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Phrasal Verbs

LITERAL AND IDIOMATIC PHRASAL VERBS


Los phrasal verbs estn formados por un verbo y una partcula. La partcula puede ser una preposicin o un adverbio, como por ejemplo, in , out, on, off, for, over. El significado de algunos phrasal verbs es literal. Si sabemos lo que significan el verbo y la partcula, podemos descifrar el significado del phrasal verb. The teacher told the students to sit down.

La profesora pidi a los alumnos que se sentaran.


Algunos phrasal verbs tienen un significado idiomtico. El verbo y la partcula no nos ayudan a entender lo que significa el phrasal verb. Tenemos que aprender su significado tratndolo como una palabra nueva. Hes looking for a job.

Est buscando trabajo.


A veces los phrasal verbs tienen un significado literal y otro idiomtico. Look up there! Is that an airplane?

Mira all arriba. Es un avin?(significado literal)


I looked up her number in the telephone directory.

Busqu su nmero en la gua de telfonos.(significado idiomtico)

Fjate en los phrasal verbs en negrita. Su significado es literal o idiomtico? 1. Put down your pens and stop writing. 2. I had just got on the train when the doors closed. 3. I give up! Whats the answer? 4. Can you see through that window? 5. My grandma has taken up salsa dancing. 6. Mikes on holiday, but hes coming back tomorrow.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs with up and down


Algunas partculas nos pueden ayudar a descifrar lo que significa un phrasal verb. Los phrasal verbs que contienen las partculas up y down suelen indicar que algo est en proceso, o que se produce un aumento o una diminucin de algo. It will warm up!

Har ms calor.
It will cool down.

Har ms fro.
La particular up tambin puede indicar que se completa o se termina una accin. Eat up!

Cmetelo todo!
Youve used up the milk!

Te has terminado la leche!


The rain has cleared up.

Ha parado de llover.

Completa las frases con up and down. 1. The bus company has put its prices, due to the rising cost of petrol. 2. Can you speak ? I cant hear you. 3. Slow ! Youre going too fast! 4. Cheer ! Things arent that bad. 5. Hes very stressed. He really needs to calm . . 6. Ill tidy the kitchen.

Phrasal Verbs

Separable and inseparable phrasal verbs


Los phrasal verbs se dividen en tres grupos: separable (separables), inseparable (inseparables) e instransitive (instransitivos).

1. Separable
Estos phrasal verbs son transitivos (es decir, llevan objeto directo). Cuando el objeto es un sustantivo, este puede colocarse delante o detrs de la partcula. Well pick more guests up. O Well pick up more guests. Recogeremos a ms invitados. Cuando el objeto es un pronombre, este debe colocarse delante de la partcula. Well pick them up. No puedes decir: Well pick up them.

Los recogeremos.

2. Inseparable
Estos phrasal verbs tambin son transitivos, pero, en este caso, si el objeto es un sustantivo, siempre debe colocarse detrs de la partcula. Hes looking for a job. No puedes decir: Hes looking a job for.

Est buscando trabajo.


Cuando el complemento es un pronombre tambin debe colocarse detrs de la partcula. Hes looking for it. No se puede decir: Hes looking it for.

Lo est buscando.
Los phrasal verbs con dos partculas siempre son inseperables. I get on with my sister. No se dice: I get my sister on with.

Me llevo bien con mi hermana.

3. Instransitive
Los phrasal verbs instantivos no llevan objeto directo, de forma que no se separa nunca el verbo de la partcula. Were going away this weekend.

Nos vamos de viaje este fin de semana.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs with more than one meaning


Muchos phrasal verbs tienen ms de un significado y pueden variar sus caractersticas gramaticales segn el significado. Please turn the radio / heating / air conditioning up. (transitive / separable)

Por favor, sube la radio / la calefaccin / el aire acondicionado.


The police turned up five minutes later (intransitive)

La polica apareci cinco minutos ms tarde.


Cuando busques un nuevo phrasal verb en el diccionario, recuerde que, adems de mirar el significado, debes fijarte en la estructura gramatical del verbo para poder utilizarlo correctamente.

