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2/20/2011

Cleanrooms & HVAC Systems Design Fundamentals


(Karachi, Pakistan, February 22, 2011)

Wei Sun, P.E.


ASHRAE
Clean Spaces Technical Committee (TC9.11) Chairman (07-10) Healthcare Facilities Technical Committee (TC9.6) Member Laboratory Systems Technical Committee (TC9.10) Member

IEST
Working Group CC012 (Cleanroom Design), Chairman

President Engsysco, Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA


www.engsysco.com

Engsysco

Contents
Definition and classifications Standards Nonviable, viable particles (microbiological) and airborne molecular contamination (AMC) Particle sources Airflow quantity and pattern and floor arrangement Airlock and pressurization HVAC, plumbing, fire protection, and process systems Common devices and equipment Architectural construction materials, cleaning procedures, testing standards and construction cost CFD application

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Introduction
Applications
Semiconductor Microelectronic Pharmaceutical Biotechnology University Aerospace Automotive Hospital Miscellaneous

Cleanroom Definition
Definition - A specially constructed enclosed area, its environment has following controlled parameters:
Temperature Airflow Pattern

Humidity Sound and Vibration


Common Requirements

Pressurization Particle Count Microbial Contamination Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Gaseous Contamination Process Specific

Special & Unique Requirements

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Standards
U.S. Federal Standard 209E Airborne particulate cleanliness classes in cleanrooms and clean zones (former US standard, canceled in November 2001)

ISO Document ISO-14644-1 ISO-14644-2 ISO-14644-3 ISO-14644-4 ISO-14644-5 ISO-14644-6 ISO-14644-7 ISO-14644-8 ISO-14698-1 ISO-14698-2 ISO-14698-3

ISO-14644: Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled Environments Classification of Air Cleanliness Cleanroom Testing for Compliance Methods for Evaluating & Measuring Cleanrooms & Associated Controlled Environments Cleanroom Design & Construction Cleanroom Operations Terms, Definitions & Units Enhanced Clean Devices Molecular Contamination Biocontamination: Control General Principles Biocontamination: Evaluation & Interpretation of Data Biocontamination: Methodology for Measuring Efficiency of Cleaning Inert Surfaces

Classifications
Air Cleanliness Class Definition Comparison Between FS 209 and ISO 14644
ISO FS 209 14644 Class Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.1 m FS 209 ISO 14644 0.2 m FS 209 ISO 14644 0.3 m FS 209 ISO 14644 0.5 m FS 209 ISO 14644 FS 209 1 m ISO 14644 FS 209 5.0 m ISO 14644

1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000

Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 Particles/ft3 Particles/m3 10 2 100 24 10 4 35 1,000 7.5 237 3 102 1 35 8 350 10,000 75 2,370 30 1,020 10 352 83 100,000 750 23,700 300 10,200 100 3,520 832 29 1,000,000 237,000 102,000 1,000 35,200 8,320 7 293 10,000 352,000 83,200 70 2,930 100,000 3,520,000 832,000 700 29,300 35,200,000 8,320,000 293,000

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Classifications
Old Air Cleanliness Class Definition - FS 209
100,000,000

Air Cleanliness Class Definition - FS 209

10,000,000
FS-100,000

PARTICLES PER CUBIC METERS

1,000,000
FS-10,000

100,000

FS-100 FS-1,000

10,000

FS-10

1,000

FS-1

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

10

PARTICLE SIZE, m

Classifications
Air Cleanliness Class Definition - ISO 14644

Current Air Cleanliness Class Definition - ISO 14644


100,000,000 10,000,000

ISO-9

PARTICLES PER CUBIC METERS

1,000,000

ISO-8

100,000

ISO-7

10,000
ISO-4

ISO-6

1,000
ISO-3

ISO-5

100
ISO-2

10
ISO-1

1 0.01

0.1

10

PARTICLE SIZE, m

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Classifications
Classification Comparison Between FS 209 and ISO 14644
100,000,000

Air Cleanliness Class Definition Comparison Between FS 209 and ISO 14644

10,000,000
FS-100,000

ISO-9

PARTICLES PER CUBIC METERS

1,000,000

FS-1,000 FS-10,000

ISO-8

100,000

FS-100 ISO-5

ISO-7

10,000

FS-10 ISO-4

ISO-6

1,000

FS-1 ISO-3

100
ISO-2

10
ISO-1

1 0.01

0.1

10

PARTICLE SIZE, m

Airborne Particles
Airborne particulates can be: 1. 2. 3. Particles larger than 100 microns can be seen with naked eyes. Next step particles ranging from 0.001 to 100 microns are main interest of contamination for years. Atoms and molecules used to be considered too small as industrial contamination, but not any more after introduction of molecular contamination.

