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Verbos modales en ingls 4.

Explicacin del uso del modal: would.


Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

Uso condicional de "would".


"Would" puede formar el condicional del verbo. En este sentido, se utiliza para hablar de las situaciones teoreticas: I would love to go to Menorca.* It sounds like a beautiful place. (Me encantara ir a Menorca. Suena un lugar precioso.) I'm sure he would play his guitar for you.** He never says no. (Estoy seguro que tocara su guitarra para ti. Nunca dice que no. *Pero no puedo ir. **Estoy seguro (si lo preguntaras). "Should" se utiliza de la misma manera que "would" cuando se trata del condicional en la primera persona ("I" y "we"): I would/should take your umbrella if I were you. (Yo que t me llevara el paraguas.) We would/should get the train if we had time. (Cogeramos el tren si tuviramos tiempo.) la forma contrada en afirmativo es la misma tanto para "would" como para "should": I'd take your umbrella if I were you. Ver ejemplos de "would" en frases con "if" en el condicional...

Futuro en el pasado.
Utilizamos "would" para hablar de un "futuro en el pasado". Quiere decir, una accin pasada que no se haba realizado en el momento de hablar: I arrived in London in 1964. I didn't know it then but I would live here for the rest of my life. (Llegu en Londres en 1964. No lo saba entonces pero aqu vivira durante el resto de mi vida.) John met Mary at the White Horse pub five years ago. They would soon get married.

(John conoci a Mary en el bar "El Caballo Blanco" hace cinco aos y pronto seran casados.)

"Would" para la cortesa.


Podemos utilizar "would like" para pedir con cortesa: I'd like to take out a hundred euros, please (en el banco). (Quisiera sacar cien euros, por favor.) We'd like a bottle of white wine, please (en el restaurante). (Quisiramos pedir una botella de vino blanco, por favor.) I'd like to ask you a personal question. (Quisiera hacerle una pregunta personal.) Cuando damos una orden o ofrecemos una cosa, la pregunta suena ms educada con "would you like?": Would you like to come this way? (Si tendra la amabilidad de seguirme, por favor?) Would you like to sit down? (Quiere usted sentarse, por favor?) Would you like a biscuit? (Desea usted una galleta?) Comparar con el uso de "could" para la cortesa...

Acciones repetidas en el pasado (comparicin con "used to").


"Would" puede hablar de las acciones repetidas o habituales en le pasado de una manera parecida a "used to": When we were children, we would often go (often used to go) for long walks in the park. (Cuando ramos nios, solamos tomar largos paseos en el parque.) On winter evenings, we would sit (used to sit) in front of the fire and tell stories. (Las tardes de invierno, solamos sentarnos delante de la chimenea y contar cuentos.) He would rarely write (rarely used to write) so we learnt little about him over the years. (No sola escribir as que supimos poco de l a lo largo de los aos.) Podemos utilizar el negativo con este significado pero habr ambigedad con la denegacin en el pasado:

She wouldn't go out much when she was a child. (No sola salir o se negaba a salir cuando era nia.) "Used to" puede tambin expresar un estado o una situacin en el pasado, sin embargo, "would" se limita a hablar de las acciones repetidas: My grandmother used to live in a beautiful house by the sea (y no, my grandmother would live...). (Mi abuela viva en una casa hermosa al lado del mar.) I used to be happy (y no, I would be...). (Yo era feliz.) Ver "will" para las acciones repetidas...

Criticar a alguien.
"Would" puede utilizarse para criticar lo que alguien ha hecho de una manera negativa. Observemos que "would" para criticar se refiere a una accin nica y con referencia al pasado. Adems, tambin se utiliza cuando ya le hemos avisado antes que no lo hiciera o cuando pensamos que alguien acta de manera poco considerado: After all I said about not telling her, you would go and tell her, wouldn't you? (Despus de todo que te he dicho; tuviste que contrselo cierto?) He would go and park right in front of my house. That's typical of John. (Aparc justo delante de mi casa. Eso es tpico de John.) Leer sobre "will" para criticar...

La denegacin (pasado).
Podemos utilizar "wouldn't" como pasado de "won't" para hablar de la denegacin en el pasado. Esto puede referirse tanto a las personas como a los objetos que deniegan a hacer alguna accin: Mary wouldn't help me with my English homework. (Mary se neg a ayudarme con mis deberes de ingls.) He wouldn't play with the other children. (Se neg a jugar con los dems nios.) The car wouldn't start this morning. (El coche se neg a arrancar esta maana.)

How to use the Present Simple in English (guided discovery grammar exercise).

Fill in the blanks.


Choose words from list below to fit into each sentence. Only one solution makes correct sense. (You can also listen to the English example sentences for intonation and pronunciation practice.) Use the following words: ============================= present continuous / after / present continuous / at the beginning / present simple / Frequency adverbs / itineraries / facts / in front of / habitual actions ============================= Present simple tense is generally used to talk about 1. ( I work on Saturday mornings. ... All the shops close over the weekend. ... Present simple also talks about things that are always true, for example, 2. ( ). The moon goes round the Earth. ... Water freezes at 0 centigrade. ... Present simple is often used to talk about 3. ( future: ). In the present or the ).

My plane leaves at 6.00 am. (tomorrow) ... The London train arrives at 10.00 pm. (this evening) ... On Tuesday the Queen visits the White House. (next week) ...
4. (

) (always, never etc.) are placed 5. ( in present simple. I never go there. ... They hardly ever do any exercise. ... Dave rarely gets to work late. ... Maria occasionally leaves early. ... But the frequency adverb is placed immediately 6. ( and auxiliary verbs. He is always hungry. ... He can never be quiet. ...

) the main verb

) the verb 'to be'

'Sometimes', 'occasionally' can also be placed 7. ( with no change in meaning. Sometimes spring arrives earlier. ... Occasionally there are showers. ...

) of the sentence

There are some verbs that almost always take the present simple form. These verbs are not usually used in the 8. ( ) form.

I love pizza. ... I like you. ... I have a new car. ... I don't understand a thing. ... I really like this pizza ... (you're eating it now). We usually use 9. ( now and not 10. ( ). Hey, you! What are you doing? ... I'm not doing anything at the moment. ... ============================= present continuous / after / present continuous / at the beginning / present simple / frequency adverbs / itineraries / facts / in front of / habitual actions =============================
check your answ er

) to talk about an action which is happening

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Correct answers to cloze test above (see / hide)... Answers... 1. habitual actions 2. facts 3. itineraries

4. Frequency adverbs 5. in front of 6. after 7. at the beginning 8. present continuous 9. present continuous 10. present simple

Present perfect simple 2 and present perfect continuous (guided discovery grammar exercise).
Choose words from list below to fit into each sentence. Only one solution makes correct sense. Solutions must be written exactly as in the list. (You can also listen to the English example sentences for intonation and pronunciation practice.) Use the following words only: ============================= present perfect simple / progressive / for / liked living here / has lived / has been living / since / result / began in the past / present perfect continuous / period of time / temporary situation ============================= Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous can be used to talk about actions that 1. ( ) and still continue in the present. Examples:

Dave has driven that old car all his life. ... The students have been studying for their English exams for three weeks. ... One difference in meaning between the two forms is that present perfect simple expresses a permanent situation and present perfect continuous talks about a relatively 2.( ). More examples:

The castle has stood on that hill for centuries. ... Leaves have been falling from the trees recently. ... Another difference between the two aspects of this tense is that 3. ( ) suggests that the action is still happening now and is probably going to continue into the future but 4. ( the action has now finished. Read these examples: ) tells us that

I've been studying law at the university this year. I'm finding it very hard. ... I've studied five subjects since the beginning of this year. Now I think I'm going to study something else. ... Mary 5. ( Mrs Jones 6. ( ) with her mother for a while until she finds another flat. ... ) in many different European countries since she was a girl. Now she is back in the USA. ...

Both simple and continuous forms of the present perfect can use the prepositions "since" or "for" when they refer to time expressions. The preposition 7. ( ) is used to talk about periods of time and 8. ( ) refers to a certain moment in the past. Examples: I've been a member of the sports club for ten years. ... They've been working on that building since last summer. ... Mary has been sitting there waiting for you for ages. ... The locals have spoken English here since the days of the British Empire. ... We cannot always use present perfect continuous with all verbs. This is because some verbs are not usually used in the 9. ( ) form. Some of these verbs are: be, like, love, see, have (possessive), etc. Example: "I've been liking living here" (?) is not possible and we should say: "I've 10. ( ) ." The last use of present perfect continuous we'll discuss here is when we make a reference to the 11. ( happening over a 12. ( ) caused by some action that has been ). Examples:

- What have you been doing? You're all wet! - Yes, I've been walking in the rain. ... - Look at you! Your clothes are all torn. What have you been doing? - I've been trying to get the cat out of a tree. ... ============================= present perfect simple / progressive / for / liked living here / has lived / has been living / since / result / began in the past / present perfect continuous / period of time / temporary situation =============================
check your answ er

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correct answers.
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Correct answers to cloze test above (see / hide)... Answers... 1. began in the past 2. temporary situation 3. present perfect continuous 4. present perfect simple 5. has been living 6. has lived 7. for 8. since 9. progressive 10. liked living here 11. result 12. period of time

English grammar explanations (present simple).


Understanding present simple. The basics - structure:
The structure of the verb in presente simple is usually the same as the form of the infinitive in all persons except for the third person singular (he/she/it). In third person singular we add an "s" or "es": I work, you work, she/he/it/ works, we work, they work. I go, you go, she/he/it goes, we go, they go. With verbs that end in a consonant + "y", we change the "y" for "i" and add "es" in the 3rd person singular:

she/he/it cries (from the verb: "cry") See how forming plurals in English follow similar rules...

The verb "to be" has its own rules:


I am, you are, she/he/it is, we are, they are. And so does the verb "to have": I have, you have, she/he/it has, we have, they have.

Question forms in present simple:


Questions in the present simple usually require an auxiliary. The auxiliary we use is "do". The auxiliary comes before the subject of the verb. The main verb is always in the infinitive form without to: Do you like pizza? Do John and Mary go to the cinema often? Why do you want to sell your house? Auxiliary "do" changes to "does" in the third person singular: Does she cry a lot? Does the sun shine a lot in Spain? Does studying English make you tired? Where does she come from? In questions with "do", the person used is seen in the auxiliary, not in the verb: Does Steve go shopping on Thursdays? and not: Do Steve goes shopping on Thursdays?

Verb "to be".


The verb "to be" does not use auxiliary "do" or "does" to make questions in English. There is just inversion between "be" and the subject: Are you from the UK? Is there a chemist near here? Are John and Mary at home? When are the shops open?

Verb "to have"


The verb "to have" is peculiar. When it refers to possession, it can make questions with or without the auxiliary "do": Have you a pen I can borrow for a moment?+ (Or, "Have you got a pen...?" spoken English) Do you have a pen I can borrow for a moment? +"Have you?" is quite formal and more common in written English. "Have you got?" is used in colloquial English, especially British English. "Do you have?" can be heard and seen in spoken and written English; it is used more or less depending on the speaker's origin. But if the meaning is not "possession", then "to have" must use the auxiliary "do" or "does" in questions: Do you have a shower every morning?* (not, Have you a shower...) Does John have lunch in the cafeteria?** (not, Has John lunch...) Do you have a holiday at Christmas?*** (not, Have you a holiday...) *"Have" = to shower. **"Have" = to eat. ***"Have" = to take.

"Have" as an auxiliary verb always takes inversion:


Have you had enough to eat? (as auxiliary verb) Has John had a haircut recently?

Omission of auxiliary "do" / "does".


Sometimes a verb that normally takes the auxiliaries "do" o "does" for questions is used without the auxiliary. See examples of the omission of the auxiliary in questions...

Negative forms:
The negative of the verb in present simple uses "do + not" (do not = "don't" in informal and spoken English) or "does + not" (doesn't) (in third person singular) with most verbs. Again, the infinitive follows the auxiliary do: We don't often go on holiday; we don't like going abroad. It doesn't rain much in Seville in summer. John and Mary don't drive.

Don't you want any more cake? No, thank you, I don't. Doesn't Steve study English? No, he doesn't. As with the question forms, there are structure differences with the verbs "to be" and "to have". The verb "to be" does not use the auxiliary ever; it combines with "not" only: I'm not Spanish, I'm English. You aren't a very happy person, are you? We aren't a member of that club. Are you? No, I'm not either. Mary and John aren't in the Yellow Pages.

Verb "to be" negative.


In fact, there are usually two ways to form the negative in the contracted form of the verb "to be" - either with the subject or with "not", with no difference in meaning: I am not = I'm not (but not "I amn't") you are not = you're not OR you aren't he/she/it is not = he's/she's/it's not OR he/she/it isn't we are not = we're not OR we aren't they are not = they're not OR they aren't Mary is not = Mary's not OR Mary isn't. As with the question forms, the verb "to have" possesses two negative forms; with or without the auxiliary: I haven't (got) any food in the house OR I don't have any food in the house. The English don't have a shower in the mornings, they have a bath. In the first sentence, "have" has a possessive meaning (so it can use both forms) and in the second sentence, the meaning of "have" is not possessive (so it can only take the auxiliary to make a negative).

Present simple - use in real life: Habitual actions.


Present simple is used to talk about generalities or habitual actions that mention how often they happen or don't happen:

We sometimes have a glass of beer together. Paco often travels to London on business. I go to the library on Mondays and Wednesdays. I never watch football on television.

Facts.
Present simple also talks about facts: things that are always true: The Earth goes round the sun. Bicycles are used a lot in Amsterdam. Dogs like chasing cats and cats eat mice. Carmen is always a very good little girl.

Itineraries.
Present simple structure can also be used to talk about the future but usually only in the context of itineraries for travel, for example: John's flight leaves at 16.00 tomorrow. He returns the next day at 9.00. The King of Spain is on tour next week. First, he visits London and then he flies to Paris.

How to use the Present Simple in English (guided discovery grammar exercise).
Fill in the blanks.
Choose words from list below to fit into each sentence. Only one solution makes correct sense. (You can also listen to the English example sentences for intonation and pronunciation practice.) Use the following words: ============================= present continuous / after / present continuous / at the beginning / present simple / Frequency adverbs / itineraries / facts / in front of / habitual actions ============================= Present simple tense is generally used to talk about 1. ( I work on Saturday mornings. ... All the shops close over the weekend. ... ).

Present simple also talks about things that are always true, for example, 2. ( ). The moon goes round the Earth. ... Water freezes at 0 centigrade. ... Present simple is often used to talk about 3. ( future: ). In the present or the

My plane leaves at 6.00 am. (tomorrow) ... The London train arrives at 10.00 pm. (this evening) ... On Tuesday the Queen visits the White House. (next week) ...
4. (

) (always, never etc.) are placed 5. ( in present simple. I never go there. ... They hardly ever do any exercise. ... Dave rarely gets to work late. ... Maria occasionally leaves early. ... But the frequency adverb is placed immediately 6. ( and auxiliary verbs. He is always hungry. ... He can never be quiet. ... 'Sometimes', 'occasionally' can also be placed 7. ( with no change in meaning. Sometimes spring arrives earlier. ... Occasionally there are showers. ...

) the main verb

) the verb 'to be'

) of the sentence

There are some verbs that almost always take the present simple form. These verbs are not usually used in the 8. ( ) form.

I love pizza. ... I like you. ... I have a new car. ... I don't understand a thing. ... I really like this pizza ... (you're eating it now). We usually use 9. ( now and not 10. ( ). ) to talk about an action which is happening

Hey, you! What are you doing? ... I'm not doing anything at the moment. ... ============================= present continuous / after / present continuous / at the beginning / present simple / frequency adverbs / itineraries / facts / in front of / habitual actions =============================
check your answ er

. *Incorrect answers are shown in red. You have two chances to find the correct answers.
Repeat test

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Correct answers to cloze test above (see / hide)... Answers... 1. habitual actions 2. facts 3. itineraries 4. Frequency adverbs 5. in front of 6. after 7. at the beginning 8. present continuous 9. present continuous 10. present simple

Exercise 2: English present simple - the structure (grammar exercise).


Write the complete answers in the spaces provided (use correct punctuation eg. begin with capital letter and end with full stop). (You can also do this test as a listening exercise or as an English pronunciation and intonation exercise.)

Change the following four sentences into the third person singular: 1) Volunteers in Africa do wonderful things to help the local populations. (The volunteer...) ...
1. (

) ...

2) Letters arrive every morning by post. (A letter...) ...


2. (

) ...

3) They catch the train every day at 6.00pm. (He...) ...


3. (

) ...

4) Planes fly weekly between Madrid and Moscow. (A plane...) ...


4. (

) ...

Change the following four sentences into the question form: 5) Steve goes shopping with his wife on Friday evenings. ...
5. (

) ...

6) The English fry their food in margarine. ...


6. (

) ...

7) The computer breaks down very frequently. ...


7. (

) ...

8) Nick and Emma rarely watch television at the weekend. ...


8. (

) ...

Change the following four sentences into the negative form. 9) Sally washes her motorbike during her lunch hour. ...

9. (

) ...

10) People in this country like eating out in bars and restaurants. ...
10. (

) ...

11) Marys baby cries all day. ...


11. (

) ...

12) The Spanish love going to see bullfights. ...


12. (
check your answ er

) ...

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Repeat test

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Correct answers to cloze test above (see / hide)... Answers... 1) The volunteer in Africa does wonderful things to help the local populations. 2) A letter arrives every morning by post. 3) He catches the train every day at 6.00pm. 4) A plane flies weekly between Madrid and Moscow.

5) Does Steve go shopping with his wife on Friday evenings? 6) Do the English fry their food in margarine? 7) Does the computer break down very frequently? 8) Do Nick and Emma rarely watch television at the weekend?

9) Sally doesn't wash her motorbike during her lunch hour. / Sally does not wash her motorbike during her lunch hour. 10) People in this country don't like eating out in bars and restaurants. / People in this country do not like eating out in bars and restaurants. 11) Marys baby doesn't cry all day. / Marys baby does not cry all day. 12) The Spanish don't love going to see bullfights. / The Spanish do not love going to see bullfights.

"Will" para futuro y otros usos.


Lo bsico - la estructura:
"Will" es un modal auxiliar. Significa que combina con el infinitivo de los verbos no-modales (en muchos casos para expresar el futuro). "Will" no es variable. No cambia con las distintas personas. Tiene una forma contrada " 'll ", la cul se utiliza en los textos escritos menos formales y en el ingls hablado: Sujeto + will + infinitivo (sin "to"). I will see my friends next week. (Ver a mis amigos la semana que viene.) He will get ill if he doesn't eat properly. (Se pondr enfermo si no come bien.) John and Mary will get married soon. (John y Mary se casarn pronto.) I'll phone him tomorrow. (Lo llamar maana.) She'll fall off that bike if she isn't careful. (Se caer de su bicicleta si no tiene cuidado.) They'll paint the house this weekend. (Pintarn la casa este fin de semana.) John'll come and visit us in a few days. (John vendr a visitarnos dentro de unos das.) "Shall" es tambin (pero no siempre) posible en la primera persona: I shall see my friends next week. (Ver a mis amigos la semana que viene.) La forma contrada de "shall" es " 'll " I'll see my friends next week.

La forma interrogativa:
Hay inversin entre el sujeto y el auxiliar modal "will" en la forma interrogativa:

Will I see you again later on? (Te ver luego?) Will you help me with my English homework? (Me ayudars con los deberes de ingls?) Do you think John and Mary will get married soon? (Piensas que John y Mary se casarn pronto?) Tambin posible en primera persona: Shall I see you again later on? (Te ver luego?)

La forma negativa:
Empleamos la combinacin de palabras de "will + not" o "shall + not": I will not (shall not) say this again! (Esto no volver a decir!) La forma negativa se suele contraer a "won't" en el ingls escrito informal y hablado: I won't say this again! (No volver a decir esto!) There won't be any beer left if we're late for the party. (No quedar ms cerveza si llegamos tarde para la fiesta.) John won't go to work tomorrow. (John no ir a trabajar maana.) La forma negativa contrada de "shall not" es "shan't": "I shan't say this again!"

Will - el uso en la vida real: Prediccin para el futuro.


"Will" se utiliza para expresar una prediccin. I think the weather will be better tomorrow. (Creo que har mejor tiempo maana.) What do you think will happen at the end of this book? (Qu crees pasar al final del libro?) En este contexto, podemos tambin utilizar "shall" en la primera persona singular y plural. Sin embargo, "will" tambin es aceptable y probablemente ms comn en el ingls hablado: One day I shall (will) have a beautiful house in the country. (Un da tendr una casa preciosa en el campo.) "Going to" tambin es normalmente posible en este contexto:

One day I'm going to have a beautiful house in the country. (Un da voy a tener una casa preciosa en el campo.) Pero si hablamos de una prediccin donde se ve claramente qu va a pasar en el momento de hablar, hay que utilizar "going to" mientras "will" no ser posible. Ver"going to" para las predicciones... Asimismo, podemos utilizar "will" para hacer una prediccin sobre qu estar pasando ahora mismo en otro lugar: Don't phone now; they'll be in bed. (No llames ahora; estarn acostados.) I can hear a car outside. It'll be John. (Escucho un coche fuera. Ser Juan.)

