Recognition
Yan Jinjiang
Business School, Sichuan University,
Chengdu, China
yanjj@scu.edu.cn
Wang Yong
Southwest China Institute of Electronic
Technology Chengdu, China
wy2374656@163.com
Wang XianYu
Business School, Sichuan University,
Chengdu, China
ww08ww@163.com
AbstractThe identification of radar types has been an
important part of electronic warfare. It is also a promise of
high level situation assessment and threat assessment. A model
for radar radiatingsource recognizing system is proposed.
Aiming at the increase of computational cost along with the
rise of focal element of traditional DSmT, a fast mass function
convergence algorithm based on DSmT is established.
Combined with the complexity of modern warfare, the
algorithm is used in radar radiatingsource recognizing of
C
4
ISR System. The simulation results indicate that the method
we proposed can deal well with the fusion of high conflicting
data.
Keywords Radar type recognition; DS theory; Information fusion
. Introduction
As an import part of electronic warfare, electronic
reconnaissance is a major method to finish military
reconnaissance. The confidentiality of military and the
importance of electronic warfare in modern battle cause the
lacking of the open literature on electronic warfare, even fewer
of substantial discussion. In modern battles, sensor that can
identify radar radiation source becomes more and more.
Electronic reconnaissance can obtain electromagnetism
information emitted by the enemy radar, thus important
military intelligence can be obtained. Our party can reflect
timely, accurately and effectively by combining the above
approach with other ways. It is not only the basis for our party
to further analyze the application of radar and related weapon
system, but also the dominant proof for high level situation
evaluation and threat assessment.
Electromagnetic signal environment of modern battle
becomes more and more complicated. On one hand, radar has
several working model, and overlapping of different radar
models makes radar model lacks compactness. On the other
hand, because of the military confidentiality, it is hard to
obtain the complete prior probability and conditional
probabilistic information of radar radiation resource. The
characteristic parameter of various radiation resources
obtained from different approaches and the database formed in
this way is incomplete, uncertain or vague, which makes it
harder to identify radar radiation resources. This article firstly
offers an identification model of radar radiation resource in a
complicated battle environment, and then provides a fast Mass
function convergence algorithm based on DSmT and apply it
to the identification of radar radiation resource. The simulation
proves that when dealing with high conflict information the
fast Mass function convergence algorithm based on DSmT is
more effective compared to the traditional evidence inference
rule.
]. Identification model of radar radiation resource
in a complicated battle environment
From the analysis on technology of radar radiation resource
we can see that algorithms of radar radiation resource
identification are all use single method and then improve the
existing problems. Few literatures comprehensively combine
various methods from the perspective of complicity of modern
warfare, so it is difficult to handle the problem of radar
identification under complicated electronic warfare. On that
basis, this article offers a solution for identification model of
radar radiation resource in a complicated battle environment,
as in figure 1. The basic thought including the following five
parts: signal distribution, prematching of radar keywords,
matching of radar type, information integration of multisensor
and new setting of radar. This model combines signal
processing, neural network, matching of distance/type,
information integration, theory of decision and intelligence
reconnaissance. The basic thought is firstly to select
electromagnetic signal received by reconnaissance equipment,
secondly to recognize radar system or match radar wave band,
thus to sort the radar keywords or roughly sort radar, and then a
foundation is laid for further identification on radar signal
threat; the vague matching or other methods is applied to
recognize the radar type under related keywords; lastly, to
increase identification rate, evidence reasoning and decisive
theory are used to integrate information in different space and
time; moreover, considering the accurately construction of
radar database is hard, we can set new radar when we find that
some identified type doesnt belong to the any type stored in
the standard database.
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___________________________________
9781612841090/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE
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Figure 1.Framework for identification system of radar
radiation resource in a complicated battle environment
. DSmT and ] its improved algorithm
A. DSmT algorithm and its limit
As an uncertain reasoning, evidence reasoning has
developed a lot in recent years. DSmT was put forward by
Dezert in 2002, and developed by Dezert, Smarandache and
other scholars
[2]
. DSmT is an expansion of the traditional DST,
which solve the problem that evidence cannot be assorted when
come across the powerful conflict of evidence, so that it
become a further improvement of theory of evidence reasoning.
