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Alexsander Dugin FROM SACRED GEOGRAPHY TO GEOPOLITICS

This text appeared under the title "Ot sakral'noy geografii k geopolitike" in Elementy n. 4, and as the chapter 7 of "Misterii E ra!ii" "Mosco# $%%&'. ((((((((((((((((((((((((((( Trans. from the )ussian original *y M.+onser a ((((((((((((((((((((((((((( ,eopolitics as "intermediate" science -and and sea .ym*olism of landscape East and /est in sacred geography East and /est in modern geopolitics .acred 0orth and sacred .outh The people of the 0orth The people of the .outh 0orth and .outh in East and in /est 1rom continents to meta(continents The illusion of the "rich 0orth" 2aradox of the " Third /orld " The role of the " .econd /orld " The pro3ect of the ")ising 0orth" Geopolitics as "intermediate" science Geopolitical concepts became the major factors of modern politics since a long time ago. They are built on general principles allowing to easily analyze the situation of any particular country and region. Geopolitics in its present form is undoubtedly a worldly, "profane", secularized science. But maybe, among all modern sciences, it saved in itself the greatest connection with Tradition and traditional sciences. Ren Gu non said that modern chemistry is the outcome of the desacralization of a traditional science ! alchemy, as modern physics is of magic. "#actly in the same way one might say that modern geopolitics is the product of the laicizing and desacralizing of another traditional science ! sacred geography. But since geopolitics holds a special place among modern sciences, and it is often ran$ed as a "pseudo%science", its profanizing is not so accomplished and irreversible, as in the case of chemistry or physics. The connection with sacred geography here is rather distinctly visible. Therefore it is possible to say that geopolitics stands in an intermediate place between traditional science &sacred geography' and profane science.

(and and sea The two primary concepts of geopolitics are land and sea. )ust these two elements !"arth and *ater ! lie at the roots of human +ualitative representation of earthly space. Through the e#perience of land and sea, earth and water, man enters into contact with the fundamental aspects of his e#istence. (and is stability, gravity, fi#ity, space as such. *ater is mobility, softness, dynamics, time. These two elements are in essence the most obvious display of the material nature of the world. They stand outside of man, everything is heavy and fluid. They are also inside him, body and blood. &The same happens also at a cellular level.' The universatility of the e#perience of earth and water generates the traditional concept of -irmament, since the presence of the .igher *aters &the source of rain' in the s$y also implies the presence of a symmetric and necessary element !earth, land, the celestial vault. /nyway, "arth, 0ea, 1cean are in essence the major categories of earthly e#istence, and for man$ind it is impossibile not to see in them some basic attributes of the universe. /s the two basic terms of geopolitics, they preserve their significance both for civilizations of a traditional $ind and for e#clusively modern states, peoples and ideological bloc$s. /t the level of global geopolitical phenomena, (and and 0ea generated the terms, thalassocratia and tellurocratia, i.e. " power by means of the sea " and " power by means of the land ". The force of any state and any empire is based upon the preferential development of one of these categories. "mpires are either "thalassocratic", or "tellurocratics". The former imply the e#istence of a mother country and colonies, the latter of a capital and provinces on "common land". 2n the case of "thalassocracy" its territory is not unified into one land space % which creates an element of discontinuity. The sea ! here lies both strength and wea$ness of " thalassocratic power ". "Tellurocracy", vice%versa, has the +uality of territorial continuity. But geographical and cosmological logics would at once complicate the seemingly simple scheme of this division, the pair "land!sea", by reciprocal superimposition of its elements, gives birth to the ideas of " maritime land " and of "land water". The maritime land is the island, i.e. the basis of maritime empire, the pole of thalassocracy. (and water or water within land are the rivers, which predetermine the development of overland empires. )ust on the river is located the city, that is the capital, the pole of tellurocracy. This symmetry is symbolic, economic and geographical at the same time. 2t is important to notice that the status of 2sland and 3ontinent is defined not so much on the basis of their physical magnitude, than on the basis of the peculiar typical consciousness of the population. 0o the geopolitics of the 40 has an insular character, despite of the size of 5orthern /merica, while insular )apan geopolitically represents an e#ample of continental mentality, etc. 1ne more detail is relevant, historical thalassocracy is lin$ed to the *est and the /tlantic 1cean, while tellurocracy to the "ast and the "urasian continent. &The above mentioned e#ample of )apan is e#plained, thus, by the stronger "attractive" effect of "urasia.' Thalassocracy and /tlantism became synonyms long before colonial e#pansion of Great Britain or 6ortuguese%0panish con+uests. /lready since the beginning of sea migrations waves, the peoples of *est and their cultures began their "astward movement on from the centres located on the /tlantic. The 7editerranean also did rise from Gibraltar to the 5ear "ast, rather than the other way. /nd on the contrary, e#cavations in "astern 0iberia and 7ongolia prove that e#actly here were the most ancient centres of civilization ! that is, the central lands of the continent were the cradle of the "uroasian man$ind. 0ymbolism of landscape Besides these two global categories ! (and and 0ea !geopolitics operates also with more particular definitions. /mong thalassocratic realities, there is a differentiation between sea and oceanic