Dar rdenes y peticiones formales.


"Will" tambin se utiliza para dar rdenes o instrucciones empleando una prediccin en vez de usar las palabras "must" o "should": You'll start work at seven o'clock sharp. (Empezar el trabajo a las 7 en punto. [Debes empezar...]) You'll do as you are told. (Hars lo que yo te diga. [Debes hacer...]) The regiment will attack on my orders. (El regimiento atacar cuando yo d la orden. [El regimiento debe atacar...]) De una manera educada y formal podemos pedir que una persona haga algo empleando "will": Will you follow me, sir? (Si quiere seguirme, seor.) Please, won't you sit down and make yourself comfortable? (Por favor, tome asiento y pngase cmodo.)

Amenazas, promesas, ofertas , sugerencias, decisiones inmediatas:


Empleamos "will" para expresar amenazas y promesas: I promise I won't ever do it again. (Prometo que no volver a hacerlo.) If you do that, I'll get angry. (Si haces esto, me enfadar.) He'll pay for what he did. (Me lo pagar por lo que hizo.) (Tambin podemos emplear "going to" con el mismo significado en estos ejemplos citados arriba.) Utilizamos "will" y no "shall" en frases afirmativas para ofrecer a hacer algo por alguien:

"Who'll help me with these heavy bags?" "I will." ("Quin me ayudar con estas bolsas pesadas?" "Yo.") "This English grammar exercise is too difficult for me." "Don't worry. I'll help you." (Este ejercicio de gramtica inglesa es demasiado difcil para m." "No te preocupes. Yo te ayudar.") Si ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien o sugerimos algo en una pregunta, utilizamos "shall" (con las primeras personas - "I" o "we") y no "will": Shall I help you with those heavy bags? (Te ayudo con esas bolsas pesadas? Shall I help you? (Te ayudo?) It's hot in here. Shall we open a window? (Hace calor aqu dentro. Abrimos una ventana?) Podemos sugerir que quizs otra persona nos ofrezca ayuda. Pero la tercera persona requiere "will": Ask Mary. She'll help. (Pregunta a Mary. Ella te ayudar) What about John? Will he do it? (Y John? Lo har l?) Cualquier decisin que tomamos en el momento de hablar se expresa con "will": "We must fix the roof as soon as possible. The rain is coming in!" "You're right! I'll talk to the builders first thing in the morning." (-Hay que reparar el techo ya. La lluvia est entrando! -Tienes razn. Hablar con los albailes maana a primera hora.) "Where's Mary? She's not here!" "I don't know where she is. I'll call her mobile now." (-Dnde est Mary? No est aqu! -No s dnde est. Llamo a su mvil ahora.) Los ltimos dos ejemplos citados arriba no pueden expresarse con "going to" porque se tom la decisin en el mismo momento de hablar. Si hubiramos utilizado "going to", el significado sera una decisin tomada antes de que la situacin ocurriera, es decir, un plan. Ver ejemplos de "going to" para planes...

La denegacin (presente).
La forma negativa de "will" se puede emplear de una manera que no es necesariamente futuro. Cuando nos quejamos de una persona que se niega a hacer algo por alguna razn o decimos nosotros que no queremos hacer algo, podemos emplear "won't" or "will not": I've told her hundreds of times but she won't help with the housework. (Se lo he dicho cientos de veces pero se niega a ayudar con las tareas domsticas.)

I will not get the underground train at night. It's just too dangerous. (Me niego a coger el metro por la noche.) Asimismo, empleamos esta estructura cuando una cosa "se niega" a hacer lo que queremos que haga: Oh, no. The car won't start. There must be something wrong with the battery. (Vaya. El coche no arranca. La batera ser defectuosa.) I think we have too many things in this suitcase. It won't close. (Creo que tenemos demasiadas cosas en esta maleta. No cierra.) "Would" se utiliza de una manera parecida para hablar de la denegacin en el pasado...

Hbitos y comportamiento.
"Will" (y no "shall") se puede utilizar para hablar de acciones habituales. Esta forma se suele usar cuando insinuamos que este hbito no es usual, es diferente o que no nos agrada: He'll sit in the pub drinking pint after pint until closing time. (A menudo se sienta en el bar bebiendo una cerveza tras otra hasta que se cierre.) De la misma manera, empleamos esta estructura para expresar el comportamiento de las cosas: If you add salt to ice, it'll melt. (Si aades la sal al hielo, se derretir.) This sticky tape is very good. It won't leave a mark when you take it off. (Esta cinta adhesiva es muy buena. No deja huella cuando te la quites.) Cuando criticamos el comportamiento habitual de alguien, podemos usar "will" para poner ms nfasis. "Will" no se suele contraer aqu porque lleva acentuacin. En este contexto "will" se refiere a acciones habituales: David will leave his toys all over the floor - he always does. (David siempre deja sus juguetes por todo el suelo - siempre lo hace.) She will call me late at night - that's four times this week. (Ella insiste en llamarme muy tarde por la noche - ya son cuatro veces esta semana.)

Promesas con "shall".


'Shall' se puede emplear en todas las personas cuando hacemos promesas. En estos ejemplos, veremos que se trata de la persona que habla que tiene la intencin de cumplir la promesa. El estilo puede ser algo literario o retrico:

Cinderella, you shall go to the ball! (Cenicienta, irs al baile!) They shall not pass! (No pasarn!) Trust me. I won't/shan't let you down. (Confa en m. No te fallar.)

Grammar exercise: present simple (to be - negatives).


Put the verb to be in the correct form of the present simple negative. You may use contractions. Use correct punctuation. eg. It (be) very old. It is not very old. or, It's not very old. or, It isn't very old. Idea! You can do this test twice. First without contractions and again with contractions. 1) I (be) 25 years old.

2) We (be) late for the football match.

3) It (be) cold and cloudy today.

4) He (be) an employee in the company.

5) They (be) in the library.

6) She (be) very happy today.

7) The lorry (be) big and red.

8) I (be) frightened of spiders.

9) They (be) very high mountains.

10) This woman (be) a Nobel Prize winner.

Grammar exercise: present simple (to be - negatives) solutions.


With the negative of the verb to be, there are two possible contracted forms with the personal pronouns: he's not or he isn't. The exception is with I: I'm not but not I amn't. 1) I am not 25 years old / I'm not 25 years old. 2) We are not late for the football match. / We're not late for the football match. / We aren't late for the football match. 3) It is not cold and cloudy today. / It's not cold and cloudy today. / It isn't cold and cloudy today. 4) He is not an employee in the company. / He's not an employee in the company. / He isn't an employee in the company. 5) They are not in the library. / They're not in the library. / They aren't in the library. 6) She is not very happy today. / She's not very happy today. / She isn't very happy today. 7) The lorry is not big and red. / The lorry's not big and red. / The lorry isn't big and red. / It is not big and red. / It's not big and red. / It isn't big and red. 8) I am not frightened of spiders. / I'm not frightened of spiders. 9) They are not very high mountains. / They're not very high mountains. / They aren't very high mountains.

10) This woman is not a Nobel Prize winner. / This woman's not a Nobel Prize winner. / This woman isn't a Nobel Prize winner. / She is not a Nobel Prize winner. / She's not a Nobel Prize winner. / She isn't a Nobel Prize winner.

Grammar exercise: present simple (to be - questions).


Put the verb to be in the correct form of the present simple interrogative (question form). Use correct punctuation. eg. It (be) very new. Is it very new?

1) He (be) 18 years old.

2) We (be) at the airport.

3) It (be) sunny today.

4) He (be) a player in the football team.

5) They (be) in the supermarket.

6) She (be) tired this evening.

7) The ship (be) on the sea.

8) I (be) very interested.

9) They (be) very high mountains.

10) These people are experts.

check your answ er

Grammar exercise: present simple (to be - questions) solutions.


You just need to remember to invert the subject with the verb to be. 1) Is he 18 years old? / Is he eighteen years old? 2) Are we at the airport? / Are you at the airport? 3) Is it sunny today? 4) Is he a player in the football team? 5) Are they in the supermarket? 6) Is she tired this evening? 7) Is the ship on the sea? / Is it on the sea? 8) Am I very interested? / Are you very interested? 9) Are they very high mountains? / Are the mountains very high? 10) Are these people experts? / Are they experts?

Grammar exercise: number one or indefinite article.


When to say "one chair" and when to say "a chair".
Write "a", "an" or "one" in the spaces. Write the complete sentence (in brackets). Example: How many teachers are there in the class? (There is ___ teacher.)

There is one teacher.

1) How many beaches are there? (There is ___ beach.)

2) How many rooms have you got? (We have got ___ room.)

3) What's this? (It's ___ very old book.)

4) (There is only ___ pub in our village.) Really! In my village there are ten!

5) (I've got ___ present for you.) Thank you very much!

6) Are you married? (Yes, I've got ___ wife and two children.)

7) Have you got a blue dress, please? (Yes, madam. Here's ___.)

8) (Excuse me. Have you got ___ light?) Sorry, I don't smoke.

9) (My uncle is ___ old man now.)

10) Oh, no. I haven't got a euro for the shopping trolley! (Don't worry. I've got ___.)

Grammar exercise: number one or indefinite article (solutions).


"One" is used for counting. We can say, "there is one" but we cannot say, "there is a".

1) There is one beach. 2) We have got one room. 3) It's a very old book. 4) There's only one pub in our village. 5) I've got a present for you. 6) Yes, I've got a wife and two children. 7) Yes, madam. Here's one. 8) Excuse me. Have you got a light? 9) My uncle is an old man now. 10) Don't worry. I've got one.

erbos modales en ingls 1.


Explicacin de los modales: can, could, may, might.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

Lo bsico - la estructura.

Estos auxiliares modales (y la mayora de los dems modales) emplean la inversin con el sujeto siguientes formas contradas. El verbo principal est siempre en infinitivo sin "to": You can swim. - Can you swim? Mary could finish the report. - Could Mary finish the report? We may go home now. - May we go home now? It might rain later. - Might it rain later? You cannot* swim. (You can't swim.) Mary could not finish the report. (Mary couldn't finish the report.) Sabes nadar -

Mary pudo term

Podemos irnos

Puede que llue

No sabes nada

Mary no pudo t

We may not go home. (We mayn't** go home.) It might not rain. (It mightn't rain.) *Can not no se permite. **"Mayn't" es poco utilizado. Respuestas cortas: Yes, I can. / No, I can't O No, I cannot. Yes, I could. / No, I couldn't. Yes, you may. / No, you may not.** Yes, he might. / No, he mightn't.

No podemos irn

Puede que no l

S. / No.

Pedir permiso y ofrecer.

Podemos pedir permiso con "can", "could" o "may" ("could" y "may" suenan ms educados con la Can / Could / May I help you? Can / Could / May I borrow your car?

Puedo / poda

Me puede / po

El uso de "might" para pedir permiso demuestra una actitud cautelosa, incluso nerviosa: Might I use your pen for just a moment?

Me pudiera dej un momento?)

De una manera parecida, podemos ofrecer algo a alguien con estos auxiliares: Can I help you with those heavy bags? Could I offer you a piece of chocolate cake? May we drive you back to your house, Mrs Jones? Comparar con el uso de "would" para la cortesa...

Le puedo ayu

Le puedo ofre

Podemos con

Pedir (ayuda, etc.)


Utilizamos sobre todo "can" y "could" para pedir cosas a otras personas. Sin embargo, "may" no you...?" no se usa en una frase como: Can / Could / May you tell me the way to the train station?* Can / Could / May you give me a hand?

Me puede / po

Me puedes ec

Habilidad, disponibilidad.

Usamos "can" y "could" (pero no "may" o "might") para hablar de la habilidad o disponibilidad pa Can / Could you come to dinner tonight? Can / Could you give me a hand? Can you do this English homework? I can't. It's too difficult. Can you speak Chinese? No usamos "could" para significar saber en presente: Could you speak Chinese? Puedes venir

Me puedes ec

Sabes hacer e (habilidad). Sabes hablar

no significa: S

Pero "could" puede significar saber o poder en el pasado o condicional del futuro: Could you speak Chinese when you were a child? Could you find the time to play football when you were at university? I couldn't swim until I was twelve. I could speak Chinese if I had a good teacher. I could run a mile in less than five minutes when I was twelve years old. If I won the lottery, I could buy a yacht.

Sabas hablar

Podas encon universidad?

No saba nadar

Sabra hablar c

Poda correr la

Si ganara la lot

Sin embargo, no podemos decir: "I could fix the car yesterday" (ver porque ms abajo...)

Posibilidades (presente y futuro).

Usamos "can" para hablar de posibilidades en presente simple (por ejemplo, a menudo, a veces Spain can (often) be very hot in summer. He can be very bossy sometimes. I can (always) speak better English when I'm at parties.

Puede hacer m

Puede ser muy

Puedo hablar u

Pero nunca se usa "can" para hablar de posibilidades en el futuro. Hay que emplear: "may", "cou It may / might / could / can rain tomorrow. She's not in. She may / might / could / can come back later.

Puede que llue

Ella no est. Pu

Se emplean "may" y "might" cuando hablamos de posibles planes que tenemos para el futuro: We may go to Ibiza next year. I might play tennis tomorrow though it depends on how I feel.

Puede que vay

Puede que jueg

Deducciones.

Cuando queremos deducir que puede ser una cosa o qu est pasando o qu ha pasado, se em es de grado. "May" significa ms posibilidad, "could" menos que "may" y "might" muy poca posib (Mirando a un cuadro) I don't know what it could be, I think it may be a fried egg or it might be the sun but I don't think so. Where's my watch? Could / Might it be at home? My friend may / could / might be about 32 I think. What could / might this be?

No s qu pued lo creo.

Dnde est m

Mi amigo tendr

Qu ser esto

"Can" se puede utilizar en este contexto de deducciones pero nunca en frases afirmativas; slo e Who can that be arriving in a car? It can / could / may / might be Jim. That can't possibly be right. Yes, it can / could / may / might be right. No, it can't be a fried egg; it isn't yellow. Quin puede

Puede que sea

Eso no puede s

S, puede que s

No, no puede s

Deducciones en el pasado.

Si la accin est en el pasado, se emplea el "modal" + auxiliar "have" + participio pasado: (Al llegar a la casa de un amigo) Look, John's car isn't there. Where could he have gone? He could have gone to the cinema or he may have just gone out for a few minutes. He might have gone on holiday but I don't think so. Hey, look! He can't have gone out for very long, the front door is open. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it.

Mira, el coche d cine o podra h lo creo.

Oye! Mira! No est abierta. Puede haberlo

Lo puede habe

Poda haberlo h

Podra haberlo

Habilidad, disponibilidad para acciones puntuales en pasado.

Cuando se refiere a una accin terminada en el pasado (es decir, algo que pas en una ocasin "could" para hablar del pasado puede sonar extrao en frases afirmativas. Hay que substituir "co I could was able to speak to your teacher this afternoon.

Logr/Pude ha

I could managed to fix the car in the end. They could finish succeeded in finishing all their work before six. Pero s es posible el uso de "couldn't" o en preguntas: I've left my car in the car park because I couldn't find my key. Despite its agility the deer couldn't escape the jaws of the tiger. Could you fix the car?

Al final, logr re

Lograron termin

He dejado mi c encontr mi llav

A pesar de su a

Has podido / p

Verbos modales en ingls 2.


Explicacin del uso de los modales: should, ought to.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

"Should" y "ought to".

"Should" y "ought to" tienen significados muy parecidos y podemos emplear uno o el otro en muc You ought to / should do what you can. You should /ought to go and see that film. It's really good. Mara should have done it / ought to have done it.

Debes hacer lo

Deberas ir a ve

Debi hacerlo M

Consejos y obligacin.
"Should" / "Ought to" + infinitivo, expresa lo que uno debe o debera hacer, es decir, un consejo She should / ought to leave straight away. We should / ought to do it now. They shouldn't / oughtn't to leave tomorrow; they haven't finished yet.

Debe / Debera

Debemos / Deb

No deben / deb

Probabilidad.

"Should" / "Ought to" se utilizan para expresar que algo es o ser muy probable en el presente o pasen. No utilizamos esta estructura para hablar de acontecimientos no deseados: If you take 20 euros, that should / ought to be enough money. I can hear a car. That should / ought to be Mary coming home. It should / ought to be sunny tomorrow so I think we can go to the beach.

Si llevas 20 eur

Escucho un co

Debe de hacer

Comparemos con una probabilidad que no nos complace: It'll probably rain tomorrow so I don't think we can go to the beach (y no, it should rain / it ought to rain...)

Maana probab

"Should" y "ought to" en el pasado.

La forma compuesta "should" + "have" + participio pasado, expresa una obligacin en el pasado He should have / ought to have finished it before. I should have / ought to have paid the bill.

Debera haberl hizo). Debera haber

La forma compuesta con haber (debera haber + participio pasado) tiene otra posibilidad en espa infinitivo. En ingls, slo es posible la forma compuesta; "should" + "have" + participio pasado: He should have / ought to have finished it before. I should have / ought to have paid the bill.

Debi terminar

Deb pagar la f

Diferencias entre "should" y "ought to".

Hay una diferencia de uso muy sutil entre "should" y "ought to". "Should" habla de nuestra opini obligacin moral: You should study more if you want to pass your exams. (consejo, opinin) I think he should go on a diet. He's too fat. (opinin) We ought to go and visit that poor old lady. She's all alone. (obligacin moral) You ought to recycle bottles, cans and paper. It's our duty. (deber, obligacin moral) You shouldn't smoke in here. It's not allowed. (normas)

Deberas estud Deberamos ir Debes reciclar

Creo que debe

No debes fuma

La traduccin de por si (acaso).

Es posible utilizar "should" con "in case" (por si acaso) o sin "in case" si empleamos inversin en I looked out of the window in case she should be coming to see me (o, ...should she be coming...). Let's buy some more beer in case we should need it (o, ...should we need it).

Me asom a la

Vamos a comp

Evitar el subjuntivo ingls.

En las frases a continuacin vemos unos ejemplos de cmo el ingls evita el subjuntivo al emple

They were tied well so that they shouldn't fall. He insisted that the men should be taken away. Was it necessary that my friends should be told? I'm surprised that she should shout at you. Is it normal that an adult should be so jumpy? Leer ms sobre el subjuntivo ingls...

Los ataron bien

Insisti que llev

Era necesario

Me sorprende q

Es normal que

El uso de "should" como auxiliar modal en los ejemplos arriba hace que la frase suene ms eleg adult is so jumpy?"; "I'm surprised that she shouted at you". La otra posibilidad es el uso del infin necessary that my friends be told?"*. Al utilizar el auxiliar modal "should", tenemos un ingls ace *Sin embargo, el subjuntivo empleado de esta manera s se escucha en el ingls de EE.UU.

EL VERBO INGLS.
Verbos irregulares, los tiempos verbales, auxiliares, preguntas, negaciones...

El verbo ingls es diferente al verbo espaol por dos razones principales. Primero, lleva pocas inflexiones. Los verbos regulares e irregulares, con la excepcin del verbo "to be", cambian solamente en la tercera persona singular (l, ella - he, she, it) en el tiempo presente. Este cambio se presenta en la terminacin de una "s". Segundo, se puede decir que el verbo ingls solamente posee dos tiempos: pasado y presente (anduve - I walked; ando - I walk). Para hablar del futuro hay que emplear aspectos compuestos del verbo o auxiliares (andar - I will walk; I'm going to walk etc.), los cules se llaman los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries). No se debe suponer que "will" es siempre la eleccin adecuada para expresar el futuro. Las tablas que ofrezco aqu muestran una visin global del verbo ingls y los tipos compuestos y, a continuacin, los varios auxiliares modales. Finalmente, hay una breve introduccin a la estructura del verbo ingls en preguntas y negaciones y la pasiva inglesa. Con el fin de que esto sirva de un inters prctico, los enlaces te llevan a listas de ejemplos de los varios aspectos, tiempos y modos del verbo.

WALK (verbo regular).


Cuando se habla se un "verbo regular", esto significa que el verbo termina en "ed". en el "past simple" y tambin en su participio pasado; es decir, infinitivo: "walk", past simple: "walked", past participle: "walked". Por desgracia, la mayora de los verbos ingleses ms comunes son irregulares, es decir, no

terminan en "ed" y puede que el "past simple" sea diferente del "past participle". Para ver una lista de los verbos irregulares, ir a: lista de verbos irregulares...