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Particle Sources & Control


Sources of Contamination Description Control Methods Tighter exterior wall construction, exterior zone pressurization, vestibules at main entrances, and seal space penetrations. Multiple level filtrations Seal wall penetrations, multiple level pressurizations & depressurizations to obtain proper airflow directions Garments, proper gowning procedures, air shower before entry Use cleanroom suitable or rated furniture Local filtration and exhaust Equipment washing, cleaning and sterilization before entry, use airlock & pass-through Local exhaust Use cleanroom suitable or rated cleaners Constructed with special building materials Outdoor air External Infiltration through doors, and cracks at windows, and walls Makeup air entering through the air conditioning systems Indoor transfer air between rooms Infiltration through doors, windows, and wall penetrations for pipes, ducts, etc. Largest source of internal particles: skin scales, hair, textile fibers Rubbing one item against another Spray, painting, welding, grinding During transport During preparation, processing and packaging Out-gassing to room Dust generated from wall, floor, ceiling, door, fibrous insulation

People Work surface shedding Process equipment Internal Raw and semifinished material Liquids, pressurized gases used in process Chemicals used for cleaning Room construction materials

Microbiological Contamination & Control


Unlike non-viable particles, which cant reproduce, microorganisms could reproduce at a rapid speed if nutrition and environment are favorable. Microorganism can be classified as bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of these are essential, useful and harmless, while others are harmful and dangerous. Control Methods Physical: Heat Radiation Filtration Chemical:

Sterilization Disinfection

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Airborne Particle Physical Controls


Filtration
Utilizing HEPA & ULPA filters to remove particles from supply air HEPA: 99.97% (Ef.@0.3m) ULPA: 99.9997% (Ef.@0.12m)

Dilution
Diluting internally contaminated air with clean, filtered air

Isolation
Containing or isolating particle generations with barriers

Higher air change rate, better dilution.

Process exhaust Mini-environment

Typical Ceiling Filter Coverage


Class US 209 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 ISO 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Ceiling Filter Coverage 5% - 15% 5% - 15% 15% - 20% 25% - 40% 35% - 70% 60% - 90% 60% - 100% 80% - 100% 80% - 100% HEPA or ULPA

HEPA

ULPA

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Room Airflow Quantity


(Traditional Methodology)
Classification ISO Class 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 FS-209 Class 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Air Change Per Hour Range
Air Change Per Hour (ACH)

IEST Recommended (RP-12) Air Change Rate For Cleanrooms


700
600 600 540 540 480

5 48 60 90 150 240 240 480 300 540 360 540 360 600

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2


360 360

360 300 240 150 90 48 60 240

ISO Cleanliness Class

Airflow Patterns

Non-Unidirectional (Conventional) Flow

Mixed Flow

Unidirectional Flow

Mini-Environment Flow

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Cleanroom Floor Arrangements


Service Area

Ballroom

Office and Support Areas

Cleanrooms

Service Area Service Area

Service Chase

Office and Support Areas

Cleanrooms
R R R R R

Service Area Service Area

Mini-Environment

Office and Support Areas

Cleanrooms
C C C C

Service Area

Example Fan Tower Arrangement


Scrubbed E xhaust Air

Visitors Corridor
Waff le Slab

Silencer
Fan T ow er

Process Corridor
Ceili ng + Filter

Maint. Corridor

Raised Floor

Stair Case

Press urized P lenum

Cleanroom

Return Air

Basement

Make-U p Air

Cooling Coil
Pump

Perforated S lab Chemical Supply S ystems

P rocess E xhaust
Process Supply Systems

Submai ns

Gas Cabinets

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Example Fan Filter Units Arrangement


Scrubbed Exhaust Air

3.5m 2.2m 3.6m


9.6m

Cleanroom

Stair Case

4.8m

Ret urn Air


4.8m
0. 0m

Basement

Make-Up Air

Gas Cabinets

Process Suppl y Syst ems

Submains

Process Supply Submains

Scrubber

Control Airflows Between Rooms Air Lock


Air Lock
An intermediate room between adjacent areas with different cleanliness to prevent airborne cross contamination
AIRFLOW CORRIDOR