formations. 0o, for instance, the sea civilization of the Blac$ 0ea or 7editerranean 0ea are rather +ualitatively different from the civilization of the oceans, i.e. insular powers and peoples dwelling on the shores of the open ocean. 7ore particular divisions e#ist also between river and la$e civilizations, lin$ed to continents. Tellurocracy too has its particular forms. 0o it is possible to distinguish a civilization of the 0teppe and a civilization of the -orest, a civilization of the 7ountains and a civilization of the 6lains, a civilization of the 8esert and a civilization of 2ce. The varieties of landscape in sacred geography are understood as symbolical comple#es lin$ed to the specificity of state, religious and ethical ideology of the different peoples. /nd even in that case, when we deal with universalistic ecumenical religion, its concrete embodying in such or such people, race, or state will be identically subject to adaptation according to the local sacred%geographical conte#t. 8esert and steppes represent the geopolitical microcosm of the nomads. 6recisely in deserts and steppes the tellurocratic tendency reaches its summit, as the"water" factor here is minimally present. The empires of 8esert and 0teppe should logically be the geopolitical bridgehead of tellurocracy. /s an e#ample of the empire of 0teppe, one might consider the empire of Gengis 9ahn, while a typical e#ample of the empire of *ilderness is the arabian $halifat, arisen under direct influence of the nomads. 7ountains and the civilizations of mountains more often represent archaic, fragmentary. 7ountain countries not only are not sources of e#pansion: on the contrary, there are concentrated the victims of the geopolitical e#pansion of other tellurocratic forces. 5o empire has its centre in mountain regions. .ence the so often repeated motive of sacred geography, "mountains are populated by demons". 1n the other hand, the idea of the conservation of the residuals of ancient races and civilizations on the mountans is shown in the fact that precisely on the mountains the sacred centres of tradition are placed. 2t is even possible to say that in tellurocracies a mountain corresponds to some spiritual power. The logical combination of both concepts ! mountain as a hieratic image and plain asa regal image! became the symbolism of the hill, i.e. a small or average height. The hill is a symbol of imperial might raising above the secular level of the steppe, but not reaching the limit of supreme power &as it is in the case of mountains'. / hill is a dwelling place for a $ing, a count, an emperor, but not for the priest. /ll capitals of large tellurocratic empires are placed on a hill or on hills &often on seven hills ! the number of the planets: or on five ! thye number of elements, including ether: and so on'. The forest in sacred geography is close to the mountains in a definite sense. The symbolism of the tree is related to the symbolism of the mountain &both the former and the latter designate the world a#is'. Therefore in tellurocracies the forest also plays a peripheral function ! it, too, is the "place of the priests" &druids, magi, hermits', but also at the same time the "place of demons", i.e. archaic residuals from a vanished past. 5either the forest zone can be the centre of the overland empire. The tundra represents the northern analogue to the steppe and the desert, although the cold climate ma$es it much less significant from a geopolitical point of view. This "periphericity" reaches its apogee with ices, which, similarly to the mountains, are deeply archaic zones. 2t is indicative that the es$imo shamanic tradition implies departing alone among ices, where to the future shaman the world beyond is opened out. Thus, ices are a hieratic zone, the threshold of a different world. -rom these primary and most general characteristics of the geopolitical map, it is possible to define the various regions of the planet according to their sacred +uality. This method can also be applied to the local features of the landscape at a level of single countries or even of single localities. 2t is also possible to trace the li$eness of ideologies and traditions of the most &apparently' different peoples, in the event that the native born landscape is the same. "ast and *est in sacred geography

3ardinal 6onts in the conte#t of sacred geography have special +ualitative characteristic. 2n the various traditions and in the various periods of these traditions, the picture of sacred geography can vary according to the cyclical phases of development of the given tradition. Thus the symbolic function of 3ardinal 6oints often varies also. 5ot going deep into details, it is possible to formulate the most universal law of sacred geography with reference to "ast and *est. 0acred geography on the basis of "space symbolism" traditionally considers the "ast as "the land of 0pirit", the paradise land, the land of a completeness, abundance, the 0acred "native land" in its fullest and most perfect $ind. 2n particular, this idea is mirrored in the Bible te#t, where the eastern disposition of ""den"is treated. 6recisely such understanding is peculiar also to other abrahamic traditions &2slam and )udaism', and also to many non%abrahamic traditions ! 3hinese, .indu and 2ranian. ""ast is the mansion of the gods", states the sacred formula of the ancient "gyptians, and the same word "east" &"neter" in aegyptian' meant at the same time "god". -rom the point of view of natural symbolism, "ast is the place where ascends, "vos%te$eat" ;in russian< the sun, (ight of the *orld, material symbol of 8ivinity and 0pirit. The *est has the opposite symbolical meaning. 2t is the "country of death", the "lifeless world", the "green country" &as the ancient "gyptians called it'. *est is "the empire of e#ile", "the pit of the rejected", according to the e#pression of 2slamic mystics. *est is "anti%east", the country of "za$ata";in russian<, decay, degradation, transition from the manifest to the non%manifest, from life to death, from completeness to need, etc. *est ;=apad, in russian< is the place where the sun goes, where it "sin$s down";za%padaet<. /ccording to the given logics of natural cosmic symbolism, the ancient traditions organized their "sacred space", founded their centres of cult, burial places, temples and edifices, and interpreted the natural and "civilizational" features of geographical, cultural and political territories of the planet. 2n this way, the structure itself of migrations, wars, campaigns, demographic waves, building of empires etc. was defined by the original, pragmatic logics of sacred geography. /long the "ast%*est a#is were drawn peoples and civilizations, possessing hierarchical characters ! closer to the "ast were those closer to 0acral, to Tradition, to spiritual wealth. 3loser to *est, those of a more decayed, degraded and dying 0pirit. 1f course this logicis was not absolute, but at the same time it was neither minor nor relative ! as it is today wrongly considered by many "profane" scholars of ancient religions and traditions. /s a matter of fact, sacred logics and the following cosmic symbolism were much more consciously realized, understood and practised by the ancient peoples, than it is agreed to esteem today. /nd even in our antisacred world, at an "unconscious" level almost always archetypes of sacred geography are preserved in their integrity, and are awo$en in the most relevant and critical moments of social cataclysms. 0o sacred geography univocally affirms the law of "+ualitative space", in which the "ast represents the symbolic "ontological plus", and the *est the "ontological minus". /ccording to the 3hinese tradition, the "ast is >ang, the male, bright, solar principle, and the *est is >in, the female, dar$, lunar principle.