El infinitivo ingls:
El infinitivo es la parte bsica del verbo. Se puede decir que el infinitivo tiene tres formas: "walk", "to walk", "walking". La eleccin del infinitivo depende normalmente de la palabra que viene antes: ejs: "I should walk more often", (y as con todos los "modal auxiliaries") "he wants to walk", "he would like to walk", "they like walking", "she hates walking", "I'm fond of walking". ("ing" siempre despus de una preposicin). En muchos otros casos, las reglas de qu tipo de infinitivo empleamos en ingls son ms complicadas y variadas. Estudiar el infinitivo ingls en ms detalle...

Tabla de los tiempos y aspectos del verbo ingls.


Presente Simple (abrir ejercicios...) Presente Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I you* he she it we they

walk walk walks walks walks walk walk

I you he she it we they

am are is is is are are

(I'm) (you're) (he's) (she's) (it's) (we're) (they're)

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Pasado Simple (abrir ejercicios...)

Pasado Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I you he she it we they

walked walked walked walked walked walked walked

I you he she it we they

was were was was was were were

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Presente Perfecto Simple (abrir ejercicios...)

Presente Perfecto Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I have you have he has

(I've) (you've) (he's)

walked walked walked

I you he

have have has

been been been

walking walking walking

she it we they

has is have have

(she's) (it's) (we've) (they've)

walked walked walked walked

she it we they

has has have have

been been been been

walking walking walking walking

Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Continuos

I you he she it we they

had had had had had had had

(I'd) (you'd) (he'd) (she'd) (it'd) (we'd) (they'd)

walked walked walked walked walked walked walked

I you he she it we they

had had had had had had had

been been been been been been been

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Observaciones: * No se suele mostrar "you" en la segunda persona plural en tablas del verbo ingls. Ser puramente acadmico y redundante. "You" se emplea tanto hablando con un nio o con un perro como hablando con un adulto desconocido! Slo con la realeza y nobleza existen trminos distintos: Your Majesty, Your Highness, Your Lordship/Ladyship... + La forma contrada entre sujeto y auxiliar se debe reservar para el ingls hablado, dilogo escrito, o ingls informal escrito. No se debe emplear la forma contrada en cartas o textos formales. Dicha contraccin se puede emplear en todos los aspectos entre sujeto y auxiliar en el presente y el pasado con la excepcin de "was" y "were". Aqu slo se incluye en algunos apartados por razones de espacio. Fjate tambin en las posibilidades de contraccin entre otros sujetos y el auxiliar "to be" y "to have": "the man's..." (the man is...), "the policeman's got..." (the policeman has got...). A parte de los "modal auxiliaries" (ver abajo), hay otras maneras de hablar del futuro: ejs. con el presente continuo para futuro y "going to" + infinitivo

Preguntas con el verbo ingls.


Con la excepcin de los verbos y auxiliares "to be" y "to have" (tener) y los auxiliares modales, todos los verbos en ingls normalmente utilizan el auxiliar "Do" para la forma interrogativa y negativa en ingls. "Do" se conjuga como "does" en el presente simple, tercera persona singular (he, she, it) y "did" en el pasado simple con todas las personas. La estructura de la pregunta es: Do/does/did + sujeto + infinitivo del verbo (sin to) siendo, en realidad, una inversin entre el sujeto y este auxiliar. ej. Do you like English?; Does he watch much football?; Did he come back last night?

Palabras como: "when" (cundo); "why" (por qu); "what" (qu, cul); "which" (cul); "who" (quin); "whose" (de quin); "how" (cmo); y sus combinaciones (ej. "how much/many" (cunto/cuntos); "what time" (qu hora); etc. pueden colocarse delante del auxiliar "do" en preguntas: "When do they usually go on holiday?" (Cundo van normalmente de vacaciones?), "How much did she give you?" (Cunto te ha dado?)

Omisin de los auxiliares "do", "does" y "did" en preguntas.


No hay inversin, es decir, no se emplea "do/does/did" si "who", "what" o "which" se refieren al sujeto de la frase: "Who wants to come with me?" (Quin quiere venir conmigo?) (y no "who does want...?"); "Which lasts the longer?" (Cul dura ms tiempo?) (y no: "Which does last...?"); "What happened?" (Qu pas?) (y no: "What did happen?"). Compara: "Who gave them the book?" (Quin les dio el libro?) "Who" es el sujeto. Y ahora... "Who did he give the book to?" (A quin dio el libro?) "Who" aqu es el objeto indirecto. Observa que las palabras "wh": "who", "what" y "which" como pronombres siempre adoptan tercera persona singular del verbo. Esto significa que los verbos regulares en present simple toman "s" y los irregulares la forma de tercera persona singular: "Who likes pizza?" (A quin le gusta la pizza?); "Which goes in here?" (Cul entra aqu?); "What happens when it rains?" (Qu pasa cuando llueve?). Sin embargo, las palabras "wh" como "what" y "which" tambin pueden ser adjetivos. Pueden referirse a los sustantivos tanto singulares como plurales: "What car goes at 300km per hour?" (Qu coche va a 300km por hora?), "What colours make a rainbow" (Qu colores forman el arco iris?), "Which road goes to the city centre?" (Qu calle va al centro?), "Which vegetables contain vitamin C?" (Qu vegetales contienen vitamina C?). Ms ejemplos de la omisin del auxiliar "did" en preguntas en pasado simple...

El verbo ingls en negativo.


Sujeto + do/does/did + not (contrados a don't, doesn't, didn't) + infinitivo del verbo. ej. "We don't like eating out", "It doesn't rain much here", "She didn't ring me yesterday". El verbo negativo ingls no permite doble negaciones: He doesn't like no sweet things, He never watches nothing on the TV, She can't speak to nobody. Estas frases se consideran afirmativas, es decir, si ella NO habla con NADIE, quiere decir que habla con ALGUIEN. Esto puede ser difcil de entender porque el doble negativo s se permite en espaol. Las versiones correctas de estas frases son: "He doesn't like any sweet things", "He never watches anything on TV", "She can't speak to anybody / anyone". (La palabra "any" se considera una palabra afirmativa).

Los verbos "to be", "to have", y los verbos auxiliares - sintaxis de la pregunta.
La estructura de los verbos "to be", "to have" (cuando significa "tener" pero no cuando significa "tomar", ejs. "have a drink", "have a bath",) y los "modal auxiliaries" (ver abajo) en la interrogativa es: Verbo + sujeto. ejs: "He is Spanish" = "Is he Spanish?", "They have a car" = "Have they a car?" (or "Have they got a car?", forma hablada). El verbo "to have" (tener) es nico en que se puede formar la interrogativa de las dos maneras: "Has he (got) some money?" or "Does he have any money?" pero no, "Does he have got any money?" Normalmente se puede decir una o la otra, sin embargo, el significado del primero puede sugerir la idea de tener dinero en este momento (no permanente) mientras la segunda nos pregunta si siempre tiene dinero (permanente), es decir, si es rico.

Los verbos "to be", "to have", y los verbos auxiliares - sintaxis de la frase negativa.
La negacin de los verbos "to be", "to have" (tener) y los "modal auxiliaries" es: Sujeto + verbo + not. ejs: "I am very hungry" = I am (I'm not very hungry), "He has a pen" = he has not (hasn't) a pen (or "he hasn't got a pen" o "he doesn't have a pen"). "You have a pencil" = You have not (haven't) a pencil, "I was angry" = I was not (wasn't) angry, "You were there" = You were not (weren't) there, "He had a nice house" = he had not (hadn't) a nice house (o he hadn't got a nice house o he didn't have a nice house).

Formas contradas del verbo "to be".


El verbo "to be" se puede contraer de ms de una manera en la forma negativa en el presente. Las posibilidades son: I am not = I'm not, you are not = you're not o you aren't, he/she/it is not = he's/she's/it's not o he/she/it isn't, we are not = we're not o we aren't, they are not = they're not o they aren't.

La voz pasiva. (abrir ejercicios...)


La pasiva inglesa es comparable a la pasiva espaola en su forma pero la primera es mucho ms comn en el uso. Otro aspecto que es importante sealar es que el espaol ofrece ms de una manera para expresar la pasiva del verbo. En ingls, es necesaria la presencia del verbo "to be" ms un participio pasado: ej. "It is built"; "It was held"; "It was being done". El espaol

posee una forma parecida en: "fue construido", "fue/era sujetado", pero el continuo "estaba siendo hecho" puede sonar extrao al odo espaol (aunque en Amrica del Sur se puede escuchar esta construccin en algunos pases.). El espaol suele preferir el uso de "se" para formar la pasiva. "se construye," "se deca", "se estaba haciendo". Otra peculiaridad de la pasiva inglesa es la posibilidad de eligir como sujeto de la frase pasiva el complemento directo o el indirecto. ejs.: "She gave him some flowers" (activa) puede resultar en la pasiva como: "Some flowers were given to her" (Se le dieron unas flores/Le fue entregadas unas flores) "She was given some flowers" (Ella fue dadas unas flores!!) Este ltimo no se permite en espaol pero es muy comn en ingls. La estructura de la pasiva inglesa es la siguiente: Activa / active: "They are building a bridge" (Estn construyendo un puente)

Se puede decir que hay tres pasos para construir la pasiva.


1) El complemento se coloca delante como sujeto. Es decir, los pronombres deben cambiar su forma: "him" a "he" etc. "A bridge..." 2) Se inserta el verbo "to be" en el mismo tiempo, aspecto y modo que en la forma activa. En el ejemplo el verbo est en present continuous. Es decir, que en la pasiva tambin: "A bridge is being..." 3) El verbo de la forma activa se coloca despus pero como "past participle" "A bridge is being built." Si se requiere la presencia del "agent" (el sujeto de la frase activa), se inserta (normalmente) despus de "by"... "A bridge is being built by them." (Un puente fue construido por ellos) Con un "modal auxiliary" se siguen los mismos pasos aunque ahora hablamos del "modo" de la frase en vez del tiempo ej. Activa: The police could watch the thieves through telescopes. (La polica poda observar a los ladrones por los telescopios. (Sujeto + could + infinitivo (condicional de "watch") + complemento)

Pasiva: The thieves could be watched through telescopes (Se poda (podan) observar a los ladrones por los telescopios) (Nuevo sujeto + could + infinitivo del verbo "to be" (condicional de "to be") + past participle.) En los institutos de Espaa, el alumno suele estudiar la pasiva inglesa sin saber exactamente cundo o por qu se usa. La pasiva inglesa se usa en las siguientes situaciones: 1) En funcin del tema del que estamos hablando: Es normal en ingls durante el discurso presentar la nueva informacin al final de una frase. Es decir, si la conversacin se centra en los televisores, resultara muy natural decir: "The television was invented by Baird" (El televisor fue inventado por Baird). (La informacin nueva - Baird y el tema de los inventores - al final de la frase.) Sin embargo, si estamos hablando de los inventores, entre ellos el seor Baird, sera natural decir en ingls: "Baird invented the television" (Baird invent el televisor). (La nueva informacin es la de los televisores). As, se puede apreciar que la eleccin de la pasiva o la activa no depende de las necesidades gramaticales sino del estilo natural de los interlocutores. 2) La falta de necesidad de mencionar el sujeto: Durante el discurso se puede apreciar que, a veces, no es necesario mencionar quin o qu realiz cierta accin. Esto se puede deber al significado del verbo, ej: "The police arrested the man last night and they took him to the police station" (La polica arrest al hombre anoche y le llev a la comisara.) (En esta frase, palabras como "police" y "they" son redundantes porque se espera que aquellos que arrestan son los agentes de la fuerza de la polica. Por esta razn, la pasiva suena ms natural aqu: "The man was arrested last night and taken to the police station." (El hombre fue arrestado anoche y llevado a la comisara.) (Observa que tampoco hay que repetir el auxiliar "was" en "was taken") Una seleccin de las posibles variaciones de la pasiva inglesa y su traduccin en espaol se indican a continuacin. Hay que sealar que se podra emplear cualquier "modal auxiliary" en estas frases segn el significado deseado: Es enviado/se enva - it is sent. Va a ser enviado/se est enviando - it is going to be sent. Fue enviado/se envi - it was sent. Era enviado/se enviaba/sola ser enviado - it was (or, it used to be) sent. Ser enviado/se enviar - it will be sent.

Sera enviado/se enviara - it would be sent. Ha sido enviado/se ha enviado - it has been sent. Haba sido enviado/se haba enviado - it had been sent. Habr sido enviado/se habr enviado - it will have been sent. Habra sido enviado/se habra enviado - it would have been sent.

Aunque su uso puede ser escaso en espaol, la forma continua se emplea con frecuencia en ingls en los siguientes ejemplos: est siendo enviado/est envindose - it is being sent estaba siendo enviado/estaba envindose - it was being sent estar siendo enviado/estar envindose - it will be being sent estara siendo enviado/estara envindose - it would be being sent

Sin embargo, los siguientes tiempos verbales raramente se utilizan. It has been being sent (presente perfecto continuo - no se suele usar en ingls). It had been being sent (pasado perfecto continuo - no se suele usar en ingls). Ver ejemplos de la pasiva, explicaciones y traducciones de frases utilizando la pasiva inglesa...

Versin en ingls...

Los auxiliares modales (o verbos modales).


Qu son los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries)? Un auxiliar modal normalmente expresa algn modo, ej. el modo condicional o un auxiliar modal posee algn significado ej "can" (poder). Adems, estos auxiliares nunca cambian de forma; no tienen infinitivo, por ejemplo. Son seguidos por el infinitivo sin "to", (la excepcin es "ought" = "ought to go") y suelen ser defectivos, es decir, que no se conjugan en todos los aspectos y tiempos.

Los auxiliares modales en preguntas.


Otra cosa para recordar es que los auxiliares modales no utilizan el auxiliar "do" para la formas interrogativa y negativa sino hay inversin con el sujeto: "Do you can go tonight?" no es posible, sino, "Can you go tonight?". Los dems modales tambin emplean inversin para hacer preguntas. La forma interrogativa de "ought to" es: "Ought I to visit her today?".

Forma negativa y contrada de los auxiliares modales.


"He do not must be late" no es posible, sino, "He must not be late". Los modales tienen formas contradas en el negativo que son: cannot = can't (can not no se permite), could not = couldn't, I shall/will = I'll (he'll etc.), shall not = shan't, will not = won't, I would/should = I'd, should not = shouldn't, would not = wouldn't, must not = mustn't, ought not = oughtn't, may not = mayn't (muy raro), might not = mightn't, need not = needn't.

Los modales como auxiliares defectivos.


Algunos modales tienen un uso pasado "could" (poda) y/o condicional "could" (podra). Esta restriccin en su uso temporal, requiere, a veces, el empleo de otros verbos para sustituir el modal. Presento aqu el funcionamiento de este sistema. Hay que leer los apuntes debajo de esta tabla para entenderla. 1 Can Could (c) podra Shall Will Would Should (c) Would (c) Must deber Must/Had to tuve/tena que have to

puedo Could

pude/poda supe/saba 3 able to, manage to, succeeded in

1 Should (c) / ought to debera Should deb/deba

May poder

Might poder

Need necesitar

Might

Need

be allowed to

Explicacin de la tabla de auxiliares modales.

1, Los auxiliares modales sealados con (c) son los condicionales. Es decir, si se coloca delante de un infinitivo, se suele presentar un significado condicional del verbo. ej. "I would go" (yo ira), "I could go" (yo podra ir), "I should go" ("yo ira" o "yo debera ir"). 2, La segunda fila de auxiliares modales muestra el "pasado" de los modals aunque a veces solamente en situaciones muy limitadas (ej. el estilo indirecto). ej: "Will you help me?" he asked. - He asked if you would help him, She asked, "Shall we go to the cinema tonight?" - She asked if they should go to the cinema tonight. "I may go to university," he said. - He said that he might go to university. "You needn't put on your new suit," she said - She said that he needn't put on his new suit "He can leave whenever he likes," he said. - He said he could leave whenever he liked. "Must you go so early?" she they asked. - They asked if he must/had to go so early. "You should go and see it; it's lovely!" she said. - She said that we should go and see it and that it was lovely. "I could swim when I was six," he said. - He said that he could swim when he was six. 3, La tercera fila muestra los verbos que deben sustituir el modal cuando el tiempo verbal lo exija. Por ejemplo, si se requiere el uso del infinitivo de "can" (poder o saber) hay que decir: "I want you to be able to do it" (quiero que sepas hacerlo) y no: "I want you to can do it". Esto es porque "can" no es un infinitivo. Aqu hay ms ejemplos: "I'll have to do it myself" (Deber hacerlo yo slo") y no: "I'll must do it myself" "I haven't managed to do it yet" (Todava no he podido hacerlo) y no: "I haven't can do it yet" "You would be allowed to go out if you finished your homework quickly" (Podras salir si terminaras pronto tus deberes.) y no: "You would may go out if..."

A continuacin, hay enlaces a frases de ejemplos, explicaciones y traducciones de los auxiliares modales...

erbos modales en ingls 3.


Explicacin del uso del modal: must.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

Diferencias entre "must" y "have to".


"Must" y "have to" tienen el mismo significado que es expresar una fuerte obligacin: You must / have to lock the door when you come in at night. They must / have to finish the job today.

Tienes que cer

Tienen que term

La diferencia entre "must" y "have to" no se trata del significado sino del uso. "Must" habla de un refiere a las rdenes o requisitos de un tercero ejs. la ley, las normas: (Profesor a un nio) You must finish your homework by tomorrow. (Un amigo a un invitado extranjero) In England you have to drive on the left. (Si dice "must", suena ms como una orden de la persona que habla cuando lo que quiere decir es que se trata de las normas de la carretera. Los estudiantes de ingls suelen utilizar "must" demasiado as que uno tiene la impresin que estn dando rdenes a todo el mundo!)

Tienes que term

En Inglaterra tie

La excepcin a esta regla es cuando hablamos en el negativo. El negativo de "have to" es "don't tanto, ingls permite el negativo mustn't tanto para ordenes como para hablar de normas. In England you mustn't drive on the right. (y no, you don't have to drive...)

En Inglaterra n

"Must" en primera persona.


"Must" es muy comn en la primera persona (yo, nosotros) para hablar de la obligacin que una conciencia: I must get up early tomorrow or I'll be late again. I must talk to Mary as soon as possible about our holiday plans. We must ring the Jones's. We haven't seen them for ages.

Debo levantarm

Debo hablar co

Debemos llama

Los modales no son infinitivos.

Si necesitamos la forma infinitiva de estos verbos modales, hay que recordar que los modales no tiene infinitivo como "have to": Paco used to have to go every weekend (y no, Paco used to must...). I'll have to take the children to school tomorrow (y no, I'll should take...).

Deba ir Paco t

Deber / Tendr

Uso de "must" para la suposicin (deducciones).


Para hacer una suposicin (deduccin) en ingls se utiliza "must". Las suposiciones hacemos a que nos cuentan los dems: He must be very strong to lift all that weight. It must be about nine o'clock because it's getting dark. John must be at home by now; he left here an hour ago. She must be playing golf; her golf clubs aren't here.

Debe (de) ser m

Deben (de) ser Debe de estar

John debe (de)

Podemos hacer una suposicin de los acontecimientos en el pasado con la estructura: must + ha verbo). You must have worked a lot last week; you look very tired. You must have eaten too much last night because now you feel ill. He must have travelled a lot during his life because he knows a lot about the world. He didn't answer the phone when I called. He must have been having a bath.

Debiste de trab

Debes de habe

Deba de viajar No

Singular and plural of nouns.


How to make the singular and plural of English nouns. Basic rules.
In general, making the plural of English nouns just needs an "s" at the end of the word: car - cars table - tables bull - bulls computer - computers boy - boys

We add "es" to some nouns in the plural when they end in "o": tomato - tomatoes potato - potatoes cargo - cargoes but the rule has exceptions: kilo - kilos (kilo, kilos) silo - silos When nouns end in the letters "sh", "ch", "s", "z", we must add "es" to make the plural: wash - washes coach - coaches bus - buses buzz - buzzes See how verb conjugations in English follow the same rules... Some nouns that end in the sound "f" make the plural by changing "f" to "v" + "es". Though the "fs" form is sometimes possible: dwarf - dwarves / dwarfs wife - wives Nouns that end in consonant + y change the "y" to "i" + "es": party - parties cry - cries fly - flies poppy - poppies copy - copies daddy - daddies

Irregular plurals.
Some words from foreign origin use a different way to show the plural: child - children (German) man - men (German) woman - women (German)

fungus - fungi (Latin) phenomenon - phenomena (Greek) The plural of person is usually people: There were a lot of people in the town centre (not persons). The plural, persons is used if we mean particular individuals: The persons responsible should pay for the damage. Other irregular plurals or collective nouns are: foot - feet cow - cattle (when thought of as a business) dozen - dozen mouse - mice die (dice) - dice goose - geese Some names for animals are the same in singular and plural: sheep deer fish

Singular nouns used as plurals and plurals used as singular words.


