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John Lin 11.29.

12 Period 5

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Transformation of Matter and Energy 10.1 Introduction 1. What is the structure of the leaf and chloroplast like? chloroplast: in mesophyll cell envelope of 2 membranes intermembrane space: b/n the outer & inner membrane stroma: dense fluid w/in chloroplast thylakoid: interconnected membranous sacs thylakoid space: interior of thylakoid grana: thylakoid sacs stacked in columns chlorophyll: green pigment in thylakoid membranes 2. What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis? reactants: CO2, H2O, & light products: O2, H2O, & a 3-carbon sugar 3. What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis? green pigment absorb light 4. What is the role of light in photosynthesis? provides energy to move e- from water to carbon dioxide increase potential energy drives transfer of e- & H+ from water to an acceptor (NADP+) 5. What is a redox reaction? (may need to look in chapter 9 for help) complete/partial transfer of electron(s) from one reactant to another aka oxidation-reduction reaction oxidation: loss of electrons reduction: addition of electrons in photosynthesis: e- from H2O to CO2

John Lin 11.29.12 Period 5 6. What generally happens in the light reactions vs. the Calvin cycle? light reactions: in the thylakoid convert solar energy to chemical energy(ATP & NADPH) H2O split into e- & H+ (O2 given off) chlorophyll absorbs light light energy drives transfer of e- & H+ from H2O to NADP+ NADP+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP+ + 2e- + H+ NADPH generate ATP using chemiosmosis Calvin cycle: in the stroma make G3P: glyceraldehydes-3-phsophate, a 3 carbon sugar carbon fixation: incorporate CO2 into organic molecules reduce fixed carbon to carb. by adding e NADPH: provides e ATP: provide chemical energy 10.2 Light Reactions 1. What is the overall purpose of the light reactions? thylakoid transform light energy into chemical energy (ATP & NADPH) 2. What kind of light is used for photosynthesis? visible light most effectively violet-blue & red 3. What is a pigment? Why is chlorophyll green? pigment: substances that absorb visible light chlorophyll: reflects/transmits green light 4. What are accessory pigments what do they do? accessory pigments: other pigments that work w/ chlorophyll a chlorophyll b: slight structural difference 1 different functional group in porphyrin ring (light absorbing head) carotenoid: hydrocarbons, absorb violet & blue-green light broaden spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis photoprotection: absorb & dissipate excessive light energy prevent chlorophyll from being damaged or interacting w/ O2 would otherwise form reactive oxidative molecules dangerous to cell

John Lin 11.29.12 Period 5 5. What is a photosystem? light capturing united located in thylakoid membrane reaction-center complex (protein complex) surrounded by several light-harvesting complexes reaction-center complex: primary electron acceptor w/ a special pair of chlorophyll a light-harvesting complex: various pigment molecules bound to proteins Photosystem II (PS II): P680 (chlorophyll a at reaction-center complex) Photosystem I (PS I): P700 6. Summarize what light is doing in a photosystem? (Describe what is happening in figure 10.12) photon of light strikes pigment molecule in light harvesting complex energy passes from pigment to pigment energy transferred to chlorophyll a in reaction-center complex chlorophyll a transfers excited electron to primary electron acceptor 7. Why does there need to be 2 photosystems? different pigment molecules: absorb different wavelengths PSII: 680 nm (orange red) PSI: 700 nm (far red) 8. What is the role of water in the photosystem? H2O 2e- + 2H+ + O e- supplied to P680+ 9. What is the purpose of NADPH? chemical energy & reducing power donate electrons to 1,3-biphosphoglycerate (which eventually becomes G3P) 10. In general what is chemiosmosis? energy coupling mechanism uses energy stored in the form of a H+ gradient across a membrane to drive work in photosynthesis: thylakoid: high H+ concentration stroma: low H+ concentration when e- are transferred, protons are translocated from stroma to thylakoid space diffusion of H+ back into stroma powers ATP synthase (make ATP)

John Lin 11.29.12 Period 5 10.3 Calvin Cycle 1. What is the overall purpose of the Calvin Cycle? build carbohydrates from smaller molecules and consuming energy convert CO2 to sugar (G3P, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate) consumes ATP & NADPH 3 phases: carbon fixatn, reductn, & regeneratn of CO2 acceptor 2. Where do the 6 ATP and the 6 NADPHs in figure 10.18 come from? 3 CO2 used to make 1 G3P (cycle occurs 3x) ATP & NADPH from light reaction a. carbon fixation attach RuBP (5-carbon sugar, ribulose biposphate) catalyzed by rubisco (RuBP carboxylase) product: unstable 6-carbon molecule splits into 2 3-phosphoglycerate b. reduction 3-phosphoglycerate + phosphate group 1,3-phosphoglycerate 2 ATP used per CO2 1,3-phosphoglycerate + 2e- - phosphate group G3P 2 NADPH per CO2 c. regeneration of RuBP 5 G3P rearranged into 3 RuBP