"ast and *est in modern geopolitics *e shall observe how this sacred%geographical logics is mirrored in geopolitics, which, being an e#clusively modern science, is only focused upon the factual situation, leaving out of the frame the most sacred principles. Geopolitics in its original formulations by Ratzel, 9jellen and 7ac$inder &and later by .aushofer and the Russian eurasists' just refrained from connecting the features of the different $inds of civilizations and states to their geographical disposition. Geopoliticians stared at the fact of a fundamental difference between "insular" and "continental" powers, between "western", "progressive" civilization

and "eastern", "despotic" and "archaic" cultural forms. 0ince in general the +uestion about 0pirit in its metaphysical and sacred comprehension never arose in modern science, geopoliticians left it aside, preferring to evaluate the situation in different, more modern terms, rather than through the concepts of "sacred" and "profane", "traditional" and "antitraditional" etc. Geopoliticians established the major differences between political, cultural and industrial development of "astern and *estern in the last centuries. The final picture is the following. The *est is the centre of "material" and "technological" development. /t the cultural%ideological level, there "liberal% democratic" tendencies, individualistic and humanist world views are prevailing. /t the economic level, priority is given to trade and technical modernization. 2n the *est theories about "progress", "evolution", "progressive development of history" for the first time appeared, completely alien to the traditional "astern world &and also to those periods of *estern history, when a rigorous sacred tradition e#isted there too % as it was, in particular, in the 7iddle /ges'. 3oercion at a social level in the *est ac+uired only an economic character, and the (aw of 2dea and -orce was gradually replaced by the (aw of 7oney. Gradullay a peculiar "*estern ideology" was cast in the universal formula of "ideology of human rights", which became a dominant principle in the most western regions of the planet !5orthern /merica, and first of all the 40. /t an industrial level, to this ideology corresponded the idea of "developed countries , and at an economic level the concept of "free mar$et, of "economic liberalism". The whole aggregate of these features, with the addition of the purely military, strategical integration of the different sectors of the *estern civilization, is defined today by the concept of "atlantism". 2n the past century geopoliticians spo$e about an "/nglo%0a#on $ind of civilization" or about "capitalist, bourgeois democracy". 2n this "atlantist" type the formula of "geopolitical *est" found its most pure embodying Geopolitical "ast represents in itself the straight opposition to geopolitical *est. 2nstead of economic modernization, here &in the "less developed countries"' traditional, archaic modes of production of corporative, shop%manufacturing type prevail. 2nstead of economic coercion, more often the state uses "moral" or simply physical coercion &(aw of 2dea and (aw of -orce'. 2nstead of "democracy" and "human right" the "ast gravitates around totalitarianism, socialism and authoritarianism, i.e. around various types of social regimes, whose only common feature is that the centre of their systems there is not the"individual", "man" with his "rights" and his peculiar "individual values", but something supra% individual, supra%human ! be it "society", "nation", "people", "idea", "weltanschauung", "religion", "cult of the leader" etc. The "ast opposed to western liberal democracy the most various types of non% liberal, non%individualistic the societies ! from authoritarian monarchy up to theocracy or socialism. 7oreover, from a pure typological, geopolitical point of view, the political specificity of this or that regime was secondary in comparison with the +ualitative dividing between "western" &? "individualist % mercantile"' order and "eastern " &? "supra%individualist ! based on force"' order. Representative forms of such anti%western civilization were the 400R, communist 3hina, )apan about @ABC or 9homeiniDs 2ran. 2t is curious to notice that Rudolf 9jellen, the first author to use the term "geopolitics", illustrated the difference between *est and "ast in this way. E/ typical pet phrase of the /mericans, ! wrote 9jellen ! is "go ahead", that literally means "forward". 2n it the interior and natural geopolitical optimism and "progressism" of the /merican civilization, being the e#treme form of the western pattern, is mirrored. Russians usually repeat the word "nechego" ;nothing< &in Russian in 9jellenDs te#t ! /.8.'. 2n it are shown "pessimism", "contemplation", "fatalism"and "adherence to tradition," all peculiar features of the "ast F. 2f we now return to the paradigm of sacred geography, we shall see the direct contradiction between the priorities of modern geopolitics &such concepts as "progress", "liberalism", "human rights", "mercantile order" etc., are today positive terms for the majority of people' and the priorities of sacred geography, evaluating the various $inds of civilizations from a completely opposite point of view &concepts li$e "spirit", "contemplation", "resignation to superhuman force or superhuman idea",