Cuntos significados tienen estos phrasal verbs? Utiliza un diccionario. Para cada significado, comprueba si en phrasal verb es separable, inseparable o intransitivo. 1. hold up 2. come across 3. take off 4. make up 5. pick up 6. get through Completa cada frase con un phrasal verb adecuado del ejercicio anterior. 1. Shes got a great CV, but she doesnt ... well in interviews. 2. My mom used to . stories . for us when we were young. 3. I thought the exams would last for ever, but I them. 4. She . her glasses and cleaned them. 5. She the dog and put it in its basket. 6. The traffic us and we arrived ten minutes late.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs in contemporary language


Todos los phrasal verbs son bastante informales. No solemos emplearlos en escritos muy formales. Algunos phrasal verbs solo se utilizan en contextos muy coloquiales. Stop worrying and chill out! Deja de preocuparte y reljate! Constatemente estn apareciendo nuevos phrasal verbs para expresar conceptos actuales o advances tecnolgicos. Ejemplos: 1. The DJ bigged up (recommend enthusiastically)the bands new album. 2. My mum is going to freak out (get very angry or excited) when she sees my new haircut. 3. When I email Anna, Ill copy you in (send a copy of an email that you have written for someone else). 4. Anna hangs out (spend time with) with Caroline and Gemma a lot. 5. Ive forgotten my password so I cant log in (access a computer system or website). 6. I crashed out (fall asleep immediately because you are really tired) on the sofa as soon as I got home.

Phrasal Verbs

Ejercicios
A. Complete the sentences with a particle and the correct forms of the verbs in the list: up, up, up, over, down, clear, brighten, warm, cloud, cool.
1) I hope the rain . . soon so that we can play tennis. 2) In early spring, its hot at midday but the temperature . . in the evenings. 3) The skies were clear this morning but it has . . this afternoon. 4) It . . so much that I had to put on my sunglasses. 5) I dont think youll need a jacket. Itll . . this afternoon.

A. Respuestas correctas
1) I hope the rain clears over soon so that we can play tennis. 2) In early spring, its hot at midday but the temperature cools down in the evenings. 3) The skies were clear this morning but it has clouded up this afternoon. 4) It brightens up so much that I had to put on my sunglasses. 5) I dont think youll need a jacket. Itll warm up this afternoon.

B. Complete the texts with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs: fit in, grow up, go on, build up
1) Id like to go to university next year to study journalism. I want to . and become a journalist. 2) University will be different from school, but Im sure Ill . as Im very sociable person. 3) In my chosen profession, I may have to live abroad for a while, which will make me . and become more responsible. 4) No doubt Ill also . lots of contacts, which will be useful for my articles.

B. Las Respuestas correctas


1) Id like to go to university next year to study journalism. I want to go on and become a journalist. 2) University will be different from school, but Im sure Ill fit in as Im very sociable person. 3) In my chosen profession, I may have to live abroad for a while, which will make me grow up and become more responsible. 4) No doubt Ill also build up lots of contacts, which will be useful for my articles.

Phrasal Verbs

C. Complete the texts with the correct forms of the phrasal verbs: set off, stop off, drop off, go away, pick up.
1) Last week I . to Barcelona for a few days to vi sit my family there. 2) We . early in the morning because our flight was at 9 am. 3) A taxi . us at my house at 6.30 am. and . us . at the airport just before 7 am. 4) Unfortunately, it wasnt a direct flight. We . in Granada and didnt get to Barcelona until 1 pm.

C. Respuestas correctas
1) Last week I went away to Barcelona for a few days to visit my family there. 2) We set off early in the morning because our flight was at 9 am. 3) A taxi picked us up at my house at 6.30 am. and dropped us off at the airport just before 7 am. 4) Unfortunately, it wasnt a direct flight. We stopped off in Granada and didnt get to Barcelona until 1 pm.

D. Complete the sentence with the correct form of a verb and particle: come, go, look, turn, across, into, over, up.
1) Max . late for class again today. 2) I havent booked a flight yet. Im going to . it this afternoon. 3) If you . your work carefully, you usually find a couple of mistakes. 4) I was in a bookshop yesterday and I . that book that you recommended.

D. Respuestas correctas
1) Max turned up late for class again today.2) I havent booked a flight yet. Im going to look into it this afternoon.3) If you go over your work carefully, you usually find a couple of mistakes.4) I was in a bookshop yesterday and I came across that book that you recommended.

E. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb and particle: break, break, get, hack, away with, into, into, out.
1) He . of prison but was immediately captured by police. 2) A teenager who . the Pentagon security system has received a lucrative job offer. 3) Thieves . the mansion and stole a painting by Mondriaan.

Phrasal Verbs
4) It was a serious crime, but they . . light sentences because they were under 18.

E. Respuestas correctas
1) He broke out of prison but was immediately captured by police.2) A teenager who hacked into the Pentagon security system has received a lucrative job offer.3) Thieves broke into the mansion and stole a painting by Mondriaan.4) It was a serious crime, but they got away with light sentences because they were under 18.

F. Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb and particle: be, chill, plug, turn, in, in, into, out, up.
1) Im trying to . to that new radio station. 2) What sort of music . you . ? 3) Just . your mobile here at recharge it. 4) Can you . the volume? I cant hear. 5) Stop getting so excited! Relax and . !

F. Respuestas correctas
1) Im trying to tune in to that new radio station. 2) What sort of music are you into? 3) Just plug in your mobile here at recharge it. 4) Can you turn up the volume? I cant hear. 5) Stop getting so excited! Relax and chill out!

G. Complete the sentences with the verbs in the list: get off, get on, put on, take off, turn on, turn of.
1) Its a long journey. We . the train in Mlaga and we . in Rome. 2) Youre wet. You should .that jacket and . some dry c lothes. 3) The films starting! Can you . the TV? And . the CD player, please?

G. Respuestas correctas
1) Its a long journey. We get on the train in Mlaga and we get off in Rome. 2) Youre wet. You should take off that jacket and put on some dry clothes. 3) The films starting! Can you turn on the TV? And turn off the CD player, please?

Phrasal Verbs

H. Match the phrasal verb with its definition.


1) to set off 2) to leave behind 3) to come across 4) to go on 5) to get back 6) to see off a) to find something unexpectedly b) to say goodbye to someone at the start of their journey c) to return (to the point of departure) d) not to take something e) to continue f) to start a journey

H. Respuestas correctas
1) to set off f) to start a journey 2) to leave behind d) not to take something 3) to come across a) to find something unexpectedly 4) to go on e) to continue 5) to get back c) to return (to the point of departure) 6) to see off b) to say goodbye to someone at the start of their journey

I. Match the phrasal verb with its definition


1) to break up 2) to shut down 3) to wipe out 4) to clean up 5) to look after

Phrasal Verbs
6) to run out of a) completely destroy b) care for c) break into pieces d) use completely e) take away waste from f) close a business permanently

I. Respuestas correctas
1) to break up c) break into pieces 2) to shut down f) close a business permanently 3) to wipe out a) completely destroy 4) to clean up e) take away waste from 5) to look after b) care for 6) to run out of d) use completely

J. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs: bring together, stand for, take place, try on, try out.
1) The Fringe Festival . in Edinburgh, in August every year. 2) The Festival . people from all over the world. 3) Children can . lots of new activities, like playing the drums or doing circus tricks at the workshops. 4) Tickets can be bought online or at the shops of HMV. HMV . this Masters Voice. 5) Visitors can . traditional Scottish clothes in some shops.

J. Respuestas correctas
1) The Fringe Festival takes place in Edinburgh, in August every year. 2) The Festival brings together people from all over the world. 3) Children can try out lots of new activities, like playing the drums or doing circus tricks at the workshops. 4) Tickets can be bought online or at the shops of HMV. HMV stands for this Masters Voice.

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Phrasal Verbs
5) Visitors can try on traditional Scottish clothes in some shops.

K. Complete the sentences with the phrasal verbs: carry out, draw up, log on, throw away, turn on, turn up.
Our mum and dad have lots of rules at home . 1) Our parents . a new contract for us at the start of every school year. 2) We usually . some of the things on the contract, but not all of the m. 3) Sometimes we . to the computer when we should be studying. 4) We never . the volume of radio because we dont want them to know were listening to it. 5) We only . the TV after eight oclock. 6) We destroy the contract and . it . when the school year finishes.

K. Respuestas correctas
1) Our parents draw up a new contract for us at the start of every school year. 2) We usually carry out some of the things on the contract, but not all of them. 3) Sometimes we log on to the computer when we should be studying. 4) We never turn up the volume of radio because we dont want them to know were listening to it. 5) We only turn on the TV after eight oclock. 6) We destroy the contract and throw it away when the school year finishes.

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