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Total pressure oxidation La oxidacin a presin total de concentrados de cobre es una opcin potencialmente viable para el tratamiento de concentrados

de cobre que se encuentran ya sea de baja ley o que contengan impurezas significativas. Ambos tipos de concentrado estn fuertemente penalizados en los contratos de fundicin. El proceso de oxidacin a presin total consiste en aplicar un sistema autoclave al concentrado de cobre a una temperatura de 200-220 C bajo cierta presin de oxgeno(3040). La descarga autoclave se puede separar en un slido (residuo de la oxidacin ) y un lquido ( solucin de oxidacin ) del producto . La solucin de oxidacin puede ser tratada para la recuperacin de cobre mediante SX - EW o directamente por EW. La recuperacin directa de cobre por EW requiere la eliminacin previa de selenio y telurio en la cementacin de chatarra de cobre. El residuo de la oxidacin se lava a fondo para eliminar el cido y el cobre disuelto antes de la recuperacin de metales preciosos por cianuracin convencional en presencia de cal. Las recuperaciones de cobre en oxidacin por autoclave y la recuperacin de oro por cianuracin del residuo oxidacin superaron el 99%. Opera en la planta Bagdad, en Arizona (empresa Phelps Dodge)

Chalcopyrite Oxidation/Iron Hydrolysis: CuFeS2 + 4.25O2 + H2O = CuSO4 + 0.5Fe2O3 + H2SO4 Pyrite Oxidation: FeS2 + 3.75O2 + 2H2O = 0.5Fe2O3 + 2H2SO4
The total pressure oxidation process uses high temperature and pressure oxidation conditions to oxidize all sulfide minerals to sulfates and sulfuric acid. Conveniently, total pressure oxidation also results in iron precipitation as hematite. Total pressure oxidation plants operated in the US in the 1950s for recovery of copper, cobalt and nickel from complex ores, so this technology is not regarded asnew. Phelps Dodge has now revitalized the large-scale application of total pressure oxidation at the Bagdad plant in Arizona. At this facility approximately 16,000 tpa of Cu can be recovered from concentrates that previously were sent to a smelter facility. Under total oxidation conditions, 140 short tons of acid are produced per day for application to the stockpile leach operation at Bagdad. In this way, an acid credit is derived. A single autoclave is used to leach the concentrates which then proceed to flashing (to return the slurry to atmospheric pressure), slurry cooling, CCD washing and then copper SX/EW. The autoclave stream is merged with the stockpile leach solution stream to provide a combined PLS feed to the SX/ EW facility. The acid from the autoclave process is then recycled in the SX raffinate back to the stockpile leach. The washed autoclave residue is neutralized with lime in 4 stages. If precious metals were present (very low precious metals in the Bagdad concentrate), the neutralized residue could be cyanide leached. The total pressure oxidation process is very suitable for application where the acid from pressure leaching can be used beneficially. The process has been commercially demonstrated at a large-scale and could easily be scaled up to larger size if required. Total pressure oxidation for copper concentrate treatment should now be regarded as proven technology.

La oxidacin a presin total es muy manejable para la aplicaciones donde el cido proveniente de la lixiviacin a presin puede ser usado beneficiosamente. El proceso ha sido comercialmente demostrado a gran escala y podra fcilmente escalar en gran medida si es requerido. La oxidacin a presin total para el tratamiento de concentrados de cobre puede ahora ser calificado como tecnologa probada.

H2O,H2SO4 Metal Blanco O2

LIXIVIACIN A PRESIN
2(CuSO 4 *2Cu(OH)2 )(ac), H2 O(l) S(s )

Fe 2 O3(s), Fe 3O4(s) ESTANQUE DE DESPRESURIZACIN H2 O(g)

ESTANQUE DE RETENCIN H2O(l ),H2SO4(a c) LIXIVIACIN A PRESIN ATMOSFRICA

S/L

Fe 2 O3(s),Fe 3O4(s) Cu2S (no lix) (s )


S(s )

HR Cu(ac) H2SO4(ac) SX

CuSO4(ac) H2O(l )

Cu(ac)