Some countable nouns in other languages are uncountable when used in English. Look at these Italian food words in the English language; they never take the "s": spaghetti (never spaghettis) macaroni cannelloni Some singular nouns in English can be used with plural verbs and pronouns because we think about the individuals that make up the group: Our football team are the best, aren't they? The British police do not wear guns, do they? The government are having problems. My family are on holiday.

Other common words in this group are: club, class, school, staff, firm (company).

More details on the plural of nouns.


There are words that look like plurals but are used in the singular: The news is on television. There is a means to do it. A series on the television. Turn right when you see a crossroads. The United States is between Canada and Mexico. Of course, we can also say these words in the plural: insufficient means, two series, three crossroads but uncountable nouns need other words to make them countable: Two items of news. A few pieces of advice / information. Some sheets of paper (or papers when we mean documents).

Everybody, somebody, nobody, etc. in singular and plural.


All the words from the family some, any, no, every, such as everybody, somebody, nobody, etc. take the singular verb: Everything is here. Everybody has gone home. However, we often use these words with plural pronouns and possessive adjectives: Nobody is coming, are they? Everybody is on the beach, aren't they? Someone has forgotten their umbrella. Nobody is taking their children. In an informal style, we can generalise about personal singular nouns by referring to someone in the plural. In this way, we don't need to say him or her, his or her.

If a student finds English study hard, a teacher should give them lots of encouragement (informal). If a student finds English study hard, a teacher should give him or her lots of encouragement (more formal). A new English teacher may take a long time planning their lessons (informal). A new English teacher may take a long time planning his or her lessons (more formal). For the plurals of numbers like: thousands, millions, etc...

None, neither and either.


Usually, these words take a singular noun: None of the children wants to stay. Neither of them likes pizza. Either of us is happy to go. In informal styles, the plural of the verb is possible with all these words: None of the children want to stay, etc.

Nouns as adjectives.
When we use nouns as adjectives, they usually take a singular form in the plural: cigarette packet - cigarette packets toothbrush - toothbrushes plasma television - plasma televisions Even nouns that are usually used in plural will take a singular form when they are adjectives: trousers - trouser pockets pyjamas - pyjama tops There are exceptions to this rule with the noun adjectives: sports, customs, arms, clothes, accounts - always in plural:

sports car customs official arms race clothes shop accounts department

Number + noun.
When we make adjectives by combining number + noun, we use these noun adjectives in the singular. a five-day holiday (a holiday for five days) a ten-euro note (a note of ten euros) a twenty-kilometre run (a run of twenty kilometres) three two-man canoes (three canoes for two people in each one) Exercises on the plural of nouns...

Gramtica inglesa: adjetivos y pronombres posesivos.


Explicacin de las palabras: "my", "your", "his", "her", "mine", "yours", etc. Lo bsico - la estructura:
En ingls. utilizamos los siguientes adjetivos para hablar de la posesin: Escucha ... my (primera persona singular) your (segunda persona plural) his (tercera persona singular masculino) her (tercera persona singular femenino) its (tercera persona singular para cosas o animales) our (primera persona plural) their (tercera persona plural para personas, cosas, animales). Ver la traduccin de todas las posibles variaciones en espaol...

Ejemplos del uso:

El adjetivo posesivo se sita delante de la cosa. Escucha 1 ... Escucha 2 ... Adjetivos posesivos. my your his her its our their book(s). cage(s).* house(s).

This is These are

* "This is its cage". (Por ejemplo, un canario vive en una jaula (cage).)
Estos son los pronombres posesivos:

Empleamos estas palabras cuando no hace falta mencionar el nombre de la cosa que poseemos o ya lo hemos mencionado con anterioridad. Escucha 1 ... Escucha 2 ... Pronombres posesivos. This These The book(s) is are mine. yours. his. hers. its.* ours. theirs.

*Esta forma no es posible en ingls. Estas palabras son como el genitivo sajn sin el apstrofo. ej. "This is your's"

Hay solamente una forma de "your" y "yours" en ingls.

This is your coffee. This is yours. "Your" puede referirse a tu, tus, su, sus (de ustedes), vuestro, vuestros etc.

Estos pronombres y adjetivos no cambian en singular o plural.

Is that my pen? (Es mi bolgrafo.) Are those my pens? (Son esos mis bolgrafos?) She is our teacher. (Ella es nuestra profesora.) They are our teachers. (Son nuestros profesores.) Can I see your notebook? (Me enseas tu cuaderno?) Can I see your notes? (Me enseas tus apuntes?) The red motorcycle is his. (La moto roja es suya.) These English books are his. (Estos libros en ingls son suyos.) That bicycle is hers. (Esa bicicleta es suya.) Those children are hers. (Esos nios son suyos.)

he numbers in English from 1 to 100.


The numbers from 1 to 10. How to say them.
Zero - 0 (US English) ... Nought - 0 (UK English) ... One - 1 ... Two - 2 ... Three - 3 ... Four - 4 ... Five - 5 ... Six - 6 ... Seven - 7 ... Eight - 8 ...

Nine - 9 ... Ten - 10 ...

Typical phrases with these numbers.


The numbers can be either adjectives or pronouns. We use how many? to ask about number quantities. We use there are if there is more than one thing and there is if there is only one. There are two books on the table. There is one train in the station. I can see seven people in the restaurant. How many cars are there in the car park? There are about nine or ten. How many chairs are there in the room? There are five. / There are five chairs. How many universities are there in your city? There is one. / There is one university. How many buses are there in the station? There is one. / There is one bus.

One or a / an? We use one when we are counting. If we refer to something to identify it or just mention an object we use the indefinite article a or an (a in front of a consonant sound; an in front of a vowel sound. See indefinite articles...). Compare: How many brother and sisters have you got? I've got one sister. What's that? That's a bird. What is it? It's an apple. Have you got a car?

One as a pronoun (substitute word).

One can be a pronoun or an adjective but a and an cannot be pronouns; we can say "I've got one" but we do not say "I've got a": Is there a bus station near here? Yes, there is one (not, there is a). Can I have an orange, please? Yes, please take one (not, please take an). One can also refer to plural things, in which case we use ones: I'd like some flowers, please Of course, which ones would you like? Those red ones, please. See more help on when to say one and when to say a / an... When to say a or an with hundred and thousands...

Different ways to say "0" and other numbers.


By telephone.

When we count, we say zero (US English) or nought (UK English): zero, one, two, three... ... nought, one, two, three... ... And we say telephone numbers: 010 255 1900 = zero, one, zero, two, double five, one nine, double zero... (US English). ... 010 = O, one, O... (UK English). ... Extension 007 = double zero seven ... or, extension 007 = double o seven. ... (Also the way to say the number of the world's most popular spy, James Bond! See more help on saying telephone numbers in English...
Numbers of hotel rooms.

You're in room 309, sir. ...

Long numbers in general that do not refer to quantities.

My passport number is: 93 33 78 00. ... The receipt number is: 66696482. ...
Results of a football match.

It's two - nil (2 - 0) to Real Madrid. ... Real Madrid beat Bayern Munich by three goals to nil (3 - 0). ...
Tennis, table tennis, badminton.

Fifteen - love (15 - 0). Thirty - love (30 - 0). Forty - love (40 - 0). Two sets to love. ...
Decimals.

The "0" of decimal numbers is said nought or zero. The "." is called point: 0.5 (UK English) ... 0.346 (US English) ...

Numbers from 11 to 19.


Numbers that end in "teen", may change in pronunciation. Either the first or the second syllables can be stressed according to the position of the number in a sentence. When said alone, "teen" numbers usually have the second syllable stressed: Eleven - 11 ... Twelve - 12 ... Thirteen - 13 ... Fourteen - 14 ... Fifteen - 15 ... Sixteen - 16 ... Seventeen - 17 ... Eighteen - 18 ... Nineteen - 19 ...

However, in front of words that have the first syllable stressed, for example, the stress on the "teen" number is usually on the first syllable: There are thirteen people. ... Fourteen kilos of potatoes. ... Eighteen dollars. ... This is not a rule to worry about too much and there may be other reasons why the stress changes on "teen" numbers. This is to do with the rhythm of English spoken naturally. It is more important to know how to separate the pronunciation between the "teen" numbers and the tens. See this next section...

Numbers from 20 to 100.


Twenty - 20 ... Twenty-one - 21 ... Twenty-two - 22 ... Twenty-three - 23 ... Twenty-four - 24 ... Twenty-five - 25 ... Twenty-six - 26 ... Twenty-seven - 27 ... Twenty-eight - 28 ... Twenty-nine - 29 ... Thirty - 30 ... Thirty-one, etc. - 31 ... Forty - 40 ... Forty-one, etc. - 41 ... Fifty - fifty ... Fifty-one, etc. - 51 ... Sixty - 60 ... Sixty-one, etc. - 61 ... Seventy - 70 ... Seventy-one, etc. - 71 ... Eighty - 80 ... Eighty-one, etc. - 81 ... Ninety - 90 ...

Ninety-one, etc. - 91 ... A hundred. - 100 ... (Also: one hundred - 100) There may be difficulty for students of English to be able to separate the pronunciation between the "teen" numbers and the tens. The tens always take the stress on the first syllable, the "teens" on the first or the second as explained above. Therefore, we must pronounce the vowel sound suffix of the "teen" number correctly, which is quite a lot longer than the "y" on the tens: Thirteen - thirty ... Fourteen - forty ... Fifteen - fifty ... Sixteen - sixty ... Seventeen - seventy ... Eighteen - eighty ... Nineteen - ninety ... Thirteen euros - thirty euros ... Fourteen textbooks - forty textbooks ... Fifteen countries - fifty countries ... Sixteen tables - sixty tables ...

English grammar explanations and exercises (going to).


Understanding "going to" and comparing with present continuous for future. The basics - structure of going to:
We can use "going to" as an auxiliary to express future. It's form requires the auxiliary verb "to be": Subject + to be + going to + infinitive. I am going to study more English. John and Mary are going to get married.

Question forms:

As almost always, there is inversion between the subject and the auxiliary "to be" in question forms: Are you going to watch the match? Is Dave going to look for a new job?

Negative forms:
We use the word "not": I'm not going to go on holiday. We aren't going to drive to Madrid.

Going to - use in real life:


Plans.

We use "going to" to talk about our intentions or plans for the future. In other words, decisions already taken: I'm going to get my hair cut tomorrow. John and Mary are going to buy a house in the country next year. We're going to start eating more healthily next month. This way of talking about the future, in many cases, can be substituted for present continuous for future as this describes the future in a similar way. This means that both the following sentences have a similar meaning: I'm seeing Roco this evening. I'm going to see Roco this evening. However, we have to separate present continuous for future and "going to" if the future intention is not clearly expressed. This may happen if the future time adverb is absent: They're watching a film. (Happening now or a reference to the future?) They're going to watch a film. (A clear reference to the future.) If we want to place a lot of emphasis on our intentions, for example, to express that we are determined to do something, we prefer the "going to" structure:

I'm going to pass this exam if it's the last thing I do. and not... "I'm passing this exam..."

Predictions for future.


"Going to" (and not present continuous for future) is used to talk about what we think is going to happen in the future. Normally, this prediction is based on what we are experiencing in the present, for example, evidence we can see: Look at that plane! It's going to crash! Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. Look at Mary. She's going to have a baby. It is also possible to use "going to" for predictions in the same way we use "will" for predictions (eg. not based on evidence we can see now): In the future, there are going to be cars that can fly. I think it's going to rain next week. Also see "will" for predictions...

Threats and promises.


We also make a reference to decisions already taken when we make a promise or a threat. "Going to" (and not present continuous for future) is used in these cases: I promise I'm not going to do it ever again. If you do that, I'm going to get angry. He's going to pay for what he did.

"Going to" para futuro.


Lo bsico - la estructura:
Podemos emplear "going to" como auxiliar para expresar futuro. Su forma requiere la presencia del auxiliar "to be":

Sujeto + to be + going to + infinitivo. I am going to study more English. (Voy a estudiar ms ingls.) John and Mary are going to get married. (John y Mary se van a casar.)

La forma interrogativa:
Como casi siempre, hay inversin entre el sujeto y el auxiliar "to be" en las preguntas: Are you going to watch the match? (Vas a ver el partido?) Is Dave going to look for a new job? (Dave va a buscar un trabajo nuevo?)

La forma negativa:
Empleamos la palabra "not": I'm not going to go on holiday. (No voy a ir de vacaciones.) We aren't going to drive to Madrid. (No vamos a conducir a Madrid.)

Going to - el uso en la vida real: Los planes.


Empleamos "going to" para hablar de nuestras intenciones o planes para el futuro, es decir, decisiones ya tomadas: I'm going to get my hair cut tomorrow. (Me voy a cortar el pelo maana.) John and Mary are going to buy a house in the country next year. (John y Mary van a comprar una casa en el campo el ao que viene.) We're going to start eating more healthily next month. (El mes que viene vamos a empezar a comer ms sano.) Esta manera de hablar del futuro, en muchos casos, puede sustituirse por presente continuo para futuro. Este ltimo tambin habla del futuro: I'm seeing Roco this evening. I'm going to see Roco this evening. (Voy a ver a Roco esta noche.) Pero hay que separar presente continuo para futuro y "going to" si la intencin futura no queda clara. Esto puede pasar si el adverbio que expresa futuro es ausente:

They're watching a film. (Estn viendo un peli, o, Van a ver una peli.) They're going to watch a film. (Van a ver una peli.) Si queremos poner mucho nfasis en nuestra intencin, por ejemplo, para expresar que estamos empeados en hacer algo, preferimos "going to": I'm going to pass this exam if it's the last thing I do. (Voy a aprobar este examen aunque sea la ltima cosa que haga.) y no... "I'm passing this exam..."

Predicciones para el futuro.


"Going to" (y no presente continuo para futuro y no "will") se utiliza para hablar de lo que pensamos que va a pasar en el futuro. Normalmente, esta prediccin est basada en lo que experimentamos en el presente, por ejemplo, lo que vemos: Look at that plane! It's going to crash! (Mira el avin! Va a estallar!) Look at those clouds. It's going to rain. (Mira esas nubes. Va a llover.) Look at Mary. She's going to have a baby. (Mira a Mary. Va a tener un hijo.) Si la prediccin no est basada en lo que experimentamos o vemos en el momento de hablar, podemos emplear tanto "going to" o "will": When I'm older, I'm going to have a beautiful house in the country. When I'm older, I'll have a beautiful house in the country. (Cundo sea mayor, voy a tener [o tendr] una casa preciosa en el campo.) I think it's going to rain next week. I think it'll rain next week. (Creo que va a llover [llover] la semana que viene.) Para ms informacin sobre "will" y las predicciones, ver...

Amenazas y promesas.
Tambin son decisiones ya tomadas cuando expresamos promesas o amenazas. "Going to" (y no presente continuo para futuro) se utiliza en esto casos: I promise I'm not going to do it ever again. (Prometo que no volver a hacerlo nunca ms.) If you do that, I'm going to get angry. (Si haces eso, me voy a enfadar.) He's going to pay for what he did. (Lo que ha hecho me lo va a pagar.)

Tambin ver "will" para amenazas... Ejercicios: going to (future)... Ejercicios: presente continuo para futuro...

a gramtica inglesa: el condicional.


Ejemplos y explicacin de los condicionales ingleses.

Cero conditional.

Hechos, cosas que son as siempre. Se emplean presente simple + presente simple o futuro sim If you heat ice, it melts If he comes, I'll leave

Si calienta el hi

Si viene, yo me

Primer conditional.
Acciones que podemos considerar muy posibles en el presente o en el futuro, se construye con 'can', 'may', 'might', 'must' y tambin 'going to + inf': If I go out tonight, I'll go to that new pub around the corner. Can you help me with the letter if I have problems writing it? If you don't treat him kindly, he may leave you. It might all fall down if we don't use enough cement. If the worst happens, you must go to war If it happens again, / I'm going / I'll go / straight to the Town Hall to complain

Si salgo esta n

Me puedes ay

Si no le tratas c

Puede que todo

Si pasa lo peor

Si ocurre otra v

Tambin es posible el uso de los modales 'can', 'must' y 'going to' despus de "if": If I can go out tonight, I'll go to that new pub around the corner. If I must out tonight, I'll go to that new pub around the corner.

Si puedo salir e

Si debo salir es

Segundo condicional.
La situaciones que pensamos que son improbables o imaginadas en el presente o el futuro . Se como: 'would', 'could', 'should', 'might' + inf:

If I won, I / would / should / be happy

Si yo ganara (g

If I could, I / would / should / You / should / ought to / go and see her if she really wanted you to go If in the end we didn't have enough money, we might just stay at home

Si yo pudiera (p

Deberas ir a ve

Si al final no tu quedramos (q

'Were' es posible con todas las personas, incluso la primera y la tercera personas singular, en la

If he / was / were... If only I were / was...

Si l fuera (fues Ojal que (yo)

Tercer condicional.
En estas situaciones en el pasado, se considera que la oportunidad ya es historia. No podemos participio pasado / un sujeto + 'would', 'could', 'should', 'might + have + participio pasado.

If I had studied, I would have passed. If I had listened to you, this wouldn't have happened. If we had known before, we wouldn't have chosen this hotel I wouldn't have watched that film if I had known it was so violent I couldn't have done this if you hadn't helped me.

Si hubiera estu

Si yo te hubiera

Si lo hubiramo este hotel

No habra visto

No podra habe

Si necesitamos formar el condicional de los auxiliares modales - 'must', 'may', 'can', hay que emp condicional de 'can':

I would have to do it (I would must do it) (usamos 'have to' en vez de 'must') You would be allowed to do it (You would may do it) (usamos 'allow' en vez de 'may') He wouldn't know how to do it OR He wouldn't be able to do it. (Usamos 'know' y 'be able to' en vez de 'can') You would be able to do it o You could do it, tambin son posibles.

Debera hacerl

Te permitiran h

No sabra hace

Podras hacerlo

resente continuo ingls para futuro (ms ejemplos).


Uso de presente continuo para el futuro.
Empleamos la forma presente continuo y no 'will' para expresar preparativos en el futuro:

We're coming back tomorrow. I'm getting my hair cut today. We're staying until Monday. We're going to the Jones's on Friday.

Volvemos ma

Hoy voy a corta

Vamos a queda

Vamos a la cas

El uso de 'going to + inf.' pone el nfasis en el 'plan'. Tambin, evita la ambigedad con presente I'm going to study Chinese next year. Are you going to help him? Voy a estudiar

Vas a ayudarl

"Are you helping him?" (en presente continuo que tambin puede expresar un plan para el futuro accin presente.Si utilizamos "going to" evitamos esta ambigedad.

Presente continuo para las predicciones.

"Going to" se utiliza en las predicciones cuando se presentan las pruebas - a menudo visualmen It's going to rain (vemos las nubes). She's going to have a baby (vemos la barriga). Va a llover.

Va a tener un h

Presente continuo.
Lo bsico - la estructura de presente continuo:
La estructura del presente continuo es: sujeto + auxiliar "to be" + raz del verbo + ing. John is working. (John est trabajando.) Mary and her mother are swimming. (Mary y su madre estn nadando.) Las formas contradas estn permitidas en un ingls hablado o un ingls informal escrito. John's working, I'm eating, you're drinking, he's / she's / it's coming, we're painting, they're studying.

La forma interrogativa:
Hay inversin con el auxiliar "to be" y el sujeto: Is John working? (John est trabajando?) Are Mary and her mother swimming? (Estn nadando Mary y su madre?)

La forma negativa:
Se emplea la palabra "not" que normalmente puede unirse tanto con el sujeto como el auxiliar "to be" en la forma contrada: You're not watching television O you aren't watching television. (No ests viendo la tele.) He's / she's / it's not waiting O he / she / it isn't waiting. (No est esperando.) We're not reading O we aren't reading. (No estamos leyendo.) They're not playing football O they aren't playing football. (No estn jugando al ftbol.) The computer's not working O the computer isn't working. (No est funcionando el ordenador.) BUT: I'm not studying English at the moment. And never "I amn't studying English...". (No estoy estudiando ingls de momento.)

Presente continuo - el uso en la vida real:


Son dos los usos principales de presente continuo: para hablar del presente y para hablar del futuro.

1) Presente continuo para acciones en el presente.


a) Acciones que estn pasando en este momento: She's writing a report right now. (Est redactando un informe ahora mismo.) John's busy just now. He's washing his car. (John est ocupado en este momento. Est lavando el coche.) Just a moment. I'm just finishing this exercise. (Un momento. Estoy terminando este ejercicio.) b) Acciones tambin pasando en el presente pero no necesariamente ahora mismo, es decir, actividades que estn pasando en nuestras vidas en el presente: los estudios, trabajos temporales, proyectos temporales...