Suppose that there are two proofs with different quality on
identification framework : A and B, their object focal
elements are
O
i
A and separately, and their basic fiducial
appointment functions are and
respectively, then comes the following DSmT rule of
composition:
j
B
) (
1 i
A m ) (
2 j
B m
( )
1 2
, ,
0
( ) ( )
i j
i j
A B D A B X
X
m X
m A m B X


O
e =
=
=
=
Since DSmT keeps contradictive focal element and don not
distribute its fiducial appointment, there is no need to
normalize. In DSmT theory, any possible proposition
compound in identification framework is called
superquadratic convergence , a convergence obtained
by combining operation and synchronous intersection on
elements in the identification framework .Because of the
inclusion of synchronous intersection in the convergence make
the identification framework keeps the contradictive focal
element. With increasing of the number of dimension and the
calculated amount in the identification framework, its still an
unsolved problems in mathematics when n>10.
O
D
O
O
B. The fast Mass function convergence algorithm based on
DSmT
During calculating, this paper just calculates the basic
fiducial appointment of focal element and unknown focal
elemet formed by the elements in the identification framework,
and ignores the calculation of the basic fiducial appointment of
the various contradictive focal elements. It has no influence on
the combining results, since when calculating the basic fiducial
appointment of focal elements, the contradictive focal element
can be avoided and no contradictive focal element will appear
in the calculating process. This simplified calculation not only
simplify calculating amount but also decrease the rate of
mistake.
The large number of contradictive focal elements kept in the
DSmT cansues massive claculating amount, making the real
time of iterative computations fails to meet the needs. The
integration times can be reduced by improing the integration
process so that the Mass function can fastly restrain to a certain
threshold.Figure 2 offers the fast Mass function convergence
algorithm based on DSmT (three sensors, many tragets). The
three basic fiducial appointment of focal elements obtained in
the n beat are . . . .
.m  . .m .
Integrating the sensor information of this beat by the
simplified algorithm of DSmT integrating principle of last
section produces . . .
Integrating with the last beat again produces .
and .Normalizing there Mass functions
produces . and . Assuming
that the target matrix supported by these three Mass functions
are . and the mathematic expectation of this
beat is = =
) (
) (
1
A m
n
) (
) (
2
C
n
(
m
n
(
) (
C M
n
) (
) ( '
A
n
3
x
( '
M
) (
) (
1
B m
n
(
) (
3
A m
n
) (
)
A
) (
) ( '
B M
n
) ( A
) (
) (
1
C m
n
) (
) (
3
B m
n
) (
) ,
B
n n
) (
) ( '
C M
n
(
) ( '
M
n
) (
) (
2
A m
n
) (
) (
3
C
n
) (
) ,
C
n n
) (
) (
A
n
) (
) (
2
B m
n
(
) (
B M
n
1
x
)
(
m
1
x
,n
)
) n
(
m
M
) B
)
x
M
2
n
X
2
x =
) (
) ( '
C M
n
3
) (
) , (
A
n n
x
M
+produces the and standard matrix of
the target and calculating Euclidean Distance, and then
reconstruct basic fiducial appointment of focal elements
produces . . , this will be
integrated with the information of next beat.
