouble
weigh 5521 pounds. The difference between their weights is 4271 pounds. How many times heavier than water is steel ?
This quotient
is
(Rememits
The perimeter of a rectangular field is 240 rods, and length is 40 rods more than its breadth. Find its area.
4.
5.
wheat is 80 rods longer than it is wide. The farmer uses a combined harvester and thresher that cuts an 11foot swath. After making 15 rounds, the indicator shows that 271 acres have been cut and have yielded 660 bushels. Find the yield per acre and the dimensions of the field.
field of
6.
Find two numbers such that n times the first added to k is c, and k times the first minus n times the
is b.
second
7.
The
difference
between the bases of a trapezoid is 6, the sum of the bases 30. Find the dimensions.
, ,
62
57.
MATHEMATICS
When
is
solution
similar to that in
two
variables.
unknown
in each equation.
it is
many
Ex.
(4) (5)
Add
4z
19.
z.
We now
= = = =
3.
(6)
x
/
12
19,
or
Substitute (7)
x
15
?/
== 1.
(7)
and
(6) in (1),
22/ +
or
15,
2.
(1)
Check
and
(3).
EXERCISE
Solve the following
1.
23
2x + 3y4z
4.
X
2 5
4
5
25 1,3 z = y J
4
4'
# + ?/ J
2
1,2
3
2
=n 0,
5 3
2.
5y 3x + 2z = 5,
2,1
3*
3
l/
+ 2y = 12.
5.
3.
12
INEQUALITIES
6.
63
Each pupil
An
problem missed. One boy had 45 marks more to his credit than he had against him. How many problems did he miss ?
Find 3 numbers such that if 3 times the first be added to one half the sum of the second and third, the sum will be 137. If half the sum of the second and third be subtracted from the first, the difference will be 23, the sum of the three numbers
7.
being 74.
8.
be inverted, the
444,
sum
of this
sum
number number is
to the
9.
A merchant buys
first
Again he buys as many of the kind as he had bought of the second kind, and as many of the second kind as he had bought of the first, this time spend3 for 4 cents, spending $ 2.80.
ing $2.78.
10.
How many
There are two terms such that the sum of seven times the and fourteen times the second is 221 while the sum of three times the first and five times the second is 9. What are the terms ?
first
11.
One
its
fifth of the
is
40' less
than
width.
how many
will be
(The
first tree is to
be planted in
There are two numbers such that if the first be increased by 6 and the second diminished by 10, the numbers will be equal. But if the first be diminished by 10 and the second increased by 6, the first will then be the second. What are the numbers ?
13.
One boy
The
first
64
had 12
14.
MATHEMATICS
acres.
Together they raised 1790 bushels. bushels per acre did each raise ?
How many
The perimeter
third side
is is
of a triangle
is 572'.
Two
The
15.
sum
What
and 4 y is 4 less than the sum of 5 a? and 7 y. Half the sum of x and y is equal to 7 x. Find the values of x and y.
The sum
There are two numbers such that the sum of ^ of the 5 The sum of i of the first and of the second is 12. first and T 6 \ of the second is 24. What are the numbers ? 17. A croquet ground is 18' longer than it is wide. If its 13' more than its width be multiplied by 3, it will then be length. What are the dimensions ?
16.
18.
What
perimeter is 245',
when
by
the floor
5' ?
is
Solution of Inequalities
In solving inequalities the rules for solving equations hold except in some instances where change of sign takes
58.
place (4448).
EXERCISE 24
If x be positive,
^+J?
4
1
or
*I 6*
2x + 9
62
or
true,
2x + 5
(Test
for x.)
Find the limits of x for which these are your results are correct.
3.
3x + 5<x
+ 2*
5.
6a4<0.
7a?
4.
5*p'>2* + 7.
6.
+ 14 >0.
INEQUALITIES
Find the limits
of the values
of.
65
+ 6 > 0. x + 5>0.
2x
(1),
(2),
(1)
(2)
(3)
From From
x>3.
x must
lie
between
243a>0, 16+2x>0.
5x + 10>0,
3a; 9<0.
10.
4.x
7 <0,
6x2x>0.
11.
9.
5x + 2 >0,
2j;5^>0.
y satisfy the following
(
48)
3x2y = 8.
45
Seven times the number of boys in the algebra class less number added to 13, and six times the number of boys less 22 is less than four times the number of boys added to 40. How many boys in the
13.
is
class ?
14.
is
Find the
digit
Find a multiple of 18 such that five times the number decreased by 220 is greater than three times the number decreased by 42. Is there more than one such multiple ?
Find a multiple of 16 such that one half of by 28 is less than one third of it increased by 16. than one multiple satisfy this condition ?
16.
it
decreased
Does more
17. Find a line containing an integral number of inches such that five times the length of it decreased by 165 is greater than three times its length increased by 14. Is there
line ?
66
MATHEMATICS
Supplemental Applied Mathematics
Century Limited of the Lake Shore Railroad runs 54.5 miles per hour. Find the speed in feet per second.
1.
The
20tli
2.
If each stove burns 2.32 cubic inches of gas per second, find
Allow 15 minutes waste time (when stoves are not (Gas at 75^ per thousand cubic feet.)
of running a
motor in the pattern shop is .044 During a period of 80 minutes, 24 motors Find the amount of are running on an average of 60 minutes. power used. Find the cost at $ 0.0635 per Kilowatt hour.
Kilowatt per hour.
4.
The power
is
by the long ton, and charge its customers the cost price per ton F. O. B. North Carolina, and base its charges on the short ton. Find the Talc Company's profit on 10 cars of 34 tons each, shipped from North Carolina to Chicago. Freight rate $3.50 per ton.
load
weight of timber in the rough multiply length in feet by breadth in feet by thickness in inches and multiply that product by one of the following factors. For Oak, 4.04 Elm, 3.05 Yellow Pine, 3.44 White Pine, 2.97. The result is in pounds. Measure six pieces of lumber in the shops and find the weight of each piece. Make accurate drawings of each piece.
5.
To
find the
by multiplying the square of the diameter in inches by thickness in inches and this product by .06363. (Diameter) 2 (Thickness) (.06363) = weight in pounds. (Remember this formula.) Find weight of grindstone in your
6.
The weight
of a grindstone is found
shop.
7.
Make
diagram.
of one cubic foot of water is 62 V pounds.
The weight
INEQUALITIES
67
<!"
8. Stock must be ordered for making 10,000 steel pins, each diameter by 2" long. The rods for making these pins are i"
in diameter
pin.
9.
and 120"
long.
spoonfuls of cocoa.
of cocoa in one box.
10.
pound).
Which
is
cheaper to use
fat,
If
same quantity of fat as in chocolate, butter containing 85 fat, and one tablespoonf ul weighing \ ounce ?
11.
Butter contains
85%
fat,
cream 18.5%
fat,
milk
4%
fat.
same quantity
of fat as 2 tablespoon
one pound, and one pint of milk one pound and one ounce.
12.
with the skins on lose .2% starch. Find difference by cooking 6 potatoes, one potato weighing 4^ ounces.
toes boiled
13.
contain
20.9
carbohydrates.
Cooked sweet potatoes contain 42% carbohydrates. An Irish potato weighs 4^ ounces, and a sweet potato 6 ounces. Find
difference in quantity of carbohydrates in six of each kind of
potatoes.
14. Find the reciprocal of 5280. Would you rather divide a number by 5280 or multiply the same number by its reciprocal ? Which would give the larger result ? Why ?
15.
thick.
Find the weight of a grindstone 36" in diameter and 4^' What will it weigh after it has been worn down 2\" ?
68
17.
MATHEMATICS
A class of 15
girls
aprons.
How
How much money was spent in making the purchases example 17 ? How much does each girl pay for her share ?
18.
19.
in
If a girl earned
many would
20.
she have to
22\f a piece making these aprons, how make to earn $ 5.50 a week ?
85^
each,
profit per
apron
CHAPTEE VI
Lines, Angles, Triangles
59.
portion of space
solid
is
The
called
the solid.
Eon example,
If
two surfaces
is
intersect, their
intersection
called a line.
Thus,
if
jy
surfaces
AB and DO
XCO,
is
intersect in
XCO,
their in
tersection,
called a line.
61.
point.
An
intersection of
two
lines is called a
AB
and CD,
62.
is
a point.
line
may
also be regarded as
"
""""
"'
The
when
it
direction at
any
point.
its
A line has
dicated,
no limit in
of
it
length.
When
a
a part of
line.
it is in
we speak
as a
Thus,
passing
A
through points
B,
AB
indicates
line
A and B.
a
The part
line.
between
A and
B is
line
may
also be indi
cated
by a small
letter placed
is
somewhere on the
line.
ffg.,
70
MATHEMATICS
64.
A
at
its
direc
tion
every point.
E.g.,
the curve
O
65.
ABC
is
BE yS
\
broken line
"
F
~~J
lines
which have
in
'
different
pair,
directions
common.
E.g.,
The word
line,
67.
plane
is
if
any two
of its points
line,
be joined by a straight
the
Thus, in plane
points,
line,
MN,
if
any two
lie
68.
same plane.
69.
circle is
by a curved
is
equidis
tant
called
the
center.
The curved line is the circumference. The distance from the center to any
point in the circumference
as
is
the radius,
CD.
An
arc is
any part
of the circumference, as
AB.
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
71
Constructions
To draw a circle, select a point on your paper and mark it Open your dividers to the distance required for the radius C. of the circle and place the metal point in the point C. With The curved the pencil draw a curved line around the point O.
line is the circumference of the circle
is
the
center (Fig.
1).
Fig.
1.
Fig.
2.
Fig.
3.
1.
2.
Draw
Draw
Draw two
circles.
same center
(Fig. 2).
Draw
AB.
With
circle.
as a center
and one
half of
AB as
draw a
With 5asa
center and
draw a
draw a
straight line
and
its
center.
Mark
the circumference
and B, respectively.
arcs
The line AB is the diameter of the circle (Fig. 4). The diameter divides the circumference into two equal
and the
4.
circle into
semicircles.
Draw the
Draw
onehalf inches.
5.
inches.
72
MATHEMATICS
divide a circle into four equal parts,
draw a circle and its diameter (Fig. 4). Then, with A as a center and a radius a little longer than one half the diameter, draw a short arc
directly above
To
Fig.
4.
With
as a center
mark
and the
of the circle.
Mark
The
this diameter
ED
and the circumference into four equal arcs. Each sector and each arc is called a quadrant. The two diameters make four equal angles at the center, called right angles, and are, therefore, said to
They
cut each
other into two equal parts and are, therefore, said to bisect
each other.
6.
Draw
Draw
it
it
into
To measure
circle is
angles, arcs,
How
many
angle
degrees in a semicircle
?
In a quadrant
In a right
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
AB, draw
73
short arcs
as a center
To
above and below the middle of the line, with and a radius a little longer than one half the line.
Then, with
arcs crossing
as a center
first
radius,
draw short
the
two.
Mark
spectively,
The
line
CD
AB.
Mark
two straight
(Fig. 6).
M/c
/\
~
o
x
Fig.
8.
6.
Draw Fig.
Show
6.
Then
AB is
the diameter of a
also that
CD
is
AB and CD are
Show
right angles.
9.
Draw
a straight line,
AB, two
it.
and draw a
circle.
circle to
line
AB is
the diameter of a
Then, with
and the same radius draw another circle. At how many points do these two circles cut each other ? Mark these points and JV", respectively. Draw lines connecting with the centers of the two circles. the point What kind of figure do these lines form with the line joinas a center
formed.
Measure the relative lengths of the lines of the Can you give a reason for your answer ?
figure thus
74
MATHEMATICS
inscribe a square in a circle,
To
circle.
Draw two
diameters,
AB
0,
Draw
with
with D,
with B,
B
The
and
with A.
The
figure
ADBC
meet
is,
is
a square.
within the circumference of the circle. The square therefore, said to be inscribed in the circle (Fig. 7).
lie
c
Ruler
10.
Draw
it.
square in
11.
Draw a
circle
a square in
it.
When
two
lines
draw one line parallel to another. have the same direction they are said to be
parallel.
To draw a
point
AB,
Fig.
8,
take any
AB.
Lay the longest side of your AB. Lay a ruler against the
Now
slide
AB until
the point
C touches
on the side next to your triangle. Hold your ruler fixed and slide your triangle along the ruler until the point touches the longest side of your triangle. Draw OS along this longest
side.
CS
is
12.
Draw
Then draw a
line parallel to
any one of
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
<
75
Problem
70.
To draw a
a given
straight line.
A*
Given a line
MN.
To draw a straight line equal to MN. 1. Draw any line AB longer than MN. as a radius, describe an arc 2. With ilasa center and
MN
line.
An
angle
is
point.
The point is called the vertex. The above angle is read ABC, the
always
by a small
may
be written
Z x*
The
size of
an
Two
when they
Thus
73.
Za
and
Zb
are adjacent.
Two
so applied to the
* Also
letter, as
ZB,
76
MATHEMATICS
Problem
74.
Jo
construct
an angle equal
to
a given
angle.
Given
/.ABC.
it.
To
1.
Draw any
Take
line
MN.
2.
any point
on
MN for
and
as
center, describe
DN at
0.
With
as center
LK
6.
Draw DEF.
Then
7.
NDF is
is
75.
theorem
are useful
straight line can be
Ax.
points.
9.
But one
points.
Ax. 10.
76.
triangle
is
straight lines.
The
The
geometry and in
matics.
its
applications to
many problems
in
mathe
Much
of the
work
in
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
I
sides
77
Theokem
77.
Two
when two
and
and
the included
the included
Draw a On any
to
A ABC*
line
DE take DN
equal
AB
At
( 70).
construct
ZD = AA
sF
( 74).
On Intake
DM = AC and draw
X'
we have
(This given J)
mn.
In the above theorem,
three equations given.
part
is
^r
The
AC = DM AB = DN
is
ZA = ZD
you have
to
work
A ABC = A DNM. (This is called the conclusion.) Proof. 1. Place A DNM on A ABC in such a manner
that
its
equal
AB,
D falling on A.
DM will take the direction AC because AD A A. Point if will on point C since DM= AC
fall
4.
5.
Hence line JOT will coincide with line CB (Ax. 9). Then A ABC = A DNM, since they coincide throughout.
is
e.g.,
ABC,
78
MATHEMATICS
Theorem
78.
II
Two
triangles are
D<
/ M\
H
the conclusion ?
>JT
What is the hypothesis ? What Draw a A ABC. Draw a line DN equal to AB.
At At
is
D construct
an angle equal to
Z A. Z B.
meet
at
Extend the
Given in the
M.
We
have
To prove
Proof.
in such a way that point with its equal D falling on A. will coincide AB, 2. Since Z D = Z A, side jMf will take the direction AC and ilf will fall somewhere on AC. 3. Since Z B, side A^Jf will take the direction 12(7 and
DN
ZN=
Jf will
4.
fall
somewhere on
_B(7.
AC and 2?C, it
must
fall at C, their
point of intersection.
5.
Hence
A ABC
and
DNM
coincide throughout
and are
equal.
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
79
Problem
79
.
To
bisect
a given angle.
1.
Draw an
With.
angle
DCE.
and any radius CM, describe an arc and N, respectively. cutting CE and CD at and as centers and a radius greater than one 3. With
2.
as center
half
4.
5.
MN,
the bisector of
angle.
Z DCE.
80.
If
manner that the adjacent angles ( 65) the angles are called right angles and the
AB
is
Z x = Z y,
x and y are
p*
MP
is
perpen
AB.
abbreviation for "perpen.
(_L is the
x\y
dicular to.")
81.
&
If one straight line meets another straight line, adjacent If these angles are not right angles, the
is
called obtuse.
The one
is
less
called acute.
Either angle
said to be
80
82. If a line
MATHEMATICS
CD meets another
Suppose y
line
less
AB, two
than
x.
adjacent angles
If
x and
y,
are formed.
CD
is
made
to rotate
\K
toward A, about
diminishes
It
is
C
CC/
pivot,
Ax
creases.
evident that at
D
be erected to
vv
some position
equal
DK of DC, Ax will
There can be only
line.
Ay.
a given
83.
(a)
(b)
It follows
from
82 that
Two
If one straight
82.
another straight
line, the
sum
oj
is,
formed
That
in the figure of
A x + A y = A ADK + A KDB =
(c)
rt.
A.
line
TJie
sum of all
all
the angles
The sum of
is
any
point in a plane
a
(e)
+ b + c + d + e +/= 4 rt. A.
sum of two
adjacent angles
lie
If the
is
in
same
straight line.
Let a
+b=2
E.
If
rt.
A.
Extend
PM to
AM and MB
A~
'E
were not in a straight line, the sum of c and d would not be two right angles, and this is contrary to (d).
84.
9m d
~B
Species of triangles.
right triangle
is
The
is
90
LINES, ANGLES,
or
TRIANGLES
opposite
the
right
81
angle
is
a right
angle.
The
side
called
an obtuse angled
triangle.
An
angle.
named according
to
their
lengths
of
scalene triangle
An
isosceles
triangle has
two
sides equal.
An
equilateral triangle
has three
sides equal.
Theorem
85. In
III
an
are equal.
Draw
line
AB.
With
and
B as
now
with
at P.
Draw
PA
and PB.
We
ABP,
= a.
What
Proof.
is
given ?
To prove
1.
Z B = Z A.
Draw
line
PM
bisecting
APB
2.
( 79).
In
A A MP unci MBP,
h
b=a\
3.
h]
Az = Ay.
Hence,
A AMP = A3IBP
( 77).
4.
Then
82
86.
MATHEMATICS
In equal figures, corresponding lines or angles are called
It follows that in equal figures
homologous.
are equal.
homologous parts
Note.
lie
Thus, in equal
A AMP
to
and
MBP,
85,
= side
b,
then
Z A is homologous
Z B.
Problem
87.
To
construct
AIL On
AK take AB =
A as
B as
an
c.
3.
With
center and
arc.
^
c
b as radius, describe
4.
With
center and
a as radius, describe an arc intersecting with the former arc at 5. Draw AC and CB.
6.
C.
Then
ABC is
Theorem IV
88.
Two
when
of the other.
Draw
x,
a triangle
ABC.
DEF whose
respectively ( 87).
is
Namely, d =a,
= b,f=c.
What
Proof.
given ?
To prove
such a
way
that
and
F will
fall
opposite
Draw CF.
LINES, ANGLES,
3.
4.
TRIANGLES
83
A AFC, b = Then Zx = Zy
In
e.
(By Hypothesis.)
( 85).
(In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides are equal.)
e/
t
\d