"ideocracy" etc. in sacred civilizations were e#clusively positive, and so remain till now for the "astern peoples at the level of "collective unconscious"'. 0o modern geopolitics &e#cept for Russian eurasists, German followers of .aushofer, 2slamic fundamentalists etc.' evaluate the picture of the world from an opposite perspective than traditional sacred geography. But thus both sciences converge in the description of fundamental laws of the geographical picture of civilizations. 0acred 5orth and sacred 0outh Besides the sacred%geographical determinism on an "ast % *est a#is, an e#tremely relevant problem is represented by the other, vertical, orientation a#is ! the 5orth % 0outh a#is. .ere, as well as in all remaining cases, the principles of sacred geography, the symbolism of cardinal points and the related continents, has its direct analogue in the geopolitical picture of the world, which either is naturally built up in the course of the historical process, or is consciously and artificially formed as a result of purposely actions of the leaders of such or such geopolitical formations. -rom the point of view of the "integral tradition", the difference between "artificial" and "natural" is generally rather relative, as Tradition never $new anything similar to carthesian or $antian dualism, strictly separating the "subjective" from the "objective" &"phenomenal" and "noumenal"'. Therefore the sacred determinism of 5orth or 0outh is nor just a physical, natural, landscape%climatic factor &i.e. something "objective"' or just "idea", "concept" generated by the minds of such or such individuals &i.e. something "subjective"', but something of a third $ind, e#ceeding both the objective and subjective poles. 1ne might say that the sacred 5orth, the archetype of 5orth, halving itself in history in northern natural landscape, on the one hand, and in the idea of 5orth, "nordism", on the other hand. The most ancient and original layer of Tradition univocally affirms the primacy of 5orth above the 0outh. The symbolism of 5orth relates to a 0ource, to an original northern paradise, from where all human civilization originates. /ncient 2ranic and =oroastrian te#ts spea$ about the northern country of "/ryiana Gaeijao" and its capital "Gara", from where the ancient arians were e#pelled by glaciation, which sent them /riman, spirit of "vil and oppositor to the bright 1rmudz. The ancient Geda too spea$ about the 5orthern country as the ancestral home of the .indu, about a 0veta%dipa, *hite (and laying in the far north. The ancient Gree$s spo$e about .yperborea, the northern island with capital Thule. This land was considered as the motherland of the bright god /pollon. /nd in many other traditions it is possible to detect most ancient trac$s, often forgotten and become fragmentary, of a nordic symbolism. The basic idea traditionally lin$ed to the 5orth is the idea of 3entre, 2mmobile 6ole, point of "ternity around which the cycle turns not only of space, but also of time. 5orth is the land where the sun never goes even at night, a space of eternal light. /ny sacred tradition honors the 3entre, the 7iddle, the point where contrasts appease, the symbolical place not subject to the laws of cosmic entropy. This 3entre, whose symbol is the 0wasti$a &stressing both immobility and constancy of the 3entre, and mobility and changeability of the periphery', received a different name according to each tradition, but it was always directly or indirectly lin$ed to the symbolism of 5orth. Therefore it is possible to say that all sacred traditions are in essence the projection of a 0ingle 5orthern 6rimordial Tradition adapted to every different historical condition. 5orth is 3ardinal 6oint chosen by the primeval (ogos in order to reveal itself in .istory, and each of its further manifestations only restored that primeval polar% paradise symbolism. 0acred geography correlates 5orth to spirit, light, purity, completeness, unity, eternity. The south symbolizes something directly opposite ! materiality, dar$ness, mi#ture, privation, plurality, immersion in the stream of time and becoming. "ven from the natural point of view, in polar areas there is one long semi%annual 8ay and one long semi%annual 5ight. 2t is the 8ay and 5ight of the gods and heroes, of the angels. "ven decayed traditions remembered this sacral, spiritual, supernatural 3ardinal 5orth, including the northern regions as the dwelling place of "spirits" and "forces from

beyond". 2n the south the 8ay and 5ight of the gods are fragmented into a set of human days, the original symbolism of .yperborea is lost, and its memories become a piece of "culture", of "legend". 0outh generally often corresponds to culture, i.e. to that sphere of human activity where the 2nvisible and the 6urely 0piritual ac+uires material, hardened, visible outlines. 0outh is the reign of substance, life, biology and instincts. The 0outh corrupts the northern purity of Tradition, but preserves its traces in materialized features. The 5orth % 0outh pair in sacred geography is not reduced to an abstract opposition of Good and "vil. 2t is rather the opposition of 0piritual 2dea to its coarsened, material embodying. 2n normal cases, as the primacy of 5orthis recognized by the 0outh, between these parties of a light there e#ist an harmonious relation ! the 5orth "spiritualizes" the 0outh, the nordic messengers give the southerners Tradition, lays the foundations of sacred civilizations. 2f the 0outh fails to recognize the primacy of 5orth, the sacred opposition, the "war of continents" begins, and from the point of view of tradition the 0outh is responsible for this conflict by brea$ing the sacred rules. 2n the Rama%>ana, for instance, the southern island (an$a is considered as a home of the demons which have stolen the wife of Rama, 0ita, and declared war to the continental 5orth with capital /yodjya. Thus it is important to mar$ that in sacred geography the 5orth % 0outh a#is is more relevant than the "ast % *est a#is. But being the more relevant one, it corresponds to the most ancient stages of cyclical history. The great war of 5orth and 0outh, .yperborea and Gondvana &ancient paleo%continent of the 0outh' refers to "antidiluvian" times. 2n the last phases of the cycle it becomes more hidden, veiled. The paleo%continents of 5orth and 0outh themselves disappear. The testimonial sign of opposition is passed to "ast and *est. The shift from the vertical 5orth % 0outh a#is to the horizontal "ast ! "ast a#is, typical of the last stages of the cycle, nevertheless saves the logic and symbolical connection between these two sacred% geographical pairs. The 5orth ! 0outh pair &i.e. 0pirit % 7atter, "ternity % Time' is projected on the "ast % *est pair &i.e. Tradition and 6rofanity, 1rigin and 8ecay'. "ast is the horizontal downward projection of 5orth. *est ! the horizontal upward projection of the 0outh. -rom such transference of sacred meanings one can easily obtain the structure of the continental vision peculiar to Tradition. The people of the 5orth 0acred 5orth defines a special human type, which can have a biological, racial embodying, but can also not have it. The substance of "nordism" is consist in the capability of man to raise each object of the physical, material world to its archetype, to its 2dea. This +uality is not a simple development of rational origin. Gice%versa, carthesian and $antian "pure intellect" for its nature is not able to overcome the thin border between "phenomenon" and "noumenon"% but just this ability lies at the bases of "nordic" thin$ing. The man of 5orth is not simply white, "arian" or indoeuropean for his blood, language and culture. The man of 5orth is a particular $ind of being possessing a straight intuition of the 0acred. To him the cosmos is a te#ture of symbols, each of them called out of secret by the eye of the 0piritual -irst 6rinciple. The man of 5orth is the "solar man", 0onnenmensch, not absorbing energy, as blac$ holes do, but outlining it, pouring out light, force and wisdom from its spiritual flow of creation. The pure nordic civilization disappeared with the ancient .yperboreans, but its messengers have laid the bases of all present traditions. This nordic "race" of Teachers stood at the origins of religion and culture of the peoples of all continents and colours of s$in. Traces of an hyperborean cult can be found among the 2ndians of 5orthern /merica and among the ancient 0laves, among the founders of the 3hinese civilization and among the natives of the 6acific, among the blond Germans and among the blac$ shamans of *estern /frica, among the red%s$inned /ztecs and among the 7ongols with wide chee$%bones. There is no such people on the planet, which would not have a myth about the "solar man, 0onnenmensch. True spirituality, supra%rational 7ind, divine (ogos, capacity to see through the

