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Porosity and Permeability

Reservoir Properties

Geol472-2009

Porosity and Permeability


Porosity: % of void space in rock Permeability: Ease of fluid flow

Porosity
Volume % of open space

0.5 mm

Porosity
Total Porosity (%) Porosity ()= (bulk volume grain volume)/bulk volume Effective Porosity= Interconnected pores

Traditional View of Porosity


0-5% Negligible 5-10% Poor 10-15% Fair 15-20% Good 20-25% Very Good

For gas lower porosity is still viable Hydrofracturing makes low porosity less of a problem

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Primary Porosity
Controlled by:
Degree of Uniformity of Grain Size Sorting Shape of the Grains Method of Deposition (Manner of Packing) Compaction Cementation

Sorting

Poor Sorting

Intermediate Sorting

Porosity Varies with Sorting


MORE POROUS Well Sorted Sand LESS POROUS Poorly Sorted Sand

Packing

Cubic Packing 47% porosity in the ideal situation

Packing

Secondary Porosity
Additional open space developed after sedimentation:
Dissolution Dolomitization Fracturing

Rhombohedral Packing 26% porosity in the ideal situation

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Modifications to Porosity
Sandstone
Pressure Solution Cementation Fracturing

Porosity Varies with Fracturing


MORE POROUS Fractured Shale LESS POROUS Unfractured Shale

Carbonate
Compaction 2 to 20% Solution Recrystalization Dolomitization Fracturing Cementation

Shale
Compaction 50% Bound Water Expulsion
Figure 13.7

Porosity Varies with % Cement

Secondary Porosity

Quarts Grain

Quartz cement

Dissolved Feldspar 2 mm Wilcox Fm. South Texas

Dolomitization
Calcite (CaCO3)

Shale

Wet Mud Antrim Fm. Michigan

Compacted Sediment (water expelled)

Cemented Shale

Dolomite CaMg (CO3)2


Volume decrease leads to new porosity

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Shale
Microphotograph

Shale

ity

Pore Throat

Po ro s

re Po

si

ze

Permeability
Ability to Transmit Fluids Measure in Darcies or Millidaricies Permeable
Large Well-Connected Pores

Impermeable
Smaller, Fewer or Less Interconnected Pores

Darcy Equation

Permeability Values
1-10 md 10-100 md 100-1000 md Md = millidarcies Fair Good Very good

permeability

1Darcy=1cm2

ofSurfaceReleases1cm3

Viscosity ofFluidofUnitViscosityin1Second

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Permeability Measurements
Porosity can be measured by logs (density, neutron) Perm. needs cores to do lab injection tests

Porosity vs. Permeability

Sussex Sandstone

Capillary Pressure

Capillary Pressure

St. Louis Capillary Pressure


O il

Relative Permeability

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Buoyancy vs. Capillary Pressure

Differential Entrapment of Oil & Gas

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