I'm going to intensive classes at an English academy this month. (Este mes voy a clases intensivos en una academia de ingls.) Mary's working at the local supermarket until she finds something better. (Mary est trabajando en el supermercado aqu cerca hasta que encuentre algo mejor.) We're currently developing a marketing campaign to sell our new products. (ltimamente, estamos desarrollando una campaa de marketing para vender nuestros nuevos productos.)

Verbos que no toman "ing".


Hay verbos que normalmente no toman: sujeto + auxiliar "to be" + raz del verbo + ing. Estos verbos pueden expresar un tiempo muy presente pero empleamos la forma del verbo presente simple y no presente continuo. Algunos de estos verbos son: like (gustar), hate (odiar), dislike (degustar), love (amar), want (querer), prefer (preferir), wish (desear), need (necesitar), know (saber o conocer), hope (esperar), believe y think, (creer), doubt (dudar), mean (significar), realize (darse cuenta), recognize (reconocer), remember (recordar), suppose (suponer), contain (contener), depend on (depender de), matter (importar), owe (deber), own (poseer), possess (poseer), appear (aparecer), resemble (parecer), seem (parecer), understand (comprender), see (ver), hear (or), taste (saber la comida), smell (oler), be (ser o estar) y normalmente have cuando expresa posesin, ej. I have a car (tengo coche). Ejemplos: I like this pizza I'm eating at the moment (y no I'm liking). (Me est gustando/me gusta esta pizza que estoy comiendo en este momento.) I need to finish this now (y no I'm needing). (Necesito terminar esto ahora.) I see you don't want to go (y no I'm seeing you're not wanting to go). (Estoy viendo/Veo que no quieres marcharte.) I have the report here (y no I'm having). (Tengo aqu el informe.) Algunos de estos verbos pueden tener ms de un significado. Con estos significados distintos la forma "ing" puede ser posible: I'm seeing a new girl at the moment (significa: estoy saliendo con una chica nueva) I'm having a bath just now (significa: estoy tomando un bao).

Los verbos que hablan de cmo estamos fsicamente: feel, ache, hurt, (sentir, doler, doler) pueden emplear o la forma simple o continua del verbo sin cambios en el significado: I feel fine today. / I'm feeling fine today. (Me siento bien hoy.) My arm aches. / My arm is aching. (Me duele el brazo.) Finalmente, podemos expresar ms formalidad con algunos verbos si empleamos la forma simple del verbo. Esto se ve en la correspondencia por carta: I write to inform you... (formal). (Ver ejemplo...) I'm writing to let you know... (menos formal). I look forward to hearing from you. (formal). I'm looking forward to hearing from you. (menos formal). (Ver ejemplo...)

2) Presente continuo para acciones en el futuro.


La misma estructura del presente continuo se emplea para describir acciones en el futuro. Como se trata de un segundo uso de esta estructura, hay que dejarlo claro que quieres hablar del futuro. Esto se hace incorporando adverbios de tiempo, por ejemplo, adverbios que expresan futuro. Veamos esta frase: I'm going to Madrid. (Voy a Madrid.) Esta frase sin ms contexto significa que ests en camino a Madrid ahora. I'm going to Madrid tomorrow. (Voy a Madrid maana.) El adverbio "tomorrow" deja claro el uso futuro. Esta estructura se utiliza para hablar del futuro si hablamos de actividades que ya tenemos previstas para hacer en el futuro. Si pensamos lo que apuntamos en nuestra agenda, esto nos da una idea del uso ms comn de presente continuo para el futuro: I'm going to the gym on Wednesday evening. (Voy al gimnasio el mircoles por la tarde.) My wife and I are playing squash on Saturday morning. (Mi mujer y yo vamos a

jugar al squash el sbado por la maana.) I'm not doing anything this afternoon. I'm free. (No tengo nada para esta tarde. Estoy libre.) Are you coming to see me next week? (Vienes a verme la semana que viene?) Los errores ms comunes de presente continuo para hispanohablantes.

Estas conversaciones telefnicas en ingls contienen frases tiles para el dilogo informal por telfono entre amigos o en este caso una reunin despus de mucho tiempo de separacin entre los novios y al final la despedida inevitable . Ofrecen una traduccin en espaol y adems audio para que puedas escuchar, repetir y practicar estas expresiones comunes en ingls telefnicamente. Los nueve dilogos van en orden como una historieta y cubren expresiones para preguntar por alguien, dejar mensajes, quedar, hablar de los planes, hablar de cosas que hemos hecho y finalmente despedirse - todo por telfono. Disfruta de estas conversaciones simpticas mientras aprendes un ingls esencial y coloquial. (Para escuchar el dilogo telefnico, haz clic en el icono o "..." al final de cada lnea.)

Preguntar por alguien. En esta conversacin telefnica escucha las frases ms bien formales (no sabemos quin llama al principio y Mara demuestra respeto haca el padre de David) para contestar el telfono. Fjate en cmo, en el Reino Unido, una persona contesta diciendo el nmero de telfono de dnde vive. Father - (Answers the phone.) OXFORD 123 56 89. - (Contesta el telfono.) Diga / Al. ... Mara - Hello. Could I speak to David, please? - Hola. Puedo hablar con David, por favor? ... Father - Yes, of course. Who shall I say is calling? - S, por supuesto. Quin le llama? ... Mara - This is Mara Snchez. - Soy Mara Snchez. ... Father - Oh, hello, Mara. How are you? - Ah, hola, Mara. Cmo est usted? ...

Mara - I'm fine, fine, thank you! And you? - Bien, bien, gracias! Y usted? ... Father - We're all fine, thank you. I'll just get David for you. I think he's in the garage fixing the car. Just a moment, Mara. - Estamos todos bien, gracias. Le voy a buscar a David. Creo que est en el garaje reparando el coche. Un momento, Mara. ... Mara - Thank you. - Gracias. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 2.

Hablar con un viejo amigo y quedar. Es interesante notar aqu el uso de presente perfecto y pasado simple para preguntar y hablar de las cosas que han pasado ltimamente en las vidas de Mara y David. Fjate tambin en las frases tpicas que se emplean para quedar: "where shall we meet?"; "what about..." etc. (A minute later.) (Un minuto ms tarde.) David - ( Picks up phone ) Hello? - ( Coge el telfono ) Diga. ... Mara - David? Hello, it's Mara. - David? Hola, soy Mara. ... David - Hello, Mara. I haven't heard from you for ages! What've you been up to? - Hola, Mara. Hace tiempo que no s nada de ti! Qu hay de tu vida? ... Mara - Well, I've been abroad. - Bueno, he estado en el extranjero. ... David - Really? Where've you been? - De veras? Dnde has estado? ... Mara - I've just got back from South America. - Acabo de volver de Amrica del Sur. ... David - South America? That sounds great! You lucky thing! What were you doing there? - Amrica del Sur? Suena de maravilla! Qu suerte! Qu hacas all? ... Mara - Well, I was working in a language school in Caracas. I was teaching Spanish to foreigners part time and travelling and sightseeing and stuff when I had time off. -Bueno, imparta clases de espaol para extranjeros a tiempo parcial y viajaba y vea los monumentos en mi tiempo libre. ... David - Sounds interesting! How long were you there for? - Qu bien! Durante cunto tiempo estuviste all? ...

Mara - About nine months. I came back last weekend. What about you? What've you been up to? - Unos nueve meses. Volv el fin de semana pasado. Y t qu? Qu has estado haciendo? ... David - Oh, nothing much, same as usual; working. I've been given a promotion. - Pues, poquita cosa, lo de siempre; trabajando. Me han ascendido. ... Mara - Mmm! You always were a swot! Listen, David. Would you like to come out for a drink? I'll show you the photos of Caracas! - Mmm! Siempre eras un empolln! Escucha, David. Te apetece salir a tomar una copa? Te ensear las fotos de Caracas! ... David - Yes, I'd love to! When shall we meet? - S, con mucho gusto! A qu hora quedamos? ... Mara - What about Friday evening, say, half past six at the Three Bells pub? Qu te parece el viernes por la tarde, digamos, a las seis y media en el pub Las Tres Campanas? ... David - Sounds good to me! - Me parece muy bien! ... Mara - Right, OK, then. I'll look forward to it! - Bien, de acuerdo. Tengo ganas de verte! ... David - Yeah, me too. So that's Friday, half past six at the Three Bells pub. - S, y yo. As que, el viernes, a las seis y media en el pub Las Tres Campanas. ... Mara - Yes. - S. ... David - I'll see you then, then. Bye. - Nos veremos entonces. Adis. ... Mara - See you Friday. - Hasta el viernes. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 3.

Hablar de la hora y un sitio para quedar. En esta conversacin telefnica podemos escuchar y aprender frases para hacer y aceptar sugerencias: "I thought that we could see..."; "I'd love to...", etc. Mara - (Answers the phone.) OXFORD 222 3440. - (Contesta el telfono.) Diga. ... David - Hello. Is that you, Mara? This is David. - Hola. Eres t, Mara? Soy David. ... Mara - Hi, David! How's things? - Hola, David! Qu tal te va? ...

David - Great! What about yourself? - Fenomenal! Y t? ... Mara - Not bad. I've just got a bit of a cold. - Regular. Estoy un poco constipada. ... David - Oh, that's a shame. I was going to ask you if you wanted to come to the cinema this evening. - Ay, qu lstima. Te iba a preguntar si queras venir al cine esta noche. ... Mara - Oh, yes. I'd love to. I'm not that bad. I've just got a bit of a runny nose, that's all. But I'm OK to go out. What are we going to see? - Pues, s. Encantada. No me encuentro tan mal. Slo tengo mocos, eso es todo. Pero estoy bien para salir. Qu vamos a ver? ... David - Well, I thought that we could see "Killing Them Softly". You know, that new film with Brad Pitt. - Pues, pensaba que podamos ver "Killing Them Softly". Ya sabes, esa peli nueva con Brad Pitt. ... Mara - Oh, yes. I saw the trailer. It looked pretty exciting stuff. And I like Brad Pitt! - Ah, s. He visto el trailer. Me pareca bastante emocionante. Y me gusta Brad Pitt! ... David - Well, you know what they say; there's no accounting for taste! Anyway, what time shall we meet? - Bueno, como quin dice; sobre gustos y colores no discuten los doctores. En fin, a qu hora quedamos? ... Mara - Hey, I've got an idea. Why don't we meet up a bit earlier and we could have a drink first? - Oye, se me ha ocurrido una idea. Por que no quedamos un poco ms temprano y podemos tomar una copa antes? ... David - Sounds good to me! Where do you have in mind? - Me parece fenomenal! Qu sitio tienes en mente? ... Mara - What about that nice pub off Haymarket? - Qu te parece ese pub bonito cerca de Haymarket? ... David - Eh. Which one's that then? - Mm. A cul te refieres? ... Mara - You know. "The Dog and Partridge" or something like that. Next to the church. - Ya sabes. "El Perro y la Perdiz" o algo as. Al lado de la iglesia. ... David - Oh, yeah. I know where you mean. Just past the post office, isn't it? Ah, s. Ya s dnde quieres decir. Justo al pasar Correos, cierto? ... Mara - That's it! - As es. ... David - Anyway, the film starts at half past eight so we could meet up at the pub at say, seven o'clock? - En fin, la peli comienza a las ocho y media as que podemos quedar en el pub digamos, a las siete? ...

Mara - Yes. That's fine by me. - S. como no. ... David - OK. I'll see you there, then, at seven. Hope your cold gets better by then. - Bien, Te ver all, entonces, a las siete. Espero que tu resfriado se mejore para entonces.... Mara - Don't worry. I'll be fine. See you later. Bye. - No te preocupes. Ya estar bien. Hasta luego. ... David - Bye. - Adis. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 4.

Hablar de los preparativos de un viaje. Aqu Mara y David hablan por telfono acerca de los detalles de un viaje en avin: cmo hablar del horario, salida, llegada, nmero del vuelo, etc. (Mara est otra vez en Espaa durante dos semanas para visitar a su madre. David la llama para saber de sus planes para el vuelo de vuelta a Inglaterra.) Mara's mother - Hello - Diga ... David - Hello! Can I speak to Mara, please? It's David from England.- Hola! Puedo hablar con Mara por favor? Soy David de Inglaterra. ... Mara's mother - Oh, hello, David! Yes, just a moment. I'll go and get her. - Ah, Hola, David! S, un momento. Te la voy a buscar. ... Mara - David? - David? ... David - Hello, Mara. I've just got your e-mail about the flight times to the UK and there's something I don't understand. So I thought I'd call you to ask. - Hola, Mara. Acabo de recibir tu e-mail acerca de la hora del vuelo al Reino Unido y hay algo que no entiendo. As que pens en llamarte para preguntarte. ... Mara - Oh, I'm sorry. Didn't I make things clear? - Oh, lo siento. No me he expresado bien? ... David - Well, you sent me the flight number of your plane but you didn't tell me the time of your arrival at Heathrow. - Pues, me has enviado el nmero del vuelo de tu avin pero no me has dicho la hora de llegada a Heathrow. ... Mara - Oh, my God! I'm sorry. I'll just get the ticket, David. I've got it here somewhere... . Ah, yes, here it is. Eh, flight number: BA 4231. Departure: Malaga 16.25 and arrival: Heathrow 18.00 hours. No, sorry, 18.05. - Dios mo! Perdname. Voy a buscar el billete, David. Lo tengo por aqu en alguna parte...

. S, aqu est. Mmm, el nmero del vuelo: BA 4231. Salida de Mlaga: 16.25 y la llegada a Heathrow: a las 18.00. No, miento, a las 18.05. ... David - Right. So that's 18.05 British local time. And what about the terminal? There're several terminals at Heathrow. - Bien, As que son las 18.05 tiempo local britnico. Y la terminal? Hay varias terminales en Heathrow. ... Mara - Eh, yes. It says here - terminal **** - Ah, s. Dice aqu - terminal **** ... David - Sorry. Mara, I didn't catch that. Can you say the terminal number again? It's a bad line. - Perdona, Mara, no me entero. Me puedes repetir el nmero de la terminal? Es que no se escucha bien. ... Mara - Yes. I said terminal four! - S. He dicho la terminal cuatro! ... David - Right. Terminal four, Heathrow, flight: BA 4231. Arrival time: 18.05. I'll see you tomorrow then, darling. I'm looking forward to seeing you. - Bien. Terminal cuatro, Heathrow, vuelo: BA 4231. Hora de llegada: 18.05. Entonces, nos veremos maana, cario. Tengo ganas de verte. ... Mara - Me too! I can't wait. I'm bringing a bottle of "agua ardiente" so we can celebrate. - Yo tambin! No sabes cuntas. Traigo una botella de agua ardiente para que lo celebremos. ... David - Oh, wow! Listen, Mara. If there are any changes, just give me a call on my mobile, OK? - Estupendo! Escucha, Mara. Si hay algn cambio, llmame al mvil, vale? ... Mara - OK, darling. See you tomorrow. Bye. I miss you! - Vale, cario. Maana nos vemos. Adis. Te echo de menos! ... David - I miss you too. See you tomorrow, then. - Tambin te echo de menos. Hasta maana, pues. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 5.

Dejar un mensaje en un contestador. Hablar por telfono dejando un mensaje en un contestador pidiendo que te llamen. Maras answer machine - Hello. This is Maras answering machine. Sorry, but I can't speak to you at the moment. Please leave a message and number after the tone and I'll get back to you. (Beeeep) - Hola. Este es el contestador de Mara. Lo siento, pero en este momento no le puedo atender. Deje su mensaje y nmero despus de la seal y le llamar. (Biiiiip) ...

David - Hello, Mara. This is David. Eh, I was just calling to ask you if your were interested in going to the theatre with me tomorrow evening. Eh, It's that I need to know soon so that I can book the tickets. I called your mobile but there was no reply. Flat battery probably. Can you get back to me as soon as you get in, on my mobile or at home? I'll be in over lunchtime. Bye. - Hola, Mara. Soy David. Mm, solamente llamaba para preguntarte si estabas interesada en ir al teatro conmigo maana por la tarde. Mm, es que necesito saber ya para reservar las entradas. Llam a tu mvil pero no haba respuesta. Sin batera probablemente. Me puedes llamar en cuanto llegues al mvil o a casa? Estoy en casa a la hora de comer. Adis. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 6.

Dejar un mensaje con otra persona. En esta conversacin telefnica David deja un mensaje con un conocido de Mara. Fjate en las expresiones que se usan: "I'm afraid she's out at the moment."Can I take a message?", etc. Mara's flatmate - (Maria's flatmate answers the phone.) Oxford 700 4996 - (La compaera de piso de Mara contesta el telfono.) Diga. ... David - Hello, Angela. It's David. Is Mara there? - Hola, Angela. Soy David. Est Mara? ... Mara's flatmate - Hello, David. No, I'm afraid Mara's out at the moment. She's gone shopping with Pilar. Can I take a message? - Hola, David. No, en este momento no est. Ha salido de compras con Pilar. Quieres dejar un recado? ... David - Yes, please. Could you tell her I called and ask her to call me at home as soon as possible? - S, por favor. Le puedes decir que he llamado y que me llame a casa cuanto antes? ... Mara's flatmate - Yes, of course, David. Is there something the matter? You sound a bit worried. - S, claro, David. Pasa algo? Te escucho algo preocupado. ... David - Well, it's probably nothing. I just can't find my wallet and I thought that perhaps I left it in her car. - Ya, probablemente no es nada. Es solamente que no encuentro mi cartera y pensaba que quizs la hubiera dejado en su coche. ... Mara's flatmate - Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. I'll tell her to call you straight away. - Ay, qu pena me da or eso. Le dir que te llame enseguida. ... David - Thanks, Angela. I'd appreciate that. Bye. - Gracias, Angela. Te lo agradezco. Adis. ...

Mara's flatmate - Bye. - Adis. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 7.

Preguntando acerca de qu hizo alguien el da anterior. Fjate en el uso de pasado simple aqu para hablar de acciones terminadas en el pasado y cmo felicitar a alguien por algo bien hecho. David - (Answers phone.) Oxford 703 4488. - (Contesta el telfono.) - Diga. ... Mara - Hello, David. How are you? - Hola, David Cmo ests? ... David - Fine. A bit tired after yesterday though. I overslept this morning. - Bien. Aunque un peln cansado despus de ayer. Me qued dormido esta maana. ... Mara - Really? Well, that's what I was ringing about. How did the conference go? - De veras? Bueno, para eso te estaba llamando. Cmo te ha ido la conferencia? ... David - Oh, well, it was OK I suppose. It was the first time I had given a talk so I was a bit nervous at first. - Bueno, bien, supongo. Ha sido la primera vez que he dado un discurso as que al principio estaba un poco nervioso. ... Mara - Oh, that's normal. - Bueno, normal. ... David - Yes, I suppose so. Fortunately, the audience were really sympathetic and they seemed very interested in what I was saying so that encouraged me. S, me imagino que s. Afortunadamente, el pblico era muy comprensivo y pareca muy interesado en lo que estaba diciendo as que eso me anim. ... Mara - So your talk must have been good, then. - As que, debe de haber sido un buen discurso entonces. ... David - Actually, it got better as it went along. The projector didn't let me down, neither did the video recordings so I suppose it went well. - En realidad, se mejoraba conforme iba avanzando. El proyector no me fall, tampoco las grabaciones de video as que supongo que s sali bien. ... Mara - Did they applaud at the end? - Aplaudieron al final? ... David - Yes, they did. And a few people came up and congratulated me afterwards as well. - S, efectivamente. Y unas cuantas personas se acercaron despus para felicitarme tambin. ... Mara - Wow! Sounds like you gave a really professional performance. Well done! - Fenomenal! Me parece que has dado una presentacin bastante profesional. Enhorabuena! ...

David - Well, thanks for saying so. I'll get more feedback once I go back to work on Monday. - Bueno, gracias por decrmelo. Recibir ms comentarios una vez vuelva al trabajo el lunes. ... Mara - Well. I just rang to ask you about that. So, congratulations! I'm glad that it went so well. I'll call again this evening when I've got more time. Bye for now. Pues, nada, te llam para preguntarte sobre eso. As que, enhorabuena! Me alegro que todo haya salido tan bien. Te llamar esta noche cuando tenga ms tiempo. Hasta luego. ... David - Goodbye, Mara. Thanks for calling. - Adis, Mara. Gracias por tu llamadita. ...

Conversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 8.