d*
5.
'*
6.
AFBC is
7.
8.
Zx + Zn = Zy + Zm. Then, in A ABC and AFB, b = e a=f Z ACB, or Z x + Z n = Z .4i^B orZ?/ + Zm. Hence, A ^40B = A AFB ( 77).
(Two triangles are equal when two sides and the included angle of the one are equal, respectively, to two sides and the included angle of the
other.)
9.
But
10.
Note.
posed to
site side.
base of a triangle
is
it is
sup
Any
side
may
The
one.
Theorems are truths to be used. Bemember each Notice that theorems I and III are both used in proving
theorem IV.
84
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
1.
2.
25
is 8".
The The
sides
of
a triangle
sides of
a triangle are
13',
15',
1'
16', respectively.
Draw
4.
0".
Draw
3.
three
altitudes
of
example
5.
Construct
a,
triangle
whose
Draw
Measure the three altitudes of the triangle constructed How do they compare? Is this comparison in example 1. the same in altitudes of other triangles of this exercise ?
6.
ABD In the figure ABCD, in and CDB, x = y and o = z. Compare the triangles. Give reasons for your
7.
conclusion.
8.
In the figure
ABCD,
is
in triangles
y,
ABO
and CDA, x
z,
equal to
is
equal to
ZD
is
equal to
B.
Comfor
Give
reason
your conclusion.
9.
In
z,
triangles
ABD
o.
Zx = Z
10.
and
triangles.
Zy=Z Why ?
If
in triangle
ABC,
so
drawn that
AD = DB,
CDB.
= a,
ADC with
11.
triangle
On
triangle
whose remaining sides are each you know about this triangle ?
What do
LINES, ANGLES,
12.
TRIANGLES
is
85
The sum
of
two numbers
other.
What
are
The
difference of
two numbers
is
8,
The
3*
The
sides
equal to the
sum
of the squares of
The hypotenuse
is 25.
Find the
and the
15.
area.
In a lever
;
AM,
P= power; F = fulcrum,
Note that
at P,
if
on which the
W= weight.
downward
the
ffi
pressed
W tends
:
L 60" A It has been found that power M2 0^ to rise. times the distance, from where the power is applied, to the fulcrum is equal to the iveigJit times the distance from the weight to the fulcrum, or
P. AF=WMF.
AF is called
If the
the power or force arm, MF, the iceight arm. 0", the weight arm 2 0", and power arm is 6' the weight 200 pounds, what power is necessary to lift the
weight
Note.
16.
is
neglected.
With
a 4"
4",
~^Zq"
power arm is just able to lift a weight W, when 0" from the weight. the fulcrum is 2' What weight does he lift ?
of the
by
Let 3s be
86
MATHEMATICS
0" long. crowbar is 5' The fulcrum is 3" from one end. A force of 20 pounds at the other end of the bar is
17.
tie.
With what
18.
as
in
lb.
to
move a
ing.
What
was necessary
to start
the car?
The length and breadth of a rectangular tank are 3. The water in the tank is frozen to a depth equal fourth the width of the tank. The area of the bottom
19.
as 4 to
to one
of the
Find the weight of the ice. (Ice tank is 48 square feet. weighs 57J pounds per cubic foot.) Which is heavier, water Why is this necessary ? See exercise 22, example 3. or ice ?
20.
_
angles
e.
The sum
c is
of a
and
b is 90
is
to twice d.
(See
correct ?
21.
first
part shall
first.
The
each.
areas differ
The more than the base of the square. by 64 square feet. Find the dimensions of
8'
89.
An
acute angle
angle.
is
an angle that
a. is
is
less
than a right
Ex. Angle
obtuse angle
An
Angle
an angle that
than
is
greater than a
right angle
b.
and
less
Ex.
LINES, ANGLES,
90
TRIANGLES
87
When
two straight
and
d.
An
angle
measured by comparing
unit of measure
it
with
is
^ of a right
and
is
called a degree.
is
The degree
The abbreviations
respectively.
92.
",
The
is
circumference of a
circle, or 90.
93.
If
the
sum
of
two angles
is
a right
angle, each
is
ABC
is 90,
is
the complement
^
of
^?
their
sum being
is
90.
If the
is
sum
two angles
each
be supplementary.
Thus,
if
the
sum
of angles c
and d
is
is
180, c
d/y
95.
the sup
It follows
from
94, that if
as
lie
and d
c
in the
same straight
line.
Then
angles.
EXERCISE
1.
2.
26
Are 36
30'
and 53
30'
complementary
Why ?
; ;
88
3. 4.
MATHEMATICS
Are 130 19" and 49
41'
supplementary
Why ?
:
of these angles 30 24 15' 15'; 20"; 47 10.5' 72; 60; 30; 45;
5.
24
b.
36
;
22
96
120; 150; 24
6.
135
Find the complement of the supplement of 120 Does this last result give a simple formula ? c.
:
130
Find the supplement of the complement of: 3; 24; 28 5' 30"; 45; 90; c. Does this last result afford a means Illustrate. of simplifying other parts of this example ?
7.
8.
Angle
at
A = 36, Z = 74.
their sum.
9.
Angle
Angle
at
A = 29, Z B = 31.
A = 75, Z B = 15.
Theorem V
their sum.
10.
at
of
their difference.
96.
Any
side of
a triangle
is
Draw any
a, b,
c,
triangle
ABC,
respectively.
We
have
To prove
Proof.
1.
straight line
is
(Transposing
&,
49.)
side, a, is greater
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
89
Theorem VI
97.
sides of
a triangle
is
sum
the
triangle
e
;
draw
PB and
PC.
AB,
c;
AC,
6;
PB,
PC,
d.
We
now have
Given
A ABC,
with
lines
d and
To prove
Proof.
1.
+b>d+
E.f
e.
Produce
o;
BP to
Call
2.
PE,
+
AE,
x;
EC,y.
> e + o.
is
A
3.
straight line
( 75,
Ax.
o
10).
( 75, 3, c
+y>d
Ax.
10).
4.
Add
2 and
+ x + o\y>d + o +
'
e.
5.
+ x + y>d + e
Ax.
6).
(46).
6.
But x
+y=b
( 23,
7.
Whence, substituting
equal
6,
* This description of the drawing is not a part of the demonstration. Your demonstration depends solely on the three paragraphs: Given, To prove, Proof. Be sure you know what you have given you to work with and what you wish to prove. t Remember that any additional lines you draw in a figure must be dotted
lines.
90
MATHEMATICS
Theorem VII
98.
Draw two
lines,
MN and X Y, formb,
c,
d.
We
then have
MN
vertical
b,
d.
Subtract 2 from 1
( 23,
Ax.
2),
a
or
4.
The
pupil
may prove
c = 0, a= b = d.
c.
What
is
What
is
the conclusion ?
Problem
99.
To draw a perpendicular
bisector
of a straight
line.
Draw line AB. To draw a perpendicular bisector of AB, 1. With A as center and any radius greater than one half AB, describe arcs on each side of line AB. 2. With B as center and the same radius, describe arcs intersecting the arcs already
3.
drawn
at
and
at D.
4.
is
AB.
The reason
for this
be given in
is
102.
CD and AB,
the perpendicular.
Note that
C and D
A and
B.
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
91
Problem
100.
the line.
1.
To draiv a perpendicular
to
line
at
any point
in
Draw
a line
AB.
2.
in the line
AB.
To erect a perpendicular to line AB at P. 4. With P as center and any radius, describe arcs intersecting AB, or AB produced, at C and E. 5. With and E as centers and radius greater than one half CE, describe arcs intersecting on one side of AB. The pupil may show that the perpendicular may now 6.
3.
Why
99.
EXERCISE
1.
27
How many
How many
What
do you mean
by determine
2.
What
Theorem VIII
101.
I,
If a perpendicular
is erected at the
middle point of a
line,
Any point
Any
from
the ex
is
unequally distant
from
the extremities
of
the line.
Draw From
We
I.
middle point F. P, any point in KF, draw lines PA and PB. then have,
line at its
KF A. line AB
PA
(x)
and
PB
(y)
point
P in the
perpendicular to
To prove
AB at its = y>
middle point.
92
Proof.
1.
MATHEMATICS
In triangles
o
b.
2.
Then,
(Two
3.
when two
Then,
= y.
Does
II.
this
Given
'
To prove
or
Proof. 1.
PA = PB*
x\
c^=m.
If
is
not in
KF, P'A
or
P'B must
Suppose
intersect
KF.
PA intersects KF at P.
(y).
'
Draw
2.
PB
Then,
3.
4.
But
+ c^m y=a
its
( 75,
Ax.
10).
(101,1). equal y in
2,
#
102.
I.
+ c = m.
From
the result of
101,
we may conclude
that
Two points
Two
lines
line.
in the perpendicular to
equal distances from the foot of the perangles with the perpendicular, and are
is left
pendicular
equal.
make equal
*
to the pupil.)
is
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
93
Problem
103.
To draw a perpendicular
to
line
AB and point P without AB. To draw PF AB. Construction 1. With. P as center and a radius greater than the distance from P to line AB, describe an arc intersecting AB at E and D. 2. With E and D as centers and the same radius greater
Given line
ED,
Draw
PA".
PKis
Note that P and are each equally distant from Compare EF and ED ( 101).
and D.
Theorem IX
104.
From
line
drawn
ing
to the line.
Draw
Given
AB at
also
meet
PF AB, and PH any other line from P To prove PH not perpendicular to AB. Proof. 1. Produce PF to P' making FP = PF.
Draw HP'.
Eepresent Then, Ax
AB.
2.
3. 4.
5.
x and
y,
respectively.
PFP'
Then,
is
6.
PHP'
not a straight
line.
9.)
Then, x + y^lSO. (95) 8. Whence, 2 x = 180, and a #= 90. 9. Hence, Pi?" is not perpendicular to AB. And since is any line except PF, PF is the only perpendicular that can be drawn from P to line AB.
PH
94
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
28
is
1.
of an isosceles triangle
The
sides of
The base
The
sides
of a triangle
is
10",
respectively.
result.
Two
sides
are 8",
line
Draw two acute angles, a and b. At a given point on a AB, construct an angle equal to the sum of these two
angles.
8.
Draw
a triangle
ABC, and
at a given point P,
on a
line
DE,
sum
of the angles at A,
B, and C.
Theorem
105.
X
when
the hypotenuse
Two
and an
other.
XC
Draw
right
A ABC,
(c')
side
AB
(c).
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
95
At B' construct Z B' = Z B, and draw A'C _L B'E. Represent BC, B'C by a and a', respectively, also AC, A'C by b
1
and
6',
respectively.
We
then have
rt.
Given
c',
and
Z .B = Z '.
To prove
Proof.
in
c will coincide
2.
3.
with
its
equal
c'.
a will fall on a'. A falls on A', then side & will coincide with side V. (But one _L can be drawn from a point to a line from a
Since
point without the line,
ZB = ZB',
104.)
4.
Hence, the
triangles
are
equal,
since
they
coincide
throughout.
Theorem XI
106.
leg
Two
when
the hypotenuse
and a
spectively, to the
hypotenuse
*>
\\
and a
leg
of the other.
rt.
A ABC On
at G, erect
b.
EG _L
With
DH and equal to
ing
DH at
F.
We
then
have
Given two
gles,
right
trian
ABC and EFG, with E cg, and b =f To prove A ABC = A ^#. Proof. 1. Apply A ^(2 to A ABC
its
in
equal
b,
vertex
F falling at FJ
96
2.
MATHEMATICS
Since
A ACB
angles,
BCF'
is
3.
Since
4. 5.
Then, Then,
= g A BAF is isosceles, and Z B = Z J" A ABC = A ACF ( 105). A ABC = A EFG. Why?
1 !
( 85).
Theorem XII
107.
perpendicular
line,
from
the foot
Draw
line
AB, and
PF AB
at F, also lines
PD
and PC,
DF being
To prove
Extend
FP'
PF.
Draw
DP and
The proof
LINES, ANGLES,
TRIANGLES
97
Theorem XIII
108.
to
a straight
line
and a perpendicular
I.
drawn from
equal oblique lines cut off equal distances foot of the perpendicular.
II.
Two
from
the
TJie greater
distance
1.
from
the foot
of the perpendicular.
Call
AB
P the
given point,
PF the
per
pendicular to
AB,
PE
and
PC the
The proof
(Prove
II.
is left
to the student.
A PFE = A PFC.) Draw PF AB, also lines PC (x) and PD (y), with x > y.
We
then have
Given
PF AB,
1.
and
line
> line y. =y
(102, III).
To prove
Proof.
CF > DF.
If
CF=DF,
But
this
is
contrary to hypothesis.
2.
If
CF<DF, x<y
if
(107).
This
is
also contrary to
hypothesis.
3.
Hence,
CF
is
it
must be
greater than
DF.
called
"The
Indirect Method."
What
is
the hypothesis ?
What
the conclusion ?
Compare
What is the relation between the hypothesis of and the conclusion of 108, I ? When the conclusion of one theorem is the hypothesis of the other, and the
102, III.
102, III,
is
theorem
is
EXERCISE
29
1. The line joining the vertex of an isosceles triangle to the middle point of the base bisects the vertical angle.
98
2.
MATHEMATICS
Two
isosceles triangles
altitudes.
Show
is isosceles.
4.
Two
vertical vertical
The hypotenuse
of each of
of 31 41'.
81'
6".
and 1 yard, 2 feet, and 6 inches, respectively. The hypotenuse and one leg of another triangle are 10' 0" and 5' 6", respectively. Compare the triangles.
1 foot,
ORAL REVIEW
Give the results of the following
1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
6.
7.
:
1917.
1615.
18
8.
9.
6.117.11.
16.
18.5617.
24.6
24 5
.
+ 317.
+
3
418316.
17.
273428. 10345.17.
12
14.
+ 12
8.
WRITTEN REVIEW*
1.
Two
lines
AB and CD intersect
in such a
way
that they
all
99
The
A equal.
In an isosceles triangle a perpendicular is dropped from the vertex angle to the base. Prove that the perpendicular
bisects the base.
4.
The opposite
Prove
Also
A.
prove opposite
5.
A of quadrilateral are
equal.
Two
way
Find number of
Two
y,
lines,
a and
b,
intersect at
D forming two
acute
x and
and two obtuse A z and iv. At D, a _L is erected to 6, dividing Z z into two parts v and t, so that Z t is 24 30'. Find
of degrees in
number
7.
x, y, z,
w.
of the base of
an
isosceles
A is
joined,
by
lines, to
Prove the
A formed
are equal.
8. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is bisected. Prove the bisector of the angle bisects the base at right angles.
9.
Prom
tri
Two
lines,
bisected.
to line
AB and CD intersect in such a way that AB Prom extremities A and B, perpendiculars are
CD.
Prove these perpendiculars are equal.
drawn
11.
is
Prom
drawn
to the base.
grown person needs 3000 cu. ft. the functions of the body may be active.
1.
If a
room 20
ft.
by
100
by 10 the air have
15
ft.
MATHEMATICS
ft.
to be completely
were occupied by one person, how often would changed to obtain pure air ?
ft.
2.
ft,
How
persons
3.
how
often
Nine square
is
11 feet high.
For good ventilation the air in a room containing one person needs to be changed every 45 minutes. What is the approximate size of the room ?
5.
It
danger of drafts.
just large
What
to
room that
is
meet this ventilating requirement, when one person occupies the room ?
enough
6.
It
jet,
when
changing the air in a room occupied by one person once an hour during the daytime, good ventilation is secured. How many times per hour does it need to be changed in the evening when one gas
burning, uses as
air as jet is
7.
much
two persons.
By
burning
When two
is
secured in
How
8.
daytime by changing the air once each half hour. often should the air be changed when 3 gas jets are
air in a
lighted ?
room occupied by one person needs to be changed once every hour in the daytime and three times every
hour during the evening.
9.
The
How many
much
air
as 4
persons.
When
When
how
LINES, ANGLES,
10.
TRIANGLES
101
needs to be changed once every 45 minutes, and in the evening once every 15 minutes. The room is lighted by kerosene lamps. How many kerosene lamps are burning in the room ?
11.
The quantity
by candles
is
about twice as
much
by
gas.
If the air in a
room needs to be changed once every 1 hours when illuminated by gas, how often will it need to be changed when illuminated by candles ?
For practical purposes architects figure 30 cubic feet of minute for each person. A classroom has a ventilating The room is 28' X 23' X 15' and contains 30 pupils. system. To insure good ventilation, how much air must be driven into the room and how many times per hour must the air be changed ?
12.
air per
customary to allow 50 cubic feet of air per minute per person. In a hospital ward 56' X 9' X 12' are 8 How much air must be suppatients, a nurse, and 2 gas jets. plied per hour ? How many times must it be changed per hour ?
13.
In hospitals
it is
14. A train running 40 miles an hour strikes two torpedoes 400 feet apart. Sound travels 1090 feet per second. What time elapses between their reports at a station which the train
is
nearing ?
15.
According to some engineers, the sectional area of the box of a furnace should be equal to the combined areas of all the registers. There are 6 registers in a house, each 8 in. by 10 in. How large should the coldair box be ?
coldair
16.
The
box
is
ft.
in.
by 1
is
ft.
in.
What
sq. in.
the
The
box
is
495
Each
by 11
in.
How many
registers are
102
18.
MATHEMATICS
According to other engineers, the sectional area of a coldair box should be equal to the combined areas of all the registers minus one sixth. There are 8 registers in a house, each 8 in. by 10 in. How large should the coldair box be ?
19.
The
box
is
600 sq.
in.
each
by 10
in.
in the house ?
20.
in.
The
by 20
What
is
the area
of each ?
21.
minimum dimensions of an ideal by 13^ ft. How many square feet are
room
of
din
con
An
ft.
ideal dining
by 22
23.
How
ft.
maximum
A
ft.
10
6
ft.
by 12
6
in.,
by 3
ft.
14
in.,
the
in. by 3 ft. 15 in., two cupboards each 1 ft. 8 in. by and the work table 4 ft. by 5 ft. 7 in., how many square feet are allowed for " walking " space ?
sink 1
ft.
24.
when
2 times
in.
The
such stairs
is
in.
What
is
the tread ?
How
I
near do they
have to make a bag 10"xl4" when finished, if I allow 2" for a heading and V' on Use the width of the material for the three sides for hems ?
large a piece of material
How
must
CHAPTER
Graphs, the Algebra of Lines.
109.
tions.
VII
Parallels and their Uses
In 5056 we studied and solved simultaneous equaWe will now study these equations from a geometric
25 we determined that
if
standpoint.
In
tive,
toward
the
left
should
Suppose
we
measure
tive values
inter
Suppose
measure
ments
shall
vertical
be
^measurements
be
X
Y
Ex.
1.
f
31
X
and
measurements
^/measurements,
positive
ative.
= 2, y = 3.
the point
Measuring
OM = 2
and
MP = 3,
we have
satisfying the
required condition.
EXERCISE
30
= 4, y = 2. x 3, y 5. x = 2, y = 3.
x
5.
6.
7.
4.
x=
1, y = 4.
103
8.
= 1, y = 4. x= 1, = 2. x = 5, y = 1. x = 0, y = 2.
x
2/
;;
104
9.
MATHEMATICS
x = 2, y = 0.
x
10.
a;
?/
= 3.
11.
= 2, y = 0.
12.
= 3, # = 4 x = A, y = 3; x= 3, = 4 = 4, = 3 ;r=4 = 3; g = 3, y = 4 =  4, y =  3. x =  3, y =  4
a?
;
,y
aj
?/
;?/
aj
In the equation x
+y=
4t,
+ y = 4 for either # or y. We
y
Give x a set of values, say
0, 1,
if
2, 3,
etc.,
values ofy.
It is
If
= 0,
=4
= 1,
= 3,
in
and
?/.
4(^)
1
3 (2?)
2 3
2 (C)
1
4
5
(D) (#)
1 (F)
5 etc.
1
Now
same pair
of axes, just as
we
way we
J5,
(7,
Z>, etc.
curve will
connected by a smooth curve, any point on the correspond to a point satisfying an x and a y of x + y = 4.
105
and y which locate the position of a point are called coordinates of a point. The ^measurement, e.g., OM,
is
e.g.,
MB,
first
is
the
ordi
nate.
The point
is
If
of the
degree, the
is
curve
linear.
ABCDEF is
is
called
This curve
equation.
111.
The
degree of a term
letters in
is
it.
exponents of the
an expression of the fourth degree in xy and of the third degree in x. x3 3 x2 = 8 is an equation of the third degree.
is
x3y + xy 2 x3
2x
+a =b c
2
is
an equation of the
first
degree in
x.
EXERCISE
31
4.
5.
6.
7.
2x y
8.
112.
In this
same
are solved.
at the
which
106
MATHEMATICS
:
2y = 5,
x
(1)
(2)
+ y=l.
(1)
From
x y
1
From
x y
1
(2)
+* +3
l
2
1
(1)
1
If
by the principles
113.
same
Note that
in
Any
(Com
For
pare
in
this reason x
51.)
The
+ y = 4, +y=2
The graphs
This
is
be
Two
when they have the same direction. It is evident that if they are drawn through two different points they are everywhere
equally distant and can never meet.
115.
Some
they coincide.
107
2x
+ 3y = 3, 4zX + 6y = 6.
These graphs coincide. Equations of this kind are said to be See example 2, exercise 22. equivalent. Equivalent equations and inconsistent equations have no
solution.
EXERCISE
Solve by means of graphs.
also
if
32
Note that
is
only ap
proximately correct.
1.
+ y = 7, 2x3y=6.
x
7.
4a>7# =
6^
18,
+ 5y=4.
l,
2.
Sx +
4
42/
= 11,
6.
^
8.
9a?4y =
5x 4y =
4a;
s3,7=2.
^
6'
9.
6a? + 2y = 3.
2,
3.
5x +
6a?
= 13, 5y = l.
+ 5y=2.
4.
What
10.
is
formed by the
12.
lines in
examples
14.
2, 3,
9?
2a
5 = 3, 3x l\y=4c\.
2a
+ y = 4, 2x + y = 6.
4:
9
tc
7 v = 3, w + 3 v = 4.
11.
+ 2y = l, Ax + y \.
8x
13.5x3y = 5x 3y =
5.
What
relations exist
15.
lines
4x + 3y = 2, 3# 4^ = 5, 3x4,y = 8.
108
16.
MATHEMATICS
5
+ u = 11, 3t2u = 4.
t
17.
m + 3 = 19, 3 m  4 = 3.
fc A;
18.
8 w = 5, 4 y + 5 w = 7.
6v
116.
Parallel lines
114)
are
of
great
importance in
geometry.
117.
We
line can be
drawn through
line.
Prove that in
the
to the
same
At points x = 4, y = 0, and Draw the line x f y = 4. perpendiculars line. = this To prove that these erect to 4, y 0, perpendiculars are parallel, suppose that they meet if produced, then
Hint.
The method
of proof
is
called Indirect.
y=
Are
4,
and x
y = 4,
relations
figure.
similar
Problem
119.
1. 2.
To draw a
a given
straight line.
Draw an
indefinite line
AB.
Choose a point
parallel.
without line
AB
through which to
draw the
3.
Draw
At
AP and
extend
it
to
some point K.
4.
5.
P construct
PZ, one
side of Z.
ZPK is
109
Two
same
each
Draw line
To prove
Proof.
a.
Draw lines
line
c.
and c parallel
a.
to a.
We then have
1.
If b
and
meet
2.
at
some point P.
rest of the proof is left to the pupil.
The
(See
117.)
Theorem
121.
XV
of tivo parallels
is
perpendicu
Draw
a at K.