world its secret 0oul ! these are the defining +ualities of the 5orth. *herever there is 0acred 6urity and *isdom, there invisibly is the 5orth ! whatever the point in time or space we are in. The people of the 0outh The man of the 0outh, the gondvanic type, is directly opposed to the "nordic" type. The man of the 0outh lives in a circle of effects, of secondary manifestations: he dwells in the cosmos, which he venerates but does not understand. .e worships e#teriority, but not interiority. .e carefully saves trac$s of spirituality, its embodying in the material environment, but is not able to proceed from symbolizing to symbolized. The man of the 0outh lives by passions and rushes, he puts the psychic above the spiritual &which he simply does not $now' and worships (ife as a higher authority. The cult of the Great 7other, of the matter generating the variety of forms, is typical of the man of the 0outh. The civilization of the 0outh is a civilization of the 7oon receiving the light from the 0un &5orth', preserving and diffusing it for some time, but periodically losing contact with it &new moon'. The man of the 0outh is a 7ondmensch. *hen the people of the 0outh stay in harmony with the people of 5orth, i.e. recognize their authority and their typological &not racialH' superiority, harmony reigns among civilizations. *hen they claim their supremacy because of their archetypical relation to reality, there arises a distorted cultural type, which can be globally defined by adoration of idols, fetishism or paganism &in the negative, pejorative sense of this term'. /s in the case of paleocontinents, pure northern and southern types e#isted only in remote ancient times. The people of 5orth and people of the 0outh opposed one another at the origins. (ater all peoples of 5orth penetrated into southern lands, founding sometimes bright e#pressions of the "nordic" civilization ! ancient 2ran, 2ndia. 1n the other hand, those of the 0outh sometimes went far northward, bearing their cultural type !-inns, "s$imos, 3huc$chi etc. Gradually the original clearness of the sacred%geographical panorama became muddy. But in spite of everything the typological dualism of the "people of 5orth" and the "people of the 0outh" was preserved in all times and epochs % but not as much as an e#ternal conflict of two miscellaneous civilizations, as an internal conflict within the framewor$ of the same civilization. The type of 5orth and the type of the 0outh, since some moment in sacred history, oppose each other everywhere, irrespective of the concrete place of the planet. 5orth and 0outh in "ast and in *est The type of the people of 5orth could be projected in the 0outh, "ast and *est. 2n the 0outh, the (ight of 5orth generated great metaphysical civilizations such as the 2ndian, 2ranian or 3hinese, which in the situation of the "conservative" 0outh for a long time saved the Revelation, entrusted by it. .owever, the simpleness and clearness of northern symbolism turned here into a comple# and miscellaneous tangle of sacred doctrines, sacraments and rites. .owever, the further to the 0outh, the feebler are the traces of the 5orth. /nd among the inhabitants of the 6acific islands and 0outhern /frica, "nordic" motives in mythology and sacraments are saved in an e#tremely fragmentary, rudimentary and even distorted form. 2n the "ast, 5orth is shown as the classic traditional society founded on the univocal superiority of the supra%individual above the individual, where the "human" and the "rational" are erased before the supra%human and supra%rational 6rinciple. 2f the 0outh gives the civilization a character of "stability", the "ast defines its sacrality and authenticity, the major guarantor of which is the (ight of the 5orth. 2n the *est, 5orth was shown in the heroic societies, where such tendency, peculiar to the *est, to fragmentation, individualisation and razionalisazion surpassed itself, and the individual, becoming the .ero, grew out of the narrow framewor$ of the "human ! too%human" personality. 5orth in *est is personified by the symbolical figure of .eracles who, on the one hand, releases 6rometheus &the pure

western, titanic, "humanist" tendency', and on the other, helps =eus and the gods to defeat the rebellion of the giants &i.e. serves for the sa$e of sacred rules and spiritual 1rder'. The 0outh, on the contrary, projects itself on all three orientations according to an opposite image. 2n the 5orth, it gives the effect of "archaism" and cultural stagnation. "ven the most northern, "nordic" traditions under the southern influence, "paleo%asiatic", "-innish" or ""s$imo" elements ac+uire the characters of"idol%worshipping" and "fetishism". &This is characteristic, in particular, of the German% 0candinavian civilization in the "epoch of the 0$alds".' 2n the "ast, the forces of the 0outh are shown in despotic societies, where normal and fair eastern indifference to the individual turns into the denial of the great 0upra%human 0ubject. /ll forms of "astern totalitarianism, both typological and racial, are lin$ed to the 0outh. /nd at last, in the *est the 0outh is shown in the e#tremely rough, materialistic forms of individualism, when the atomic individuals reach the limit of antiheroic degeneration, worshipping only "the golden veal" of comfort and egoistical hedonism. That e#actly such combination of the two sacred%geopolitical tendencies gives the most negative type of civilization is obvious, since in it two attitudes, already in themselves negative ! the 0outh on the vertical line and the *est on the horizontal line % are laid one upon the other. -rom continents to meta%continents 2f from the perspective of sacred geography the symbolical 5orth univocally corresponds to positive aspects, and the 0outh to negative, in an e#clusively modern geopolitical picture of the world everything is much more comple#, and to some e#tent even turned upside down. 7odern geopolitics understands the terms "5orth" and "0outh" as wholly different categories than sacred geography does. -irstly, the paleocontinent of 5orth, .yperborea, since many millennia already does not e#ist on a physical level, remaining a spiritual reality, on which is directed the spiritual loo$ of the intiated, e#acting the original Tradition. 0econdly, the ancient nordic race, the race of the "white teachers", coupled with the pole in the primordial epoch, does not coincide at all with what is commonly agreed to call today the coupled with white race", based only on physical characters, on the colour of the s$in etc. 5orthern Tradition and its original population, "nordic autochtones" since a long time do not represent any more a concrete historical%geographical reality. By common judgement, even the last remains of this primordial culture have disappeared from physical reality already some millennia ago. Thus, 5orth in Tradition is a meta%historical and meta%geographical reality. The same can be said also about the "hyperborean race " ! a "race" not in the biological, but in pure spiritual, metaphysical sense. &This theme of "metaphysical races" was in detail developed in the wor$s of )ulius "vola'. The continent of the 0outh and the whole 0outh of Tradition, too, since a long time ago do not e#ist any more in the pure state, no lesser than its most ancient population. 0omehow, the "0outh" from some moment onwards became practically the whole planet, as the influence of the original polar initiatic centre and its messengers on the world diminished. The modern races of the 0outh represent a product of multiple mi#tures with the races of 5orth, and the color of the s$in for a long time already ceased to be the distinctive sign of belonging to such or such "metaphysical race". 2n other words, the modern geopolitical picture of the world has very little in commun with the principial vision of the world in its supra%historical, meta%temporal cut. The continents and their populations in our epoch have gone e#tremely far from those archetypes, which corresponded to them in primordial times. Therefore between real continents and real races &the realities of modern geopolitics', on the one hand, and meta%continents and meta%races &the realities of traditional sacred geography', on the other hand, today there e#ist not just a simple discrepancy, but almost an inverse correspondence.