Preguntar por los planes de alguien. En esta conversacin telefnica David habla de sus planes para el fin de semana. Fjate en el uso de presente continuo para futuro y "going to" para hablar de los planes. David - (Answers the phone.) Oxford 711 2345. This is David speaking. (Contesta el telfono.) Diga. Habla David. ... Mara - David! I'm jealous! - David! Estoy celosa! ... David - Jealous? Whatever for? - Celosa? Y eso? ... Mara - Well, envious, at any rate. I hear you're planning a canoeing trip this weekend. I want to go too! - Bueno, tengo envidia, mejor dicho. Me han dicho que ests planeando un paseo en canoa para este fin de semana. Yo quiero ir tambin! ... David - Well, that's right. It was a last minute thing really. Geoff called me and said he wanted to canoe down to Lechlade and he asked if I'd like to go with him. I said yes. Weather permitting, of course. - Bueno, s, ests en el acierto. La verdad es que ha sido cosa de ltima hora. Me llam Geoff y me dijo que quera hacer un paseo en canoa hasta Lechlade y me pregunt si me apeteca acompaarle. Le dije que s. Si el tiempo lo permite, claro. ... Mara - Why can't I go as well? - Y por qu no puedo ir yo tambin? ... David - Well, he's only got two canoes. And you can't get more than one person in a canoe. - Es que slo tiene dos canoas. Y no cabe ms de una persona en una canoa. ... Mara - When are you leaving? - Cundo parts? ...

David - We're leaving really early on Saturday morning at about seven. The canoes are at Geoff's house so we're going to load them onto the car roof-rack and then we're going to drive down to the Thames somewhere and set off for Lechlade. We're going to canoe for a few hours and then stop off for a drink at a pub on the way. - Partimos muy temprano el sbado por la maana sobre las siete. Las canoas estn en la casa de Geoff, as que las vamos a cargar en la baca del coche y luego vamos a conducir hasta algn sitio en el Tmesis y partimos para Lechlade. Iremos en canoa durante unas horas y despus, paramos en un pub en el camino. ... Mara - Sounds lovely! - Qu bien! ... David - Well, yes, if the weather's good. Then we're carrying on to Lechlade. We should get there sometime early evening if all goes well. In Lechlade there's a kind of warehouse where we're going to leave the canoes until another time. Bueno, s, si tenemos buen tiempo. Y luego continuamos hacia Lechlade. Deberamos llegar sobre el anochecer. En Lechlade hay un especie de almacn donde vamos a dejar las canoas hasta otro da. ... Mara - So how are you getting back then? - Entonces, cmo vais a volver? ... David - Eh, I hadn't thought about that. By bus, I suppose. - Mm, no me lo haba pensado. En autobus, supongo. ... Mara - Well, I could pick you up in my car and bring you both home. What do you think? - Bueno, os podra recoger en mi coche y os traigo a los dos a casa. Qu opinas? ... David - Yes, sounds like a great idea and we could have a meal in the Trout pub in Lechlade before we come back. We're going to need it. I should think we'll be starving. -S, me parece una idea estupenda y podramos cenar en el pub "La Trucha" en Lechlade antes de coger el camino de vuelta. La vamos a necesitar. Me imagino que vamos a estar muertos de hambre. ... Mara - Well, you'd better call your friend and ask him, then. - Bien, ser mejor que llames a tu amigo y se lo preguntes, entonces. ... David - Yes. You're right. I'll do that and then I'll call you straight back. - S, tienes razn. Lo har y en seguida te volver a llamar. ... Mara - OK. You see. You can't escape from me so easily! - Vale. Ves. De m no puedes escapar tan fcilmente! ... David - I can see that! Bye for now, sweetheart. - Ya lo veo! Hasta ahora, cario. ... Mara - Goodbye, darling. - Adis, cario.

onversaciones telefnicas en ingls entre amigos 9.

Despedirse de alguien. Mara y David se despiden por telfono. Fjate en las expresiones que se emplean para decir adis y cmo expresar cario y afecto. (Mara tiene que volver a Caracas para empezar un nuevo trabajo y ya se ha despedido de David pero quedaba algo ms que decir y le llama desde el aeropuerto...) David (Answers phone at work.) - Houghton and Bradford. How can I help you? - (Contesta el telfono en el trabajo.) Houghton y Bradford. En qu puedo ayudarle? ... Mara - Is that you, David? It's Mara. - Eres t, David? Soy Mara. ... David - Mara! Where are you? Is everything all right? Have you missed the flight or something? - Mara! Dnde ests? Todo va bien? Has perdido el vuelo o algo? ... Mara - No, I haven't missed the flight. I'm still here at the airport. The flight's half an hour late. That's all. I'm just calling to say 'goodbye' again. - No, no he perdido el vuelo. Estoy todava aqu en el aeropuerto. El avin tiene una media hora de retraso. Eso es todo. Te llamo slo para volver a decirte "adis". ... David - Look, Mara. I'm so sorry I couldn't go with you to the airport. I just couldn't get time off work. You know how it is with my boss. - Mira, Mara. Siento muchsimo no poder acompaarte al aeropuerto. Es que no me dejaban escapar del trabajo. Sabes cmo es mi jefe. ... Mara - Yes, I know, I know. Let's not go through all that again. - Ya, ya. No pasemos por todo eso otra vez. ... David - Have you got everything? You haven't forgotten anything, have you? Tienes todo? No te has olvidado algo verdad? ... Mara - Well, it's too late now if I have. All my baggage is checked in and I'm already in the departure lounge. Well, I just wanted to say that I'm going to miss you. - Bueno, ya es tarde para eso. Todo mi equipaje ha sido facturado y ya estoy en la sala de salidas. Bueno, slo quera decir que te voy a echar de menos. ... David - I'm going to miss you too, Mara. It's going to be a long six months and Caracas is a long way for a visit. - Te voy a echar de menos tambin, Mara. Van a ser unos seis meses muy largos y Caracas est muy lejos para hacerte una visita. ... Mara - Yes, but I want to do this job, David. It's important to me. Anyway, you'd better behave yourself while I'm away or else! - S, pero quiero hacer este

trabajo, David. Es importante para m. En fin, tienes que portarte bien mientras yo est fuera o si no! ... David - I promise. And the same goes for you too! You're no angel! - Te lo prometo. Y lo mismo digo! No eres ningn angel! ... Mara - Mmm. I like that! You know we Latins are very faithful! - Mm. Oye! Sabes que las latinas somos muy fieles! ... David - Yes, I know. Bad joke. Sorry. - S, lo s. Qu chiste ms malo. Perdname. ... Mara - That's OK. So, anyway, here's a big hug and a kiss, darling, and I'll email you once I get to Caracas. - Est bien. Bueno, te doy un abrazote y un besazo, cario, y te enviar un e-mail una vez llegue a Caracas. ... David - Thanks, Mara. Oh, Mara? - Gracias, Mara. Oye, Mara? ... Mara - Yes, David? - S, David? ... David - Eh..., nothing.. nothing. I just wanted to say, eh... - Mm..., nada..., nada. Slo quera decir, mm... ... Mara - I love you, David! - Te quiero, David! ... David - ( Pause. ) Yeah, that's what I wanted to say, too. I love you! - ( Pausa. ) S, lo mismo quera decir yo tambin. Te quiero! ... Mara - Look after yourself, David. Y hasta pronto, cario. - Cudate, David. And see you soon, darling. ... David - Hasta pronto. - See you. ...

ramtica inglesa (ndice).


Explicaciones, reglas y ejercicios. Adjetivos y adverbios.
Los adjetivos expresan propiedades atribuidas a los sustantivos: the blue pen, the tall tree, a sunny day, an interesting exercise (un bolgrafo azul, el rbol alto, un da soleado, un ejercicio interesante). Adjetivos demostrativos: this, that, these, those (este, ese, esos, aqullos). Adjetivos posesivos:

my, your, his, her, its, our, their (mi, tu, su, nuestro, su, etc.). Los adverbios expresan propiedades atribuidas a los verbos u otros adjetivos: he drove slowly, I am feeling well, a very small dog, quite nice (condujo lentamente, me siento bien, un perro muy pequeo, bastante bonito). Adverbios de frecuencia: never, sometimes, always, etc. (nunca, a veces, siempre, etc.) Tambin en esta seccin: comparativos y superlativos de los adjetivos y adverbios: big - bigger; slowly - more slowly. (grande - ms grande; lentamente - ms lentamente)

Artculos.
Los artculos son palabras como a y an (artculos indefinidos) y the (artculo definido): a book, an apple, (un libro, una manzana) the table (la mesa). A veces, some and any se consideran artculos que preceden a los sustantivos contables e incontables.

Auxiliares modales.
Los verbos auxiliares modales son: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, ought to, need, must. (poder, debera, necesitar, deber - traduccin aproximada) Going to, used to y have to tambin se incluyen en esta seccin. (ir a, sola, tener que)

Condicional (si).
El condicional se refiere a las frases que llevan una oracin con if (si), eg:

If you heat ice, it melts. (Si calientas el hielo, se derrite.) If I go out tonight, I'll go to the cinema. (Si salgo esta noche, ir al cine.) If I won the lottery, I'd buy a boat. (Si ganara la lotera, comprara un barco.) If I had studied more, I would have passed my English exam. (Si hubiera estudiado ms, habra aprobado mi examen de ingls.) (Para una explicacin del verbo auxiliar (would), ver Auxiliares Modales...)

Cuantificadores.
Los cuantificadores son las palabras que expresan una cantidad indefinida: some, any, no, much, many, little, few (fewer and less), all, none, etc. (algunos, muchos, poco, pocos, (menos), todos, ninguno) Tambin en esta seccin son los pronombres relacionados: something, anything, nothing, etc. (algo, nada)

Estilo indirecto.
El estilo indirecto es la estructura gramatical que empleamos cuando contamos los que alguien ha dicho anteriormente (estilo directo): Mary: "Are you going shopping, John?" (estilo directo). (Mary: Vas de compras, John?) She asked John if he was going shopping (estilo indirecto). (Pregunt a John si iba de compras.)

Infinitivo.
Los infinitivos son las formas bsicas del verbo: run, to run, running (correr) el ltimo a veces llamado el gerundio.

Preguntas y respuestas.
Las preguntas que utilizan los verbos auxiliares: do, does, did; la inversin sujeto, verbo (auxiliar): to be, to have (ser, tener) y los verbos auxiliares modales el la interrogativa. Los "question tags": You speak good English, don't you? (Hablas bien el ingls, verdad?) Las respuestas cortas: "Yes, I have" / "No, I haven't". (S / No.) Las preguntas indirectas: Can you tell me what the time is, please? (Me puede decir qu hora es?) I wonder if you could tell me how to get to the station. (Me pregunto si me puede decir cmo llegar a la estacin.)

Preposiciones y conjunciones.
Las preposiciones son palabras, cuya funcin es denotar la relacin entre dos palabras (preceden a los sustantivos o pronombres: to, at, in, out, of, for, from, on behalf of, etc. (a, en, de, desde, por, para, de la parte de, etc.) Las conjunciones son palabras que sirven de unin entre las palabras, los sintagmas o frases: and, but, or, etc. (y, pero, o)

Pronombres.
Los pronombres suplen o determinan al nombre, sustantivo o sintagma. Hay dos grupos comunes para estudiar que son los pronombres personales: I, you, he, she, etc. (yo, t, l, ella, etc.)

y los pronombres posesivos: mine, yours, his, hers, etc. (mo, tuyo, suyo, etc.) Para los pronombres: something, anything, nothing, etc. ver some y any. (algo, nada)

Sustantivos.
Los sustantivos se refieren a las personas: John, teacher (John, profesor); los lugares: Madrid, city (Madrid, ciudad); o las cosas: book, pen (libro, bolgrafo); las cualidades: happiness, bravery (felicidad, valenta) o las actividades: football, hiking (ftbol, excursionismo). Se dividen en dos grupos principales: nombres comunes y nombres propios. Los nombres comunes se escriben en ingls con minscula: book, pen, ciudad, happiness. Los nombres propios representan los nombres de las persona, lugares, instituciones, etc. Se escriben con mayscula: John, Madrid, etc... Esta seccin tambin ofrece una gua de cmo formar el plural de los sustantivos. Ver vocabulario para ver los glosarios de los sustantivos por categora y por significado...

Tiempos verbales.
La estructura y el uso de los tiempos verbales y sus aspectos: presente simple, continuo; presente perfecto simple, continuo; pasado simple, continuo; pasado perfecto simple, continuo. imperativo.

Verbo ingls.
Un estudio de cmo funciona el verbo ingls: contracciones, sintaxis, preguntas y negaciones, conjugaciones de los verbos regulares e irregulares. Los "phrasal verbs". El subjuntivo ingls.

Voz pasiva.
La voz pasiva se utiliza cuando el complemento de una frase activa se coloca delante de la misma. El sujeto original se coloca en la parte final de la frase o se suprime: The thieves stole the valuable painting (activa). (Los ladrones robaron el cuadro valioso.) The valuable painting was stolen [by the thieves] (pasiva). (El cuadro valioso fue robado [por los ladrones].)

Temas diversos de la gramtica.


There is, there are y las dems variaciones. (hay, habr, habra, hubo, etc) Genitivo sajn: (Mary's new car). (El coche nuevo de Mary.) Los nmeros desde el 0 al trilln. El abecedario.

Los nmeros en ingls del 1 al 100.


Los nmeros del 1 al 10. Cmo se dicen.
Zero - 0 (ingls EE.UU.) ... Nought - 0 (ingls britnico) ... One - 1 ... Two - 2 ... Three - 3 ... Four - 4 ... Five - 5 ... Six - 6 ... Seven - 7 ...

Eight - 8 ... Nine - 9 ... Ten - 10 ...

Frases tpicas con los nmeros.


Pueden ser tanto adjetivos como pronombres. Usamos "how many?" para preguntar cuntos. Usamos "there are" (hay) si hay ms de una cosa y "there is" si hay una cosa. There are two books on the table. (Hay dos libros en la mesa.) There is one train in the station. (Hay una persona en el tren.) I can see seven people in the restaurant. (Veo siete personas en el restaurante.) How many cars are there in the car park? (Cuntos coches hay en el aparcamiento?) There are about nine or ten. (Hay unos nueve o diez.) How many chairs are there in the room? (Cuntas sillas hay en la sala?) There are five. / There are five chairs. (Hay cinco. / Hay cinco sillas.) How many universities are there in your city? (Cuntas universidades hay en tu ciudad?) There is one. / There is one university. (Hay una. / Hay una universidad.) How many buses are there in the station? (Cuntos autobuses hay en la estacin?) There is one. / There is one bus. (Hay uno. / Hay un autobus.) Ver ms ayuda sobre "there is" y "there are"...

"One" o "a" / "an"?

Utilizamos "one" si estamos contando. Si nos referimos a una cosa para identificarla o simplemente la nombramos, usamos el artculo indefinido "a" o "an" ("a" delante de un sonido consonante; "an" delante de un sonido vocal. Ver artculos indefinidos...). Comparemos: How many brother and sisters have you got? (Cuntos hermanos tienes?) I've got one sister. (Tengo una hermana.) What's that? (Qu es eso?) That's a bird. (Eso es un pjaro.) What is it? (Qu es?) It's an apple. (Es una manzana.) Have you got a car? (Tienes coche?)

"One" de pronombre.
"One" puede ser un pronombre o adjetivo pero "a" y "an" no pueden ser pronombres; podemos decir "I've got one" (tengo uno) pero no podemos decir "I've got a": Is there a bus station near here? Yes, there is one (not, there is a). Can I have an orange, please? Yes, please take one (not, please take an). "One" tambin puede referirse a cosas en plural, en cuyo caso utilizamos "ones": I'd like some flowers, please. (Quisiera una flores, por favor.) Of course, which ones would you like? (Por supuesto, cules prefiere usted?) Those red ones, please. (Esas rojas, por favor.) Ver ms ayuda sobre cuando hay que decir "one" o "a" / "an"... Ver el uso de "a" y "an" con los centenares y miles...

Maneras distintas de decir "0" y otros nmeros.

Por telfono.

Cuando contamos, decimos "zero" (cero en ingls EE.UU) o "nought" (ingls britnico): zero, one, two, three... ... nought, one, two, three... ... Y decimos los nmeros de telfono: 010 255 1900 = zero, one, zero, two, double five, one nine, double zero... (ingls EE.UU). ... 010 = O, one, O... (ingls britnico). ... Extension 007 = double zero seven ... o, extension 007 = double o seven. ... (extensin 007.) (Tambin el nmero del espa ms famoso, James Bond!) Ver ms ayuda para decir los nmeros de telfono en ingls...
Nmeros de la habitacin del hotel.

You're in room 309, sir. ... (Est usted en habitacin 309.)


Nmeros largos en general que no se refieren a cantidades.

My passport number is: 93 33 78 00. ... (Mi nmero del pasaporte es...). The receipt number is: 66696482. ... (El nmero del recibo es...).
Resultado de un partido de ftbol.

It's two - nil (2 - 0) to Real Madrid. ... (Va ganando Real Madrid 2 - 0.) Real Madrid beat Bayern Munich by three goals to nil (3 - 0). ... (Real Madrid gan a Bayern Munich tres cero [3 - 0]).
Partido de tenis, tenis de mesa, badminton.

Fifteen - love (15 - 0). Thirty - love (30 - 0). Forty - love (40 - 0).

Two sets to love. ... (Dos sets a cero.)


Los decimales.

El cero de los decimales se dice "nought" o "zero". Se utiliza el punto en ingls en vez de la coma. El punto se llama "point": 0.5 (ingls britnico) ... (0,5) 0.346 (EE.UU) ... (0,346)

Nmeros del 11 al 19.


Los nmeros que terminan en "teen", cambian de pronunciacin. Se puede acentuar la primera slaba o la segunda segn la posicin del nmero en la frase. Solos, los "teen" suelen tener acentuados la segunda slaba: Eleven - 11 ... Twelve - 12 ... Thirteen - 13 ... Fourteen - 14 ... Fifteen - 15 ... Sixteen - 16 ... Seventeen - 17 ... Eighteen - 18 ... Nineteen - 19 ... Sin embargo, delante de palabras que tienen la primera slaba acentuada, por ejemplo, el acento normalmente recae en la primera slaba de los nmeros "teen": There are thirteen people. ... (Hay trece personas.) Fourteen kilos of potatoes. ... (catorce kilos de patatas.) Eighteen dollars. ... (dieciocho dlares.) Esta regla no es para preocuparse demasiado y hay otras razones para que se cambie la slaba acentuada. Tiene que ver ms con el ritmo natural del

ingls hablado. Ms importante es diferenciar los nmeros "teen" y los nmeros decenas. Ver el siguiente apartado...

Nmeros del 20 al 100.

Twenty - 20 ... Twenty-one - 21 ... Twenty-two - 22 ... Twenty-three - 23 ... Twenty-four - 24 ... Twenty-five - 25 ... Twenty-six - 26 ... Twenty-seven - 27 ... Twenty-eight - 28 ... Twenty-nine - 29 ... Thirty - 30 ... Thirty-one, etc. - 31 ... Forty - 40 ... Forty-one, etc. - 41 ... Fifty - fifty ... Fifty-one, etc. - 51 ... Sixty - 60 ... Sixty-one, etc. - 61 ... Seventy - 70 ... Seventy-one, etc. - 71 ... Eighty - 80 ... Eighty-one, etc. - 81 ... Ninety - 90 ... Ninety-one, etc. - 91 ... A hundred. - 100 ... (Tambin: one hundred - 100)

La pronunciacin de los teens y las decenas.


Puede haber dificultad para los estudiantes de ingls en separar la pronunciacin entre los nmeros "teen" y las decenas. Las decenas acentan la primera slaba siempre, los "teens", la primera o la segunda como hemos

visto ms arriba. As que hay que pronunciar la vocal del sufijo "teen" que es bastante ms larga que la "y" de las decenas: Thirteen - thirty ... Fourteen - forty ... Fifteen - fifty ... Sixteen - sixty ... Seventeen - seventy ... Eighteen - eighty ... Nineteen - ninety ... Thirteen euros - thirty euros ... Fourteen textbooks - forty textbooks ... Fifteen countries - fifty countries ... Sixteen tables - sixty tables ...

Verbos modales en ingls 1.


Explicacin de los modales: can, could, may, might.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

Lo bsico - la estructura.

Estos auxiliares modales (y la mayora de los dems modales) emplean la inversin con el sujet siguientes formas contradas. El verbo principal est siempre en infinitivo sin "to": You can swim. - Can you swim? Mary could finish the report. - Could Mary finish the report? We may go home now. - May we go home now? It might rain later. - Might it rain later? You cannot* swim. (You can't swim.) Mary could not finish the report. (Mary couldn't finish the report.) We may not go home. (We mayn't** go home.) It might not rain. (It mightn't rain.) *Can not no se permite. **"Mayn't" es poco utilizado. Respuestas cortas: Sabes nadar -

Mary pudo term

Podemos irnos

Puede que llue

No sabes nada

Mary no pudo t

No podemos irn

Puede que no l

Yes, I can. / No, I can't O No, I cannot. Yes, I could. / No, I couldn't. Yes, you may. / No, you may not.** Yes, he might. / No, he mightn't.

S. / No.

Pedir permiso y ofrecer.