AIRFLOW

CORRIDOR

AIRLOCK

AIRLOCK

++
AIRFLOW CLEANROOM

++
AIRFLOW CLEANROOM

+++
CASCADING AIRLOCK

BUBBLE AIRLOCK

Type
Cascading Bubble Sink Dual Compartment

AIRFLOW

CORRIDOR

AIRFLOW

CORRIDOR

AIRLOCK

AIRLOCK

AIRLOCK

-AIRFLOW CLEANROOM

++

--

CLEANROOM

AIRFLOW

SINK AIRLOCK

DUAL COMPARTMENT AIRLOCK

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Control Airflows Between Rooms Air Lock


Type of Cleanroom Selection of Airlock Cascading Functionality of Airlock Relative Pressure Relationship Cleanroom: Airlock: Corridor: +++ ++ +

Application
Positive or Negative Pressure? Has Fume or Bio Contamination? Containment Needed? Personal Protection Needed?

Positive pressure No fume or bio agent No containment needed

Prevent cleanroom being contaminated from dirty corridor air Prevent cleanroom being contaminated from surrounding spaces through cracks

Negative pressure Has fume or bio agent contamination Containment needed

Bubble

Prevent cleanroom being contaminated from dirty corridor air Prevent cleanroom fume or bio agent releas ing to corridor

Cleanroom: Airlock: Corridor:

++ +

Negative pressure Has fume or bio agent contamination Containment needed

Sink

Prevent cleanroom being contaminated from dirty corridor air Allow cleanroom fume or bio agent releas ing to airlock. No personal protective equipment is needed

Cleanroom: Airlock: Corridor:

- +

Negative pressure Has toxic fume or hazardous bio agent contamination, or has potent compound substan ces Containment needed Personal protecti needed Notes:
1.

Dual Compart ment

Prevent cleanroom being contaminated from dirty corridor air Prevent cleanroom fume or bio agent releas ing to corridor Personal protective equipment (such as pressurized suit and respirat or) is required

Cleanroom: Neg. Airlock: Pos. Airlock: Corridor:

- ++ -

on

2.

EXCESSIVE NEGATIVE P RESSURE IN CLEANROOM IS NOT RECOMMENDED, SINCE IF IT IS NOT S URROUNDED BY OTHER C LEAN SPACES S, UNTREATED DIRTY AIR CAN INFILT RATE THROUGH CRACKS INTO CLEANROO M. COMMONLY A CLEANROOM SERVICE CORRIDOR NEEDS TO BE DESIGNED SLIGHTLY POSITIVE OR NEUTRAL PRESSURE , DO NOT DESIGN IT I N NEGATIVE PRESSURE UNLESS A DU AL-COMPARTMENT LOCK IS UTILIZED.

Control Airflows Between Rooms Pressurization


Air should always flows from high pressure to low pressure area. Normally the desired flow path should be from the area of cleanest, to less-clean, to less-contaminated, and then to dirty areas. Pressurization is defined as a technique that air pressure differences are created mechanically between rooms to introduce intentional air movement paths through room leakage openings. These openings could be either designated, such as doorways, or undesignated, such as air gaps around doorframes or other cracks.

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Control Airflows Between Rooms Pressurization


Single Room Pressurization Room pressurization
Leakage Flowrate (cfm)
2,000 1,900 1,800 1,700 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.075 0.08 400

Leakage Area (Sq. in.)

380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Entering (SA) airflow rate is higher than leaving (EA + RA) airflow rate in the room, room net (offset) flow is positive. Room depressurization Entering (SA) airflow rate is lower than leaving (EA + RA) airflow rate in the room, room net (offset) flow is negative.

Pressure Differential Between Rooms (in.)

Room Net Flow Rate vs. Pressure Differential

Control Airflows Between Rooms Pressurization


Single Room Pressurization Room Pressure Control Strategies
Room Airtightness is the key element in the relationship between the rooms flow offset value and the resulting pressure differential, and each room airtightness is unique and unknown unless tested. The treatment of the room net flow offset value defines a pressurization control strategy. Typical pressurization control techniques:

Direct Pressure-Differential Control Differential Flow Tracking Control Hybrid Control

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Control Airflows Between Rooms Pressurization


Multiple Room (Suite) Pressurization
Room Pressure & Flow (P&F) diagram (suite, zone or floor) The basis of continuous validation and qualification of room pressure control: Indicate airflow design settings (values) of all supply, return and exhaust registers. Indicate the desired room pressure value with an acceptable tolerance. Indicate the resulting leakage flow directions (due to room pressure differentials) and their estimated leakage values through doors at closed-door condition.