n
) (
) , (
C M
n n
X
) (
) , (
B M
n n
.  Radar database and construction of basic
fiducial appointment
The complicated environment of modern warefare and the
various reconnoitre measures taken by the hostility parties
increase the complicity, cheating and ambiguity of the radar
radiation resource, so the information offered by solesensor
fails to meet the need of modern battle. The simulation of this
paper takes three electronic reconnoitre equipment and
reconnoitre the radar at 10 points of timing. Assuming that 10
various types of radars have been given under radar system
(ignoring the identification rate of radar system). Take the
?08
]1 ]2 ]3
mas s]
DSmT{
DSmT{
)]
+
,]1 ,]2 ,]3
). .. ( ) ( ) (
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
C m B m A m
n n n
)... ( ) ( ) (
) (
2
) (
2
) (
2
C m B m A m
n n n
)... ( ) ( ) (
) (
3
) (
3
) (
3
C m B m A m
n n n
1 + = n n
)... ( ) ( ) (
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
C m B m A m
n n n n n n
)... ( ) ( ) (
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
C M B M A M
n n n n n n
N
Y
],]
y,
]n=1
Y
N
)
],
mas s]
)... ( ) ( ) (
' ' '
C m B m A m
)... ( ) ( ) (
) ( ' ) ( ' ) ( '
C M B M A M
n n n
)... ( ) ( ) (
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
C M B M A M
n n n n n n
1 > n
Figure 2. Identification process of fast Mass function
convergence algorithm based on DSmT
radar type of identification framework, supposing there exist n
types F1 Fn then ={ F1,,Fn }. Choose n (n=10) data
of radar characters under a certain system from the radar
database. The simulation mainly analyzes the integration
effects of three integration rules when disposes data with high
conflict (the high conflict is added at the 4
th
beat). Random
noise in different degree is added at every reconnaissance
point of time during the simulation (corresponding with
uniform distribution). The 3
rd
radar is chosen as the
identification object.
According to the knowledge of identification model, if X
resembles Y, then X has similar character with Y. Suppose
there exist m characters of X and Y, that is
x= .y= , then d= x  y
=
) , , , (
2 1 m
x x x ) , , , (
2 1 m
y y y
2 2
) ( )
m m
y x + +
2 2
2
1 1
( ) ( y x y x +
can be applied
to define the Euclidean distance of X and Y.
The research shows that the reflection from
distance function d to the bpa function is a nonlinear
mapping. The whole trend is the less the distance
related to certain radar, the closer to 1 the
appointment distributed to this proposition
[3]
.
Especially, the appointment distributed to this
proposition is 1 when the distance is 0. To the
contrary, the appointment distributed to this
proposition is 0. Therefore, its necessary to find out
a function to reflect this kind of nonlinear mapping,
and then transfer from target identification to
evidence reasoning. Exponential function is a kind
of function possessing this relationship. Of course,
other functions meet this relationship can also
realize the transfer from target identification to
evidence reasoning. Suppose y = x
a
so when
] 0 , ( e a ] 1 , 0 [ e y
exp( )
. According to the distance
function, the basic fiducial appointment of evidence
i to target F
j
can be defined:
)
ij
d 1 ( ) (
j i
F m = o . o is noise factor. When
there is no noise, 0 o = ; when the noise totally
inundates the target, 1 o = .
When there is no noise, there exists no
uncertainty, m() = 0; when the noise totally
inundates the target, the data coming from the
sensor cant confirm any target, that is totally
uncertain, m() = 1. Therefore, the following
appointment can be built; n
represents the number of radar types. Normalize the
above basic fiducial appointment to satisfy its need
of definition.
[
=
= O
n
j
j i i
F m m
1
)) ( 1 ( ) ( o
. Simulation and analysis
A. Identification on radar radiation resource based
on the traditional DSmT
After obtaining three basic fiducial appointments waiting for
integration through exponent method, DSmT integrating rule
can be used to integrate. The Mass function integrated can be
used to judge the radar type. If it fails to meet the judge rule,
integrate the next data until the Mass function output by the
integrating center meet the condition needed by judge.
The judging rule should comply the following principles:
1. The target should possess the maximum Mass function
value;
2. The Dvalue between Mass function of the target and
other Mass functions should greater than a threshold T
1
and T
1
is 0.5;
3. The uncertain decisive function value should less than a
threshold T
1
, and T
1
is 0.1;
4. The decisive function value of the target should be
greater than the uncertain decisive function value.
The identification result of DSmT integrating rule is
showed in figure3. According to the change curve of Mass
function, when integrating the information obtained by the
three reconnaissance equipment of the first beat of data, the
Mass function produced has already meet the judging need. To
output stable integrating results, we can continue to integrate.
When comes to the 4
th
data, because of the conflict of proof,
the function value of main focal element decrease too greatly
?09
to meet the judging need. Continue the integrating. When
comes to the 10
th
beat of data, the function value of main focal
element meeting the judging need still cant be obtained, so
the integrating is rejected. During the simulation, the Mass
function of main focal element is unrestrained; the mechanism
of this phenomenon will be described in detail in the literature.