The illusion of the "rich 5orth" 7odern geopolitics uses the concept of "north" most fre+uently with the definition "rich" ! "the rich 5orth ", and also "the advanced 5orth ". This connotates the whole aggregate of the western civilization, giving its basic attention to the development of the material and economic side of life. "Rich 5orth " is rich not for being cleverer, or more intellectual, or more spiritual than the "0outh" but because it builds its social system on the principle of ma#imizing the material which can be ta$en from the social and natural potential, from the e#ploitation of human and natural resources. The racial image of "Rich 5orth " is lin$ed to those peoples having white s$in, and this feature lays at the roots of the various versions, e#plicit or hidden, of "western racism" &in particular /nglo%0a#on'. The success of "rich 5orth" in the material sphere was raised to a political and even "racial" principle in those countries which were the avantgarde of industrial, technical and economic development ! i.e. "ngland, .olland, and later Germany and the 40. 2n this case, material and +uantitative welfare was e+ualled to a +ualitative criterion, and on this base the most ridiculous prejudices about "barbarism", "primitiveness", "underdevelopment" and "untermenschlich$eit" of southern &i.e. not of belonging to "rich 5orth"' peoples were developed. 0uch "economic racism " was especially clearly shown in the /nglo%0a#on colonial con+uests, and afterwards its embellished version was introduced in the most rough and contradictory aspects of the national%socialist ideology. Thus, often 5azi ideologists simply blended vague guesses about pure "spiritual nordism" and "spiritual arian race" with vulgar, mercantilistic, biological racism of the "nglish $ind. &By the way, precisely this substitution of categories of sacred geography with categories of material and technical development was also that most negative side of national%socialism which led it, eventually, to its political, theoretical and even military collapse'. But even after the defeat of the Third Reich, this $ind of a racism of the "rich 5orth" has not disappeared at all from political life. .owever its bearers became first of all the 40 and their atlantic partners in *estern "urope. 3ertainly, in the most recent mondialist doctrines of "rich 5orth" the +uestion of biological and racial purity is not stressed, but nevertheless, in practice, in its relations with the undeveloped and less developed countries of the Third world, the "rich 5orth " also today shows only "racist" haughtiness, typical both of the "nglish colonialists and of the German national% socialist orthodo# followers of Rosenberg. /ctually, "rich 5orth" geopolitically means those countries where forces directly opposite to Tradition have won % forces of +uantity, materialism, atheism, spiritual degradation and emotional degeneration. " Rich 5orth " means something radically distinct from "spiritual nordism", from "hyperborean spirit". The substance of 5orth in sacred geography is the primacy of spirit above substance, the definitive and total victory of (ight, "+uity and 6urity above the dar$ness of animal life, the arrogance of individual passions and the mud of base egoism. "Rich 5orth" mondialist geopolitics, on the contrary, means e#clusively material welfare, hedonism, consumer society, the unproblematic and artificial pseudo% paradise of those whom 5ietzsche called "the last men". 7aterial progress of the technical civilization was accompanied by a monstrous spiritual regress just of sacred culture, and conse+uently, from the point of view of Tradition, the "wealth" of modern "advanced" 5orth cannot serve as a criterion of genuine superiority above material "poverty" and technical bac$wardness of modern "primitive 0outh ". 7oreover, material "poverty" of the 0outh +uite often is conversely lin$ed to the conservation in southern regions of the genuinely sacred forms of civilization: this means that behind such "poverty" a spiritual wealth is sometimes disguised. /t least two sacred civilizations still e#ist today in the 0outhern space, in spite of all attempts from "rich &and aggressiveH' 5orth" to impose on everyone its own measure and path of development. These are .induist 2ndia and the 2slamist world. /s the -ar "ast tradition is concerned, there are various points of view, some see even under the layer of "7ar#ist" and "7aoist" rethorics some traditional principles, which were always undiscussed for the