Typical HVAC Systems

FS209 Class 10,000, 100,000 ISO Class 7, 8

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Typical HVAC Systems

FS209 Class 100, 1,000 ISO Class 5, 6

Typical HVAC Systems

FS209 Class 1, 10
ISO Class 3, 4

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Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-1: Conventional Primary loop
AHU Unit
C C H C

FILTER

SA

OA+RA

OA Makeup Air Co

Efficiency Ea

Efficiency Eb Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

SA Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-2: Primary loop with supply bypass
AHU Unit
C C H C

FILTER

SA1

SA

OA+RA

OA Makeup Air

Efficiency Ea SA2 SA2+RA

Co

Efficiency Eb Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

SA1 Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

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Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-3: Primary loop with dual returns
AHU Unit
FILTER FILTER

SA=OA+RA

C C

H C

OA+RA1

OA Makeup Air

Efficiency Eb

Efficiency Ea

RA1

Co

RA2 Efficiency Ec Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

SA Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-4: Primary loop plus secondary makeup unit
Primary Fan Unit
FILTER

Secondary Makeup Unit


C C H C
FILTER

SA

OA+RA

OA Treated Makeup Air C1

OA Makeup Air Co

Efficiency Eb

Efficiency Ea

Efficiency Ec Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

SA Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

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Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-5: Primary loop plus secondary AHU unit with dual returns
Primary Fan Unit
FILTER

Secondary AHU Unit


C C H C

Efficiency Eb

Treated Makeup Air C1

FILTER

SA

OA+RA

OA+RA2

OA Makeup Air Co

Efficiency Ea

Efficiency Ec Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

RA1

RA2

SA Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

Basic HVAC Flow Diagrams


Configuration-6: Primary loop plus secondary AHU unit and tertiary makeup unit with dual returns
Primary Fan Unit
FILTER

Secondary AHU Unit OA+RA OA+RA2 Treated Makeup Air C1


C C H C

Tertiary Makeup Unit


C C H C

FILTER

SA

OA Treated Makeup Air C1

OA Makeup Air Co

Efficiency Eb

Efficiency Ea

Efficiency Ea

Efficiency Ec Space Impurity Cs Concentration


HEPA

RA1

RA2

SA Supply Air

Space
Particle Generation

RA Return Cs Air EA Exhaust Air Ce

Q Leakage Air Cs Deposition D

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Building Section Schematic

Semiconductor Fabrication Facility

Process and Building Systems


Building Systems Cleanroom HVAC&R
City water & gas services Cold/hot water distributions Gas distributions Storm, sanitary & vent Fire pump & automatic sprinkler systems Emergency power generator HVAC & Indoor comfort Building management Make-up system Recirculation system Return air system Temperature & humidity controls Room pressure control Noise and vibration control Hydronic heating Comfort chilled water Cooling tower water Particle counting

Cleanroom Process
Gas detection Static control RO and DI waters Process chilled water Chemical gases and storages Solvent drain and collection Solvent gas exhaust Process vacuum Scrubbed exhaust House vacuum Acid drain and waste neutralization Clean dry air Instrumentation air & control

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Typical Specified Cleanroom Components, Devices & Equipment


Air Sampling

HEPA / ULPA Filter

Air Filtration
Fan-Filter Ceiling Module

Handhold Particle Counter

Air Particle Sensor

Portable Particle Counter

Bag-in/Bag-out multiple filters - Against biological, chemical & radiological materials

Pharmaceutical cGMP Particle Monitoring & Validation

Microbial Air Sampler & Agar Media

Typical Specified Cleanroom Components, Devices & Equipment

Air Valve Precision Room Pressure Transducer Isolator (Glove Box) Small Mini-Environment

Soft Wall Floor Grate & Perforated Panel

Product Passthrough

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Cleanroom Building Exterior and Interior