line
b.
Draw
line c _L line
b,
intersecting line
have Given lines a and b parallel, and line c _L line b. To prove line c _L line a. Proof. 1. Draw line m through perpendicular to 2. Then, lines b and m are to c, and b and m are 3. Then, m and a coincide. ( 117.) 4. Hence, c _L a.
We now
c.
.
( 118.)
122.
angle.
The angle opposite the base of a (Any side may be the base.)
The vertex of the vertical angle is the vertex of the triangle. The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular from the vertex
to the base.
An
side of a triangle
EXERCISE
1.
33
base
2.
at the vertex.
Draw
110
3. 4. 5.
6.
MATHEMATICS
Draw
Draw
Draw
three altitudes of an equilateral triangle.
three altitudes of an obtuse angled triangle.
Draw
examples 2 to
7.
Do
point ?
8. Do when?
9.
Do
If so,
Do
Do they
always meet in a point ? Later in the course you will be called upon to prove your above conclusion.
123. If
two
lines
AB and XFare
MN,
MN
is
said to be a transversal.
This transversal makes with the other two lines eight angles which have special names,
names which
position
of
refer to the
the
angles
angles.
The
re
exterior
a and
site
sides
versal
are
Likewise o and
are
alternateinterior angles.
c
and
interior
on the same side of the transversal are exteriorangles. Locate the other exteriorinterior angles.
s,
alter
111
Draw
AB
II
Z KOA =
by
c,
and
and
We
AB and XY cnt
d.
MN
forming alternateinterior
and
To prove
Proof.
1.
Zc=Z
d.
middle point of OK, draw a _L to ^J3, meeting ^45 at F, and at E. Let Z FZO = g and
Z, the
Through
XF
z ^zs = 2. EFXY.
*.
( 121.)
3.
In
rt.
i
(98.)
(Constr.)
(?)
JTZ = ZO.
4.
5.
Hence, A Then, Z c
O.FZ= A KEZ.
= Z d.
( 86.)
lines.
Tliis is the
EXERCISE
1.
If
two
by a
:
(Use the equations derived from the and VII.) Note Remember in proving any geometric statement you must give authority (the why) for
Theorems
XVI
If
two
by a
transversal, the
sum
is
of the
interior angles
equal to
If
two
by a transversal, the
alternate
112
4.
MATHEMATICS
If
two
by a
transversal, the
sum
is
of the
exterior angles on the same side of the transversal two right angles.
equal to
Theorem XVII
125.
If two
Draw
a line
AB.
Draw
a line
MN intersecting AB
at
0.
YKO
in
equal to
KOA.
Theorem XVI.
Given two lines
We
AB and XFcut by
MN making Z
=Z
d.
To prove
Proof.
2.
3.
1.
AB XY.
II
Through
K draw GH
II
AB.
Then,
Z 0KH=Zc.
But
Zd=Zc.
4.
5.
6.
Then,
Z 0KH=Zcl.
XY coincide.
Theorem XVI.
That
is,
XYWAB.
is
This theorem
changed.
the converse of
the
Theorems
XVI
EXERCISE
1.
If
two two
If
interior
by a transversal, and the sum of the angles on the same side of the transversal is equal to
lines are cut
two right
3.
If
two
by a
transversal,
If
two
by a transversal, and the sum of the same side of the transversal is 180, the
113
If
{Hint.
If
sides
perpendicular, each to
Draw
A ABC,
also
A KOM
7
}
/
jy
A ABC. We have Given A ABC and KOM with side AB JL KO, and BCOM.
To prove
D
\ K
D
and
AB
equal to or
\r
supplementary to
Proof.
1.
Z KOM.
draw
i;
;
* Through
DE JL KO to
2.
3.
OM,
produce
G, and
draw 0i7 JL
GK
Call
a.
AG0E,d; A HOE,
(?)
DE WBG.
Z t = Z JB.
i
And OHWBA.
Therefore
(?)
(?)
4.
5.
6.
+c==
$o.
(?)
7. 8.
9.
(?)
(?)
(?)
If
OKweve drawn
namely OG,
A MOG would be
7.
the supplement of
Z B.
Two
Show
8.
Two
Show
Are the
in a figure
triangles equal ?
Remember
drawn
114
MATHEMATICS
Theorem XVIII
126.
angles.
Given
A ABC.
Z A + Z B + Z ACB = 2 rt,
A.
(7iff
\\
To prove that
Proof.
1.
Produce side
BO
to iT.
Draw
z.
BA, and on
same
BO as J3A Let Z.ACB = x, AACM = y, AMCK = 2. x + y + % = 2 rt. A. ( 83, c.) 3. AB = z (?) 4. Z^l = (?) 5. a=a (?)
side of
2/
6.
Add
equations
3, 4,
and
5.
7.
8.
6.
EXERCISE
1.
36
Prove Theorem XVIII by drawing a line through the (Do not draw any other lines.)
Prove two right triangles equal
if
the other.
Prove that the exterior angle ( 122) of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles. (You will need this theorem very often.)
3. 4.
is
greater
How many right angles can a triangle have ? How many obtuse angles can a triangle have?
One angle
at the base of
an isosceles triangle
is
36.
115
The
vertical angle of
The angle formed by the bisectors of the base angles of an isosceles triangle is 100. Find the angles of the triangle.
9.
10.
One angle
Compare the
legs
of the triangle.
11. (a)
(b)
12.
13.
An
91?
15.
Why? An exterior
triangle
129.
of the triangle.
16.
triangle.
MO to meet BC,
127.
Two
oo
Two
if (a)
(6)
00
id)
Keep
this synopsis
116
MATHEMATICS
Theorem XIX
128.
is isosceles.
Draw
At C and
D construct
equal angles.
Let
c.
Call
PC,
d,
and PD,
We
then have
Given
To
Proof.
2.
1.
Draw
a perpendicular
from
P to the base.
Prove the
XX
129.
are unequal,
and
DE > DF.
Call
BE,
and DF,
e.
M E
Given
Proof.
On
DE take DM =
a,
e,
and draw
JFJf.
Call
Z DTtfi^
and
Z MFZ),
#.
D is
and from
(Ax.
x=
?/.
(Theorem
y.
III.)
7.)
ZEFD>
..
4.
Zo/^.
7/
5.
6.
> Z ^. ,'.ZEFD>ZE.
(?)
117
37
line.
The perpendicular is the shortest line from a point to a (Draw the perpendicular and any other line from the
line.)
Two
isosceles
The hypotenuse
in a triangle
is
of a quadrilateral.
(Theorem
triangle to
by theni is greater than the angle included by the other two sides. (Use the figure of Theorem VI, and apply Exercise 36, Example 4.)
the extremities
of one side, the angle included
Theorem XXI
130.
Any point
in the bisector of
an angle
is
equidistant
from
Bisect Z E.
ED and EF,
Call
respectively, meeting
x
ED at M and EF at
have
PM and PK _L
K.
d2
We now
bisecting
Given
ADEF,
and
PE
DEF,
also,
bisector, to
sides
ED
To prove d d 2
Proof.
Show
that
A EPK= A EMP.
sometimes called the locus
of points equi
131.
This bisector
is
as
fulfills
no
118
MATHEMATICS
Thus, in
130
The
center of a circle
the locus of
all
points in a
EXERCISE
1.
38
Show
The
tant from the sides of the angle, lies in the bisector of the angle.
2.
The point
Find the point in the base of a triangle w hich is equidistant from the other two sides of the triangle. Is this point ever the middle of the base ?
4.
r
5.
Show
that
if lines
are
of
the base of an isosceles triangle respectively perpendicular to the legs of the triangle, two equal triangles are formed.
6.
If
formed.
7.
from any point in the base of an isosceles triangle, two isosceles triangles are Are the triangles ever equal ?
that in a right triangle,
if
Show
one angle
is 30,
the
side.
(Bisect the
vertical
is
lines.
same
meet
119
triangle.
Show
is
triangle.
12.
of
Show
Through the middle point of one leg of an isosceles triangle draw a parallel to the other leg. Through the vertex draw a parallel to the base. Show that two equal triangles are formed. How do you find the middle point of one leg?
13.
14.
there
15.
Find a point equidistant from two more than one such point?
If
parallel lines.
Is
two lines intersect, the bisectors of two adjacent angles formed are mutually perpendicular.
Theorem XXII
132.
to tivo sides
of the
other,
and
than the included angle of the second, the third side of the first
greater than the third side of the second.
having sides ACQ)) and CB(a) respectively equal to MKQ) and ML(k), and Z C>/M. We now have
Given
Draw
A ABC
and
KLM,
with
I,
7c.
ZC>ZM.
To Prove
Proof.
1.
Apply
that
will coincide
with
b,
L
0.
falling at L'.
Draw CO,
bisecting
Z L'CB,
meeting
AB at
2.
Draw
OV
(?)
120
3.
MATHEMATICS
In
A CVO and
COB,
(?)
4.
Hence,
and
5.
6.
Then, Hence,
en = cb. co = CO. ZL'CO = Z.OCB. ACL'0 = ACOB, OX' = 05. ^40+ 02/ = A0+ OB.
(?)
(?) (?)
(?)
(?)
A0+0B>AU,
c>m.
of this
or
The converse
theorem
is
also true.
Foursided Figures
133.
lines.
bounded by four
Draw
If
the figure.
parallel
the figure
If no
a trapezoid.
Draw
a trapezoid.
In an
isosceles
two
A A
A A
rhomboid
rhombus
is
oblique.
rectangle is a parallelogram
angles.
square
is
an equilateral rectangle.
a quadrilateral a line
The
diagonal of
Make
eral heads.
121
In a parallelogram
and
the
Draw
triangles
a parallelogram ABCJD.
Draw BD.
formed are equal. Then use 86. This is the fundamental theorem in parallelograms.
EXERCISE
1.
39
it
The diagonal
of a parallelogram divides
into
two equal
triangles.
2.
3.
The diagonals
Parallel
lines
included
between
parallel
lines
are
equal.
4.
From two
draw
per
Show
5.
Show
The diagonals
of a
rhombus
angles.
7.
bisect
its
angles.
sides.
8.
One
8'.
Show
that
The diagonals
10.
In an isosceles triangle
ABC,
and
are bisected.
These bisectors form an angle of 120. of the triangle ABC is how many times its base?
The
leg
122
MATHEMATICS
Theorem XXIV
135.
Two
in
cluded angle of one are respectively equal to two sides and the
included angle of the other.
Given HI
AB, and Z
A respec
tively equal to
To prove
Proof.
O ABCD = OHEFG.
diagonals
Draw
DB and
GE.
Prove
A ADB = A HGE.
exercise 39,
1.
Then use
Theorem
136.
figure is a parallelogram.
XXV
Draw quadrilateral ABCD having AB = DC and AD Draw BD and prove the triangles formed are equal. Then use 125.
= BC.
EXERCISE
1.
40
If
two
is
and
parallel,
the figure
2.
a parallelogram.
figure is a parallelogram.
3.
Two
sides of one
other.
The diagonals
tangle
equilateral.
123
Given
lis
EF intercepting
Ml
\m'
GH.
EF
17.
Let
1.
HG cut AB,
lis
II
CD, and
EF at M,
JST,
K, respec
M'O
2.
at M',
N\
(?)
1 .
K', respectively.
Draw
to
MK.
3.
A M ON' = A N'RK
EXERCISE
41
1.
and
is
parallel
to another side
(In
137, if
M'K'
with
MKK'
The
(In
and bisecting
137
KK'M'M is
a trapezoid.)
124
MATHEMATICS
Theorem XXVII
The
joining the middle points of two sides of a
138.
line
tri
angle
is
and equal
,
to
Through and M' middle points We then have and AG, respectively, draw MM'
Draw
Given
A ABC.
AB
A ABC
MM'
II
with
MM'
To prove
Proof.
2.
BG.
1.
Through
M draw a
will
line parallel to
BG.
AG and
M'
Why ?
The parallel drawn BG.
II
3.
coincide with
MM',
therefore
MM'
4.
5.
6.
X.
Theorem XXVIII
139.
sides of
The
a trapezoid
and equal
to
one half
of their sum.
Draw trapezoid ABGD, AB and DC being the parallel sides. Draw EF joining E and F the middle points of AD and BG,
}
respectively.
We
then have
Given trapezoid
ABCD,
with
EF
To prove
Proof.
EF AB and DC, also EF = i(AB + DC). A line through E AB will pass through 1.
II
II
F.
(Exercise 41,
2. 3.
2.)
II
Then
In
EF AB
and DC.
Draw DB,
intersecting
EF at M. E the middle
41, 1.)
4.
A ABD,
EM
is
drawn through
point of
AD and
5.
parallel to
Use
A BCD
AB.
125
The
bisectors
A ABC, also BM bisecting Z B and CM bisecting Z C We now have Given A ABC, and BM and CM bisecting A B and C, reDraw
spectively.
To prove that
Proof.
2.
1.
lies in
the bisector of
Z A.
AB
Since
BM bisects Z B, M
(
Draw AM.
is
and
3.
BC
Since
130.)
CM bisects Z C, Mis
BC and
is
CA.
4.
5.
( 130.)
Therefore
Then
M
lies
is
AB and AC.
A, and
in the bisector of
1.)
AM
the
bisector.
(Exercise 38,
141.
From theorem
is
XXIX
we may assume
point of intersection
meet in a point, and the equally distant from the three sides.
42
1.
In a
AB,
is
DC,
is
joined to B.
Show
2.
AC is
trisected.
Show
If
that
if
formed
is
a parallelogram.
The
figure
Show
same
angle.
.
two parallel
lines
form a right
6.
What
figure is
126
7.
MATHEMATICS
Show
that the opposite angles of an isosceles trapezoid
are supplementary.
Theorem
142.
sides of
bisector
XXX
at the middle points of two
lies
a point which
in the perpendicular
of
Draw
Use
Join
140.
101.
143.
We may
meet
in a point equidistant
vertices.
Theorem XXXI
144.
point.
The
three altitudes of
triangle
meet in a common
Draw
Given
x, y, z.
z.
We
now
have,
To prove that
Proof.
1.
and
Through
MR
2
3.
II
AC;
Since
through
draw draw
MK
II
II
BC\ through
B, draw
HK
BA.
parallelograms,
xMK.
Hence x
(121.)
BC = MA
z of
= AK
4.
5.
MK.
Similarly y
HK and
MH.
6.
A MHK
common
meet
7.
8.
But
x, y, z
A ABC.
point.
127
Two medians* of a
median.
A ABC, and medians CM and AK meeting at 0. Also draw BL through 0, meeting AC at L. We now have Given A ABC with medians ^4iTand CM meeting at 0.
Draw
To prove that
Proof.
1.
is
in the
median drawn
to
duced at 2. In A
AK and
meeting
BL
pro
HBC,
is
It therefore bisects
BH.
3.
(?)
Since
HB, and
ilfthe middle
point of
AB, MO AH. (?) 4. Then AOCH is a parallelogram, and L is the middle point of AC. Why? o. Hence BL is a median and lies in the median.
146.
In
145, since
H0=
OB
and
L0 = \ HO,
that
is
is
the

