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1

80% 10%

6077 1.1-1.2 40
23.0-27.2 /5500-6500 / 1.2
1.451brown coal2
lignite
40%

30%

12%
12-18% 18-26% 26-35%
35-44% 42%

7000

2.

95
5060
6070 7492 9098
SO2 5 4
2.54 1.52.5 1.01.5
1
3.
,,

100

4.

5.

1020 10 1
05
1525 25
610
10 17 10
30 1 435 4 228
20
2 20

2030 1
8 2050
10~20 11711673MJkg
15 1
3 5
40
15-30 15-5

6.

Vdaf%
G

W
Y

<=10

Ymm
-

b
%
-

PM%

Qgr,maf

P
M

.O
P

1/3

1/2

>10.O-2
0.O

S
M

>10.0-20

>10.0-20
.0

<=5

>5-20

>20-65

>20.0-28

>50-60
.0
M
>65a
>10.0-20.0
F
>10.0-37
(>85a)
M
.0
1/
>28.0-37
>65a
3JM
.0
Q
>37.0
(>85)
F
>28.0-37
Q
>50-65
.0
M
>35
>37.0
1/
>20.0-37
>30-50
2ZN
.0
R
>20.0-37
>5-30
N
.0
B
>20.0-37
<=5
N
.0
C
>37.0
<=35
Y
H
>37.0
M
>37.0

<=25.

(<
=150)

>25

<25.0
>25.0

(<
220)
>2
20

<=25.
(<
0
=220)

>50

<=30
>30-50

<=24

7.

1 1400 1100
.
8.
1

Mf

Minh
Mar
Mad Minhad
2

3
30 96 MHC

96

5
515
15

1
2
3
4
9.

1g/cm

1000-6mm 80-0.15mm

1 1500 1500
2
3
4
5 C1C495%
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14

1
2
EXW, FOB
3:
4
5
15-20 |
6

7CIF

8FOB
FOB
9
10
11
13%
12
13

1417% 100
117
15

16
17 THC

CRC 8

1
2

3
4

7 15mm
8 15mm
1.
1 8 12
34 58
2. 3 12

3.
.

,.,
,,.,
.,
.,.
CO2 (a,%),,
, CO2
,

,.

950

: 3
1 90%

2 3%~4%

3 0.2%~0.4%,
1%

17500kj/Nm3 300~400 m3
16%~20%

coal
Categories of coal
Coal equivalent 29.27MJ 1kg
Run-of-mine coal
Raw coal
Commercial coalsalable coal
cleaned coal
Middings
Washed coal
Screened coalsieved coal
Sized coal 6mm
Size
Oversize fraction
Undersize fraction
Ultra large coal(>100mm) 100mm
Large coal(>50mm) 50mm
Medium-sized coal(2550mm) 550mm
Small coal(1325mm) 1325mm
Mixed medium-sized coal (1380mm) 1380mm
Mixed lump coal(13300mm) 13300mm
Pea coal(613mm) 613mm
Mixed coal(>050mm) 050mm
Slackslackcoal(>025mm) 025mm
Fine coal(>06mm) 06mm

Coal fines(>00.5mm) 0.5mm


slime 0.5mm
Shale
Dirt band
washery rejects
Shale cont ent 50mm
carbonization of coal ,
,
coal ash analysis
ash fusibility

deformation temperature, DT
T1()
softening temperature, ST
T2
hemispherical temperature, HT

flow temperature, FT
T 1.5mm
ash viscosity

ash basicity
()( )
ash acidity
() ()
ash sintering strength

ash handling
,
fouling

fouling index, fouling factor


Na2O RF 0.20.20.5()0.51.0 1.0

as received basis
ar
[] dry basis
d
dry ash-free basis
daf
dry mineral-matter-free basis
dmmf
air dried basis
ad
moist ash-free basis
maf
moist mineral-matter-free basis
m,mmf
carbonization of coal
,,
plastic property