Building Finished Exterior

Cleanrooms in Construction

Finished Cleanrooms

Window on Exterior Wall Small Class 100,000 Cleanroom Interior Hallway

Window on Interior Wall

Class 10, Raised Floor

Gowning Area, Raised Floor

Service Hallway Enclosing Cleanrooms

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Cleanroom Utility and Support

Large DI Water System

AHU Unit for Office/ Administration Areas Steam-Hot Water Exchange Unit (Packaged)

Cleanrooms In Operation

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Cleanroom Construction Materials


Classification FS Class FS Class 1 10 ISO Class ISO Class 1, 2 & 3 4 Aluminum Component FS Class 100 ISO Class 5 FS Class FS Class FS Class 1,000 10,000 100,000 ISO Class ISO Class ISO Class 6 7 8&9 Aluminum Component or Metal Stud Aluminum Polystyrene Core or Epoxy Coated Steel Laminated over Drywall Epoxy / Latex 1 Steel Gasketed 12 ga wire to grid, 10 ga wire to filter @ Corner of Grid Intersection Only Concrete Covered with Epoxy Solids or Sheet Vinyl Low Sidewall Low Sidewall or Ceiling Vinyl or Epoxy Coated Drywall Latex

Wall System Wall Panel Paint Ceiling Grid Grid Support Floor Air Return

Honeycomb Aluminum Conductive Finish Epoxy 2 Aluminum Gel Seal Ceiling System All thread with Strut & Turn buckles Raised Floor with Perforated / Grated Access Floor

ISO Construction Cleaning Procedures


Stage
Stage 1 Clean during demolition or preliminary construction such as framing for wall installation. Stage 2 Clean during utility installation.

Purpose
Preventing unnecessary dust concentration in places that will be difficult to reach during later construction.

Responsible party

Method

Standard
Visual-clean.

Contractor. If the construction Vacuum clean upon completion. contractor has no relevant experience in cleanroom cleaning, it is advisable to hire a professional cleaning contractor specializing in cleanroom cleaning. Installation engineer. Vacuum clean; wipe-down piping and fixtures with moistened wipers upon completion. The use of vacuum cleaning and/or other cleaning materials is necessary.

Removing local contaminants caused by installing electricity, gas, water, etc.

Visual-clean.

Stage 3 Clean during early construction.

Cleaning all visible contamination from Cleaning contractor. ceilings, walls, floors, (filter mountings), etc. after completion of construction and installation activities.

Stage 4 Prepare for Cleaning any dust from ductwork Installation engineer and cleaning air conditioning ductwork sections before installing using a contractor. installation. vacuum cleaner and wipers. Meanwhile, a positive pressure should be introduced to the cleanroom. Stage 5 Clean before mounting all air filters into the system. Stage 6 Mount the (HEPA/ULPA) filters into the air systems Removing deposited or settled dust, or both, from ceilings, walls, and floors. Removing possible contamination caused by the mounting operation. Cleaning contractor. Cleanroom HVAC filter engineer/ technician. Cleanroom HVAC filter engineer/ technician. A professional cleanroom cleaning by personnel specially instructed on regulations, routing and behaviour. Installation engineer and certification engineer.

Vacuum clean; wipe-down piping Visual-clean. and fixtures with moistened wipers. Application of protective floor sealants is generally a particle generating activity. If this is necessary, it should be applied at this time. Vacuum clean; wipe down with Wiper-clean. moistened wipers.

Wipe down with moistened wipers. Clean all surface edges on all sides. Air conditioning air flushing operation. Wipe down with moistened wipers.

Wiper-clean. Wiper-clean.

Stage 7 Adjust the air Removing suspended dust from the conditioning equipment. airflow and creating overpressure installation, including the filters. Stage 8 Upgrade the room into prescribed classification. Stage 9 Approve installation. Removing all deposited and clinging dust from every surface (in order: ceilings, walls, equipment, floors). Verifying the cleanroom to the prescribed design specifications.

Wiper-clean.

Wiper-clean.

Monitor airborne and surface particles, air velocities,

Wiper-clean. Results should conform to

22

Stage 1 Clean during demolition or preliminary construction such as framing for wall installation. Stage 2 Clean during utility installation.

Preventing unnecessary dust concentration in places that will be difficult to reach during later construction.

Contractor. If the construction Vacuum clean upon completion. contractor has no relevant experience in cleanroom cleaning, it is advisable to hire a professional cleaning contractor specializing in cleanroom cleaning. Installation engineer. Vacuum clean; wipe-down piping and fixtures with moistened wipers upon completion. The use of vacuum cleaning and/or other cleaning materials is necessary.