distance from
5 to
(7
JO.
Similarly
we may show
X.
the
distance from
to
M, and from
^4 to
Polygons
147.
polygon
is
more
straight lines.
lines of a polygon are its sides.
The bounding
Any two
polygon is named with reference to its number of sides, Thus, triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, or angles.
octagon, etc.
*
A median
is
128
MATHEMATICS
is equilateral. is
equiangular.
equilateral.
regular polygon
is
148.
Two
if their corre
Two
if
their correspond
same
they are both mutually equilatThey are also equal if they eral and mutually equiangular. can be separated into the same number of triangles, equal each
polygons are equal
if
Two
to each,
Theorem XXXIII
149.
The sum of
the angles
of any polygon
is
equal
to twice
as
many
angles.
etc.
We have
sides.
etc.,
ABCD,
etc.,
having n
To prove
Proof.
Z.
=2 wrt. A 4rt.
A.
1.
It is evident that
The sum
two right
angles,
is
2n
The sum
sum
5.
Subtracting the
sum
of the angles at
we have 2 n
rt.
( 83, d.)
129
XXXIV
of a polygon formed by
is
sum of
equal
to
four
b, d,
etc.
rt.
is
equal to 4
A.
cent to
2. 3.
b.
Thena + 6 = 2rt.
sum
rt.
the
is
2n
4.
5.
A.
of the interior is 2 n
A 4 rt.
A.
(?)
Subtracting the
sum
we have
2 nit.
or
A (2 n
4
rt.
A  4 rt. A),
rt.
A.
43
EXERCISE
1.
Prove Theorem
XXXIII by
triangles
formed by drawing
all
2.
One angle
of a regular
polygon
?
is 1^
right angles.
How
sum
of a
many
3.
polygon
How many
degrees
is
the
of its angles ?
One angle
is
What kind
is
polygon
4.
it? 120.
An
How
many
5.
Each
of a regular polygon is
rt.
J
Z.
Find the
Any
trouble here?
Why?
130
7.
MATHEMATICS
From one
vertex of a regular polygon 5 diagonals can be Find the sum of the angles of the polygon.
three lines belonging to any triangle meet in a
drawn.
8.
What
One
point ?
9.
Is there
to this question ?
is
180.
How
many
greatest exterior
if
quadrilateral
a parallelogram,
if
A hexagonal
water tank
is 3'
6"
on a
side.
Find the
In nuts and heads of bolts, the distance across the flats (the distance between the parallel sides) is f the diameter of The thickness of the head is i the distance the bolt plus l".
2.
across the
flats.
flats
and the
A
A
hexagonal head
is
"
on a
side.
blank.
5.
square head T\" thick is to be milled on a cylindrical Find the diameter of the blank.
3,
In example
find the
bolt.
6.
across the
the thickness of
the head.
131
A
is
is
The
head
square.
Find weight
is
The bolt 8. A square head measures f " across the flats. 5" long under the head. Find weight per hundred.
9.
The thickness
?
of a hexagonal steel
What
on a
size
A hexagonal A hole A
hole
is
head
is
"
f
side.
the bolt.
11.
0.185".
Would
12.
? i
1.284".
2.74".
The
Find
weight of nuts per hundred, number of nuts per hundred pounds. (Bolts only come in 4ths, 8ths, 16ths, 32ds, 64ths).
13.
Whites
122 F.
14.
Express in Centigrade.
eggs are
When
made
milk and teaspoonful of butter are added to each egg. 7 eggs will make 5 portions for serving. Find difference in cost of 6 eggs and enough omelet to serve six persons, when eggs cost 30^ per dozen, milk 6/ per quart, butter 37^ per pound. One cup of milk measures 16 tablespoonfuls, and one half pound of
butter 16 teaspoonf uls.
15.
87
of milk
is
water.
1 cup of
milk weighs
8
ounces.
of milk.
is
3.3
of milk
albumen.
17.
tein.
What is
protein,
f
of the protein
The
pro
How much
take to contain
132
18.
MATHEMATICS
A can
is
Which
costs
19.
of condensed milk costing 5jf contains f of, a cnp. fresh or condensed milk cheaper if fresh milk
6^ per quart?
protein.
eggs contain as
much
much milk (liquid measure) in one pound of much cheese contains as much protein as 2 eggs
20.
Find difference in cost of 1 dozen eggs and as much cheese as would contain the same amount of protein, cheese costing 20^ per pound and eggs 30^ per dozen.
makes 1 cup of cottage cheese which weighs 6 ounces. Find difference in cost of 1 pound (Prices same as above.) cottage and 1 pound American cheese.
21.
One quart
of sour milk
22.
protein.
How much
make
this
much
?
protein as 1
pound American
cheese
How much
\ pound macaroni or 1 cup rice can be used with cheese. 1 cup rice weighs 1\ ounces, and costs 10^ per pound. Macaroni costs 15 fl per pound package. Find difference in cost.
24.
carbohydrates
cooked macacooked
carbohydrates.
much
Uncooked macaroni
contains
J
74.1%
1
carbohydrates;
carbohydrates.
Find weight
from cooking
pound macaroni.
wish to make a dusting cap 18" in diameter. How much lace is needed to put around the edge, allowing one half
I
Two
Example 26
sew beading.
How much
CHAPTER
VIII
products.
We
shall
now extend
and
18.
The
153.
Difference of
Two
Squares
the
Type I. Multiply a + bby a b. (That is, multiply sum of two numbers by the difference of the same two
actual multiplication
numbers.)
By
a
a a2 a
2
b b
+ ab
abb
2
.
2 2
That
is,
(a
b) (a
b)
a2
is
equal
of their squares.
Then
to multiply the
sum
of
two numbers,
as 3 x
+ 5, by
the
same two numbers, 3 x 5, one needs only to square the first number, 3 x, and subtract the square of the second number, 5, from it, giving for the product, 9 x 2 25.
difference of the
EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
2.
44
(x (x
+ y)(x
y).
3. 4.
(m
+ 3)(x3).
133
134
5.
6.
7.
MATHEMATICS
(2a?
+ l)(2a>l).
8.
(2x
or
numbers monomials ?
Are these
What
25.
making it applicable for factoring such examples as example 12. Keep in mind that of division division by inspection. The factoring is a process dividend is given. You must find the divisor and the quotient.
13.
I,
;
17.
18. 19. 26.
20.
16y 2c 2z 2
4
a;
25x d a\
2
2
21. 22.
225.
289
x\
2
.
23.
24.
2
.
16/ 25c
a4
4
25.
2
2 2
27. 28.
29.
30.
 256 b = (a + 16 b )(a  16 b = (a + 16& )(a + 4&)(a4&). 31. 3 2 16 m 81c 32. a + 3) (a3) (49)  (25) 33. (x + 7)  (x  7) (561)  (559) 34. ( a +&) (a6) (625)  (576)  21) 35. 0/ + 21) 36. (17x + 162/)(17a;16?/) = ? 37. (21a+23&)(21a23&) = ? 38. (24 m + 19 c)(24 m  19 c) = ? 39. (25* + 18c)(25a;18c) = ?
2
2
.
2
.
2
.
(2/
135
(15c
+ 26d)(15c^b
2
.
26d)
T\a
42.
Can you
of the
factor a 2
+ 25 ? Why?
two numbers.
sum
of
two numbers.
of the difference of
Type
of
II.
Multiply a
+
b
b by a
b.
That
is,
multiply
the
sum
of the
+b a 2 + ab + ab + b2 a + 2ab + b 2
2
That
is,
(a
b)
=a 2 + 2ab +
:
2
.
(a
is
the
first
number and
is
is
equal
square of
number plus
the square
of the second.
Similarly, (a
b) 2
=a 2 2ab + b2
minus
is
equal to
and
EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1. 2.
3. 4.
5.
45
(x
7.
(5a
+ 3)
2
.
13.
14.
2
.
(9
m + 7x)
2
.
8.
(5a3)
(5 a
2
.
{IS
(5
(6
a 15b) 2
2
.
x)
2
.
9.
(ax) 2
(a
10.
2
.
+ 4 b) (6y + 5c)\
(7x4z) 2
(8c Id) 2
15.
m a)
a
16.
5b) 2
6.
+ 2x) (a 2 a)
11. 12.
17.
(5b
6 a)
2
.
2
.
136
18.
19. 20.
21.
MATHEMATICS
+6x+9? From what factors do you get a 8 a + 16 ? What are the factors of x  10 x + 25 ?
From what do you
get this product
2
:
x2
How
a2
2
24.
25.
30. 31.
6a + 9. 26. 9x +30x + 25 27. m + 12m + 36. a 4 a + 4. 28. 4c + 12c + 9. 4a + 4a + l. 9a 6^ + 1. 29. 49 d  14 cd + c m + 4 mZcc + 4 c a  18 a + 81 = (a  9)(a  9) = (a + 3) (a  3) (a + 3)
2
9
A:
(a
3) by Type L
32.
 72 c d + 81 d\ find one 34. The area of a square is 25 a + 4,0 ab + 16 & Find the dimensions when a = 5, b = 3. side of the square. What is the area? 35. One side of a square is 2 # + 5?/. Find the area when x = 6 y = 1. Why ? 36. Is a + 8 a + 25 a square ? Why ? 37. Is a + 10 a + 24 a square ? Why ? 38. Is a + 10 a + 25 a square ? Draw per39. Draw a square whose side is a + 6 inches.
x*
2
 8 x + 16.
33.
16
made up
40.
of
whose areas
and a square on
line b.
Factor a4
Factor
41.
42.
16. Are your factors factorable? x* 81. What type are you using?
(81)
2
=(80+
l)
137
(41)
45.
(79)
47.
2
(145)
(153)
c.
49.
50.
(162)
(169)
44.
(39)
46.
(132)
48.
Trinomials
of the
form x 2
+ kx +
+5
Type
III.
Multiply x
x x x2
f
by x
+ 3.
+3
15
+ 5x +3x+ 2 x + 8x +
15
is
Note that in
the square
of the
common term
terms, 5
terms.
(x). 3.
and
The coefficient of x is the sum of the unlike The third term is the product of the unlike
+3
and 4 x
2
9.
27.
By
f 3) (4
 9) = (4 x)
=
16x
2
+(3
 9) (4 a)
24x27.
46
EXERCISE
Find by inspection:
1.
2. 3. 4.
5. 6.
7.
(a
11.
12. 13. 14.
15.
(b
(c
14) (6
+ 16).
4)(a
+ 3).
(5a4)(5a4).
(m
(ft
16. 17.
8.
9.
18.
19.
20.
10.
+ 115)(c12). (d + 16)(d + 15). + 9). (2 x 14) (2 (2a + 14) (2 a + 9). (2 a + 14) (2 x  9). (y + 5)0/ 40). (z + 27) (z . 5) + 28) (ft .7). (a  17) (a  15).
a;
:
..
(ft
138
21.
MATHEMATICS
From what
Factor a2
factors do
you get x2
+ 7 x + 12 ?
22.
x 12.
is the coefficient
To
of the unknown
X2
x2
24.
25. 26.
x2 x2
a
2
27.
28.
a2
z
c
2
33. 34.
35.
(2 a
a2
4 a2
is
+ 16 a + 15.
common
to each
the term
binomial.)
36.
9 a2
 15 a 14.
37.
38.
39.
25
c
4
or
+ 50 x + 21.
2
2
40.
32.
2
?/
12?/
+ ll.
41.
42.
43.
a2
a2
44.
Common
to
Each Term
Type IV.
Multiply 3 a
+ 4 b + 2 c by 5 x.
10 ex
3a + 46 + 2c 5#
\5ax
+ 20bx +
The first Type IV.
Each term
is to
common
factor 5 x.
This is a examples
Ex.
1.
Factor 4 a 2x
 16 b x.
2
the factor 4 x.
139
4 x)4 a 2 x
16 b 2 x 4 b
2
The
divisor
is
16 b 2 x
4 z(a 2
I.
46
).
But, a 2
4 b 2 can be factored by
Type
Hence,
This
is
4 a 2x
16 b 2 x
= 4 x(a +
number
2 5) (a as 105
 2 5),
We
remove a factor
then have
105
= 3(35).
=
3
Factoring 35,
105
5
7.
Ex.
2.
Factor
2 a
(2
+ b)a? 2
(2 a
+ 6)8 + (2 a +6)15.
a?
+ 5 )(2a +
 (2a+5)8x+ ^ 8x +
z2
15
(2 a
6)15
Use Type
(2a
III
2
on the quotient.
Then,
b)x
(2a
+ &)8z+
(2 a
5)15
(2a
+ b)(xS)(zS).
EXERCISE
Factor the following
47
still
8.
9.
4. a?  ab\ + 27 x. 5. 5^20. a b + ab 6. (a* &>*5 a + 25. c*(2 m + 5)  c(2 m + 5)  12(2 m + 5). (2 c + 7)4 c + (2 c + 7)20 c + (2 c + 7)21. 10. ax + bx + ay + by. #(# + 3) + ?/(# + 3).
a;
(<**
&*)*
Factor the
first
last
+ b)+y(a + b).
example
9.
The example
11.
x?
2
is
now
like
3 x 3 x + 9.
two terms
and
140
12.
MATHEMATICS
Factor (a
Compare example
13.
9,
exercise 16.
x2 (2xl)x(2xl)12(2xl).
did you use ?
2
2 2
What Types
14.
15.
16.
a\a2
b )b\a b ).
2
17.
18.
19.
21.
22.
23. 24.
25. 26.
27.
32.
+ (2ra + 5)8m + (2m + 5)16. (2m + 5)m  (2 m + 5)17 m + (2 m + 5)16. (2m + 5)m  (2 m + 5)15 m {2m + 5)16. 25 a (2 x + 5)  20 x(2 x + 5) + 4(2 +5). 20. 4 m + 24m + 36 m. 4ra + 12m + 36m. Is a + 9 a + 25 a square ? Why ? a  12 a + 36 a (2a + l)4a +(2a + l)4a + 2+l. 28. ^ + 3 ar  6a18. (a a72)(2a 18). 29. 8 ^+12 ^10 a 15, ( + 3) (3) 30. a^ + 4^16^64. (> + 3)V(a + 3) 81. 31. m 4m + 7m 28. a + 3a 9a27. 12 a + 8 a b  21 ab  18 b\
(2m + 5)ra
2 2 2
a?
Trinomials of the
157.
Form ax2
Type V.
.Fmd
the
product
+ bx + c of 2 x + 5 cmd 3 x + 7.
x*
(3
7)x
+
,
Notice that if the first and third terms of this trinominal are combined by multiplication, the product 2 3 5 7 x 2 comprises all the factors which make up the middle term of the product. Note also that the middle term, 29 x, is the sum of the cross products, that is, the sum of 2x 7 and
3s
5.
141
we may
Ex. Factor 6x 2
1.
29 a;
+ 35.
and third terms, or 210 x2
.
of the first
Factor 210 x 2 so that the sum of the factors is the middle term 29 x these factors are 14 x and 15 x. 3. Write the trinominal in the form of a quadrinominal, using 14 x and
2.
;
6x2
4.
\29x
35
= 6x2 +
14 a
+ 15 + 35.
Now
use
Type IV.
2x(3x + 7)+5(3x +
Hence,
It
6 x2
connected with 6 x2
EXERCISE
Find by inspection
1.
2.
3. 4. 5.
48
(2a5
10.
11.
12. 13.
14.
(2
a?
7) (3 a? 4).
6.
7.
(2r7)(3aj
(2a>
+ 4).
15. 16.
8. 9.
17. 18.
a 21) (5 + 18). (7a + 15)(7s + 15). (13a?l)(13a? + 2). (14 + 13) (13 x + 14). (14 x 8) (14 x + 8).
(6
a;
a>
(3
a?
75) (2 a? 4).
19.
6 x2