3hinese sacred civilization. /nyway, even those southern regions inhabited by peoples saving their devotion to very ancient and almost forgotten sacred traditions, all the same in comparison with atheized and utterly materialistic "rich 5orth", e#hibit "spiritual", "rigorous" and "normal" features % whereas the "rich 5orth" itself, from a spiritual point of view, is completely "abnormal" and "pathological". 6arado# of the " Third *orld " The "6oor 0outh" in mondialist projects is actually synonym to "the Third world". This world was called "Third" during the cold war, and this concept supposed that the other two "worlds" ! advanced capitalist and less advanced 0oviet ! are more relevant and significant for global geopolitics, than all remaining regions. Basically, the e#pression "Third world " has a pejorative sense, according to utilitarian logics of tthe "rich 5orth", such definition actually e+uates countries of the "Third world " to "nobodyDs" bases of natural and human resources, which should only obey, be e#ploited and be used for its own purposes. Thus "rich 5orth " s$ilfully manoeuvered the traditional political%ideological and religious features of the "poor 0outh ", trying to asserve to its e#clusively materialist and economic concerns those forces and structures, which on spiritual potential much more e#ceeded the spiritual level of "5orth". This was almost always possible to it, as the same cyclical moment of development of our civilization favours perverted, abnormal and unnatural tendencies % since, according to the Tradition, we are now in the latest period of the "dar$ century", 9hali%>uga. .induism, 3onfucianism, 2slam, the autochthonous traditions of the "not white" peoples became for the material con+uerors of the "rich 5orth" simply a drag on the accomplishment of their purposes, but at the same time they have often used the separate aspects of Tradition for achieving their mercatilistic purposes ! e#ploiting contradictions, religious features or national problems. 0uch an utilitarian use of the various aspects of Tradition for e#clusively antitraditional purposes was an even greater evil, than the straight denial of all Traditional values, since the highest pervertion consists in that the great is asserved to the insignificant. /ctually " the poor 0outh " is "poor" at a material level precisely because of its spiritual attitudes, always giving the material aspects of e#istence a minor and unimportant place. The geopolitical 0outh in our time saved in general an e#clusively traditionalist attitude towards the objects of the e#ternal world ! a +uiet, detached and, eventually, indifferent attitude ! in star$ contrast to the material obsession of the "rich 5orth", to its materialistic and hedonistic paranoia. The people of the "poor 0outh" normally dwell into Tradition, and till now their e#istences are fuller, deeper and even more magnificent, as the active comparticipation in sacred Tradition bestows on all aspects of their personal lives that sense, that intensity, that saturation of which have been deprived for a long time the representants of the "rich 5orth", % made hysterical by nevroses, material fears, internal desolation, complete aimlessness of e#istence, representing just a bright glass $aleidoscope, only an empty picture. 2t could be said that the correlation between 5orth and 0outh in original times is polarly opposite to their correlation in our epoch, as it is the 0outh that today still preserves some lin$s with the Tradition, whereas the 5orth has definitively lost them. 5evertheless this statement does not absolutely cover the whole picture of reality, since the true Tradition cannot admit in relation to itself such humiliating reference, as the practices of aggressive%atheistic " rich 5orth " with the "Third world". The fact is that Tradition is preserved in the 0outh only in an inertial, fragmentary, partial way. 2t holds a passive position and resists, only defending itself. Therefore the spiritual 5orth does not fully transfer itself to the 0outh at the end of times % in the 0outh there is only an accumulation and preservation of spiritual impulses, never coupled with the sacred 5orth. 2n line of principle, the active traditional initiative cannot emanate from the 0outh. /nd on the contrary, the mondialist "rich 5orth" has managed so to harden its pernicious effect on the planet due to the specificity of northern regions, predisposed to

activity. 5orth was and remains the elective place of force, therefore true efficiency belongs to the geopolitical initiatives coming from the 5orth. The "6oor 0outh" possesses today all spiritual priority before the "rich 5orth", but it thus cannot serve as a serious alternative to the profane aggression of the "rich 5orth", nor can offer the radical geopolitical project capable to subvert the pathological picture of modern planetary space. The role of the " 0econd *orld " 2n the bipolar geopolitical picture "rich 5orth" ! "poor 0outh" there always e#isted an additional component having self%supporting and very relevant meaning. 2t is the "second world ". 4nder the e#pression "second world " it is conventionally understood to mean the socialist camp integrated into the 0oviet system. This "second world" was neither the present "rich 5orth", as definite spiritual motives secretly influenced the nominally materialistic ideology of the 0oviet socialism, neither the present "Third world", since as a whole the attitude to material development, "progress" and other only profane principles laid at the roots of the 0oviet system. The geopolitically eurasian 400R is located both on the territories of "poor /sia", and on the lands of sufficiently "civilized" "urope. 8uring the socialist period, the planetary belt of the "rich 5orth" was bro$en in eastern "urasia, complicating the clearness of geopolitical relations on an the 5orth % 0outh a#is. The end of the "0econd world" as a special civilization leaves to the "uroasian space of the former 400R two alternatives ! either to be integrated in the "rich 5orth" &that is, the *est and the 40', or to be thrown down to the "poor 0outh", i.e. to turn into the "Third world". /s a compromise variant, the separation of regions &part to the "5orth", and part to the "0outh"', is also possible. /s always has been in the last centuries, the initiative of redistributing geopolitical spaces in this process belongs to the "rich 5orth", which, cynically using the parado#es of the same concept of "0econd world ", fi#es new geopolitical borders and brea$s zones of influence. 5ational, economic and religious factors serve the mondialists only as instruments in their cynical and deeply materialistically motivated activity. 2t is not surprising, that besides false "humanist" rethorics the "racist" reasons invo$ed to inspire the Russians a comple# of "white" superiority in relation to the /sian and 3aucasian south will even more often and almost openly be used. To this is correlated the inverse process ! the definitive rejection of southern territories of the former "0econd world " to the "poor 0outh " is accompanied by playing the the card of fundamentalist tendencies, peopleDs inclination to Tradition, and the revival of religion. The "0econd world", being disintegrated, is bro$en along the lines of "traditionalism" &the southern, inertial, conservative $ind' and "antitraditionalism" &the actively northern, modernist and materialist $ind'. 0uch dualism, which is only planned today, but in the near future will become the dominant phenomenon of the "uroasian geopolitics, is predetermined by the e#pansion of mondialistic understanding of the world in terms of "rich 5orth" ! "poor 0outh" ". /ny attempt to save the former 0oviet Great 0pace, any attempt simply to save the "0econd world" as something self%supporting and balancing halfway between 5orth and 0outh &in their e#clusive modern meaning', cannot be crowned with success, without putting into doubt the fundamental polar conception of modern geopolitics, understood and realized in its real nature, leaving aside all deceitful declarations of humanitarian and economic mood. The "0econd world" disappears. There is no more place for it on the modern geopolitical map. /t the same time, the pressure of the "rich 5orth" on the "poor 0outh" increases, being one with an agressive materialistic technocratic society in the absence of an intermediate power, that e#isted till yesterday ! the "0econd world". /ny different destiny for the the "0econd world", than the total partition according to the dictating rules of the "rich 5orth", is possible only through a radical waiving of the planetary logics of a dichotomic 5orth % 0outh a#is, considered in a mondialist $ey.