Therefore, the application of DSmt to identify 10 kinds of
radar type is unsuccessful with no final result.
Table 1.Database of radar radiation resource
Radar1 9.37 0.8 0.45 40 15 4 0.25
Radar2 8.25 0.75 0.35 45 12 6 1.25
Radar3 11.5 0.75 0.4 45 16 5 0.1
Radar4 9 0.78 0.4 30 14 3 0.5
Radar5 9.6 0.9 0.5 50 18 5 0.5
Radar6 7.25 1 0.8 35 15 4 0.1
Radar7 10 0.85 0.6 35 20 6 0.6
Radar8 12 0.65 0.9 50 12 5 1
Radar9 9.3 0.9 0.68 38 14 4 0.8
Radar10 7.82 0.88 0.72 45 14 8 0.4
B. Identification of fast Mass function convergence
algorithm based on DSmT
This simulation mainly selects a basic fiducial appointment
of focal element formed by 10 elements of the identification
framework to normalize Mass function by selecting. Use the 10
probability function obtained by valuation to produce attribute
value of the expectation. And use the attribute value and the 10
groups of attribute value from the database to rebuild 11 Mass
function (including Mass function of focal element and
nonfocal element produced by 10 elements of identification
framework), and then integrate these 11 functions with the next
beat of data until the Mass function output by the integrating
center meet the judging conditions. Because the Mass function
of contradictive focal element can be ignored, and the Mass
function of focal element can be formed by 10 elements of
identification framework, so we can use the simplified
algorithm mentioned in section of 2.2 to calculate and identify
10 targets. Figure 4 shows the results of identification of fast
Mass function convergence algorithm based on DSmT.
Figure 3. Change curve of Mass function (DSmT)
By observing 11 change curves of Mass function we can see
that, after integrating the 2rd beat of data, the Mass value of
main focal element has reached 0.98, the Mass value of inferior
focal element and the unknown focal element has become 0,
completely meeting the judging needs. After integrating the 4
th
beat of data with high conflict, the Mass value of main focal
element decreases a little. However, there exist processes of
rebuilding Mass function during the integrating algorithm,
which can well distribute the basic fiducial appointment of
contradictive focal element into the Mass function of main
focal element, so the Mass function of main focal element will
not decrease a lot and still meet the need. When comes to the
10 beat of data, the Mass function of main focal element
becomes 1, reaching the extremum, which completely meet the
need. And the output has become stable, so there is no doubt
that the radar target is the 3
rd
radar stored in the database. This
simulation experiment shows that fast Mass function
convergence algorithm based on DSmT can have well target
identification.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
,[mass]
Figure 4. Change curve of Mass function (algorithm in this
paper)
\. Conclusion
This paper firstly points out the shortage of traditional
identification of single radar radiation resource and offer
solutions to the identification of radar radiation resource in
complicated electronic warfare environment. And analyze its
effectiveness theoretically. For the problem of calculating
amount caused by the increasing of focal element with the
adding of the elements under the identification framework in
the traditional DSmT, this paper provides a fast Mass function
convergence algorithm based on DSmT. To remedy the
shortage of the traditional identification of single radar
radiation resource, this paper takes simulation testimony the
effect of different reasoning rule in the identification of radar
radiation source by combining the complicity of modern
warfare and introducing the evidence reasoning to the decisive
level of information integrating.
Acknowledgement
Thanks for the support of Natural Science Foundation of
?!0
China (Number of the project: 70571055).
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models. Advances and Applications of DSmT for Information Fusion,
American Research Press, Rehoboth, Chap. 4, June 2004.
[3] Chen Ximing, Zhu Zhengwei. A Method of Recognizing Radar
RadiatingSources Model Intelligently and Its Implementatio. Systems
Engineering and Electronics,Vol.23, 2001(7): 13. (In Chinese)
[4] Li Jindong. Research on Rader Emitter Identification in complex
ewar. Master Degree Paper of Northwest Polytechnical University
2005.3. (In Chinese)
[5] Miao Zhuang. DSMT and Its Application in Object Recognition.
Master Degree Paper of Northwest Polytechnical University2005. (In
Chinese)
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