6 x2
20
+ 23 x + 20.
.
Then,
6 x2
4
= 120x2 120 4G? = 1505' 8 X. 15x + 8x = 23 x. 23 x + 20 = 6 x 2 4 15 x + 8 f 20. = 3x(2x + 5) + 4(2xf5). = (2x + 5)(3x + 4).
a;
a ca
142
20.
MATHEMATICS
21.
22.
23. 24.
25.
26.
+ 22x + 20. 8 x + 22 x + 15. 10a + 19a? + 6. 12aj*23a> + 10. 8^ + 2^15. 15ar> + 23a28. 15^ + 47^ + 88.
6x
2
29.
4
a2
14 98.
a;
2
30.
31.
32. 33. 34.
+ 18a; + 81. 36x + 60x + 25. 15x + Ux 16. 15 6  14 6 16, 15a + 34a 16.
2
2
2
35. 36.
10x2 x24:.
10
2
27.
28. 38.
56a2 17a3.
2
39.
40.
60
x3  115 x2 + 50 x.
41.
42. 43.
45.
4m (2m + 5)+12m(2m + 5) + 9(2m + 5).  11 c 36c. 44. 5 2y + y28. 24m + 14m 3ra.
3
2
arise
ucts:
By
actual multiplication
ft
That
a*.
is,
ab
as the
Note the form of the quotient: we shall speak of a leading letter and b as the following letter.
143
raised to a
2.
term of the quotient contains the leading letter power one less than its power in the dividend. The power of the leading letter becomes less by one in
first
The
each succeeding terra of the quotient. 3. The following letter appears in the second term of the
quotient and
term.
4.
its
The
Similarly,
= ** +
4
***
+ ^ +
+ aV +
*'
and
a & ^^=a 6
3
a*b
ab3
&4
a
Ex.
1.
tf64 = a2 x 4
.a;
Here,
a
&
is
5C,
and
is 4.
a3
Likewise,
+
+
63 6
_=
a2
aft
b%
a and a
b
divisior is all positive, the
+ and
Do
not divide
sum
of the
of the roots.
EXERCISE
Factor the following:
1.
2.
49
Xs f.
x3
3.
a8
8.
5.
6.
a8
or
5
+ f.
7.
4.
Xs
+ 8.
6
9.
27. + 27.
4 27.
= 3.
125 a3
8 a8
27.
+ 1.
144
10.
MATHEMATICS
125 a3 8.
17.
18.
a5
+ 243.
3
11.
12. 13.
14.
15.
m
3 fr
216.
3
.
19.
3
.
20. 21.
3
.
x6 x6
^32.
a5 +32.
22.
23.
16.
a6
as a cube.)
Trinomials which
may
and subtraction
159.
of
some number.
Type VII. x4
+ bx2 + c2
is
term
is
the product
of a square
Ex. Factor x4
If the
+ 2 x + 9.
2
,
II.
By Type
I,
EXERCISE
Factor the following
1.
2.
50
3. 4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4
.
Fill in the
trinomial square:
11.
a2
+ 4a + ?
4m +28m + ?
2
145
16.
17.
18.
24 c + 4. ? + 6x + 9. x + 8x + ? x + 5x + ? c 9c + ?
2
a;
a;.
19.
20.
+ 16. 9 m 18 m.
c
4 2
21.
22.
25a 2 30ab.
25
2
 25 ab.
23.
24.
25a 2 20a&.
25
2
 18
aft.
The seven types of factorable expressions should be committed to memory. Before attempting to factor any ex160.
which
it
belongs.
Hints on Factoring
1.
For
all
expressions
First try
2.
Type IV.
I,
IV, VI.
3.
II, III,
V, VII.
4.
Be
ing.
5.
Several types
e.g.,
may
expression,
example
Types
I.
a*tf
II.
III.
IV.
ad+bd+cd=d(a + b+c).
c.
ax2 + bx + n n VI. a b n n b a
V.
.
.
VII.
+ 2 x* + bx + <?.
146
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
51
f2y + l.
2 y l.
3.
y*2y8.
2.
5.
4.
2
f + 2y8.
50x3
+ 4,5x
2
A5x.
6.
7.
10x\2x3) + 45x(2x3)4:5(2x3).
(341)
(339) 2
8.
One
This square
is
surrounded
of uniform width,
cost of
One square
is
is so
uniform width
between the sides of the outer and the inner The sides of the squares are 76" and 69", respectively. squares. How many square feet in the difference between the areas of
these squares?
10.
The area
large
is
of a square is 36 x 2
How
the square
when x
Could you substitute a value of x that would make the area negative? Why?
the area
still
be positive ?
11.
The area
of a square is 49 a 2
28 a + 4.
?
when a = \.
12.
Is
a 2 + 10 a
+ 16
a trinomial square
is
Why ?
~~ w
13.
The area
of
a triangle 6
If x
Is
Find the
is 2 and the triangle is isosceles, conmore than one such triangle possible?
Why?
14.
The area of a
right triangle
is
5 x2
+ 4 x 12.
Construct
the triangle
15.
when x = 2.
147
Factor x4
 25 x + 144.
2
22.
23.
(4a +
=?
a4
a4
29 a + 100 = ?
2
Factor 4 a2
f 2a?
+#+
4
18.
19.
20.
81 = ?
?
24
+l
4

y_
(2m + 3) 2 36 =
2 2
2^ + 1
5 a
/g
+1
5
(2m5) 25m = ?
(2
V
26.
is
2
a;
+V
Y9
a;
21.
m 5)  (2 m + 5) = ?
2
2
Factor 5 a2
sc
+ 11  36.
Find
its
27.
sions
28.
rectangle
+ 7 + 12.
dimen
is
4ar
169
2
29.
of
rectangle whose
area
is
225 a
30.
 289 b
2
.
is
+ (3 m + 4 a) + 12 ?7ia. What are its dimensions when x = 4", m = 1", a = 1" ? How
does this rectangle compare with that in example 21
31.
?
sides in a rectangle
.
whose area
is
25 x2 4:0xy + 16y2
32.
Factor 9 x* + 42 #cd
Factor 4
c
2
+ 49 c d
2
2
2
.
33.
34.
 256 c d m
4
2
.
15 a2
+ 29 a 14.
it is
not necessary to
157.
,
for example,
148
MATHEMATICS
+ 35 #. 5 x (3 x + 7).
15 #2
Then, (3 x + 7) is one factor of 15 #2 + 29 x 14, 5 # is the first term of the othei factor. The second term of the second factor is formed by dividing 14 by + 7. The written work would appear as follows
Factor 15 a2
+ 29 a 14.
2 (15 a )
,
(14) = 210 a;2 210#2 = (35#)(6#), 15#2 + 35# = (3# + 7)(5#), 15 #2 + 29 #14 = (3 # + 7) (5 #2).
Factor
35.
36.
37. 38. 39.
40. 41.
42.
43.
44.
45. 46.
47.
30 x2 27
#21.
Solutions
48.
 24 y  12. 36 #  12 #  120. 48s + 50s + 2. 31 a  151 a  20. 48 a + 128 a 48. 25 a + 95 a 20. 64 m 40 m + 4.
96 y 2
2
2
by Factoring
finite
161.
If the product of
two or more
is zero.
numbers
is zero, at
numbers
That
zero.
3) (x 4) = 0, either x 3 or x 4 If # 4 = 0, x = 4. If x 3 = 0, x = 3.
is, if
(x
must be
which
Ex.
Solve x 2
 4 # = 21.
member
of the equation
is 0,
we
have,
2_4 X _21=0.
149
Placing the
first
factor
7.
= 3.
For x
=  3,
Both roots
EXERCISE
Find value
1.
2.
52
3.
Solve by factoring.
4.
5. 6. 7.
(Check each
root.)
8.
9.
10.
18.
19.
20.
21.
= 16. 12. x x = \2. tf + 5y + 6 = 0. 13. m 4 m = 0. ^ + 70 + 6 = 0. a  81 = 0. 14. 48^ 12a; = 0. ^9 a  9^ + 81 = 0. 15. yilly102 = 0. 16. 9z 30z + 25 = 0. 4.x + 12 x = 9. 17. 16z + 42tf = 5. ?/  9^ + 9 = 0. (2 a + 7) a  (2 a + 7) 4 a + (2 a + 7) 4 = 0. {x  16)x (x  16)28 x + {x  16)49 = 0. (25 z  225) (49 z  289) = 0.
11.
a?7a? + 12 = 0.
v 28v
2
?/
How many
roots to a first
degree equation?
second
150
MATHEMATICS
REVIEW
Factor
1.
2.
a 4 25.
a2
28.
9(x 2xy + y ).
2
11a + 30.
6
3
28 a;2
3. 4. 5.
6.
7.
34.
35. 36.
8. 9.
10.
11.
12.
13. 14.
3 ca + 2c7i 5 6a 10 M. 5bx 106 + 4c?a 8d. 24 6 + 37 672. a + 15 a 100. 16a 6 + 24a& + 36 6 64 + 8. Treat as a bi2
ma mb +
6a
b.
+ 17 3. 125 a + 6 8a + 20 a + 4ac. 9a + 30a + 25. a 17a + 42. 2a + 21a + 55. 8a  10a 33. 36 + 12 + 1. Treat
a;
6
as a
trinomial.
37. 38. 39.
12b 2
49 a
2
4a
41.
nomial.
15.
16. 17. 18.
2/
9a2
+ 9a + 2.  81 x 121
4
42.
43.
625z
a
a;
2
216w