coking property

caking property

Gieseler fluidity

maximum fluidity

temperature of maximum fluidity

swelling property

- Audibert-Arnu dilatation
- b a

maximum dilatation
-
maximum contraction
-
- Gray-King assay
-,

caking index

Roga index

crucible swelling number


(free swelling index),

plastometer indices
X

maximum thickness of plastic layer


Y
volume curve of plastic layer

final contraction value, plastometric shrinkage


730,
characteristic of coke

contraction coefficient of char


500750
plastic mass

low-temperature pyrolysis
500700
Fischer-Schrader assay

tar yield

char yield

total water yield

thermolysis water yield


mechanism of coke formation

mesophase mechanism of coke formation

plastic mechanism of coke formation

coal blending

additive for coal blending

coal blending test

200kg 200kg sample coke oven test

prediction of coke strength

co-carbonization
()

coal modification

coal preheating processes


(1):,(2)

[] cold briquetting process



[](cold briquetting process with binder) [](cold briquetting
process without binder)
[] hot briquetting process

[](hot briquetting process with solid thermo-carrier)


behavior of coal degasification
,,
metallurgical coke

foundry coke

pitch coke

coke reactivity

post-reaction strength
10mm

raw gas

coke-oven gas

coal tar

coal-tar pitch

soft pitch
70
mid-temperature pitch
, 7090
hard pitch
, 90
modified pitch

beehive oven

by-product coke oven

coke oven
,
gasification of coal
,
reactivity of coal

carboxy reactivity of coal

thermal stability

clinkering property

clinkering rate
, 6mm
clinkering rate curve

coal gasification by nuclear heat

gasification mode
,,,
moving-bed gasification

fluidized-bed gasification

entrained flow gasification

molten bath gasification

gasification intensity

gasification efficiency

cold gas efficiency

devolatilization

efficiency of carbon conversion

water-gas shift

hydrogasification

catalytic gasification

methanation

producer gas

water gas

synthetic gas,syngas

substitute natural gas, SNG


gas purification

two-stage gasifier
,,
molten bath gasifier
,
- Woodall-Duckham retort
-
Lurgi gasifier
(dry-ash Lurgi
gasifier)(slagging Lurgi gasifier)
Winkler fluidized-bed gasifier

K-T Koppers-Totzek gasifier


--
- Wellman-Galusha gasifier
--

ash agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier

UGI UGI water gas gasifier


(United Gas Improvement Company)

kiln-gas gasifier

Texaco gasifier
,
layer combustion

fluidized-bed combustion, FBC

sour gas, acid gas

fluidized-bed combustion boiler


(atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion
boiler)(pressurized fluidized-bed combustion boiler)
pulverized coal firing boiler, pulverized coal boiler

cyclone furnace

chain-grate stoker

underfeed stoker

coal liquefaction

direct liquefaction

indirect liquefaction

hydrogenolysis

hydrogen shuttling, hydrogen transfer


(1)(2)

free radical reaction


(1)(2)

solvent refined coal process

Exxon donor solvent process, EDS

H-coal process

COED char oil energy development process, COED

solvent refined coal, SRC

F-T Fischer-Tropsch coal liquefaction process

- coal-oil co-process

supercritical extraction
,
non-fuel use

carbonaceous adsorbent

carbonaceous molecular sieve

active carbon from coal

plastic material from coal

carbon brick

upgrading
,
montan wax

ultra-clean coal

coal mine environment

geological environment of coal mine

underground mining environment

ecological deterioration of mining area

mining-induced enviromental damage

land deterioration in mining area



water resources deterioration in mining area

[] land reclamation

[] land reclamation in mining area

subsidence trough reclamation

waste heap reclamation

biological reclamation

plantation in mining area

environmental pollution in coal mine

air pollution in mining area

coal burning pollution

air pollution due to coal combustion

flue dust

smoke prevention and dust control

flue gas desulfurization

[] mining area water pollution

coal preparation waste water

mine water

highly-mineralized mine water


1000mg/L
acid mine water
pH 5.5
surface mine water

reclamation of mine water

coal mine solid waste

spontaneous combustion of waste heap

explosion and blower of waste heap

leaching water from waste heap

waste disposal

noise in coal mine

visual impact in mining area

underground thermal pollution


mine environmental monitoring

mine environmental impact assessment

mine environmental planning