Visual-clean.

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Removing local contaminants caused by installing electricity, gas, water, etc.

Visual-clean.

Stage 3 Clean during early construction.

Cleaning all visible contamination from Cleaning contractor. ceilings, walls, floors, (filter mountings), etc. after completion of construction and installation activities.

ISO Construction Cleaning Procedures


Stage 4 Prepare for Cleaning any dust from ductwork Installation engineer and cleaning air conditioning ductwork sections before installing using a contractor. installation. vacuum cleaner and wipers. Meanwhile, a positive pressure should be Stage Purpose Responsible party introduced to the cleanroom.
Stage Stage 1 5 Clean Clean during before demolition orair preliminary mounting all filters construction such as into the system. framing wall the Stage 6 for Mount installation. (HEPA/ULPA) filters into the air systems Stage Stage 2 7 Clean Adjust during the air utility installation. conditioning equipment. Preventing unnecessary dust dust, or Removing deposited or settled concentration in places that will be both, from ceilings, walls, and floors. difficult to reach during later construction. Removing possible contamination Contractor. If the construction Cleaning contractor. contractor has no relevant experience in cleanroom cleaning, it is advisable to hire a professional Cleanroom HVAC filter engineer/ cleaning contractor specializing in technician. cleanroom cleaning. Installation Cleanroom engineer. HVAC filter engineer/ technician.

Vacuum clean; wipe-down piping Visual-clean. and fixtures with moistened wipers. Application of protective floor sealants is generally a particle generating activity. If this is necessary, it should be applied at this time. Vacuum clean; wipe down with Wiper-clean. moistened wipers.

Method
Vacuum clean upon completion. Wipe down with moistened wipers.

Standard
Visual-clean. Wiper-clean.

caused by the mounting operation.


Removing contaminants caused Removing local suspended dust from the by installing electricity, gas, water, etc. airflow and creating overpressure installation, including the filters.

Clean all surface edges on all sides.


Vacuum clean; wipe-down Air conditioning air flushingpiping and fixtures with moistened wipers operation. upon completion. The use of vacuum cleaning and/or other cleaning materials is necessary. Wipe down with moistened wipers. Vacuum clean; wipe-down piping and fixtures with moistened wipers. Application of protective floor sealants is generally particle Monitor airborne and a surface generating activity. If this is particles, air velocities, necessary, it and should be applied at temperature humidity. this time. Listed in F.1 to F.8. Vacuum clean; wipe down with moistened wipers.

Wiper-clean.
Visual-clean. Wiper-clean.

Stage 8 Upgrade the room into prescribed Stage 3 Clean during classification. early construction. Stage 9 Approve installation. Stage 10 Clean daily Stage 4 Prepare for and periodically air conditioning ductwork installation.

Removing all deposited and clinging dust from every surface (in order: Cleaning all visible contamination from ceilings, walls, equipment, floors). ceilings, walls, floors, (filter mountings), etc. after completion of construction and installation activities. Verifying the cleanroom to the prescribed design specifications. Customer acceptance.

A professional cleanroom cleaning by personnel specially instructed Cleaning contractor. on regulations, routing and behaviour. Installation engineer and certification engineer.

Wiper-clean.
Visual-clean.

Wiper-clean. Results should conform to agreed design criteria.

A tailor-made cleaning Wiper-clean. programme for the cleanroom, accounting for the specific demands of the production process Stage 5 Clean before Removing deposited or settled dust, or Cleaning contractor. Wipe down with moistened wipers. Wiper-clean. and the customer. mounting all air filters both, from ceilings, walls, and floors. Routine testing of into the system. critical operation parameters. Stage 6 Mount the Removing possible contamination Cleanroom HVAC filter engineer/ Clean all surface edges on all Wiper-clean. (HEPA/ULPA) filters into caused by the mounting operation. technician. sides. NOTE 1 During Stages 4 to 10, all high-efficiency and ultra-high-purity components, such as filters, ducts, etc., should arrive on site protected by plastic or foil covers on the air systems both ends. Covers should only be removed when ready for use. NOTE 2 During Stages 6 to 10, all activities should be done wearing prescribed cleanroom clothing. Stage 7 Adjust the air Removing suspended dust from the Cleanroom HVAC filter engineer/ Air conditioning air flushing Wiper-clean. conditioning equipment. airflow and creating overpressure technician. operation. installation, including the filters.
Stage 8 Upgrade the room into prescribed classification. Stage 9 Approve installation. Stage 10 Clean daily and periodically Removing all deposited and clinging dust from every surface (in order: ceilings, walls, equipment, floors). Verifying the cleanroom to the prescribed design specifications. Customer acceptance. Maintaining the cleanroom in long-term compliance with designed classification. Microbiological cleaning and testing begins in biocleanrooms. A professional cleanroom cleaning by personnel specially instructed on regulations, routing and behaviour. Installation engineer and certification engineer. Cleanroom manager/cleaning contractor. Wipe down with moistened wipers. Wiper-clean.