4
.
2/
^oo.
2
6a2  a 2.
44.
45.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26. 27.
+ 3 b  154. + 26 + 133. 5 m 26 m 24. a 19 a + 78. 5 a + 9 a 18. l125m x + y 2 xy 4. 5 a?/ 3 a + 4 a 30 a + 225
b2
A; 2
A:
46.
47. 48. 49.
50.
51.
52.
.
10a2
+ 49 a 33.
3
729 a 8 841.
?/
arty.
2
?/
?/
53. 54.
2
.
4ar2
+ 16a;+
15.
2x2
5a 25.
151
2
.
49 x i
2
57.
58.
59.
60. 61.
62
63.
64.
65.
+ 45 x y + 25 y\ x + 6 a  247. 70^2/ 982/  140 x x + a  1. 9a + 30a + 25. 2 an 4 n 4 a  6. + a;6. x x 6. a 7 # + 6. a z + 12xz 13.
2
2 2
66.
67. 68. 69. 70.
71. 72. 73. 74.
75.
IS x2
 3 xy  4,5 y
b\
2/z.
6 a2
a;
?/
2
.
is
outside diameter.
2.
A A
"
9inch pipe
side diameter.
3.
steel
4.
steam pipe is 12.750" outside diameter and Find the inside diameter. thick.
inside diameter of a 2inch pipe
is
made
of
The
2.067".
If water
is
how
many
5.
A 6inch
main above would deliver how many gallons per hour? Could you use the result obtained in example 4 in solving this problem, and have a fairly accurate result ?
as the 2inch
6.
A pump
and
is
is
16 strokes per minute. What weight of water livered per hour ? (Water weighs 621 pounds per cubic
set for
7.
de
foot.)
single cylinder
pump
What
is
the discharge in
152
8.
MATHEMATICS
technical
school
is
81"
10i".
The stock
500 sheets, and costs 6f ^ per pound. How many reams must be ordered and what is the cost ? (This is a problem in mental
arithmetic.)
30,000 cards 5" x 4" are to be cut from stock 17" x 20". Weight 30 pounds to ream, price 12 ^ per pound. How much
9.
What
did
is
it
cost ?
Does
it
make any
dif
way
the stock
cut ?
In a fuel test 100 pounds of coke was found to contain 6.01 pounds of ash and .583 pound of sulphur. The balance was carbon. What per cent of carbon was there?
11.
Air
is
What
is
is
the
If a
body
equal
is
to
the
The equation
s
is
usually written
the distance in feet.
is
=  gt
where
s is
A
13.
How
deep
is
the canon ?
How
far did
it fall ?
An
when one
lb.
bomb
ground
overboard.
?
How
15.
long did
take the
bomb
to reach the
field.
How
many
16.
following alloy, 77
copper, 8
tin,
15
lead.
How many
pounds of copper,
of bearings ?
tin
153
In one lot of 402 castings, 24 were spoiled, in a second 500 castings, 38 were spoiled, in a third lot of 321, 22 were spoiled. In which, lot was the largest percentage of loss
lot of
In testing our shop drive, 9.24 horsepower went to the The motor lathes and .75 horsepower went to the grindstone. delivered 11.2 horsepower. What per cent of the power went to the belting and shafts ?
For the same set of articles my competitors' prices are $ 3, $ 3.30, $ 3.55 and $3.70. His trade discounts are 25 %, 7, 5 and 2. My list prices for the same set are $ 6.10, $ 6.70, $ 7.20 and $ 7.50 and my trade discount is 60 %, 7^, 7, 5 and 2. In making a bid how do the net prices compare ?
19.
My
Three men can set up a line shaft in 8 days. men can set up the same shaft in 3 days ?
20.
*
How many
men are at work installing the machinery in a They work for 8 days and finish half the work. The work must be completed in 5 more days. How many men must be added ?
21.
Fourteen
shop.
22.
200
men were
High
done.
School.
On
Oct. 1,
could he lay
off
time?
23.
coffee
makes 6 cups
boiled.

cup
How many
level tablespoonfuls
4i
cups per
For
filtered coffee
difference in cost of
Find  cup is used with 5 cups water. enough boiled and filtered coffee to serve
6 portions.
154
26.
MATHEMATICS
To
clear 1 quart coffee,
shells
may
be used.
Assuming the yolks can be used for other purposes, eggs selling at 30^ per dozen, and 1 quart coffee used daily, how much can be saved in a month by using egg
measure 1 cup.
shells to clear the coffee ?
27.
tannic
10.88
Find the difference in the quantity of tannic acid extracted from tea leaves steeped for 5 and 10 minutes during a month, if \ pint tea is used daily and 1 pint of the beverage weighs 1 pound.
28.
Find the difference in the quantity of tannic acid extracted from the tea leaves after steeping 5 and 40 minutes during a month if f pint tea is used daily.
29.
tannic acid
black tea
of
tannic acid
ounces.
making a cup
One
houseboat
is
and weighs
is,
6 tons.
how
CHAPTER IX
Fractions
162.
A fraction
the
is
an indicated division.
It is written in the
form ,
b'
numerator or
dividend, the
divisor.
denominator or
A
sign
fraction
may be
to be subtracted.
Thus,
~~
A
4 2
+ 2.
The and the these signs may be changed
We
Any two
of
+1aa+6
4
2
4 2~
2
~~
And
a 3 a6
__ a + 3_
a
a+6
a+6
fractions.
Principles of Fractions
163.
1.
The following
number
multi
155
156
This depends on axiom
MATHEMATICS
3, 23,
x
5,
we
have,
2.
axiom
3.
Multiplying both numerator and denominator of a fraction Why ? Axioms ? by the same number does not change its value.
4.
the fraction.
= Q.
d
5.
Then  =%
d
5
of axioms.
the fraction.
The
6.
may
illustrate.
of the fraction.
Explain.
Reduction
164.
lower terms.
Ex.
1.
Reduce f
to higher terms.
5 6
'
= 4~24*
20
Ex.
2.
Reduce

to 48ths.
6=23;
2 3 )2*
.
48
3
= 24
23
'
FRACTIONS
Hence, multiplying both numerator and denominator by 2 3 or
5 8
'
157
8,
we
have,
= 40
48
is
Ex.
3.
Reduce
.
a a+6
a 2__ a q
to
a2_ a
_ 42
a7
Hence, multiplying both numerator and denominator by a
a
7,
we
have,
3_
+6
(a
(
 3) (a  7) _ a  10 a + 21 a 2 a42 + 6)(a7)
2
EXERCISE
1.
53
Reduce
to 144ths
T\, T
3
g,
, ^g,
j^.
2.
3.
4.
Reduce
Reduce Reduce
to 512ths to 19ths
:
^,
1
g
^.
\, \.
to fractions
whose denominator
is
a2 a
12.
5.
6.
7.
q7 4* a+ a 2a3 Reduce to (4 a + 12 x + 9)ths 2a + 3 2a + 3 Reduce to (4 a 12 a+9)ths 2x3 5) + 5) (# + l)ths Reduce to 2 Ax1 2x+l 5' a? 25' ^ + 6^ + 4as5'
q
+4
3*
(as
(as
as
+1
(a;
8.
Reduce
to
4
9.
+ 2)
6a;
+13a;5'
12a?7a?+l
( 162.)
158
10.
MATHEMATICS
Reduce
to 14 (a 2
11
165.
Reduction
1.
to
lower terms.
to lower terms. 36 54
Ex.
Reduce f f
= 22
2
32 33
'
common to both numerator and denominator. Dividing both numerator and denominator by 2 3 2 (principle 6), we have
see that 2
By inspection we
3 2 are factors
=2
54
32
22
32
2 *
23J
Ex.
2.
Reduce
a2
a2
 9 a + 20
to lower terms.
a2
we have
a
2
9a+
(a
4) (a4)0f
3)
5)
_a+3
a
20
(a 4) (a
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
2.
3 6 1*
54
to lower terms:
*
4.
80 144*
5 fi b
'
2 16*
36
7 ''
ft
34 102*
_8_5_
Q *
95 133*
544* . 3 2
54
2 8 9*
64
5
*'
12*
72 2T6'
'
119*
^
2
10 XV
"
11.
12.
17.
+ 3^10 2z + 3zU
2
16.
8c 3 27d3

12
 27 d + 18 c d + 27 cd
8
c
3
* The bar
FRACTIONS
19 12
c
3
159
'
+ 12 c d  45
2
ccZ
2
'
12c3 +48cd
21.
2
+ 45cd
2Q
'
+ 3ti y z  32 yz
2
9y 2 12?/z + 4z 2
9?/
4z
22.
2Tys 8z 3
23.
24.
'
3?/
+ 19?/z14z
4
2/
166.
common
multiple of
e.g.,
is
a mul
48
is
common
all
multiple of 12 and
A common
1.
numbers involved.
Ex.
of 18
.
and
24.
24
=2 = 23
32
3.
The different factors concerned are 2 and 3. The common multiple of these numbers must be made up of the product of 2 at least three times as a factor and 3 at least twice as a factor. That is, a number cannot contain 18 an integral number of times unless it has as factors 2 32 It cannot contain 24 an integral number of times unless it has as factors 2 3 3. To contain both 18 and 24 it must at least have the factors 2 3 3 2 The common multiples of 18 and 24 are, therefore,
23. 3 2
2 4 3 2
144,
2 3 3 3
2*3 3
312,
23
32
5, etc.,
or
72,
216,
360,
etc.
The lowest common multiple contains all the the numbers involved the least number of times.
167.
factors of
160
MATHEMATICS
find the
1. c.
To
m.,
form a product of
and give
all
Ex.
1.
Find the
1.
c.
= 32 54 = 2
45
5.
.
33
.
48
=
.
2*
3.
5.
The
1. c.
m.
is,
therefore,
1.
24
32
Ex.
2.
Find the
c.
m. of a 2
 9,
.
a2
 6 a + 9,
a2
+ 3 a  18.
The
1. c.
m.
is
How many
Ex.
3.
m. contain a 2
f
3a
18
Find the
c.
m. of x
 1,
1.
+ 9, a  5.
is
all
prime, their
c.m.
their product, or
(xl)(x2 + 9)05).
EXERCISE
Find
1. 2.
5. 6.
7.
1. c.
55
m.
7i
ns
a2
+2
a2
2
,
ns
n.
3.
72,
48,
18,
27. 30.
9, a 2 
20,
15,
2
4.
120,
3 x2
13 x 10,
2 2
a 2 25, 12.
2
8.
9.
10.
Addition
168.
must be of the same denomination before they can be added. To reduce fractions to
Fractions, like other numbers,
FRACTIONS
the same denomination, the lowest
161
multiple of their
(
common
163) employed.
Ex.
1.
Add /
the
1.
ft,
T\.
.
By
167,
c.
m.
of 24, 18, 16 is 2*
1.
32
In such
work
as reducing to
2*
c. d.
always divide by
factors.
32
3,
24
?.
Multiplying 7 and 24 by 2
7
we have
723
24
42
144
24
Similarly, J
5
2 2*
=
__
5
'
=
__
40
144'
,
'
18
183 16

and d
3 16
32

27
32
144
Then,
24
! + A + A = i?
18 16
iO
144
_27
;
_109
144
144
144
Ex.
2.
+2
25
a
2
2a
3 (a
(a
2
1
5).
10 a + 25
a2 a
2
2a 15)
2
.
_ 25 =
5) (a
3 (a
3 (a
+ 5)
(a
3) (a
5)
6)
2.
Then
3 (a
a+2 =
a
2
3 (a 3 (a
25
+ 2) (a + 3) (a  5) + 5) (a + 3) (a5) 2
'
5) (a
3) (a
5)
(a 2
10 a
+ =
25)
3 (a
5) (a
+
(a
3),
and
a2
g 10 a
3a(q + 5)(a +
3 (a
3)
25
5) (a
5)
'
and
3 (a 2
Hence,
a 2_25
+ 2_ a 10a + 25
'
162
MATHEMATICS
3g (g + 5)(g + 3) + 3) (a  5) + 3) (a  5) 2 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a  5) 2 _ (2al)(a + 5) (a  5) 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a  5) 2 3 2 3 2 3 ^ 3 a  57 a  90 + 3 a + 24 a + 45 a  2 a + a ,+ 50 a 2 3 (a + 5) (a + 3) (a  5)
3 (a
+ 2)
(a
3 (a
5) (a
25
last
numerator.
Why
Always watch
4 a3
3 (a
+ 25 a2 + 38 a 115 + 5) ( a +3)(a5) 2
x
'
Ex.
1.
3.
\
3)
c.
m.
 2)
(x
3) (x
 4).
4
Then,
i
x
cc
?3 +x
 3)
(x
(x2) (z_3)(x4)
3) (x
_
(z
y2
(x
10 x
 2)
+2 
'
4)
EXERCISE
Find the following sums
:
56
1,1
#
+
a
a
fi
x+2 # 1

11
2
! 1
+5
O.
+6
a6
c+1
c 4
c1
c+4
8
tf4:
a;
4.
#2
9.
a;
2 + 9 5 _J 4 a;12 a;*16
I
2
2
9
'
25
. 1
8.
m m+1
+ 5c' m + m. m1
c
2
,
^ + 7 + 12
"
FRACTIONS
163
10
4#
x
JL
y
6# +
x x
,
J
6
1
ii
'
2x ~
2x5
#
x2
12.
xy 2
+y
a?
y
1
\
13.
_^ + ^ +# +x
1 1
2
14.
a
15.
__ + J=*._l. 6 6+a
2a
a2
!
b2
a
.
\
, _ 16.
x 1 + #
a;
3x
6 x2
1
f
1
3 #
#
6
a? 2
+#
+ 2y
1
y
2
18
16i/y 2
2y
6
23y 2+y
20.
19.
_L+&_^.
a
a
ft)
2
,
+6
+ (a
 6> (a + b)
g
2
.
21
(a(a
+ b)
spy
22
'
2
'
+& ab
g
a+b
23
5 (x
x2
24.
+
1
+ y) +3y
5(a?y)
2
x2
2 a
2.^
25.
+3
1.6 2a3 +
4a2
+ 2xy3y
9
+1
+ 5a?
a?
2a:l
2a?
l2a/
2
26.
2a
+1 4+  1 14 x
+3.
164
27
x2
MATHEMATICS
+1
x*l
cc
If the
is
is improper, and may be reduced, as in arithmeby dividing the numerator by the denominator. Then
x3
+ 3 x 2 x  3
xs
3 x2
x3
form
1
a2
+X
^+