Podemos pedir permiso con "can", "could" o "may" ("could" y "may" suenan ms educados con la Can / Could / May I help you? Can / Could / May I borrow your car?

Puedo / poda

Me puede / po

El uso de "might" para pedir permiso demuestra una actitud cautelosa, incluso nerviosa: Might I use your pen for just a moment?

Me pudiera dej un momento?)

De una manera parecida, podemos ofrecer algo a alguien con estos auxiliares: Can I help you with those heavy bags? Could I offer you a piece of chocolate cake? May we drive you back to your house, Mrs Jones? Comparar con el uso de "would" para la cortesa...

Le puedo ayu

Le puedo ofre

Podemos con

Pedir (ayuda, etc.)


Utilizamos sobre todo "can" y "could" para pedir cosas a otras personas. Sin embargo, "may" no you...?" no se usa en una frase como: Can / Could / May you tell me the way to the train station?* Can / Could / May you give me a hand?

Me puede / po

Me puedes ec

Habilidad, disponibilidad.

Usamos "can" y "could" (pero no "may" o "might") para hablar de la habilidad o disponibilidad pa Can / Could you come to dinner tonight? Can / Could you give me a hand? Can you do this English homework? I can't. It's too difficult. Can you speak Chinese? Puedes venir

Me puedes ec

Sabes hacer e (habilidad). Sabes hablar

No usamos "could" para significar saber en presente: Could you speak Chinese?

no significa: S

Pero "could" puede significar saber o poder en el pasado o condicional del futuro: Could you speak Chinese when you were a child? Could you find the time to play football when you were at university? I couldn't swim until I was twelve. I could speak Chinese if I had a good teacher. I could run a mile in less than five minutes when I was twelve years old. If I won the lottery, I could buy a yacht.

Sabas hablar

Podas encon universidad?

No saba nadar

Sabra hablar c

Poda correr la

Si ganara la lot

Sin embargo, no podemos decir: "I could fix the car yesterday" (ver porque ms abajo...)

Posibilidades (presente y futuro).

Usamos "can" para hablar de posibilidades en presente simple (por ejemplo, a menudo, a veces Spain can (often) be very hot in summer. He can be very bossy sometimes. I can (always) speak better English when I'm at parties.

Puede hacer m

Puede ser muy

Puedo hablar u

Pero nunca se usa "can" para hablar de posibilidades en el futuro. Hay que emplear: "may", "cou It may / might / could / can rain tomorrow. She's not in. She may / might / could / can come back later.

Puede que llue

Ella no est. Pu

Se emplean "may" y "might" cuando hablamos de posibles planes que tenemos para el futuro: We may go to Ibiza next year. I might play tennis tomorrow though it depends on how I feel.

Puede que vay

Puede que jueg

Deducciones.

Cuando queremos deducir que puede ser una cosa o qu est pasando o qu ha pasado, se em es de grado. "May" significa ms posibilidad, "could" menos que "may" y "might" muy poca posib (Mirando a un cuadro) I don't know what it could be, I think it may be a fried

No s qu pued

egg or it might be the sun but I don't think so. Where's my watch? Could / Might it be at home? My friend may / could / might be about 32 I think. What could / might this be?

lo creo.

Dnde est m

Mi amigo tendr

Qu ser esto

"Can" se puede utilizar en este contexto de deducciones pero nunca en frases afirmativas; slo e Who can that be arriving in a car? It can / could / may / might be Jim. That can't possibly be right. Yes, it can / could / may / might be right. No, it can't be a fried egg; it isn't yellow. Quin puede

Puede que sea

Eso no puede s

S, puede que s

No, no puede s

Deducciones en el pasado.

Si la accin est en el pasado, se emplea el "modal" + auxiliar "have" + participio pasado: (Al llegar a la casa de un amigo) Look, John's car isn't there. Where could he have gone? He could have gone to the cinema or he may have just gone out for a few minutes. He might have gone on holiday but I don't think so. Hey, look! He can't have gone out for very long, the front door is open. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it. He may, could, might have done it.

Mira, el coche d cine o podra h lo creo.

Oye! Mira! No est abierta. Puede haberlo

Lo puede habe

Poda haberlo h

Podra haberlo

Habilidad, disponibilidad para acciones puntuales en pasado.

Cuando se refiere a una accin terminada en el pasado (es decir, algo que pas en una ocasin "could" para hablar del pasado puede sonar extrao en frases afirmativas. Hay que substituir "co I could was able to speak to your teacher this afternoon. I could managed to fix the car in the end. They could finish succeeded in finishing all their work before six. Pero s es posible el uso de "couldn't" o en preguntas: I've left my car in the car park because I couldn't find my key.

Logr/Pude ha

Al final, logr re

Lograron termin

He dejado mi c encontr mi llav

Despite its agility the deer couldn't escape the jaws of the tiger. Could you fix the car?

A pesar de su a

Has podido / p

Verbos modales en ingls 2.


Explicacin del uso de los modales: should, ought to.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

"Should" y "ought to".

"Should" y "ought to" tienen significados muy parecidos y podemos emplear uno o el otro en muc You ought to / should do what you can. You should /ought to go and see that film. It's really good. Mara should have done it / ought to have done it.

Debes hacer lo

Deberas ir a ve

Debi hacerlo M

Consejos y obligacin.
"Should" / "Ought to" + infinitivo, expresa lo que uno debe o debera hacer, es decir, un consejo She should / ought to leave straight away. We should / ought to do it now. They shouldn't / oughtn't to leave tomorrow; they haven't finished yet.

Debe / Debera

Debemos / Deb

No deben / deb

Probabilidad.

"Should" / "Ought to" se utilizan para expresar que algo es o ser muy probable en el presente o pasen. No utilizamos esta estructura para hablar de acontecimientos no deseados: If you take 20 euros, that should / ought to be enough money. I can hear a car. That should / ought to be Mary coming home. It should / ought to be sunny tomorrow so I think we can go to the beach. Comparemos con una probabilidad que no nos complace: It'll probably rain tomorrow so I don't think we can go to the beach (y no, it should rain / it ought to rain...)

Si llevas 20 eur

Escucho un co

Debe de hacer

Maana probab

"Should" y "ought to" en el pasado.

La forma compuesta "should" + "have" + participio pasado, expresa una obligacin en el pasado

He should have / ought to have finished it before. I should have / ought to have paid the bill.

Debera haberl hizo). Debera haber

La forma compuesta con haber (debera haber + participio pasado) tiene otra posibilidad en espa infinitivo. En ingls, slo es posible la forma compuesta; "should" + "have" + participio pasado: He should have / ought to have finished it before. I should have / ought to have paid the bill.

Debi terminar

Deb pagar la f

Diferencias entre "should" y "ought to".

Hay una diferencia de uso muy sutil entre "should" y "ought to". "Should" habla de nuestra opini obligacin moral: You should study more if you want to pass your exams. (consejo, opinin) I think he should go on a diet. He's too fat. (opinin) We ought to go and visit that poor old lady. She's all alone. (obligacin moral) You ought to recycle bottles, cans and paper. It's our duty. (deber, obligacin moral) You shouldn't smoke in here. It's not allowed. (normas)

Deberas estud Deberamos ir Debes reciclar

Creo que debe

No debes fuma

La traduccin de por si (acaso).

Es posible utilizar "should" con "in case" (por si acaso) o sin "in case" si empleamos inversin en I looked out of the window in case she should be coming to see me (o, ...should she be coming...). Let's buy some more beer in case we should need it (o, ...should we need it).

Me asom a la

Vamos a comp

Evitar el subjuntivo ingls.

En las frases a continuacin vemos unos ejemplos de cmo el ingls evita el subjuntivo al emple They were tied well so that they shouldn't fall. He insisted that the men should be taken away. Was it necessary that my friends should be told? I'm surprised that she should shout at you. Is it normal that an adult should be so jumpy?

Los ataron bien

Insisti que llev

Era necesario

Me sorprende q

Es normal que

Leer ms sobre el subjuntivo ingls...

El uso de "should" como auxiliar modal en los ejemplos arriba hace que la frase suene ms eleg adult is so jumpy?"; "I'm surprised that she shouted at you". La otra posibilidad es el uso del infin necessary that my friends be told?"*. Al utilizar el auxiliar modal "should", tenemos un ingls ace *Sin embargo, el subjuntivo empleado de esta manera s se escucha en el ingls de EE.UU.

EL VERBO INGLS.
Verbos irregulares, los tiempos verbales, auxiliares, preguntas, negaciones...

El verbo ingls es diferente al verbo espaol por dos razones principales. Primero, lleva pocas inflexiones. Los verbos regulares e irregulares, con la excepcin del verbo "to be", cambian solamente en la tercera persona singular (l, ella - he, she, it) en el tiempo presente. Este cambio se presenta en la terminacin de una "s". Segundo, se puede decir que el verbo ingls solamente posee dos tiempos: pasado y presente (anduve - I walked; ando - I walk). Para hablar del futuro hay que emplear aspectos compuestos del verbo o auxiliares (andar - I will walk; I'm going to walk etc.), los cules se llaman los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries). No se debe suponer que "will" es siempre la eleccin adecuada para expresar el futuro. Las tablas que ofrezco aqu muestran una visin global del verbo ingls y los tipos compuestos y, a continuacin, los varios auxiliares modales. Finalmente, hay una breve introduccin a la estructura del verbo ingls en preguntas y negaciones y la pasiva inglesa. Con el fin de que esto sirva de un inters prctico, los enlaces te llevan a listas de ejemplos de los varios aspectos, tiempos y modos del verbo.

WALK (verbo regular).


Cuando se habla se un "verbo regular", esto significa que el verbo termina en "ed". en el "past simple" y tambin en su participio pasado; es decir, infinitivo: "walk", past simple: "walked", past participle: "walked". Por desgracia, la mayora de los verbos ingleses ms comunes son irregulares, es decir, no terminan en "ed" y puede que el "past simple" sea diferente del "past participle". Para ver una lista de los verbos irregulares, ir a: lista de verbos irregulares...

El infinitivo ingls:
El infinitivo es la parte bsica del verbo. Se puede decir que el infinitivo tiene tres formas: "walk", "to walk", "walking". La eleccin del infinitivo depende normalmente de la palabra que viene antes: ejs:

"I should walk more often", (y as con todos los "modal auxiliaries") "he wants to walk", "he would like to walk", "they like walking", "she hates walking", "I'm fond of walking". ("ing" siempre despus de una preposicin). En muchos otros casos, las reglas de qu tipo de infinitivo empleamos en ingls son ms complicadas y variadas. Estudiar el infinitivo ingls en ms detalle...

Tabla de los tiempos y aspectos del verbo ingls.


Presente Simple (abrir ejercicios...) Presente Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I you* he she it we they

walk walk walks walks walks walk walk

I you he she it we they

am are is is is are are

(I'm) (you're) (he's) (she's) (it's) (we're) (they're)

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Pasado Simple (abrir ejercicios...)

Pasado Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I you he she it we they

walked walked walked walked walked walked walked

I you he she it we they

was were was was was were were

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Presente Perfecto Simple (abrir ejercicios...)

Presente Perfecto Continuo (abrir ejercicios...)

I you he she it we they

have have has has is have have

(I've) (you've) (he's) (she's) (it's) (we've) (they've)

walked walked walked walked walked walked walked

I you he she it we they

have have has has has have have

been been been been been been been

walking walking walking walking walking walking walking

Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Continuos

I you

had had

(I'd) (you'd)

walked walked

I you

had had

been been

walking walking

he she it we they

had had had had had

(he'd) (she'd) (it'd) (we'd) (they'd)

walked walked walked walked walked

he she it we they

had had had had had

been been been been been

walking walking walking walking walking

Observaciones: * No se suele mostrar "you" en la segunda persona plural en tablas del verbo ingls. Ser puramente acadmico y redundante. "You" se emplea tanto hablando con un nio o con un perro como hablando con un adulto desconocido! Slo con la realeza y nobleza existen trminos distintos: Your Majesty, Your Highness, Your Lordship/Ladyship... + La forma contrada entre sujeto y auxiliar se debe reservar para el ingls hablado, dilogo escrito, o ingls informal escrito. No se debe emplear la forma contrada en cartas o textos formales. Dicha contraccin se puede emplear en todos los aspectos entre sujeto y auxiliar en el presente y el pasado con la excepcin de "was" y "were". Aqu slo se incluye en algunos apartados por razones de espacio. Fjate tambin en las posibilidades de contraccin entre otros sujetos y el auxiliar "to be" y "to have": "the man's..." (the man is...), "the policeman's got..." (the policeman has got...). A parte de los "modal auxiliaries" (ver abajo), hay otras maneras de hablar del futuro: ejs. con el presente continuo para futuro y "going to" + infinitivo

Preguntas con el verbo ingls.


Con la excepcin de los verbos y auxiliares "to be" y "to have" (tener) y los auxiliares modales, todos los verbos en ingls normalmente utilizan el auxiliar "Do" para la forma interrogativa y negativa en ingls. "Do" se conjuga como "does" en el presente simple, tercera persona singular (he, she, it) y "did" en el pasado simple con todas las personas. La estructura de la pregunta es: Do/does/did + sujeto + infinitivo del verbo (sin to) siendo, en realidad, una inversin entre el sujeto y este auxiliar. ej. Do you like English?; Does he watch much football?; Did he come back last night? Palabras como: "when" (cundo); "why" (por qu); "what" (qu, cul); "which" (cul); "who" (quin); "whose" (de quin); "how" (cmo); y sus combinaciones (ej. "how much/many" (cunto/cuntos); "what time" (qu hora); etc. pueden colocarse delante del auxiliar "do" en preguntas: "When do they usually go on holiday?" (Cundo van normalmente de vacaciones?), "How much did she give you?" (Cunto te ha dado?)

Omisin de los auxiliares "do", "does" y "did" en preguntas.

No hay inversin, es decir, no se emplea "do/does/did" si "who", "what" o "which" se refieren al sujeto de la frase: "Who wants to come with me?" (Quin quiere venir conmigo?) (y no "who does want...?"); "Which lasts the longer?" (Cul dura ms tiempo?) (y no: "Which does last...?"); "What happened?" (Qu pas?) (y no: "What did happen?"). Compara: "Who gave them the book?" (Quin les dio el libro?) "Who" es el sujeto. Y ahora... "Who did he give the book to?" (A quin dio el libro?) "Who" aqu es el objeto indirecto. Observa que las palabras "wh": "who", "what" y "which" como pronombres siempre adoptan tercera persona singular del verbo. Esto significa que los verbos regulares en present simple toman "s" y los irregulares la forma de tercera persona singular: "Who likes pizza?" (A quin le gusta la pizza?); "Which goes in here?" (Cul entra aqu?); "What happens when it rains?" (Qu pasa cuando llueve?). Sin embargo, las palabras "wh" como "what" y "which" tambin pueden ser adjetivos. Pueden referirse a los sustantivos tanto singulares como plurales: "What car goes at 300km per hour?" (Qu coche va a 300km por hora?), "What colours make a rainbow" (Qu colores forman el arco iris?), "Which road goes to the city centre?" (Qu calle va al centro?), "Which vegetables contain vitamin C?" (Qu vegetales contienen vitamina C?). Ms ejemplos de la omisin del auxiliar "did" en preguntas en pasado simple...

El verbo ingls en negativo.


Sujeto + do/does/did + not (contrados a don't, doesn't, didn't) + infinitivo del verbo. ej. "We don't like eating out", "It doesn't rain much here", "She didn't ring me yesterday". El verbo negativo ingls no permite doble negaciones: He doesn't like no sweet things, He never watches nothing on the TV, She can't speak to nobody. Estas frases se consideran afirmativas, es decir, si ella NO habla con NADIE, quiere decir que habla con ALGUIEN. Esto puede ser difcil de entender porque el doble negativo s se permite en espaol. Las versiones correctas de estas frases son: "He doesn't like any sweet things", "He never watches anything on TV", "She can't speak to anybody / anyone". (La palabra "any" se considera una palabra afirmativa).

Los verbos "to be", "to have", y los verbos auxiliares - sintaxis de la pregunta.
La estructura de los verbos "to be", "to have" (cuando significa "tener" pero no cuando significa "tomar", ejs. "have a drink", "have a bath",) y los "modal auxiliaries" (ver abajo) en la interrogativa es: Verbo + sujeto. ejs: "He is Spanish" = "Is he Spanish?", "They have a car" = "Have they a car?" (or "Have they got a car?", forma hablada).

El verbo "to have" (tener) es nico en que se puede formar la interrogativa de las dos maneras: "Has he (got) some money?" or "Does he have any money?" pero no, "Does he have got any money?" Normalmente se puede decir una o la otra, sin embargo, el significado del primero puede sugerir la idea de tener dinero en este momento (no permanente) mientras la segunda nos pregunta si siempre tiene dinero (permanente), es decir, si es rico.

Los verbos "to be", "to have", y los verbos auxiliares - sintaxis de la frase negativa.
La negacin de los verbos "to be", "to have" (tener) y los "modal auxiliaries" es: Sujeto + verbo + not. ejs: "I am very hungry" = I am (I'm not very hungry), "He has a pen" = he has not (hasn't) a pen (or "he hasn't got a pen" o "he doesn't have a pen"). "You have a pencil" = You have not (haven't) a pencil, "I was angry" = I was not (wasn't) angry, "You were there" = You were not (weren't) there, "He had a nice house" = he had not (hadn't) a nice house (o he hadn't got a nice house o he didn't have a nice house).

Formas contradas del verbo "to be".


El verbo "to be" se puede contraer de ms de una manera en la forma negativa en el presente. Las posibilidades son: I am not = I'm not, you are not = you're not o you aren't, he/she/it is not = he's/she's/it's not o he/she/it isn't, we are not = we're not o we aren't, they are not = they're not o they aren't.

La voz pasiva. (abrir ejercicios...)


La pasiva inglesa es comparable a la pasiva espaola en su forma pero la primera es mucho ms comn en el uso. Otro aspecto que es importante sealar es que el espaol ofrece ms de una manera para expresar la pasiva del verbo. En ingls, es necesaria la presencia del verbo "to be" ms un participio pasado: ej. "It is built"; "It was held"; "It was being done". El espaol posee una forma parecida en: "fue construido", "fue/era sujetado", pero el continuo "estaba siendo hecho" puede sonar extrao al odo espaol (aunque en Amrica del Sur se puede escuchar esta construccin en algunos pases.). El espaol suele preferir el uso de "se" para formar la pasiva. "se construye," "se deca", "se estaba haciendo". Otra peculiaridad de la pasiva inglesa es la posibilidad de eligir como sujeto de la frase pasiva el complemento directo o el indirecto. ejs.: "She gave him some flowers" (activa) puede resultar en la pasiva como:

"Some flowers were given to her" (Se le dieron unas flores/Le fue entregadas unas flores) "She was given some flowers" (Ella fue dadas unas flores!!) Este ltimo no se permite en espaol pero es muy comn en ingls. La estructura de la pasiva inglesa es la siguiente: Activa / active: "They are building a bridge" (Estn construyendo un puente)

Se puede decir que hay tres pasos para construir la pasiva.


1) El complemento se coloca delante como sujeto. Es decir, los pronombres deben cambiar su forma: "him" a "he" etc. "A bridge..." 2) Se inserta el verbo "to be" en el mismo tiempo, aspecto y modo que en la forma activa. En el ejemplo el verbo est en present continuous. Es decir, que en la pasiva tambin: "A bridge is being..." 3) El verbo de la forma activa se coloca despus pero como "past participle" "A bridge is being built." Si se requiere la presencia del "agent" (el sujeto de la frase activa), se inserta (normalmente) despus de "by"... "A bridge is being built by them." (Un puente fue construido por ellos) Con un "modal auxiliary" se siguen los mismos pasos aunque ahora hablamos del "modo" de la frase en vez del tiempo ej. Activa: The police could watch the thieves through telescopes. (La polica poda observar a los ladrones por los telescopios. (Sujeto + could + infinitivo (condicional de "watch") + complemento) Pasiva: The thieves could be watched through telescopes (Se poda (podan) observar a los ladrones por los telescopios) (Nuevo sujeto + could + infinitivo del verbo "to be" (condicional de "to be") + past participle.) En los institutos de Espaa, el alumno suele estudiar la pasiva inglesa sin saber exactamente cundo o por qu se usa. La pasiva inglesa se usa en las siguientes situaciones:

1) En funcin del tema del que estamos hablando: Es normal en ingls durante el discurso presentar la nueva informacin al final de una frase. Es decir, si la conversacin se centra en los televisores, resultara muy natural decir: "The television was invented by Baird" (El televisor fue inventado por Baird). (La informacin nueva - Baird y el tema de los inventores - al final de la frase.) Sin embargo, si estamos hablando de los inventores, entre ellos el seor Baird, sera natural decir en ingls: "Baird invented the television" (Baird invent el televisor). (La nueva informacin es la de los televisores). As, se puede apreciar que la eleccin de la pasiva o la activa no depende de las necesidades gramaticales sino del estilo natural de los interlocutores. 2) La falta de necesidad de mencionar el sujeto: Durante el discurso se puede apreciar que, a veces, no es necesario mencionar quin o qu realiz cierta accin. Esto se puede deber al significado del verbo, ej: "The police arrested the man last night and they took him to the police station" (La polica arrest al hombre anoche y le llev a la comisara.) (En esta frase, palabras como "police" y "they" son redundantes porque se espera que aquellos que arrestan son los agentes de la fuerza de la polica. Por esta razn, la pasiva suena ms natural aqu: "The man was arrested last night and taken to the police station." (El hombre fue arrestado anoche y llevado a la comisara.) (Observa que tampoco hay que repetir el auxiliar "was" en "was taken") Una seleccin de las posibles variaciones de la pasiva inglesa y su traduccin en espaol se indican a continuacin. Hay que sealar que se podra emplear cualquier "modal auxiliary" en estas frases segn el significado deseado: Es enviado/se enva - it is sent. Va a ser enviado/se est enviando - it is going to be sent. Fue enviado/se envi - it was sent. Era enviado/se enviaba/sola ser enviado - it was (or, it used to be) sent. Ser enviado/se enviar - it will be sent. Sera enviado/se enviara - it would be sent. Ha sido enviado/se ha enviado - it has been sent. Haba sido enviado/se haba enviado - it had been sent. Habr sido enviado/se habr enviado - it will have been sent. Habra sido enviado/se habra enviado - it would have been sent.