Maintaining the cleanroom in long-term Cleanroom manager/cleaning Cleaning any dust from ductwork Installation engineer and cleaning compliance with designed classification. contractor. sections before installing using a contractor. Microbiological and Meanwhile, testing vacuum cleanercleaning and wipers. begins in biocleanrooms. a positive pressure should be introduced to the cleanroom.

Monitor airborne and surface particles, air velocities, temperature and humidity. Listed in F.1 to F.8.

Wiper-clean. Results should conform to agreed design criteria.

A tailor-made cleaning programme for the cleanroom, accounting for the specific demands of the production process and the customer. Routine testing of critical operation Required Testing (ISO 14644-2) parameters. NOTE 1 During Stages 4 to 10, all high-efficiency and ultra-high-purity components, such as filters, ducts, etc., should arrive on site protected by plastic or foil covers on both ends. Covers should only be removed when ready for use. NOTE 2 During Stages 6 to 10, all activities should be done wearing prescribed cleanroom clothing.

Cleanroom Testing
Maximum Time Interval 6 Months 12 Months 12 Months 12 Months

Schedule of Tests to Demonstrate Continuing Compliance


Test Parameter Particle Count Test Air Pressure Difference Airflow Class <= ISO 5 > ISO 5 All Classes All Classes

Test Procedure ISO 14644-1 Annex A ISO 14644-1 Annex B5 ISO 14644-1 Annex B4

Optional Testing (ISO 14644-2)

Schedule of Additional Optional Tests


Test Parameter Installed Filter Leakage Containment Leakage Recovery Airflow Visualization Class All Classes All Classes All Classes All Classes Maximum Time Interval 24 Months 24 Months 24 Months 24 Months Test Procedure ISO 14644-3 Annex B6 ISO 14644-3 Annex B4 ISO 14644-3 Annex B13 ISO 14644-3 Annex B7

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Cleanroom Design Problems & Validation


Common Design Problems
Poor laminarity Fail to pressurize to specified pressure levels Local stagnation near point of service Ineffective chemical vapor exhaust

Too high noise


Temperature & humidity variations above specifications

How to Ensure Quality During Design Phase?


Engineers design knowledge & experience Mock-up or scale-down model CFD validation

CFD Applications
Cleanroom with 35% FA Floor Panels Narrower Cleanroom with 35% FA Floor Panels

A case study: Examination of flow laminarity of a cleanroom with a subfab underneath

Cleanroom with 20% FA Floor Panels

Floor Ceiling FAB

SUBFAB

CHASE

Slab

Cleanroom with 10% FA Floor Panels

CFD model geometry

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Technology Trend Determination of Airflow Rate Based on Particle Generation Rate During Design Phase
Room Particle Concentration versus Air Change Rate (Steady State) - Effect of Internal Particle Generation Rate
1,000,000.0

Concentration (Number of Particles Per FT3)

100,000.0

Condition: OA/SA=5% CO=1x106 EU=95% EH=99.97% =1.0

10,000.0

Internal Particle Generation Rate: G = Rate of impurity generation unit floor area, averaged throughout the space Unit: Particals/FT3/Min.

1,000.0

100.0 G=1 10.0 G=10 G=100 1.0 G=1000 G=10000 0.1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Supply Air ACH (Air Change Per Hour)

Technology Trend Provide Airflow Rate Based on Particle Generation Rate During Operating Phase
Staged Ventilation ACH Rate

VFD Ventilation

Room Particle Generation Rate G

The goal is to stage the ventilation rate to maintain the same room cleanliness level through particle sensing during all modes (occupied and unoccupied)

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