*
#2
29
*
30
?/
32
33.
34
35.
37.
38.
5y3c 5^/ + 3c 9c 5y3c 2 c +7 c 4 4&+8c5 2c + Hc6 2c + 5c3 3 m + 13 m  10 3 m + 17 m + 10 3 m + 17 m + 10 3 m + 13 m  10 a  a 56 a  25 a + 14a + 49 a 2a35 Sab 2a + 2b 2a2b ab a b a+b a+b ab 4 ab ab a + b a b 3c + 5 9c + 25
.
25?/ 2
2
2 2
__5
9c 25*
2
FRACTIONS
39
165
a2
jb
+2
2
x+2 *2
g?4
a; 2
+4
a;
a; 3
a;
+5
a? a;
2a:35
a;
10a:
c2
+ 21
+ 2a:15
41.
i
^+ 4
a:
8
:
4+^>.
+5
2
a2
43.
2 2 9 a2 + 9
2>
44
45.
+9
a
2
9
a?
+ 25 5a 125
.
4R "
48.
2~8"8
11_1_17_85 8*
3 6
47.
204 5 x
41
_
1
_i
'
25
51'
75
169.
a a;
49.
81
76
,14 + 95
To reduce
number
principle 6
must be employed. We choose the denominator of the fraction as the number by which the numerator and
K
/y>2
Ex. Reduce
/v
R
to a
3 x + 7,
we have
This result
170.
is
is
^z
2
+ ^4
15 *
4(2z 2
3z+7)
two terms are
integral.
115
first
An
algebraic expression
integral if its
denominator
numerical.
That
is, if its
denominator
is 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
3  are inIn the result of the example in 169, f a? and \ tegral algebraic expressions, though not integral arithmetic
expressions.
31
166
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
57
Reduce to whole
.,
or
mixed numbers
*
5.
10
xs
+5x 7x+9
2
8.
g^
+3 +4
__
rately, then
4
1]L
a:
4 5
#+5
a;
a? a;
+6
+2 +3
a;
a;
+3 +4
2# + 5
a?
+2
Multiplication
171.
Ex.
Multiply if by
5.
25
25
5
185_
25
18 5
25
_ 18
5
Ex.
2.
Multiply ff by
18
3
3.
_18.3_54
25
25
25
Ex.
3.
Multiply
ct
+ by a + 4. a iZ
a+2
(a4)(a +
3)
.(a v
+ 4) =
+ 4) _ a 2 + 6 a f 8 (a4)(a + 3) a 2  a 12*
[a
2) (a
FRACTIONS
Ex.
4.
'
167
Multiply
2
+2
,
by a
4
.
_ + *
(a
 4) =
("
+ *)(*) = ^2
(Principle 6 .)
Ex.5. Multiply f by T %.
8 8
is
1 y  of
4.
is
15 or
^^ =
(Principles 2
and
6.)
15
EXERCISE
Simplify, using factoring:
1.
58
28.
2.
196
4.
289
51.
361
_
6.
m + 6m + 8
1
!
(wr
K + om).
,
14.4. 28
'
2D'
nn 10.
8.
(a
c
+ 2)
(a 2
2
5a + 6)
11.
16 6
12. ""
+5
2
 10 c 4 16 c ~ 25
2
5 a3
98 63
"
75
'
c<
t^o
125 ac
28 ab
13.
14.
15.
m + 5 m + 6 m + 7 m 4 10 m+1 m+5 m + 4m + 4 m + 4 m + 3 1Q c 2_21 c _iq 3c 8c3 4c + llc + 6 12c + 13c + 3 2c c10 5c 13c6' c + 7c + 6 \A 12c + 17 c 3 c 10A c + 8c + 12
2
m "
'
168
MATHEMATICS
18
a;
+ a?y + x  81
2 2
2
?/
.
2/
(a?
2
2/
19.
+^+iy, +
x
fx \x
21.
+3 +5
,
+ 5\ A x + 3J\
+3A
,
a;
2
a;
+8 x+I +6 +9
a;
+5
^2
+8
a?
4
15 \
Division
172.
6.
Ex.1,
3 _
32
_3
5
5.3
o 2
5.3
Ex.
2.
Divide
*2
T2 x
a;
4
1
by J
a;
 1.
+ l)(*l)
_
l
4'^
_ n "^
(s
( x + 2)(x2)(xl)
x+1 2
Ex.
3.
Divide f by .
1:21=
8
821
is
But our
divisor
is
12 times as large as
Hence,
12 or
_gW __\
"
I^]j^
821
7
2 2 .3
12
\8
21^
1
2 3 3. 7
What
divisor
was used
produce to F
2
from
22
3
?
23
and proceed as
in multiplication.
FRACTIONS
EXERCISE
Simplify the following
1
"
169
59
14 15
.
"
6
'
'
288(a& 2)
289(a 6)
a 2_25
.
36(afr 2) 2
51 (a 2
 6)
'
i
'
a2
2
8af 15
"
102 A 105
1
.
:
/ 17\
A V 30 y
I _>
8
"
tr
50 a 2 6
_^
""
15 a& 2
"
9 a 6a+9 a  17 a + 16 ~2  K a a b _^a + b
a
2
'
33 c3
5
44
.
'
'
aT&^a^'
z
3
169(^ + ,V) 2
13(a?+y)
lU(xyf
11.
l^{xyf
1Q
'
27
2
& + 3z + 9
Sz s + 27z
'
10c 2 + 17c
+3
2c
+ 13c7
12.
^ + 10^ + 21 ^ a + 12 + 36 or + 3 x  28
'
TTTT
13.
(a?
8az
a:
+2a
4
aa;
11
15 *
1 y_
11
16
+y
xy
1
2/
X
X
17.
+
a
0
2/
+y
#
c

X
x
19.
+ +
y
18.
?/
+c
__b
c
bc
Divide b
 cby
cb.
is
20.
+ x + 2y ff x 2y +y
ar
2
170
MATHEMATICS
l^jxyf
a2
b
22.
A
.
.
17 2 (x
2
?/)
a
o
'
or
b_
a
b
24.
2
aba
. b
_a
^__9 4^
2
23.
Transform
Transform
b a+b
a
into
+ mt0 2cx
^c
o
a;
.
#
x
2c_ 1
a
Fractional Equations
173.
first
reduc
167,
and
Axiom
3,
8.
Ex.1. Solve
Thel.
c.
lI = 5.
X
m.
'2x
X z
j
x)
We
or
have,
2 x + 7 = 5 x 2, 3 x = 9, (Ax. x = S.
4.)
Check
this root
by
2
3
3
+ 7 = 5g, 3'
or
^ = 51. 3
2
Ex.
2.
Solve
1.
^
c. c.
a2
m.
= ^?  i.
a?3
m. =(a2)(se3)2.
Multiplying by
1.
2x2 8x+6 =
Transposing,
5 + 4 = 0.  4) (x  1) = 0. X = 4 or
x2
1.
FRACTIONS
Check
or
2
for x
171
1
= 4.
2'
12'
l_2 13
=
2
1
For x
or
= 1,
1_1 12
Ex.3.
a
a>5
1.
+4
a;20
c.
m.
= (x 5)(x}4).
Multiplying by
1.
c.
m. x
4:
Transposing,
+ x5 = 3x6. x = 5. x = 5.
1
Check
or
5_5
+ 9 1,1  +  = _.
5
356 52_5_20
But it is not allowable to divide by zero. Hence 5 is not a root. The equation has no
equation of condition.
It is
solution.
It is
not an
not true.
EXERCISE 60
Solve and verify the following:
1.
Va
5.
^ + l=:3x +
1
1
2.
A =8 2x
5
x1
1
"
x2
1
3.
_16
X
8.
4.
= 11.
X
(Unite the
first
and third
fractions be
172
l
9.
MATHEMATICS
18
7
.
1
10 x
21
6x 3.5a? =
5 3
2a;
Li
X*
in
'
+5
4
1=
+4
9
11
'
.,
12.
5i
6
3a;
1 2
a;
8/ oj 8^
f
5\
7 =A 0. +
,
3)
32
JLo.
+ l = 2x 1
3
2
14
JL 2x
_^ = A.
24
3aT
Ql
nK
2# + 4
3
a3
4
+2
3
3
a;
16
+ '25
x
'
= 10 ~ x _ 2
4
a;
18.
+3_x2_1 _3 4~ 12 2 3 4 * 2 3a;  5 = 5. 4+ 11 13
,
._
53a;
4 3
35a;_3
3
2
5a;
20.
+ 4a; + 3a; + 2i = 0.
4
'
21.
i
22.
+ 4 n3
T=T+
4
26.
4rl
 3JL2 = 3JL9 + 5
3
23.
3 ZLl
3^ 5_ + 3 = ^i + 2i 2 4 6
FRACTIONS
24.
173
3 5  2x =i A  7x + ^+l
5
10
2o.
__
5 17 a
10a +
2_5a +7
_
o.
26.
27.
5(2 a?
+ 10) = 2a
5
5^ + 3
2
28.
^
2
+ + + JL = 82. 4 3 10
?!
29
13 6
+ 7 ^+8 = 25 + 9 + 38>
7
30
5a +
2
2a _ 3a + 9
3
11
on
a1
2
7 1
13 a
12
3
1
x2
3
oo 32.
1.
10
33.
4y
5y
a;
8 l3 a._ 9 2 __ 3_2
^ + Lf^l5 + 22. 2
= ^_32.
2
34.
5
35.
^ 5
+ 31^ = 9.
7
2a:
'
3a;
+4_6 +5
a;
5 ? 2
a;
2<cl"
3
15
Solve for
x.
37.
^ = 4a;2a.
a
a;
38.
+  = ? + ?.
a
Solve for
a;,
174
39
MATHEMATICS
4yl
6
+ 7 ^ $y + 7 4 y 8 12
2y
40.
41.
L^ = lL Solve fort a 4 + a a 3a a a? +a
t
t
t
6a?
+ 14s + 8 == 4(3a
3
5)(s
6
+ 4)
'
.
a?
x
6
TCO.
+
z
2
b (a + 6)
a
2
25
44.
15
9
* 2 f 5
2i
 25
2
+3z
5  3z
2 2
45.
m 2m+1 m+3
1
3m + m 2 = 19 m + 3 m + 1 m 9 m3
2
46.
m a
4
*
2m + a
5
= 2.
Solve for m.
47
+ l __ 2z + 3 _ 3z5 = 12z4
3
10
15
A;
48.
fc
+a
5& a,2ft + 3a = 7 + 2a
1
2a
5z
4a
6a
al for Solve
o
k.
10 a
2
Ae% 49.
+ 2d
Id
2
2z
d + 8d = 15 z  21 d z + 9d
2
!
al Solve
for
z.
50.
51.
m5
6k
1,1 m
J
5m 23 m 11 m + 30
2
52
27c
*A;
=
ft 2
8 ( fe2
~ 4)
2fc
3ft
10*
FRACTIONS
53.
175
32
4
two
z3
fractions,
(Combine the
first
54.
55.
ob.
_.
j
57.
There
is
it is
greater
by
The denominator
If 9
is
merator.
added
to the
is
Find three consecutive numbers which will satisfy these conditions if the smallest is multiplied by six and three subtracted from the product, this product divided by the greatest
:
number
60.
have two proper fractions. The denominator of each is one more than its numerator, the numerator of the first, the numerator of the second, and the denominator of the second are consecutive numbers, and when the greater fraction is subtracted from the lesser the quotient is %. Find the fracI
tions.
61.
by these parts
62.
Ohio cities are 120 miles apart. Two trains running between these cities have a difference in rate of 5 miles per hour, and the difference in time it takes them to make the run is 20 minutes. Find the rate of each train.
Divide 48 into two such parts that ^ the plus  the second is 20.
63.
first
Two
part
176
64.
MATHEMATICS
From
a tank one half full of crude
oil
drawn out and 75 gallons are lost by evaporation and leakage. The tank is then one third full. How much does the tank hold
when
65.
full ?
machinist and his helper receive together $ 42.80 for a certain piece of work. If the machinist is worth 2\ times as much as his helper, how much does each receive ?
66.
The width
216
feet.
of a rectangle
eter
is
One fourth of a certain number plus one twelfth number equals 16. Find the number.
67. 68.
If 42
is
i,
ence
69.
the
sum
of
their differ
The sum
is
is
180.
Find the
angles of a triangle
the
first is
first.
Find the angles of a triangle if the first angle is double the second, and the third is 9 less than three times the first.
boy spent one fourth of his money, and then received $ 2. He spent one half of what he then had, and found he had $ 7 remaining. How much had he at first ?
71.
Three sons were left a legacy, of which the eldest received  the second i, and the third the remainder, which was
72.
,
$ 200.
73.
How much
A,
B and C own
many
as A,
B owns
?
three
times as
and
74.
together.
How many
own
If you were earning a salary, and spent \ of it for board, i and of the rest for other expenses, and saved annually, $ 280,
how much were your earnings ? 75. The sum of the angles of
a triangle
first
is
180.
Find each
angle if the second angle is twice the is 30 more than the second.
FRACTIONS
76.
177
A local
one third of the remainder at the second stop, one half of the remainder at the third stop, and the 30 who then remain ride
to the
end of the
started ?
line.
How many
when
77.
it
In example 74, the first station is ^ as far out as the is 36 miles beyond the second, the fourth 49 miles beyond the third, and the length of the run is 117 miles.
second, the third
At 2 $ per mile per passenger, how much did the railway company receive ?
number exceeds the sum of its one and one fifth by 13. What is the number ?
78.
tank can be filled by one pump in 8 hours, and by a second pump in 14 hours. How long does it take to fill the tank when both pumps are working ?
79.
oil
An
Then x
 is the
is
the
amount
of
of
in 1 hour.
amount
work the
pump
14
80.
is
the 8
Then
+=1
14
oil
tank 20' in diameter can be filled by one pump in 177^ hours, and by a second pump in 64 hours. How long does it take to fill the tank when both pumps are working ?
*
An
81.
pump
is
10"
12",
is
strokes of the
pump
?
per minute.
What
In gallons ?
178
84.
MATHEMATICS
Separate 45 into two such parts that one part divided by the other will give a quotient of 5 and a remainder of 48.
85.
Two men, 58
The
first travels
How
The denominator
If 5
.
is
then
87.
of a fraction is 5 less than the numeraadded to the numerator, the value of the fraction Find the fraction.
and B travels 15 miles in 4 hours. A meets with an accident and is delayed 20 minutes. How far does B travel before they meet?
88.
Separate
the
m times
91.
first
A has
.
at 5
The part
brings as
much
interest in 4 years as
is
the part at
5%
brings in 6 years.
What
his total
amount
92
4(58^)
15
^2^
'
7
28
58
Multiplying by 105,
 28 x =
58 x
30
28
28.
x.
= =
58.
, q 93