The project of the "Rising 5orth" The "Rich mondialist 5orth" globalizes its domination over the planet through partition and destruction of the "0econd world". 2n modern geopolitics this is also called as the "new world order". The active forces of antitradition consolidate their victory over the passive recalcitrance of southern regions, preserving their economic bac$wardness and defending Tradition in its residual forms. The internal geopolitical energies of the "0econd world " are put before a choice ! either to be incorporated in the system of the "civilized northern belt" and definitively to tear off any connection with a sacred history &project of leftist mondialism', or to turn into an occupied territory being allowed a partial restoration of some aspects of tradition &project of the rightist mondialism'. 2n this direction the events today are developing and will develop in the near future. /s the alternative project it is possible theoretically to formulate a different path of geopolitical transformation based on rejecting the 5orth % 0outh mondialist logics and on returning to the spirit of genuine sacred geography ! as far as it possible at the end of dar$ era. 2t is the project of the "Great Return" or, in different terminology, of the "Great *ar of 3ontinents". 2n its most general features, the essence of this project is as follows. @' The "Rich 5orth is opposed not to the "poor 0outh", but to the "poor 5orth". The "6oor 5orth " is an ideal, the sacred ideal of returning to the nordic sources of civilization. 0uch 5orth is "6oor" because it is based on total ascetism, on radical devotion to the highest values of Tradition, on the complete despise of the material for the sa$e of the spiritual. "6oor 5orth" geographically e#ists only on the territories of Russia, which, being in effect, " by the 0econd world ", socio%politically resisted until the last moment to the final adoption of a mondialist civilization in its most "progressive" forms. 5orthern eurasian lands of Russia are the only territories on earth which have been not completely mastered by the "rich 5orth", inhabited by traditional peoples and being a terra incognita of the modern world. The path of "6oor 5orth " for Russia means the refusal of incorporating in the mondialist belt, of achaicizing its own traditions and of reducing them to the fol$loric level of an ethno%religious reserve. "6oor 5orth" should be spiritual, intellectual, active and aggressive. 2n other regions of the "rich 5orth" a potential opposition of the "poor 5orth" is also possible too % which can be shown in a radical sabotage on part of the intellectual western lite to the establishied course of the "mercantilistic civilization", in the rebellion against the world of finance for the ancient and eternal values of 0pirit, e+uity, self%sacrifice. "6oor 5orth" starts a geopolitical and ideological fight with the "rich 5orth", rejecting its projects, blasting from the inside and from the outside its plans, bating its stainless efficiency, crashing its social and political manipulations. I' The "6oor 0outh", unable to counter itself the "rich 5orth", engages a radical alliance with the "poor &eurasian' 5orth" and starts a liberation struggle against "northern" dictatorship. 2t is especially important to stri$e the representants of the ideology of the "rich 0outh ", i.e. those forces which, wor$ing in the "rich 5orth", stand up for "development", "progress" and "modernization" of traditional countries, which practically will mean only an increasing withdrawal from the remains of sacred Tradition. J' The "6oor 5orth" of the eurasian "ast, together with the "poor 0outh", e#tending on a circle around the whole planet, concentrate the forces struggling against the "rich 5orth" of the atlantist *est. Thus an end is forever put to the ideologically vulgar versions of /nglo%0a#on racism, hailing the "technical civilization of the white peoples" and echoing the mondialist propaganda. &/lain de Benoist e#pressed this idea in the title of his famous boo$ "The Third world and "urope, the same fight" ;(D"urope, Tiersmonde ! mKme combat<: its argument is, of course, "spiritual "urope", the ""urope of the peoples and traditions", instead of the "7aastricht "urope of goods".' 2ntellectuality, activity and the spiritual profile of the genuine sacred 5orth ma$e the traditions of the revert to a nordic 0ource, and raise the "0outh" to a planetary revolt against the only geopolitical enemy. The passive recalcitrance of the "0outh" ac+uires thus a fulcrum in the planetary messianism of the "nordics", radically rejecting the degenerated and antisacred branch of those white peoples which followed the path of technical

progress and material development. -lares the planetary supra%racial and supra%national Geopolitical Revolution based on the fundamental solidarity of the "Third world" with that part of the "0econd world" which rejects the project of the "rich 5orth". 8uring the struggle, the flame of the "resurrection of the spiritual 5orth", the flame of .yperborea transforms the geopolitical reality. The new global ideology is the ideology of -inal Restoration, putting the final dot to the geopolitical history of civilization % but not that dot, which wanted to put the mondialist spo$esmen of the "nd of .istory. The materialistic, atheistic, antisacral, technocratic, atlantist variant of the "nd is turned into a different epilogue ! the final Gictory of the sacred /vatar, the coming of the Terrible 8estiny, giving those who chose voluntary poverty a reign of spiritual abundance, and to those who preferred wealth founded on assassination of 0pirit, eternal damnation and torments in hell. The missed continents are lifted from the abysses of the past. 2nvisible meta%continents appear into reality. / 5ew "arth and 5ew .eaven arise. This path is not from sacred geography to geopolitics, but on the contrary, from geopolitics to sacred geography. %%%%