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Med08- ENT Course


[ Some Important ENT Points ]

History & Examination by Prof. Tariq Jamal:

1. In the nasal obstruction, we have to ask if it is unilateral, bilateral or alternative because of the cycle. 2. If there is mucus in ear discharge, it means that it is Otitis Media because the middle ear covered by mucosa. 3. Olfactory dysfunction: anosmia, kacosmia and hyposmia. 4. Instrument of the examination ( very important ). 5. Opening of the superior, middle and inferior meatuses ( very important )

1st Lecture (Anatomy of the nose ) by Prof. Tariq Jamal:

1. Opening of sinuses in superior, middle and inferior meatuses. 2. Littles area supply anterior of the septum. 3. Acute infection rhinitis (coryza) is viral and antibiotics are useless.

Allergic Rhinitis Lecture by Prof. Tariq Jamal:

1. 2. 3. 4. It is associated with raised level of IgE and Eosinophils. Transverse crease on the nose. Important complication ( extracranial and entracranial ). The commonest nasal polyposis is the ethmoidal polyposis and it is uncommon in children. 5. Anosmia is common in polyposis. 6. Antrochoanal polyp is raised from maxillary sinus. 7. Unilateral nasal discharge is due to foreign body until proved otherwise. 2nd Male Patch- Scientific Committee

Med08- ENT Course


Hearing Loss by Dr. Khalid Al-Nouri:

1. The main idea of air conduction hearing is transformation of air energy to energy in fluid without losing energy. 2. There are 3 ossicles in the middle ear for magnification of the energy to augment the sound. 3. Classification of hearing loss: conductive (from outside to the drum ), sensorineural ( cochlea , acoustic nerve ) and, mixed. 4. Hearing is a passive mechanism. 5. Etiology of conductive hearing loss. 6. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss could be genetic, congenital infection, or idiopathic. 7. Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss could be sudden, trauma, or tumor. 8. Etiology of balance disorder. 9. In tympanic membrane: pars flaccida has 2 layers whereas pars tensa has 3 layers. 10. Nasal speculum Anterior Rhinoscopy. 11. Bimanual examination for submandibular and parotid duct. 12. Otoacoustic emissions mean that structures inside the ear are moving.

Diseases of the Larynx by Dr. Mandoura:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cartilages of the larynx are divided into paired and unpaired. Hyoid bone is not part of the larynx. Cricoid corresponds to subglottic area. Cricothyrotomy is better than thyrectomy because it secures the airways. Function of abductors is opening of the vocal cord. Function of adductor is closure of the vocal cord. Only tensor muscles are supplied by superior laryngeal nerve that comes from vagus nerve. 8. Left vocal cord paralysis is more common than right because of the long course of left recurrent laryngeal nerve . 9. Larynx is divided into 3 areas: glottic, supraglottic, and subglottic. 2nd Male Patch- Scientific Committee

Med08- ENT Course


10. Most common cancer of the larynx is squemous cell carcinoma. 11. Sound production and Bernoulli effect ( important ). 12. Presentation of the larynx disease mainly hoarsness and stridor. 13. Hoarsness is due to organic causes (inflammation or neoplasm ) and nonorganic causes ( voice abuse ). 14. Postcricoid carcinoma blocks the food passage. 15. Acute laryngitis caused by viral infection secondary to URI. 16. Epiglottitis is caused by H.infeluenza type B. 17. Allergy can lead to inflammatory reaction of larynx and present as edema and managed by I.V epinephrine before steroid. 18. Chronic laryngitis leads to leukoplakia. 19. G.E.R causes chronic laryngitis with sever edema.

Epistaxis Tutorial by Dr. Mehayawi:

1. Commonest cause of epistaxis in children is nose picking. 2. Common general cause of epistaxis is hypertension. 3. Other general causes: liver diseases and chemotherapy ( chemotherapy leads to pancytopenia which leads to decreased platelet ). 4. Blood supply of the nose. ( very important ) 5. Epistaxis in children mostly from littles area 6. Epistaxis in old people mostly from woodruffs plexus. 7. Posterior ethmiod artery does not reach littles area . 8. Management of epistaxis : - Digital pressure. - Leaning forward. - Atrovine ( vasoconstriction of vessels ) - Silver nitrate: coagulates with protein of the blood resulting in clot formation. - If bleed after silver nitrate anterior nasal packing. - If bleed after anterior packing posterior nasal packing. - In posterior packing, we have to put oxygen mask and pulse oximetry.

2nd Male Patch- Scientific Committee