5*2
6
+5Z + 13
15a;5 7<c6 _ 18
'
FRACTIONS
REVIEW
179
In solving the following equations, use two unknown quantities wherever possible, 50
:
1.
father's age
it
4 times as great as that of his son was six times as great. What are their ages ?
is
now
$6
is
changed into 51
coins.
If each coin
is
either a
quarter or a dime,
3.
how many
miles an hour.
station
Two
an hour.
Where
4. A room is 2 feet longer than it is wide, and if its length were increased by 4 feet and width diminished by 3 feet, its area would remain the same. What are the dimensions ?
5.
could dig
it ?
it
in
20 days.
6.
How many
days would
it
How
7.
The sum
of
two numbers
smaller.
63,
is
17
Divide $ 2200 among A, B, and C, in such a way that B shall have twice as much as A, and C shall have $200 more than B.
9.
by
train
and partly by
trolley.
by
train than
by
trolley,
how
10.
far do I go
by each ?
If the second
has twice as
third,
11.
many as the first, but only how many marbles has each boy ?
The
difference
is 19.
half as
many
as the
integers
12.
Find the
by
5 feet
the perimeter
is
60
feet.
area.
180
13.
MATHEMATICS
Five boys agreed to buy a boat, but one of them withdrew, when it was found that each of the remaining boys had Find cost of the boat. to pay $ 200 more. Divide $ 351 among three persons in such a way that for every dime the first receives, the second shall receive a
14.
How many
John solved a
games has
certain
it
won ?
of examples,
16.
number
many.
and William
96.
for a horse
and a cow.
the cow ?
pounds of coffee at 30^ a pound must be mixed with 12 pounds of coffee at 20^ a pound to make a mixture worth 24 $ a pound 9
18. 19.
How many
tea at 60 $ a
to
with 25
a pound
20.
of tea at
40^ a pound
A man
hired 4
men and
How much
9
man
men and
21. If a bushel of oats is worth 40 ^ and a bushel of corn is worth 35 fl how many bushels of each must be used to produce a mixture of 100 bu. worth 48 $ a bushel ?
22.
A man
him
is
down stream
is
in 2 hrs., but
it
takes
6 hrs. to return.
What
and
what
23.
rows 20 mi. down stream and back in 8 hrs. he can row 5 mi. down while he rows 3 mi. up stream. Find rate in still water, and rate of stream.
24.
A man
is
54,
5.
FRACTIONS
Supplemental Applied Mathematics
1.
181
The
is
weight of a cubic
is .92.
How much
What
1'
water
3'
10.5"
10.5" ?
will
What
is
1',
weighing 50 pounds
3.
x 8" x
it
1' is
How many
4. One much ? 5.
water did
displace ?
how
and that of ice is .92. Find the difference in weight between one cubic foot of sea water and one cubic foot of ice.
specific gravity of sea
The
water
is
1.025,
6.
A piece
liner.
ocean
7.
X How much
of ice 3'
1'
1' is
A tank of water
18'
8'
and 6 deep
f
is
frozen to a depth
?
of 7".
8.
ice at
42
fl
feet
Air is 14.43 times as heavy as hydrogen gas. 8500 cubic hydrogen have been pumped into a balloon. What weight will it lift ?
of
9.
8.3
In testing 100 pounds of steam coal there was found pounds of ash, .932 pounds
sulphur.
What was
carbon
10.
The span
pitch
of
of a roof
is
42
The
iC
is
30.
The
angle
all
the
* The pieces used in forming a roof truss are called " irons," or " angles."
members," "angle
182
MATHEMATICS
Find the lengths of the angles if the roof in example 11 is of the form of the truss shown in the accompanying
11.
figure.
(EFG
is
equilateral.)
12.
A
of
li" rainfall on 20
land
is
acres
how many
barrels of
13.
water?
flowing 1 gallons per minute. These are supplied by a whose cylinder is 4" in diameter and 10" long. How
strokes per minute
pump many
to
running
14.
light
is
inversely as the
^.
di
12
A light
is
How much more light does the 15. A 16 candle power and a
is 3'
feet
from the
table.
receive ?
4 candle power electric light The 4 candle power are placed on opposite sides of a screen.
from the screen. At what distance must the 16 candle power be placed that each side of the screen may receive the same amount of light ?
16.
These lights are 4 6" from the ceiling. A new chandelier fitted with four tungsten lights 36" from the ceiling is put in. These tungsten lights give 1Jtimes as much light as the old 16 candle power. Does the table receive more or less light and how much ?
17.
is
above a table
How much
more
FRACTIONS
18.
cast.
183
per lineal foot after
it is
J"
A casting
cooling.
19.
must be 21" in length and 18" square What were its dimensions when cast ?
is
after
A
A
to be 4" in diameter
and 4"
long.
20.
What
before cooling ?
is
gas engine
cylinder
to be
3J"
in diameter
and
it
4" long.
cast.
21.
Find dimensions
of the
is
What
size bolt
in a 0.344" hole ?
22.
23.
What
size bolt
in a 1.491" hole ?
was standing behind a target during target practice. Those doing the firing were 1 mile away and the velocity of their projectiles was 1150' per second. Did the projectile strike the target before the sound reached there? What was the 4 LiLir difference between the time the sound of firing and the projectile reached the target ?
,
A man
24.
,/p
j
of the Steel
figure.
tfl
_3
sider
25.
them
If a
as angles.
sn
45,
plumber needs to change the direction of a pipe by he calls the hypotenuse AC of the triangle ABO equal to
T
BC + ^ BO. W hat
easier
to
is
the error
when
BO = 30" ?
method
Which
is
fitter's
or the correct
method ?
In estimating material for a bias ruffle a dressmaker calls the length of the bias f the width of the goods. What is the error when the goods is 27" wide ?
26.
plumber makes a 45 turn across a hallway 10' wide. The hall is 46' long and is piped the entire length. What
27.
length of pipe
is
used
184
28.
if
MATHEMATICS
In example 27, how
many
feet of pipe
would be needed
making the
cross over ?
In a triangle
ABC,
rightangled at B,
ZA
is
is 30.
such triangles
many mechanics
is
estimate that
AC is
10'?
In 1^ times
Is this
AB.
Let Let
How
nearly correct
this
when
and
AB
method
as easy to
one, namely,
2x = AC,
= BC,
2
AB = V(2xf {xf.
a
,
AB = a,
A
V (2 x) x
== a,
30.
house
is
26 feet wide.
rafters,
The pitch
of the roof
is 30.
The width
of a house
is 28'
length rafters must the carpenter cut 14" beyond the house at the eaves ? project
32.
What
the rafters
goods necessary to
Use dressmaker's rule in finding the number of yards of make a 6inch bias ruffle for a skirt 4 yards around. The goods is 27"
wide and no
is to
strip of ruffling
A S"B
ruffling for this 4yard skirt.
is 8".
Let AF be the piece of goods, 36", the length of then each strip of ruffling. It will
AK=
AB
is
The
cut
The amount
of goods required
therefore
6x8"
plus
MO)
33. Find the cost of two 3" bias ruffles made from goods 30" wide and costing 95^ per yard, the skirt being 4 yards
around.
34.
Silk
may be purchased
FRACTIONS
ruffles
185
and
The braces
have an angle of 60
if
What
is 8'
the
A
its
piece of steel
length.
l\ n by
5".
It
Find
37.
The volume
Find
its surface.
The water in an irrigating ditch flows 3 miles per hour. It must supply a 160acre farm with 1" of water per
38.
week.
39.
What
Water
is is
How many
it
deliver per
hour
40.
farmer had a pond of 6 acres which was frozen to a depth of 10". He sold the ice to a dealer at 12^ per hundred
pounds.
41.
How much
did he receive ?
each 18".
42.
One diagonal of a rhombus and a side of the rhombus are Find the other diagonal, the angles, and the area.
bar of copper 4"
is
How
43.
long
the wire ?
a i" wire.
than the combined areas of the hotair pipes. One hotair pipe is 10" in diameter, one is 8", and the remaining six are each 6". Find
of a coldair to be
less
The area
From
a town
C one
One hour
How
45.
far apart are they 3 hours after the first train started ?
From
town C a
40 miles an
How
started ?
188
46.
MATHEMATICS
Chocolate contains 12.9
%. How much chocolate will furnish as much protein as \ pound cocoa*7 47. Chocolate contains 48.7% fat, and cocoa, 28.9%. One How many cups cocoa half pound cocoa measures 2 cups. will furnish as much fat as \ pound chocolate ?
protein
cocoa, 21.6
48.
As
which
is
or chocolate,
costs 25jt?
49.
If halibut costs
is refuse,
pound
of edible portion.
;
Haddock
fish,
cheaper
51.
is
refuse.
Which
is
Boned and dried codfish sells for 16 fi per pound; dried From the latter there is a loss of codfish for 10^ per pound. cheaper? Which is 20%.
52.
protein
43.6
is
refuse.
It
protein
is
refuse.
Which
Bass contains 9.3% protein; 54.8% is refuse. It sells Which kind of fish is cheaper, whitefish for 12 ^ per pound.
or bass ?
Herring contains 11.2 % protein 42.6 % is refuse it sell for 10 P per pound. Perch contains 7.3 % protein 62.5 % is waste; it sells for 10^ per pound. Winch fish contains
54.
;
;
more protein
55.
for less
money
?
;
;
Pike contains 7.9 % protein 57.3 % is refuse it sells for 12^ per pound. Pound steak contains 27.6% protein; it sells for 16^ per pound. Which is the cheaper food ?
Canned salmon sells for 18 ^ per can it weighs 1^ pounds 19.5% protein, 14.2% waste. Sardines sell for 25^ per can, which weighs 11 ounces they contain 23.7 % protein T and 5 % waste. W hich is cheaper to use ?
56.
;
contains
FRACTIONS
57.
187
Dried beef contains 39.2% protein. It costs 30^ per pound. Which is cheaper, dried beef or salmon ?
Express graphically the edible quantities of haddock, halibut, whitefish, bass, herring, perch, pike, and canned salmon that can be purchased for 25^.
58. 59.
in these fish.
CHAPTER X
Proportion
174.
Eeview
to
The
relation of one
number
is
another
often
This was
to 2
:
first
3,
sign
was modified
now
con
sidered best.
two
ratios.
It is therefore
Thus.b
 is
d
a proportion.
d.
This
is
read a divided by
b is
equal to
divided by
The numerators are the antecedents. The denominators are the consequents. The first antecedent and the last consequent are the extremes. The first consequent and the second antecedent are the mean&
Thus, a and d are extremes and b and
c
the means.
Properties of Proportion
1.
is
equal
to the
product of the
means.
This
is
a_ b~
of fractions.
d"
Whence,
ad
be.
188
PROPORTION
2.
189
If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers, a proportion may be formed making one product
the
means and
the other
Thus,
Dividing by y
mc.
m,
=m
c,
Had you
divided by y
^
c 3.
= .
y
(See
6,
174.)
by composition.
Let
= .
d
f
Then,
?
a
+ = +"i
i.
or
=c+
(?
.
4.
by division.
Let
= 2.
l
Then,
_ 1 = '_
or
ab ^ cb
d
t
5.
by composition Let
and
division.
= .
= i.
d
(1)
By
By
3,
dt$
b
(2)
4,
^& = c<*.
= tA a b c d
(4)
190
6.
MATHEMATICS
If four quantities are in proportion, they are in proportion
by alternation.
Thus,
if
^
b
= ^then^ = .
d
c
175.
a Thus, x
Solving x
=  is
cc
a mean proportion.
= \rad.
mean
proportional between a and d
is
That
product.
is,
The
last
is
Thus
in
= ,
d
is
x.
c =
d'
EXERCISE
1.
2. 3.
61
9.
25.
or,
= V289
256
But \/ab
= Va V6
Then,
jc
4.
5.
729.
line
Two
What
lines
are 196'
and
25',
respectively.
Find a
equal to their
6. 7.
mean
the
proportional.
is
3', 8'.
PROPORTION
8.
191
to 5, 9, 15.
6, 9, 3.
9.
10.
to 5, 7, 9.
6
,
For since
consequent
6=32
is
(the
first
denominator).
first
the
to 2, 8.
to 5, 15.
to 5, 9.
14.
15.
and
x
16.
x
2 x2
+7
3x
ar
+ 8*_7
2
a;
2x45 ^
and
17.
+ 9 + 20,
sc
3x
28,
and 2 x
18.
+ 19 a + 45.
if
In a semicircle,
a perpendicular
is
dropped to the
mean
The diameter
19.
'to it
The segments
AB and BC
AC are 4"
and
9" respectively, find the length of the perpendicular to erected at B and extending to the circumference.
20.
AC
2x + S = 5a + ll 2x 3 5x 11
Solve using
^
1U} 6
of fractions.
192
(s (x
MATHEMATICS
+ 7)(3yl) 5x7y=: 9.
+ 7)+(3yl) = 7
2
174, 5, on the first equation before clearing it of fractions.) Ratio plays a very important part in science, though the ratio idea is often disguised to such an extent by the scientific notation that the pupil
(Use
of Specific Gravity disappear when one simply the ratio of a volume of some substance to an equal volume of some substance taken as a standard.
is
The standard for liquids and solids is water. One cubic centimeter (c.c.) of water weighs
621 pounds.
gram, or
1 cu.
ft.
weighs
is
is
usually hydrogen
is
sometimes
air,
which
used.
lb.
Find
= 7.84.
decimal form, not as a
customary to write
fraction.
to be
specific gravity in a
common
Units
remembered
1"
1 liter
=2.54
centimeters.
(c.c).
1
1
c.c.
(hydrogen standard)
is 14.44.
Find
its spe
cific gravity.
23.
The
specific gravity of
oak
is 0.8.
1 cubic foot.
24.
Find
its specific
gravity.
25.
Find
its
specific gravity.
26.
The
specific gravity of
aluminum
is 2.6.
Steel
is
how
many
times as heavy ?
LIST OF CONSTRUCTIONS
Page
70
To draw a straight
line equal to
75
74.
to
a given angle
76
79.
a given angle
79
sides are given
87.
82
99.
line
90
100.
103.
To draw a perpendicular
To draw a perpendicular
to
a line from any point in the line a line from a given point with
91
to
93
line parallel to a given straight line
119.
To draw a straight
108
193
LIST OF
THEOREMS
Lines
Theorem VII
98. If two straight lines
intersect, the vertical
Page
angles are equal
.
90
Theorem VIII
101. If a perpendicular is erected at the middle point of a line, I. Any point in the perpendicular is equidistant from the extremis
ties
of the
line,
II.
Any
is
the extremities
of
the line
91
Theorem IX
104.
From a
drawn
to the line
93
Theorem XII
pendicular
107. If two unequal oblique lines drawn from a point in a perto the line cut off unequal distances from the foot of the
is
the greater
96
Theorem XIII
108. If oblique lines are drawn from a point to a straight line and a perpendicular is drawn from the point to the line, I. Two equal oblique lines cut off equal distances from the foot
of the perpendicular, II. The greater of two unequal oblique distance from the foot of the perpendicular
lines cuts off the greater
97
Theorem XIV
120.
Two
same
line
are parallel
to
each other
109
Theorem
121.
XV
is
line
perpendicular
to
perpendicu
109
LIST OF
THEOREMS
a transversal, the alternate
195
Pagb
Theorem XVI
124.
If two parallel
Ill
Theorem XVII
125.
If two
lines
112
Theorem XXI
130.
the sides
Any
is
equidistant
from
117
of the angle
Theorem XXVI
137. If a
series
Theorem XXVII
138.
is
The
to
parallel
joining the middle points of two sides of a triangle the third side and equal to one half of it
line
124
Theorem XXVIII
139.
The
middle points of
bases
of a trapezoid
parallel
to the
and equal
sum
Lines which Meet in a Point
124
Theorem XXIX
140.
The
the bisector
the angles
of a triangle
intersect
on
125
Theorem
142.
XXX
middle points of the sides perpendicular bisector
at the
lies in the
126
Theorem XXXI
144.
The
common point
127
Theorem XXXII
145.
Two medians
the third
median
127
196
MATHEMATICS
Triangles
Theorem
77.
Pagb
Two triangles
are equal
to
when two
sides
and
77
Theorem
78.
II
Two
when a
to
side
a side
Theorem
85.
equal
III
In an
81
Theorem IV
88.
Two
when
three sides
re
of the other
82
Theorem
96.
V
88
Any
side
of a triangle
is
Theorem VI
The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than two lines drawn from any point within the triangle to the
97.
the
sum of
89
extremities
of
of the triangle
Theorem
105.
X
the
Two
when
hypotenuse and an
acute angle of the one are equal, respectively, to the hypotenuse acute angle of the other
and
94
Theorem XI
106.
the
Two
when
95
Theorem XVIII
126.
angles
The sum of
the angles
of a triangle
is
equal
to
two right
114
LIST OF
THEOREMS
197
Pagb
Theorem XIX
128. If two angles of a triangle are equal,
the triangle is isosceles
116
Theorem
are unequal,
XX
the angles opposite
.
and
116
Theorem XXII
132. If two
the
to
two sides of the other, and the included angle of the first greater than
included angle of the other, the third side of the first than the third side of the second
greater
119
Parallelograms
Theorem XXIII
134. In a parallelogram
opposite angles are equal
the opposite sides are equal,
and
the
121
Theorem XXIV
135.
Two parallelograms
two sides
Theorem
is
XXV
the figure
122
Polygons
Theorem XXXIII
149.
The sum of
the angles
many
of any polygon is equal to twice as polygon has sides, less four right angles
.
128
Theorem
150.
angles
XXXIV
exterior angles
INDEX
Abscissa, 105. absolute term, 106. absolute value, 19. acute angle, 79, 86.
Circle, 70.
circumference, 70.
coefficient, 3.
common common
factor, 6, 138.
multiple, 159.
87.
algebraic expression, integral, 164. alternate exterior angles, 110. alternate interior angles, 110. altitude of triangle, 83, 109. angle, 75. acute, 79, 86. alternateexterior, 110. alternateinterior, 110.
bisector, 79.
concentric circles, 71. conditional equation, 10. consequents, 188. constants, 106. coordinates, 104.
curved
line, 70.
Decimals, 29.
degree, 105. diagonal, 120. diameter, 72.
difference, 21.
complementary, 87.
exterior, 109, 110.
exteriorinterior, 110.
interior, 110.
of squares, 133.
division, 25.
by
zero, 171.
fractions, 167.
polynomials, 41.
divisor, 25.
Base of
triangle, 83.
geometric, 11.
identical, 11.
inconsistent, 106.
root of, 10. simultaneous, 56, 105. solution of, 10. equiangular polygon, 128.
198
INDEX
equilateral polygon, 128. equilateral triangle, 81. equivalent equations, 107.
199
29, 48, 66, 98,
Mathematics applied,
130, 151, 181. means, 188.
exponent, 26.
exterior angle, 109. extremes, 188.
mixed numbers,
Factor,
factors,
2, 133.
prime,
5.
fractional equations, 170. fractions, 155. addition, 160. complex, 168. decimal, 29. division, 167. improper, 163. multiplication, 165. reduction, 29, 155.
164. multiple, common, 159. multiplication, 24, 35. fractions, 165. polynomials, 35. sign rule, 25.
prime, 1. system, 1.
Geometric equation,
solid, 69.
11.
surface, 69.
oblique angle triangle, 81. obtuse angle, 79, 86. obtuse angle triangle, 81. oral review, 8.
ordinate, 105. origin, 105.
Parallel lines, 106.
improper
parallelogram, 120. parenthesis, 7. perpendicular, 79. perpendicular bisector, 90. plane, 70. polygon, 127.
solution of, 63. inscribed, 74. integral expressions, 164. interior angles, 110. isosceles trapezoid, 120.
isosceles triangle, 81.
polynomial,
2.
division, 41.
prime
digit, 1.
factor, 5.
number,
Line, 69.
1.
shop, 29, 49, 66, 98, 130, 151, 181. proportion, 188.
segment, 69.
locus of points, 117. lowest common multiple, 159.
200
quadrinomial,
quotient, 25.
2.
INDEX
subtrahend, 21.
Term,
2.
segment
of line, 69.
29, 49, 66, 98, 130, 151,
semicircle, 72.
shop problems,
181.
multiplication, 25. subtraction, 22. similar terms, 2. simultaneous equations, 56, 105. solid, geometric, 69. solution, equations, 11. factoring, 148. inequalities, 63. square, 120. of binomial, 135. substitution, 58. subtraction, 20. rule, 22.
vinculum,
7.