Aunque su uso puede ser escaso en espaol, la forma continua se emplea con frecuencia en ingls en los siguientes ejemplos: est siendo enviado/est envindose - it is being sent estaba siendo enviado/estaba envindose - it was being sent estar siendo enviado/estar envindose - it will be being sent estara siendo enviado/estara envindose - it would be being sent

Sin embargo, los siguientes tiempos verbales raramente se utilizan. It has been being sent (presente perfecto continuo - no se suele usar en ingls). It had been being sent (pasado perfecto continuo - no se suele usar en ingls). Ver ejemplos de la pasiva, explicaciones y traducciones de frases utilizando la pasiva inglesa...

Versin en ingls...

Los auxiliares modales (o verbos modales).


Qu son los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries)? Un auxiliar modal normalmente expresa algn modo, ej. el modo condicional o un auxiliar modal posee algn significado ej "can" (poder). Adems, estos auxiliares nunca cambian de forma; no tienen infinitivo, por ejemplo. Son seguidos por el infinitivo sin "to", (la excepcin es "ought" = "ought to go") y suelen ser defectivos, es decir, que no se conjugan en todos los aspectos y tiempos.

Los auxiliares modales en preguntas.


Otra cosa para recordar es que los auxiliares modales no utilizan el auxiliar "do" para la formas interrogativa y negativa sino hay inversin con el sujeto: "Do you can go tonight?" no es posible, sino, "Can you go tonight?". Los dems modales tambin emplean inversin para hacer preguntas. La forma interrogativa de "ought to" es: "Ought I to visit her today?".

Forma negativa y contrada de los auxiliares modales.

"He do not must be late" no es posible, sino, "He must not be late". Los modales tienen formas contradas en el negativo que son: cannot = can't (can not no se permite), could not = couldn't, I shall/will = I'll (he'll etc.), shall not = shan't, will not = won't, I would/should = I'd, should not = shouldn't, would not = wouldn't, must not = mustn't, ought not = oughtn't, may not = mayn't (muy raro), might not = mightn't, need not = needn't.

Los modales como auxiliares defectivos.


Algunos modales tienen un uso pasado "could" (poda) y/o condicional "could" (podra). Esta restriccin en su uso temporal, requiere, a veces, el empleo de otros verbos para sustituir el modal. Presento aqu el funcionamiento de este sistema. Hay que leer los apuntes debajo de esta tabla para entenderla. 1 Can Could (c) podra Shall Will Would Should (c) Would (c) Must deber Must/Had to tuve/tena que have to

puedo Could

pude/poda supe/saba 3 able to, manage to, succeeded in

1 Should (c) / ought to debera Should deb/deba 3

May poder

Might poder

Need necesitar

Might

Need

be allowed to

Explicacin de la tabla de auxiliares modales.

1, Los auxiliares modales sealados con (c) son los condicionales. Es decir, si se coloca delante de un infinitivo, se suele presentar un significado condicional del verbo. ej. "I would go" (yo ira), "I could go" (yo podra ir), "I should go" ("yo ira" o "yo debera ir").

2, La segunda fila de auxiliares modales muestra el "pasado" de los modals aunque a veces solamente en situaciones muy limitadas (ej. el estilo indirecto). ej: "Will you help me?" he asked. - He asked if you would help him, She asked, "Shall we go to the cinema tonight?" - She asked if they should go to the cinema tonight. "I may go to university," he said. - He said that he might go to university. "You needn't put on your new suit," she said - She said that he needn't put on his new suit "He can leave whenever he likes," he said. - He said he could leave whenever he liked. "Must you go so early?" she they asked. - They asked if he must/had to go so early. "You should go and see it; it's lovely!" she said. - She said that we should go and see it and that it was lovely. "I could swim when I was six," he said. - He said that he could swim when he was six. 3, La tercera fila muestra los verbos que deben sustituir el modal cuando el tiempo verbal lo exija. Por ejemplo, si se requiere el uso del infinitivo de "can" (poder o saber) hay que decir: "I want you to be able to do it" (quiero que sepas hacerlo) y no: "I want you to can do it". Esto es porque "can" no es un infinitivo. Aqu hay ms ejemplos: "I'll have to do it myself" (Deber hacerlo yo slo") y no: "I'll must do it myself" "I haven't managed to do it yet" (Todava no he podido hacerlo) y no: "I haven't can do it yet" "You would be allowed to go out if you finished your homework quickly" (Podras salir si terminaras pronto tus deberes.) y no: "You would may go out if..."

Verbos modales en ingls 3.


Explicacin del uso del modal: must.
Ver una explicacin breve de la estructura bsica de todos los verbos modales...

Diferencias entre "must" y "have to".


"Must" y "have to" tienen el mismo significado que es expresar una fuerte obligacin: You must / have to lock the door when you come in at night. They must / have to finish the job today.

Tienes que cer

Tienen que term

La diferencia entre "must" y "have to" no se trata del significado sino del uso. "Must" habla de un refiere a las rdenes o requisitos de un tercero ejs. la ley, las normas: (Profesor a un nio) You must finish your homework by tomorrow. (Un amigo a un invitado extranjero) In England you have to drive on the left. (Si dice "must", suena ms como una orden de la persona que habla cuando lo que quiere decir es que se trata de las normas de la carretera. Los estudiantes de ingls suelen utilizar "must" demasiado as que uno tiene la impresin que estn dando rdenes a todo el mundo!)

Tienes que term

En Inglaterra tie

La excepcin a esta regla es cuando hablamos en el negativo. El negativo de "have to" es "don't tanto, ingls permite el negativo mustn't tanto para ordenes como para hablar de normas. In England you mustn't drive on the right. (y no, you don't have to drive...)

En Inglaterra n

"Must" en primera persona.


"Must" es muy comn en la primera persona (yo, nosotros) para hablar de la obligacin que una conciencia: I must get up early tomorrow or I'll be late again. I must talk to Mary as soon as possible about our holiday plans. We must ring the Jones's. We haven't seen them for ages.

Debo levantarm

Debo hablar co

Debemos llama

Los modales no son infinitivos.

Si necesitamos la forma infinitiva de estos verbos modales, hay que recordar que los modales no tiene infinitivo como "have to": Paco used to have to go every weekend (y no, Paco used to must...). I'll have to take the children to school tomorrow (y no, I'll should take...).

Deba ir Paco t

Deber / Tendr

Uso de "must" para la suposicin (deducciones).


Para hacer una suposicin (deduccin) en ingls se utiliza "must". Las suposiciones hacemos a

que nos cuentan los dems: He must be very strong to lift all that weight. It must be about nine o'clock because it's getting dark. John must be at home by now; he left here an hour ago. She must be playing golf; her golf clubs aren't here.

Debe (de) ser m

Deben (de) ser Debe de estar

John debe (de)

Podemos hacer una suposicin de los acontecimientos en el pasado con la estructura: must + ha verbo). You must have worked a lot last week; you look very tired. You must have eaten too much last night because now you feel ill. He must have travelled a lot during his life because he knows a lot about the world. He didn't answer the phone when I called. He must have been having a bath.

Debiste de trab

Debes de habe

Deba de viajar No contest el

La puntuacin inglesa.

Afortunadamente, las reglas de la puntuacin inglesa coinciden en la mayor parte con las reglas de puntuacin espaola. He aqu una lista de las diferencias: El punto (full stop / period) Los dos puntos (colon) (dialogue / speech marks) La coma (comma) El dilogo y las comillas La coma decimal (decimal point) Los signos ? y ! (exclamations / questions) El punto y coma (semi-colon) El apstrofo y el genitivo sajn; contracciones

El punto.
El Punto (full stop / period): - Se emplea al final de una frase: I went for a walk with the dog. (Fui a pasear al perro.) Una frase inglesa (an English sentence) es una estructura que contiene sujeto y verbo como mnimo y habla una sola idea. "I went for a walk with the dog, I like cats."

Esto no es posible por le inclusin de dos ideas y debe dividirse en dos frases distintas. Tambin el punto se usa despus de una palabra abreviada: Jackson and Co. (Jackson y Ca.). Sin embargo, no se suele emplear el punto si la ltima letra de la abreviatura es la misma que en la versin completa: Ltd = limited (S.A.); Mr = mister (Sr.). De todas maneras en las cartas (sobre todo en el ingls britnico) es normal que el punto se omite por completo: SE Asia, USA. Y nunca se utiliza en abreviaturas que se pronuncian como palabras: NATO (OTAN).

La coma.
La coma (comma): - Utilizamos las comas dentro de una frase para evitar la necesidad de escribir muchas pequeas frases; y convierten una frase larga en algo ms comprensible y estilsticamente ms atractivo. Ejemplos: En vez de repetir 'and' entre una serie de elementos en una frase, utilizamos las comas con la excepcin de los ltimos dos elementos que se dividen con 'and': In the park there were trees, bushes, flowers and a lovely statue. (En el parque haba rboles, arbustos, flores y una preciosa estatua.) En cualquier caso, empleamos 'and' si hay dos elementos que pertenecen al mismo grupo de cualidades; ej. colores: Blue and white flowers. (flores azules y blancas); pero: A dirty, old man. (Un hombre sucio y viejo.) Consideramos estas dos frases: I wrote you a long letter. I sent it to you in December. (Te escrib una carta larga. Te la envi en diciembre.) Podemos reunir estas frases con 'which' para producir una sola; y esta frase se divide con una coma: I wrote you a long letter, which I sent in December. Cada vez que 'which', 'whose', 'who' o 'where' presentan informacin complementaria, empleamos una coma o dos si esta informacin se inserta en medio de la frase. The young girl, whose parents died, went into a home. (La jovencita, de la cual murieron los padres, entr en un asilo.) My father, who goes jogging every day, is 72 tomorrow. (Mi padre, que sale a correr todos los das, va a cumplir 72 aos maana.); The lakes near our home, where we played as children, were dangerous. (Los pantanos cerca de nuestra casa, donde de nios jugbamos, eran peligrosos.) No se emplea la coma si la informacin complementaria tiene el papel de identificar: That's the girl that/who I saw yesterday. (Esa es la chica que vi ayer.) Es decir, que la chica en cuestin es la de ayer. There's the car that/which ran over my cat. (All est el coche que atropell a mi gato.) Es decir, identifica cul es el coche.

Se utiliza la coma despus o alrededor de expresiones tales como las siguientes: in fact (de hecho); however (sin embargo); nevertheless (no obstante); consequently (como consecuencia); therefore (por lo tanto); indeed (en efecto). Ejemplos: In fact, there was nobody home. (De hecho, no haba nadie en casa.); We ran back to the road; the car had gone, however. (Volvimos corriendo hasta la carretera; sin embargo, el coche ya se haba ido.) We didn't, therefore, have any other option. (Por lo tanto, no tuvimos ms opcin.) La coma es imprescindible para evitar un significado ambiguo; consideramos esta frase: Charles, Prince of England, took a plane to New York. (Carlos, Prncipe de Inglaterra, cogi el avin para Nueva York.) Se entiende aqu que hablamos del prncipe Carlos. Pero aqu: Charles Prince of England took a plane to New York. (Carlos Prncipe de Inglaterra cogi un avin para Nueva York); puede que hablemos de un tal Charles Prince ('Prince' es un apellido comn en ingls).

La coma decimal.
La coma decimal (decimal point): - Hay que recordar la informacin siguiente acerca del uso de las comas y puntos con los nmeros: todo es al revs! Ejemplos: 7,8 en espaol, se escribe 7.8 en ingls. 9.867.432 en espaol, se escribe 9,867,432 en ingls Para el uso de las comas en el dilogo, haz clic en dialogue.

El punto y coma.
El punto y coma (semi-colon): - El punto y coma en ingls se emplea de una manera parecida que en el espaol. Puede separar dos ideas como si fuesen dos frases distintas; sin embargo, la segunda idea se refiere a, o califica, la idea anterior: Some people work best at night; others prefer working in the morning. (Algunas personas trabajan mejor por la noche; otras prefieren trabajar por la maana.); It's a good plan; let's hope it works out. (Es un buen plan; esperemos que funcione.) Se emplea el punto y coma tambin para separar los elementos en una lista dentro de una frase; pero estos elementos suelen ser pequeas frases y no palabras sueltas: We've got a lot to do today: take the car to the garage; clean the house; take the dog for a walk and loads of other things. (Tenemos mucho

que hacer hoy: llevar el coche al taller; limpiar la casa; sacar a pasear al perro; y un montn de cosas ms.)

Los dos puntos.


Los dos puntos (colon): - Uso parecido al espaol en que se usa para introducir una lista de elementos en una frase: These are the main issues: politics, social well-being, climate and the geography of the area. (Estos son los temas principales: la poltica, el bienestar social, el clima, y la geografa de la zona.) Los dos puntos se emplean delante de una explicacin: We can't stay here any longer: the money has run out. (No podemos quedarnos aqu ms tiempo: se acab el dinero.) Para introducir algo que alguien ha dicho, usamos los dos puntos: In the words of Marco Polo: 'The man who travels alone travels furthest.' (En las palabras de Marco Polo: "El hombre que viaja solo viaja ms lejos.") Pero los dos puntos no se suelen usar dentro del dilogo de esta manera. (Ver en el prximo apartado de "dilogo".) No empleamos los dos puntos en una carta en ingls despus del encabezamiento como en una carta en espaol: Dear Sir (Muy seor mo:).

Puntuacin correcta en el dilogo ingls.


Dilogo (dialogue): - La raya ( - ), que se emplea en el dilogo en espaol, se reemplaza por las comillas ("speech marks") en ingls; sin embargo, el uso no es exactamente igual. Consideremos el dilogo siguiente y su traduccin: There's this bloke who lives in Madrid. He likes going to restaurants and more than anything he loves soup. One day, he goes into a restaurant and says to the waiter, "Good evening. Have you got a table for one?" (1*) "Actually, I haven't, sir," answered the waiter. "But I do have a table for two." The bloke stood there a bit confused but at last he asked, (2*) "Well, and can I sit there?" "Very well," answered the waiter. "Follow me, please." (3*) Both of them go to a table and the bloke sits down and then he says, "I'd like some soup, please." "Very well, (4*) sir," said the waiter and he comes back with a plate of vegetable soup. And the bloke says, (5*) "Thank you. But, wait a minute! There's a fly in this soup!"

"Well, that's true, sir," the waiter answered. "But you shouldn't complain. This is a table for two!" (1*) Hay un to que vive en Madrid. Le gusta frecuentar los restaurantes; y ms que nada le encanta la sopa. Un da, entra en un restaurante y dice al camarero: -Buenas noches. Tiene usted una mesa para uno? (1*) -Pues, no, seor-contesta el camarero-; pero tengo una mesa para dos-. El to se queda all un poco confuso pero al final pregunta: (2*) -Bueno, y puedo sentarme all? -Muy bien-contesta el camarero-. (3*) Sgame, por favor. Van los dos a una mesa y el to se sienta y entonces dice: -Quiero una sopa de verdura, por favor. -Muy bien-(4*)dice el camarero y vuelve con un plato de sopa de verdura. Y dice el to: (5*) -Gracias. Pero, oiga, usted. Hay una mosca en esta sopa! -Pues, es verdad, seor-contesta el camarero-; pero no se queje usted. Esta es una mesa para dos! (1*) Observamos las diferencias siguientes: a) Las comillas siempre cierran la frase hablada; aunque en espaol no es el caso cuando otra persona reanuda el dilogo o cuando ste termina el texto: ver 1*. b) Cuando se cambia de interlocutor en espaol, siempre se empieza un nuevo prrafo; sin embargo, en ingls no se empieza un nuevo prrafo cuando el dilogo se introduce por: he said, ; he answered, ; etc.: ver 2* c) Todas los signos de puntuacin caen dentro de las comillas, mientras que en el dilogo espaol, la coma, el punto, el punto y coma y los dos puntos de caen fuera de la raya.: ver 3* d) En espaol, no se inserta la coma entre la frase hablada y "contesta el camarero." etc.; sin embargo en ingls s se inserta una coma: ver 4*. e) No es muy comn en ingls el uso de dos puntos delante del dilogo en casos como este: ver 5*. En vez de los signos << >>, se utiliza una comilla sencilla alrededor del dilogo dentro de ste:

"I shouted, 'run', and he ran like a rabbit," said John. (-Grit <<corre>> y corri como un conejo-dijo Juan.) La misma regla se aplica cuando insertamos palabras extranjeras o raras dentro de una frase: It is believed the custom of taking a 'siesta' is inevitable in hot countries. (Se cree que la costumbre de tomar el 'nap' es inevitable en pases calurosos.)

Los signos de interrogacin y exclamacin.


No hay que recordar a los de habla espaola que su sistema de insertar los signos de interrogacin y exclamacin al principio de una frase se restringe a su idioma. Algunos de mis alumnos se han quejado que al leer en ingls no se sabe cundo empieza una pregunta o una exclamacin. Sin embargo, una frase inglesa e interrogativa, normalmente se detecta por la inversin del auxiliar con el sujeto y as se reconoce que la frase que sigue se trata de una pregunta: Do you like speaking English? (Te gusta hablar en ingls?); Is he going to all that trouble for me? (se molesta tanto por m?) Claro est, que esto no es el caso de una exclamacin: I cannot believe that after all I have told you, you would go and do something so stupid! (No puedo creer que despus de todo lo que te dije, ibas hacer una cosa tan estpida!) El signo de interrogacin se utiliza en los famosos 'question tags'; es decir, una oracin al final de una otra afirmativa que suele decir 'verdad?', aunque se sabe que el interlocutor no pide respuesta alguna; simplemente afirma lo dicho: Oh, no. We're going to be late again, aren't we? (Vaya! Otra vez vamos a llegar tarde, verdad? Tanto en ingls como en espaol, estos signos de puntuacin no se sitan junto a la coma o el punto: Are you coming?. Un signo de exclamacin puede dividir una frase y as sigue el resto de la frase comenzada por una minscula: Alas! the worst happened. (Ay! pas el peor.)

El apstrofo y el genitivo sajn.


Es probable que el no nativo preste ms atencin a la precisin gramatical que el nativo. Menciono lo siguiente porque los de habla inglesa tienen la tendencia de tropezar bastante en este tema; aunque t como estudiante de ingls, estars ms atento. El apstrofo se usa entre las letras de una palabra porque faltan una o ms letras: doesn't = does not; I'll = I will. Por tanto, la palabra it's es la forma contrada de it is o it has y no se debe confundir con its - el adjetivo posesivo de it: The dog's got its bone (El perro tiene su hueso.) Tantos problemas existen

con esta estructura que algunos gramticos han sugerido la supresin del genitivo sajn del idioma ingls. Sin embargo, su uso es muy sencillo. Sobre el tema de las palabras contradas en ingls, quisiera aconsejar a todos que escriban cartas formales de que nunca se debe utilizar estas estructuras en sus escritos. La palabra contrada se reserva nicamente para el dilogo entre comillas y se considera poco seria una carta repleta de frases como: I'm writing to you...; I'd like to ask about; You'll see on my C.V.... . Hay que recordar tambin que el genitivo sajn se sita despus de la 's' cuando nos referimos a ms de una cosa: The American's car (el coche del americano); The Americans' car (el coche de los americanos). La excepcin a esta regla es cuando la palabra es un plural sin 's': The women's car (el coche de las mujeres).